1,4-BUTANEDIOL

1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is a primary alcohol, and an organic compound, with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. 
1,4-Butanediol is a colorless viscous liquid. 
1,4-Butanediol is one of four stable isomers of Butanediol.

1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes.

1,4-Butanediol

1.4-Butanediol (BDO) is a high-quality intermediate. BDO and its derivatives are widely used for producing plastics, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibers.

1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is a primary alcohol, and an organic compound, with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. 
It is a colorless viscous liquid. It is one of four stable isomers of Butanediol.

Name: 1,4-Butanediol
Synonyms    
1,4-Butylene glycol
Tetramethylene glycol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,1-diol
BDO

Butanediol and its derivatives is used in a broad spectrum of applications in the chemical industry; amongst others in the manufacturing of technical plastics, polyurethanes, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibres.

The hydroxyl function of each end group of the Butanediol reacts with different mono- and bifunctional reagents: for example with dicarboxylic acids to polyesters, with diisocyanates to polyurethanes, or with phosgene to polycarbonates.

Additionally BDO is also a building block for the synthesis of polyesterpolyols and polyetherpolyols.


1,4 Butanediol, additionally named as 1,4-Butylene glycol, or Butane-1,4-diol is a natural substance compound which finds a wide-scale application in manufacturing of filaments, plastics, solvents and so on among different applications. 
1,4 Butanediol is a dry and thick substance compound with generally high breaking point as that of Butane. 
This natural compound is one of the steady structures or isomers of Butanediol. 
A standout amongst the most generally utilized production process, the Reppe Process, includes reaction of acetylene with formaldehyde. 
On the other hand, it is additionally produced by Davy process with maleic anhydride which is used as crude material. 
Different methods for the manufacture of 1,4 Butanediol include utilization of organic courses or the utilization of propylene oxide as a crude material. 
Significant applications of 1,4 Butanediol include production of Poly Butylene Terephthalate (PBT), Tetrahydrofuran, Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL), polyurethanes, among the others.

1, 4-Butanediol (BDO) is an important organic chemicals and fine chemicals, can generate a variety of derivatives such as THF, PTMEG, GBL and so on.
2,3-Butanediol is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C4H10O2. It has three stereoisomers, all of which are colorless, viscous liquids.


1,4 Butanediol is a colorless water-miscible viscous liquid. 
1,4 Butanediol is mainly used for the production of other organic chemicals particularly the solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF). 
1,4 Butanediol is a neurotoxin a protic solvent and a prodrug.


1,4 Butanediol is a chain extender based on an aliphatic diol with a molecular weight of 90.12 daltons and OH Value of 1245 mg KOH/g.  
1,4 Butanediol  is used extensively as chain extenders in the manufacture of polyurethanes.  
In MDI systems, 1,4 Butanediol  provides a good balance of hardness and low temperature flexibility.  
Compared to other diols, 1,4 Butanediol  provides exceptional reactivity, linearity, and overall system compatibility.  
1,4 Butanediol  is used extensively to manufacture polyurethane cast elastomers.

1,4 BDO is used in synthesis of polyurethane and polyesters , paints and coatings, copolyester hot melt and solvent-borne adhesives.

1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) versatile chemical intermediate because of its terminal, primary hydroxyl groups and its hydrophobic and chemical resistant nature. 
Polymers produced upon reaction with diacids or diisocyanates are the basis for many commercial polyurethane and polyester applications. 
1,4-BDO is used to manufacture polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), thermoplastic copolyester elastomers or as a component of polyesters or as a chain extender in polyurethanes.

On comparison to other diols, 1,4-BDO combines the best attributes of hydroxyl reactivity, linearity and overall system compatibility to build in the proper crystallinity required in the polyurethane hard segment. 
Also, the 1,4-BDO/MDI systems provide a lower exposure hazard than MOCA/TDI systems.

In thermoplastic urethane elastomers, 1,4-BDO yields crystalline urethane domains which readily melt and flow at elevated temperatures but phase separate at ambient temperatures in order to yield tough elastometric networks.

Cast urethane elastomers continue to be a major end use of 1,4-BDO because of overall consistency and reliability. 
Urethane RIM elastomers using 1,4-BDO allow design freedom and parts consolidation with large, complex shapes.

Copolyester Hot Melt and Solvent Borne Adhesives. 
1,4-BDO is a key component of copolyesters of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid used in hot melt adhesive applications. 1,4-BDO yields polyesters with excellent adhesive and cohesive strength.


USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR 1,4-ButaneDIOL
1,4-Butanediol uses include cleaning compounds, cosmetics, eye liner, eye shadow, ink, plasticizer, polyester polymers, polyurethanes, solvent, THF, and urethane polymers.

Polyurethanes: 1,4-Butanediol is used in both the hard and soft segments. 
In the hard segment as a chain extender and in the soft segment as polyesterdiols such as polybutylene adipate glycol. In addition to its use in the soft segments of polyurethanes, 1,4 BDO is used in the hard segments of some polyurethanes, particularly those made with MDI or TDI. 
In the hard segment or as a crosslinker, 1,4 BDO produces a good balance between hardness and low temperature flexibility

Esters: These esters include monomeric plasticizers, the engineering plastic polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and low molecular weight polyester glycols. 
The polyester glycols are used as soft segments in polyurethanes and are made by reacting 1,4 BDO with various dibasic acids such as adipic and sebacic acid.


1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is a diol of Butane with two hydroxyl groups. 1,4-Butanediol is an organic liquid, which can be produced via three different processes on Acetylene + Formaldehyde (Reppe), by Butane or propylene oxide to allyl alcohol and then via the hydroformylation to 1,4-Butanediol (BDO).

EINECS-No. 203-786-5
CAS-No. 110-63-4

Formula: C4H10O2
Customs Tariff code: 29053.90


Synonym: 1,4-Butylene glycol | 1,4-Tetramethylene glycol | Tetramethylene glycol | 1,4-DihydroxyButane | Butane-1,4-diol | Butanediol | 1,4-BD, Tetramethylene-1,4-diol        
Uses/Applications: 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) finds its application in various areas:

- in the production of reactive diluants
- in the production of instrument disinfectants
- as a carrier liquid for ultrasonic application in metal degreasing
- in cast resin / epoxy resins
- in the production of Polybtuylenterephthalat (with DMT or TPA)
- for the manufacture of various chemical products such as 1,4-Butanediol di (meth) acrylate or Bütandiodiglycidylether (BDDE)


IUPAC name
Butane-1,4-diol
Tetramethylene glycol

Identifiers
CAS Number: 110-63-4 
EINECS: No. 203-786-5

Chemical formul: C4H10O2
Molar mass: 90.122 g·mol−1
Density: 1.0171 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point: 20.1 °C (68.2 °F; 293.2 K)
Boiling point: 235 °C (455 °F; 508 K)
Solubility in water: Miscible
Solubility in ethanol: Soluble

1,4-Butanediol by Lanxess is hygroscopic, colorless and almost odorless grade. 
1,4-Butanediol is used in the production of polyether diols, urethane and polyester polymers (PBT & copolyester elastomers).

1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is a bifunctional, primary alcohol that is produced by a variety of methods, mainly from petrochemicals. 
The major uses are in the production of tetrahydrofuran (THF) (an intermediate of spandex and other performance polymer products) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resins for engineering plastics. It is also used in the manufacture of gamma-butyrolactone and polyurethane elastomers.

Synonyms:
     agrisynth B1D
1,4-    Bütandiol
     Butane-1,4-diol
1,4-    Butanediol
1,4-    butylene glycol
1,4-    dihydroxyButane
     tetramethylene glycol
1,4-    tetramethylene glycol


14BG (1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 1,4-Butylene glycol (BG), 1,4-Dihydroxy Butane, Tetramethylene glycol (TMG)) is the 4-carbon atoms straight-chain glycol (diol, dihydric alcohol) with a hydroxyl groups at both ends.

Common Names    
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butylene Glycol
1,4-DihydroxyButane
Tetramethylene Glycol


Other names: Diol 14B; Sucol B; Tetramethylene glycol; 1,4-Butylene glycol; 1,4-DihydroxyButane; 1,4-Tetramethylene glycol; Butane-1,4-diol; Butanediol; 1,4-BD; Tetramethylene 1,4-diol; BDO; Butylene glycol; Dabco BDO; Butane diol-1,4; NSC 406696

BDO - 1, 4 Butanediol
Chemistry: Intermediates and Solvents
SDS Link >
Butanediol intermediate is a versatile diol precursor to numerous derivatives such as esters, carbamates, polyesters and urethanes. 
It is used mainly as a co-monomer in classical diol-condensation reactions with terephthalic acid to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), with diisocyanates to produce polyurethanes and with diacids to yield polyesters with biodegradability characteristics. 
BDO is also used as an intermediate to make polyurethane that is used in auto bumpers and dash boards.

Butanediol intermediate’s reactive sites are its hydroxyl groups, which undergo all the typical reactions of alcohols. 
In addition to the condensation reactions noted above, it can be converted to simple esters and halides, dehydrated to tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dehydrogenated to gamma-butyrolactone.

1,4 Butanediol a colorless, organic liquid derived from Butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of the chain. 
1,4 Butanediol is one of four stable isomers of Butanediol. 
In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF). 
Uses: Coatings, ink, adhesives, plastics, rubber. 
1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics and fibers. 
CAS # 110-63-4.

Substance name:1,4-Butanediol
Trade name:1,4 Butanediol
EC no:203-786-5
CAS no:110-63-4
HS code:29053925
Formula:C4H10O2
Synonyms:1,4-BD / 1,4-butylene glycol / 1,4-dihydroxyButane / 1,4-tetramethylene glycol / 4G / agrisynth B1D / BDO / Butane-1,4-diol / Butanediol / DIOL 14 B / SUCOL B / tetramethylene 1,4-diol / tetramethylene glycol / tetramethylene-1,4-glycol

Butane-1,4-DIOL
ButaneDIOL
1,4-ButaneDIOL
BUTYLENE GLYCOL
1,4-BUTYLENE GLYCOL
DABCO DBO
DIHYDROXYButane
1,4-DIHYDROXYButane
DIOL 14B
POLYCURE D
SUCOL B
TETRAMETHYLENE 1,4-DIOL
TETRAMETHYLENE GLYCOL
1,4-TETRAMETHYLENE GLYCOL

1.4 ButaneDIOL
A colorless, organic liquid derived from Butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of the chain. 
1,4 Butanediol is one of four stable isomers of Butanediol. 
In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF). 
Uses: Coatings, ink, adhesives, plastics, rubber. 
1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics and fibers. CAS # 110-63-4.

Substance name:1,4-Butanediol
Trade name:1,4 Butanediol
EC no:203-786-5
CAS no:110-63-4
HS code:29053925
KH product code:100105
Formula:C4H10O2
Synonyms:1,4-BD / 1,4-butylene glycol / 1,4-dihydroxyButane / 1,4-tetramethylene glycol / 4G / agrisynth B1D / BDO / Butane-1,4-diol / Butanediol / DIOL 14 B / SUCOL B / tetramethylene 1,4-diol / tetramethylene glycol / tetramethylene-1,4-glycol

1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. 
In organic chemistry, 1,4-Butanediol is used for the synthesis of ?-butyrolactone (GBL). 
In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran.
At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone.

1,4-Butanediol is classified as a subclass of alcoholic compounds called diols. 
Diols are named for having two alcohol (OH-) substitutions in their structure. 
1,4-Butanediol is comprised of a Butane chain of four carbon groups with an alcohol group bound to each terminal carbon of this chain. 
1,4-Butanediol is named for these alcohol substitutions, which are located at R1 and R4.


1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB.[6]

It is converted into GHB in the liver by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which is the same enzyme as alcohol.
1,4-Butanediol is first converted into 4-hydroxybutaldehyde in the liver and is released into the bloodstream before returning to the liver to convert into GHB. 
This process results in a much more delayed onset than GBL or GHB.

The differing levels of dehydrogenase enzymes can vary between individuals, meaning that, like alcohol, effects can differ greatly between users. 
In many, this manifests as a slow onset of effects and a higher rate of aldehyde collecting in the bloodstream, causing more toxic side effects. 
Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, 1,4-Butanediol tends to be less potent and with a slower onset than GHB but has a longer duration; the related compound GBL tends to be slightly more potent and faster to take effect but more short-acting than GHB.


(1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 1,4-Butylene glycol (BG), 1,4-Dihydroxy Butane, Tetramethylene glycol (TMG)) is synthesized from butadiene using our proprietary technology.  
It is used as a raw material for various synthetic resins of controllable color.  
Using thorough quality control, 14BG can be offered with low moisture content.


Synonyms: 1,4-Butylene glycol, Tetramethylene glycol


Synthesis
Tellurium oxide-containing catalysts are used for the oxidation of Butane:

CH3CH2CH2CH3 + O2 → HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH
In another industrial synthesis, acetylene reacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde to form 1,4-butynediol. 
Hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol gives 1,4-Butanediol. 
1,4-Butanediol is also manufactured on an industrial scale from maleic anhydride in the Davy process, which is first converted to the methyl maleate ester, then hydrogenated. 
Other routes are from butadiene, allyl acetate and succinic acid.

A biological route to BD has been commercialized that uses a genetically modified organism
The biosynthesis proceeds via 4-hydroxybutyrate.


Pharmacokinetics
1,4-Butanediol is converted into GHB by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and differing levels of these enzymes may account for differences in effects and side effects between users.
While co-administration of ethanol and GHB already poses serious risks, co-administration of ethanol with 1,4-Butanediol will interact considerably and has many other potential risks. 
This is because the same enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing alcohol also metabolize 1,4-Butanediol so there is a strong chance of a dangerous drug interaction.
Emergency room patients who overdose on both ethanol and 1,4-Butanediol often present with symptoms of alcohol intoxication initially and as the ethanol is metabolized the 1,4-Butanediol is then able to better compete for the enzyme and a second period of intoxication ensues as the 1,4-Butanediol is converted into GHB


Pharmacodynamics
1,4-Butanediol seems to have two types of pharmacological actions. 
The major psychoactive effects of 1,4-Butanediol are because it is metabolized into GHB; however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-Butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects on its own.
The study arrived at this conclusion based on the finding that 1,4-Butanediol co-administered with ethanol led to potentiation of some of the behavioral effects of ethanol. 
However, potentiation of ethanol's effects may simply be caused by competition for the alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes with co-administered 1,4-Butanediol. 
The shared metabolic rate-limiting steps thus leads to slowed metabolism and clearance for both compounds including ethanol's known toxic metabolite acetaldehyde.

Another study found no effect following intracerebroventricular injection in rats of 1,4-Butanediol.
This contradicts the hypothesis of 1,4-Butanediol having inherent alcohol-like pharmacological effects.

Like GHB, 1,4-Butanediol is only safe in small amounts. 
Adverse effects in higher doses include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, vertigo, and potentially death if ingested in large amounts. 
Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol.

SYNONYMS
Butane-1,4-diol; 1,4-Butylene glycol; 1,4-DihdyroxyButane; Tetramethylene 1,4-diol; 1,4-Tetramethylene glycol; Tetramethylene glycol

CAS NUMBER: 110-63-4
MOLECULAR FORMULA:HO(CH2)4OH
MOLECULAR WEIGHT:90.122 g/mol
BEILSTEIN REGISTRY NUMBER: 1633445
EC NUMBER:203-786-5
MDL NUMBER: MFCD00002968


1,4 Butanediol and its derivatives are used in the manufacturing of technical plastics, polyurethanes, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibers.


14BG (1,4-Butanediol) is a straight chain glycol with hydroxyl groups on both ends. 
1,4 Butanediol is used as a raw material for high performance polyester and polyurethane resins as well as for industrial chemicals like tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone.


14BG (1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 1,4-Butylene glycol (BG), 1,4-Dihydroxy Butane, Tetramethylene glycol (TMG)) is a raw material for polyester and polyurethane resins (chain extender, hard segment) that show excellent characteristics.
These products find a wide range of applications including everyday consumer products such as clothing and shoe soles, consumer durables such as electrical appliances and cars, industrial materials such as machine parts, as well as medical products. 
It is anticipated that the use of these polymers will continue to expand.

Main Applications
PBT (Polybutylene terephthalate) Resin Raw Material
Because 14BG diol (dibasic alcohol) is used as a raw materail, PBT is a great engineering plastic with low water-absorbance and an excellent balance of mechanical and electrical properties.  
Applications are expanding beyond the original electrical/electronic parts and automotive parts markets.

Polyurethane Resin Raw Material
By using 14BG diol for the chain extender, urethane elastomers can be made with excellent mechanical properties and high resistances to heat, oil, and impact.

Other Polyester Raw Materials
14BG is widely used to make various polyester resins and plasticizers.
Raw Material for Industrial Chemicals (Tetrahydrofuran, Gamma-Butyrolactone)
Tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone are produced indutrially by dehydration or dehydrogenation of 14BG.

Storage and Handling
14BG is hygroscopic and will be degraded by oxygen, so the storage container should be sealed with dry nitrogen.  
It is recommended that storage be at 25-40℃.  Below 20℃ 14BG will be solid, but can be mellted by careful heating.  
To melt solidified 14BG in drums, hold overnight at 50-70℃.  
14BG is classified under the Japanese Fire Services Act as a hazardous material, Class 4, Petroleums No.3, water soluble, Hazardous Rank III.  
Volatility is low, and 14BG is unlikely to catch fire by itself at room temperature.  
However, in case it is burning, dry chemical, foam (alcohol resistant), or large amounts of water are effective.  
14BG has relatively low toxicity and is a relatively safe chemical.  
When handling, however, protective equipment such as protective gloves and goggles should be worn.


1,4-ButaneDIOL
Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4
1,4-Butylene glycol
Tetramethylene glycol
1,4-DihydroxyButane
1,4-Tetramethylene glycol
Tetramethylene 1,4-diol
Sucol B
1,4-BD
DIOL 14B
UNII-7XOO2LE6G3
HO(CH2)4OH
MFCD00002968
NSC 406696
HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH
7XOO2LE6G3
CHEBI:41189
DSSTox_CID_4666
Agrisynth B1D
DSSTox_RID_77492
DSSTox_GSID_24666
BDO
BU1
CAS-110-63-4
CCRIS 5984
HSDB 1112
EINECS 203-786-5
BRN 1633445
1,4-Butanediol, homopolymer
AI3-07553
4-hydroxyBütanol
1,4Butanediol
1.4-Butanediol
Dabco BDO
1,4-Bütandiol
1,4-Butane diol
1,4-Butane-diol
Butane 1,4-diol
Butane diol-1,4
Butane-1-4-diol
1,4- Bütandiol
Bütan-1.4-diol
1.4 - Butanediol
1,4 butylene glycol
[O]CCCCO
but-1-ene-1,4-diol
ACMC-1BRE8
1,4-Butanediol, 99%
EC 203-786-5
WLN: Q4Q
4-01-00-02515 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
KSC175Q8N
MLS001061198
1,4-Butanediol 4 M solution
CHEMBL171623
DTXSID2024666
CTK0H5886
KS-00000WMZ
HMS3039N12
ZINC1599375
Tox21_202245
Tox21_303040
ANW-16175
NSC406696
STL283940
AKOS000118735
1,4-Butanediol, for synthesis, 98%
CS-W016669
DB01955
MCULE-2010022287
NSC-406696
1,4-Butanediol, ReagentPlus(R), 99%
NCGC00090733-01
NCGC00090733-02
NCGC00257119-01
NCGC00259794-01
28324-25-6
1,4-Butanediol, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
Q161521
J-503971
J-512798
F0001-0222
Z1259087047
UNII-TMS4MGA0H4 component WERYXYBDKMZEQL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1,4-Butanediol solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material

1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is an important commodity chemical used to manufacture over 2.5 million tons of valuable polymers annually. 
Currently its production is entirely through petrochemistry. 
Unlike the other diols described here, there is no natural 1,4-BDO produced in any organism. 
Additionally, like many, commodity chemicals, it is highly reduced compared to carbohydrates, which makes its biosynthesis even more improbable.
As a result, Yim et al. (2011) were required to use metabolic pathway models to identify and rank the potential pathways from E. coli central metabolites to BDO. 
The forced ranking eliminated most of the potential pathways, and those remaining were prioritized according to several criteria, including the number of nonnative steps required. 
On the experimental side, the host E. coli strain required to be metabolically engineered to channel carbon and energy resources into the pathway, followed by optimization of the downstream activity. 
In addition, they examined nonpurified feedstocks, such as crude, mixed sugars, and biomass hydrolysates.
These challenges are likely to be similar in the production of any reduced commodity chemical in a biological process. 
While a commercial process would require at least a three- to fivefold increase in yield of BDO, this work represents a breakthrough as there was no prior example of high TCA flux toward a reduced compound in the literature. 
It is a strategy that can be applied to the design of other biocatalysts. 
A commercial production route from sugar to 1,4-BDO has now been described (Burgard et al., 2016).

1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is an important commodity chemical used to manufacture over 2.5 million tons annually of valuable polymers, and it is currently produced exclusively through feedstocks derived from oil and natural gas. Herein we report what are to our knowledge the first direct biocatalytic routes to BDO from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks, leading to a strain of Escherichia coli capable of producing 18 g l?1 of this highly reduced, non-natural chemical. A pathway-identification algorithm elucidated multiple pathways for the biosynthesis of BDO from common metabolic intermediates. Guided by a genome-scale metabolic model, we engineered the E. coli host to enhance anaerobic operation of the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle, thereby generating reducing power to drive the BDO pathway. The organism produced BDO from glucose, xylose, sucrose and biomass-derived mixed sugar streams. This work demonstrates a systems-based metabolic engineering approach to strain design and development that can enable new bioprocesses for commodity chemicals that are not naturally produced by living cells.

Thermal degradation of the polyurethane from 1,4-Butanediol and methylene bis(4-phenyl isocyanate)

N. Grassie, M. Zulfiqar

A polyurethane prepared from 1,4-Butanediol (BD) and methylene bis(4-phenyl isocyanate) begins to evolve volatile degradation products at approximately 240°C. 
By a combination of thermal analysis methods (TVA, TG, and DSC) and examination of the volatile and involatile products by using a combination of GLC and infrared and mass spectrometric analysis, it is shown that the total reaction comprises a primary depoly-condensation process in which the two monomers are formed, followed by the subsequent reaction of these monomers to form the volatile products, tetrahydrofuran, dihydrofuran, carbon dioxide, water, butadiene, hydrogen cyanide, and carbon monoxide and residual carbodiimide and urea structures. A mechanism, which accounts for all these products, has been formulated and tested.

Synthesis and characterization of the biodegradable copolymers from succinic acid and adipic acid with 1,4-Butanediol

B.D. Ahn, S.H. Km, Y.H. Kim, J.S. Yang

Biodegradable homopolyesters such as poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) and poly(butylene adipate) (PBAD) and copolyesters such as poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) were synthesized, respectively, from succinic acid (SA) and adipic acid (AA) with 1,4-Butanediol through a two-step process of esterification and deglycolization. 
The polyester compositions and physical properties of both homopolyesters and copolyesters were investigated by 1H– and 13C–NMR, DSC, GPC, WAXD, and optical polarizing microscopy. The melting point (Tm) of these copolyesters decreased gradually as the contents of butylene adipate increased and the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of these copolyesters decreased linearly as the contents of the adipoyl unit increased. 
PBSA copolyesters showed two types of XRD patterns of PBSU and PBAD homopolyesters. Furthermore, the biodegradation and hydrolytic degradation of the high molecular weight PBSU homopolyester, PBAD homopolyester, and PBSA copolyesters were investigated in the composting soil and NH4Cl aqueous solutions at a pH level of 10.6. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 82: 2808–2826, 2001

Depolymerization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) wastes using 1,4-Butanediol and triethylene glycol

S.H. Mansour, N.E. Ikladious

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wastes were depolymerized using 1,4-Butanediol (BD) and triethylene glycol (TEG) in the presence of zinc acetate as a transesterification catalyst. 
The glycolyzed products were analyzed for hydroxyl an It was found that the glycolyzed products consist mainly of bis- (hydroxybutyl terephthalate) monomer and dimer by using 1,4-Butanediol. The depolymerization using TEG resulted in products of TEG–(TPA–TEG)n for n=1–3. 
All glycolyzed products had low acid value indicating the presence of a minor fraction of terephthalate oligoesters.d acid values and identified by elemental analysis, GPC, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and mass spectra techniques.

1,4-Butanediol (also known as 1,4-B, BDO, BD or 1,4-BD) is a depressant substance and a prodrug for GHB. 
It occurs as a thick, colorless liquid with a distinct bitter taste. It is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol and GHB.
1 ml of 1,4-Butanediol is reported to be roughly equivalent to 1 g of GHB.

1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. 
In organic chemistry, it is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL).

1,4-Butanediol, as well as GBL, will dissolve most types of plastic over time.
For this reason, it is recommended to only transport and store the drug using a glass container, standard gelatin capsules (not vegetarian), or high-density polyethylene plastic (also known as #2 recycled plastic). To check the type of plastic used on a bottle, one can look at the bottom for a number in the triangle-shaped recycling label.

1,4-Butanediol [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
1,4-Bütandiol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,4-Butanediol [French] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,4-Butanediol 4 M solution
1,4-Butanediol solution
1,4-butylene glycol
110-63-4 [RN]
200-659-6 [EINECS]
203-786-5 [EINECS]
7XOO2LE6G3
Additive Screening Solution 04/Kit-No 78374
Butane-1,4-diol
MFCD00002968 [MDL number]
POLYURETHANE [Wiki]
"Butane-1,4-DIOL"
(3S)-Butane-1,3-diol
(S)-()-1,3-Butanediol
1,4 butylene glycol
1,4-?????????(bdo)
1,4-BD
1,4-Butane diol
1,4-Butanediol (bdo)
1,4-Butanediol 100 µg/mL in Methanol
1,4-Butanediol 99%
1,4-Butanediol, ??? 99.0%
1,4-Butanediol, 99+%
1,4-Butanediol;BDO
1,4-Butanediol-2,2,3,3-d4
1,4-Butanediol-d8
1,4-Butanediolstandardforgc,99.5%+(gc)
1,4-DihydroxyButane
1,4-Tetramethylene glycol
1,4-丁二醇 [Chinese]
1???4????????????
4-01-00-02515 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) [Beilstein]
BDO
BU1
BU2
Butane diol-1,4
Butylene glycol
Dabco BDO
EK 0525000
HO(CH2)4OH
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:41189
NBU
ST5214425
Tetramethylene 1,4-diol
UNII:7XOO2LE6G3
UNII-7XOO2LE6G3
WLN: Q4Q


The 1,4-Butanediol industry has attracted significant investment in the development of biosuccinic acid and the production of bio-based BDO that is commercially viable from sustainable sources. 
Although the first-generation industrial-scale plant has been completed and is in operation, several other projects have been cancelled following financial issues within the companies or shifts in focus from production to research and development. 
Future prospects for bio-BDO have toned down compared with several years ago, and commercial production remains small.

WHAT IS 1,4-ButaneDIOL
The compound 1,4-Butanediol — which is also known as 1,4-B, BD, BDO, butylene glycol, or CAS No. 110-63-4 — is a commodity building block chemical used in polymer and THF production. 
Each year, more than 2.5 million tons of polymers are manufactured where BDO is employed. 
BDO can also be used as a chain-extender for urethane systems and as a raw material for other chemical production. 
BDO is a valuable chemical to the solvent and adhesive industries.

Synonyms: 1,4 Butanediol, 1,4-B, BD, BDO, butylene glycol
INCI: 1, 4 Butanediol
Chemical formula: C4H10O2
CAS #: 110-63-4

1,4 Butanediol, commonly known as BDO, is an organic compound predominantly used as a solvent in industrial cleaners and glue removers such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). 
BDO is a saturated carbon-4 straight-chain dibasic alcohol. 
It is a colorless and almost odorless viscous liquid at room temperature. 
It is an important intermediate chemical for tetrahydrofuran and polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), polyurethane (PU), and other solvents. 
These chemicals are widely used in fibers, engineering plastics, medicines, cosmetics, artificial leather, pesticides, plasticizers, hardener, solvent and rust remover, etc. 
Tetrahydrofuran is the largest application market for BDO which has occupied largest chunk of BDO market.

1,4-Butanediol was first commercially produced in 1930 by using acetylene and formaldehyde. 
This process was developed by Dr. Reppe, hence known after his name as Reppe process. 
Another important technologies employed into the manufacturing of BDO are davy process, propylene oxide process, butadiene process, allyl acetate, and bio-based process.

THF is the largest application of 1,4 Butanediol across the world. Growing end-user industries in emerging nations such as China, Taiwan, and India is one of the drivers for 1,4 Butanediol market. The drivers of the industry are identified as high growth in developing regions, high demand in end-user industries, and high existing production capacities of 1,4-Butanediol. Most of the production capacity of 1,4-Butanediol exists in Asian region and high growth in their demand is mainly observed in developing countries. The high production capacities in the region also give flexibility to the manufacturers to scale up the production depending upon demand trends. The restraining factors are identified as raw material price volatility and high manufacturing cost of the 1,4-Butanediol industry. The issues in the market are mainly pertaining to that of a maturing industry .i.e. steady growth in mature markets such as U.S. and Europe, and environmental concerns as well. The industry players are following strategies such as consolidation and capacity expansion to address to the demands generated by end-user industries and developing countries. 
Global BDO market is highly concentrated. This can be mainly attributed to the barriers existed in the sourcing of production technology and raw materials.

Davy process that uses maleic anhydride as major raw material is second widely used technology in manufacturing BDO. 
Davy process accounted for 29.20% of global installed capacity for BDO in 2013. 
Some manufacturers also employed allyl acetate process for manufacturing BDO.


Tetrahydrofuran (THF), one of the major derivatives of BDO, is widely utilized in multiple applications such as in the production of polytetramethylether glycols (PTMEG). 
This is further processed to derive spandex, and as an intermediate in manufacturing natural gas odorants owing to its wide liquid range.


1,4 Butanediol (BDO) is a colorless viscous liquid diol that can be obtained by 4 different processes. 
The first one is the Reppe process which consist of the reaction between the acetylene and the formaldehyde. 
In 1930, the 1,4 Butanediol (BDO) synthesis has evolved to the developments of the second process, the Davy Process which is producing BDO from maleic anhydride / succinic acid. 
The third process is the LyondellBassell process that allows use of BDO from Propylene Oxide. 
The last one is the Geminox Process-BP chemicals using BDO from Butane.

Biobased Production
Bio- Butanediol BDO is produced from sugars derived from the hydrolysis of starch, glucose syrup. 
Bio-BDO is produced through a single-step fermentation by a metabolically engineered strain of E.coli type bacteria.

Novamont has been conducting research to obtain sugars from lignocellulosis biomass.

Bio-Butanediol (Bio-BDO) is a drop-in of BDO. Bio BDO has the same molecular structure as the fossil-based BDO but “Bio” means that the molecule was made from renewable resources.

Bio-BDO is 100% bio-based and biodegradable.

Uses
BDO and Bio-BDO are commonly used as solvent but also as building block in PBT (Polybutylene terephthalate), COPE (Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers), TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane), PU (Polyurethane), Resins, PTMEG : Spandex fibres (polyester + diisocyanate) and Copolyester for Hot Melt Adhesive. Prohibited application are fore example cosmetics, personal care or coating.

The effect of BDO on health is the same as GHB drug.


The 1, 4 Butanediol market includes:

Derivative
Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT)
Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL)
Polyurethane (PU)
Other Derivatives


End-user
Automotive
Pharmaceutical
Leather
Electrical and Electronics
Agricultural Chemicals
Other End-users


1,4-Butanediol (CAS No. 110-63–4)
OECD Name: 1,4-Bütandiol
Synonym: 1,4-Butylene glycol; 1,4-DihydroxyButane; Tetramethylene glycol; Butanediol; Butane-1,4-diol; 1,4-Tetramethylene glycol; Butylene glycol; Tetramethylene-1,4-diol
CAS Number: 110-63-4
Structural Formula: HO-CH2CH2CH2CH2-OH
Degree of Purity: 98.0 %
Major Impurity: None
Essential Additives: None
Physical-chemical properties
Melting Point: 20 °C
Vapour pressure: 1.9 Pa at 25 °C
Water solubility: > 100 g/L
Log Pow: 0.50 


Chemical Properties
1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) is a colorless, viscous liquid derived from Butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of its molecular chain and is one of four stable isomers of Butanediol.the hydroxyl function of each end group of the Butanediol reacts with different mono- and bifunctional reagents: for example with dicarboxylic acids to polyesters, with diisocyanates to polyurethanes, or with phosgene to polycarbonates. 1.4-Butanediol (BDO) is a high-quality intermediate. 
BDO and its derivatives are widely used for producing plastics, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibers. 
Additionally BDO is also a building block for the synthesis of polyesterpolyols and polyetherpolyols. 


Uses
Butanediol and its derivatives is used in a broad spectrum of applications in the chemical industry; amongst others in the manufacturing of technical plastics, polyurethanes, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibres.
1,4-Butanediol is used in the synthesis of epothilones, a new class of cancer drugs. 
Also used in the stereoselective synthesis of (-)-Brevisamide.
1,4-Butanediol's largest use is within tetrahydrofuran (THF) production, used to make polytetramethylene ether glycol, which goes mainly into spandex fibers, urethane elastomers, and copolyester ethers.
1,4-Butanediol is commonly used as a solvent in the chemical industry to manufacture gamma-butyrolactone and elastic fibers like spandex.
1,4-Butanediol is used as a cross-linking agent for thermoplastic urethanes, polyester plasticizers, paints and coatings.
1,4-Butanediol undergoes dehydration in the presence of phosphoric acid yielded teterahydrofuran, which is an important solvent used for various applications.
1,4-Butanediol acts an intermediate and is used to manufacture polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyurethane (PU).
1,4-Butanediol finds application as an industrial cleaner and a glue remover.
1,4-Butanediol is also used as a plasticiser (e.g. in polyesters and cellulosics), as a carrier solvent in printing ink, a cleaning agent, an adhesive (in leather, plastics, polyester laminates and polyurethane footwear), in agricultural and veterinary chemicals and in coatings (in paints, varnishes and films).

Uses
butylene glycol is a solvent with good antimicrobial action. 
It enhances the preservative activity of parabens. Butylene glycol also serves as a humectant and viscosity controller, and to mask odor.

Uses
1,4-Butanediol is used to produce polybutyleneterephthalate, a thermoplastic polyester;and in making tetrahydrofuran, butyrolactones,and polymeric plasticizers.
Production Methods

Methods of manufacturing:
The most prevalent 1,4-BD production route worldwide is BASF's Reppe process, which reacts acetylene and formaldehyde. Acetylene reacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde to form 1,4-butynediol, also known as but-2-yne- 1,4-diol. 
Hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol gives 1,4-Butanediol. 1,4-BD is also made on a large industrial scale by continuous hydrogenation of the 2-butyne- 1,4-diol over modified nickel catalysts. The one-stage flow process is carried out at 80 - 160 deg C and 300 bar.

Mitsubishi uses a three-step process:
(1) the catalytic reaction of butadiene and acetic acid yields 1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene;
(2) subsequent hydrogenation gives 1,4-diacetoxyButane; and
(3) hydrolysis leads to 1,4-Butanediol.

Synthesis Reference(s)
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 36, p. 2018, 1971 DOI: 10.1021/jo00813a043
Tetrahedron Letters, 33, p. 6371, 1992 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)60976-0

General Description
Odorless colorless liquid or solid (depending upon temperature).

Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. 1,4-Butanediol is hygroscopic. Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile
1,4-Butanediol is heat and light sensitive. 
1,4-Butanediol reacts with acid chlorides, acid anhydrides and chloroformates; reacts with oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 
1,4-Butanediol is incompatible with isocyanates and acids; also incompatible with peroxides, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, hypochlorous acid, nitric acid, caustics, acetaldehyde, nitrogen peroxide and chlorine.

Hazard
Toxic by ingestion.

Health Hazard
The acute toxic effects are mild. 
1,4-Butanediolis less toxic than its unsaturate analogs,butenediol and the butynediol. 
The oralLD50 value in white rats and guinea pigsis ~2 mL/kg. The toxic symptoms fromingestion may include excitement, depressionof the central nervous system, nausea, anddrowsiness.

Health Hazard
Ingestion of large amounts needed to produce any symptoms.

Fire Hazard
Nonflammable liquid, flash point (open cup) 121°C.

Safety Profile
A human poison by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic byingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects: altered sleep time. 
Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, mist, foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

Purification Methods
Distil the glycol and store it over Linde type 4A molecular sieves, or crystallise it twice from anhydrous diethyl ether/acetone, and redistil it. 
It has been recrystallised from the melt and doubly distilled in vacuo in the presence of Na2SO4. [Beilstein 1 IV 2515.]

1,4-Butanediol Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
1,3-BUTADIENE 2,3-Butanedione Formaldehyde Nickel Chloroprene 2-Butyne-1,4-diol Acetylene cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene

1,4-Butanediol is an organic compound, also known as BD or tetramethylene glycol. 
The IUPAC name of the chemical is Butane-1,4-diol. 
Its formula and CAS number are C4H10O2 and 110-63-4 respectively. 
The substance is considered as one of four stable isomers of Butanediol.

Properties
1,4-Butanediol can be either liquid or solid, depending on the temperature. 
It is colorless and almost odorless. Liquid is viscous and oily. 
It is miscible in water and soluble in ethanol.

The structure of the chemical looks as a straight chain glycol that has hydroxyl groups on both ends. 
The other characteristics of the substance are as follows:

Molar mass: 90.12 g·mol−1;
Density: 1.0171 g/cm3;
Melting point: 20.1 °C;
Boiling point: 235 °C;
Flash point: 121 °C.
Butane-1,4-diol is usually industrially synthesized in the course of reaction between acetylene and two equivalents of formaldehyde. 
This process gives 1,4-butynediol. 
The hydrogenation of this chemical results in 1,4-Butanediol.

Application and Uses
Amon the most widespread industrial uses of this compound, one typically name its application as a solvent. 
Besides, it plays an important role in the manufacture of elastic fibers, certain types of plastic, and polyurethanes.

In organic chemistry, the compound often takes part in the synthesis of GBL (γ-butyrolactone). 
At the temperature about 200 °C with the soluble ruthenium catalysts, it forms butyrolactone. 
What’s more, at high temperature and in the presence of phosphoric acid, 1,4-Butanediol dehydrates to tetrahydrofuran.

Order 1,4-Butanediol for you laboratory researches at our online chemical store Brumer.
Check our convenient and extensive catalog to find everything you need to supply your lab.

Storage and Handling
The chemical is highly hygroscopic. Besides, it is degraded by oxygen.
That is why it is recommended to keep it in container sealed with dry nitrogen. 
The recommended storage temperature is 12 – 40 °C.

1,4-Butanediol is classified as a hazardous material with low volatility and fire risk. 
This chemical is considered relatively safe, but when handling it, it is advised to wear personal protective equipment:

eyeshields
face shields
respirator


1,4-Butanediol is produced based on the method of reacting acetylene with formaldehyde (Reppe process). 
Lyondell's feedstock is propylene oxide. Most end use applications, such as spandex fibers and engineering plastics, are maturing. 
But as the industry shifts from the acetylene-based Reppe process to cheaper routes based on propylene, butadiene or Butane, better process economics should improve operating margins, they are still growing faster. 
1,4-Butanediol is used in as a solvent and in coatings. 
It is used as a raw material to produce tetrahydrofuran (THF), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resins, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), polyurethanes and other target compounds and pharmaceuticals

1, 4 Butanediol market is segmented on the basis of application, technology & end-user industry. 
The growth amongst the different segments helps you in attaining the knowledge related to the different growth factors expected to be prevalent throughout the market and formulate different strategies to help identify core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

On the basis of technology, the 1, 4 Butanediol market is segmented into reppe process, davy process, butadiene process, propylene oxide process & others
Based on application, the 1, 4 Butanediol market is segmented into tetrahydrofuran (THF), poly butylene terephthalate (PBT), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), polyurethane & others
The 1, 4 Butanediol market is also segmented on the basis of end-user industry into automotive, pharmaceutical, leather, electrical and electronics, agricultural chemicals & others


The 1,4 Butanediol is an organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. 
It is also known as BD or BDO. 
The 1,4 Butanediol is a colorless viscous liquid and is a stable isomer of Butanediol. 
It is used as a solvent in the industry for the manufacturing of some types of liquid, elastic fibers, and polyurethanes. 
The 1,4 Butanediol can also be used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL). 
Additionally, in the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it is derived into important solvent tetrahydrofuran.


The growth of the global 1,4 Butanediol market is driven by the increasing usage of its derivates such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the production of polytetramethylether glycols (PTMEG). 
Later, it is processed into spandex used as an intermediate natural gas odorant owing to its wide liquid range. 
Also, consumer awareness regarding the processing and utility benefits of 1,4 Butanediol is increasing which has led to industry expansion. 
Furthermore, the key market players are expanding their production bases to developing economies in the Asia Pacific region which will help in the introduction of new technologies and drive innovation across the market. 
These are some of the factors that are bolstering the growth of the global 1,4 Butanediol market. 
The environmental concerns along with depletion of non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas have led to the development of initiatives and technologies that utilize bio-based resources for production.

1,4 Butanediol, also termed as Butane-1,4-diol or 1,4-Butylene glycol, is an organic chemical compound which finds a wide-scale industrial application in production of fibres, plastics, solvents etc. among other applications in the chemical industry. 
1,4 Butanediol is colourless and viscous chemical compound with a relatively high boiling point is derived from Butane. 
The organic chemical compound is one of the stable forms or isomers of Butanediol. 
One of the most widely used process, the Reppe Process, for manufacture of 1,4 Butanediol involves reaction of acetylene with formaldehyde. 
Alternatively, it is also manufactured by means of a process termed as Davy process with maleic anhydride used as raw material. 
Other modes of manufacture involve use of biological routes or the use of propylene oxide as a raw material. 
Major areas of application for 1,4 Butanediol include manufacture of Poly Butylene Terephthalate (PBT), Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL), Tetrahydrofuran, Polyurethanes, among the others.

1,4 Butanediol market is slated to register a steady year-on-year growth throughout the forecast period. 
The growth of end use industries is expected to emerge as the major growth driving factor for global 1,4 Butanediol market during the forecast period. 
A moderate single digit growth is projected to be registered by the market over the forecast period. 
The industrial growth in developing regions of the globe namely of countries in Asia Pacific region is expected to further drive the demand for Butanediol during the forecast period. 
The relatively volatile nature of prices of 1, 4 Butanediol raw materials is likely to act as an impediment to the growth of global 1,4 Butanediol market during the forecast period. 
China has emerged as a major producer of 1,4 Butanediol and houses the largest production capacity for the chemical. 
Thus, the growth in end use industries, the economic and industrial growth in developing regions of the globe, are expected to drive the growth of global 1,4 Butanediol market during the forecast period.


Tetrahydrofuran (THF), one of the major application of 1, 4-Butanediol, is widely utilized in various applications such as in the production of polytetramethylether glycols (PTMEG). 
This is further processed to derive spandex, and as an intermediate in manufacturing natural gas odorants owing to its wide liquid range. 
Additionally, growing awareness regarding the processing benefits of these, and other BDO applications, are responsible for industry expansion. 
Major players are shifting their production plant in emerging economies in Asia-Pacific, and introducing new technologies, which is anticipated to drive innovation in the near future. 
On the other hand, increasing environmental concerns and reduction of non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas have stimulated the development of several innovative, sustainable technologies that utilize bio-based, renewable resources for production. 
The transference towards sustainable products is also responsible for driving bio-based 1, 4-Butanediol production and consumption.

1,4 Butanediol Market size is forecast to reach $11.1 billion by 2025, after growing at a CAGR of 7.2% during 2020-2025. 
1,4 Butanediol, generally referred to as BDO, is an organic compound primarily used as a solvent in industrial cleaners and glue removers such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). 
The increasing demand for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) from different industries and the strict government regulations are the key factors driving the growth of the 1,4 Butanediol market. 
Also, increasing demand for the bio-based 1,4-Butanediol market in the application of vehicles from the automotive sector will drive the 1,4 Butanediol industry in the forecast period.


Increasing demand of Polyurethane (PU)
1,4 Butanediol (BDO/1,4-BD) is a flexible, medium liquid diol with primary hydroxyl reactive functionalities and a linear structure that enables the formulation of polyurethanes with good hardness balance and low flexibility in temperatures, high strength, durability, and thermal stability.
1,4 Butanediol (BDO) acts as a raw material for polyester and polyurethane resins (chain extender, hard segment) which exhibit excellent features. 
Usage of 14BG diol for the chain extender to make urethane elastomers with excellent mechanical properties and high heat, oil and impact resistance. 
As the consumption of lightweight and durable parts for the automotive, construction and electronics sectors increases, polyurethane demand is increasing. 
Because of changing needs, extensive R&D in the global plastics industry has led to the development of new PU products that outperform conventional plastics. 

Production of Bio-Based BDO 
Bio-BDO is a chemical used in (bio) fabrics, elastic fibres, and polyurethane as solvent and building block. 
Bio-BDO is bio-based and biodegradable to 100 per cent. 
The limited use of petroleum-based feedstocks in view of global oil prices is one of the main reasons for businesses involved in bio-BDO. 
With the price volatility of traditional fossil-fuel - based raw materials and a growing emphasis on carbon footprint mitigation technologies, there is a potential to implement green bio-based technologies to manufacture goods such as BDO. 
Also, several companies are considering bio-based chemicals processing technologies with the hopes of being able to use cheap sugars as a feedstock, thereby reducing the need for fossil-fuel feedstocks. 
Also, the use of sustainable feedstocks is promoted and the concepts of green chemistry are implemented in the development of chemicals by government agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to further enhance the segment.


Butanediol is mainly segmented into four isomers named as 1,2-Butanediol, 1,3-Butanediol, 1,4-Butanediol and 2,3-Butanediol. 
Among all, 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) is widely used and finds application in manufacturing tetrahydrofuran, which is the important raw material for producing spandex. 
Spandex is generally known for its elasticity and strength, and used to manufacture sports apparels. 
Growing sports apparels demand is expected to be the major factor driving the tetrahydrofuran market, which in turn likely to drive the global 1,4-BDO market over the next six years. 
Increasing sports events around the world is projected to have positive impact on global 1,4-BDO market over the forecast period.

1,4-BDO also used to manufacture polyurethanes, which has wide range of applications. 
Polyurethanes find application in manufacturing durable wheels and tires, electronic panels and instrument, and footwear. 
Increasing footwear market in Latin America and Asia Pacific is expected to be the major factor driving the 1,4-BDO market in the region. 
Global footwear market has been witnessing significant growth over the recent past on account of increasing disposable income of consumers mainly in BRICS nations. 
This trend is expected to augment the 1,4-BDO market growth in these nations. 
Increasing environmental concerns regarding the usage of synthetic 1,4-BDO is expected to hinder the market growth in near future. 
Furthermore, shift in consumers focus towards bio-based products is anticipated to impact the market negatively. 
Bio-based method of producing 1,4-BDO provides clean solution and also helps producer to gain cost competitiveness over their conventional counterparts. 
1,4-BDO is synthetically produced from acetylene which is obtained by distillation of naphtha. 
Uncertainty in crude oil prices is further expected to hamper the 1,4-BDO market over the next five years. 

Major applications of 1,4-BDO include Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polyurethane, tetrahydrofuran, and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) among others. 
Tetrahydrofuran was the largest application segment covered over 30% of the market volume in 2012. 
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) finds application in manufacturing spandex fibers. 
Growing spandex demand owing to growing sport events worldwide is anticipated to drive the demand for THF over the foreseeable future. 
Polyurethane was the second major market accounting for over 25% of the market in 2012. 
Growing footwear demand globally is likely to fuel the polyurethane market growth, which in turn likely to boost the demand for 1,4-BDO over the next five years. 
PBT was the third dominant application segment covered about 22% of the market in 2012. 
PBT mainly finds application in production of plug connectors used in automobile industry. 
Growing automobile industry in China is expected to drive the PBT market in the region. 
GBL market is expected to grow at the rate of 4.1% over the forecast period. 
GBL finds application in herbicides and foundry resins.

Asia Pacific was the largest market in 2012, and is expected to be the fastest growing market over the forecast period. 
Increasing disposable income of consumers in emerging nations such as India and China is anticipated to impact the regional market positively. 
North America was the second major market accounted over 15% of total market in 2012. 
North America and Europe markets are expected to experience stagnant growth over the next five years on account of stringent government regulations on the production of 1,4-BDO. 
Increasing consumer awareness towards usage of bio-based products is likely to hamper the market in these regions.

1,4‐Butanediol (1,4‐BDO) is a four‐carbon diol used for industrial applications such as organic solvents, and the production of adhesives, fibers and polyurethanes. 
1,4‐BDO currently is produced through several petrochemical routes: hydrogenation of maleic anhydride, isomerization of propylene oxide, acetoxylation of butadiene, and the reaction between formaldehyde and acetylene. 
The current trends in 1,4‐BDO production involve the utilization of renewable sources such as biomass. 
In this context, the present study aimed to identify promising technologies of 1,4‐BDO production through prospecting methodology based on the analyses of patents and scientific article, describing the most relevant aspects of those emerging technologies. 
An increasing amount of 1,4‐BDO production focused on biotechnological routes has been reported, with the US heavily involved in the development of new technologies. 
This study tracked three promising technologies which have potential for application in a biorefinery context because those processes involve 
(i) production of 1,4‐BDO from sugars, classified herein as the biotechnological route; 
(ii) production of intermediates from sugar fermentation followed by catalytic conversion into 1,4‐BDO, classified herein as the hybrid route, and (iii) furan/furfural conversion into 1,4‐BDO. 
2020 Society of Chemical Industry


1,4-BD
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butylene glycol
1,4-DihydroxyButane
1,4-Tetramethylene glycol
Agrisynth B1D
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butanediol
DIOL 14B

Sucol B
Tetramethylene 1,4-diol
Tetramethylene glycol

CAS names
1,4-Butanediol

IUPAC names
1,4-Bütandiol

1,4-ButaneDIOL
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butanediol
Bütandiol
Butane 1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-DIOL
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-Diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol (1,4-ButaneDIOL (8CI9CI))
Butane-1,4-diol (BDO)
ButaneDIOL-1,4
Butylene glycol
TETRA METIL GLICOL
Tetramethylene glycol
tetramethylene-1,4-diol

Trade names
1,4-Bütandiol(14BG)
1,4-Butanediol
1,4-Butanediol (8CI, 9CI)
1,4-Butylene glycol
1,4-DihydroxyButane
1,4-Tetramethylene glycol
14BG
BDO
Bütan-1,4-diol
Bütandiol-1.4
Butane-1,4-diol
Butane-1,4-diol
Butylene glycol
DIOL 14B
Diol 14B
SUCOL B
Sucol B
Tetramethylene 1,4-diol
Tetramethylene glycol
 

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