(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride may also be used as a model system for studying reaction mechanisms, structural analysis, and calcium pantothenate metabolism. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an essential nutrient that plays a role in energy metabolism and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. 

CAS Number: 67-48-1
EC number: 200-655-4
Chemical formula: [(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]+Cl−
Molar mass: 139.62 g·mol−1

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an organic compound with the formula [(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]+Cl−. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt, consisting of choline cations ([(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]+) and chloride anions (Cl−). 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is bifunctional compound, meaning, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride contains both quaternary ammonium functional group and a hydroxyl functional group. 
The cation of this salt, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride, occurs in nature in living beings.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a white, water-soluble salt used mainly in animal feed.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a constituent of sphingomyelin and lecithin. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a precursor of acetylcholine. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride plays a vital role in methyl group metabolism, carcinogenesis and lipid transport. 
Choline deficiency is associated with fatty liver.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride maintains cell structural integrity and cell signalling.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is implicated in the synthesis of phospholipids. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride acts as a potent biomarker for ischemic heart disease.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a weak acid. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is the salt of the naturally occurring choline, the pre-stage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for mnemonic and thought-processes. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride occurs naturally in fungi, hop and kingcups and as integral part of lecithin. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a common food additive in animal husbandry

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 tonnes per annum.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a water solution of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride that is 75% by weight. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has been shown to be effective in preventing atherosclerotic lesions and metabolic disorders. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride also has thermal expansion properties, which can be used for the manufacture of plastic containers. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can inhibit complex enzyme activity by forming complexes with the enzyme, thus inhibiting (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride activity. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride may also be used as a model system for studying reaction mechanisms, structural analysis, and calcium pantothenate metabolism. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an essential nutrient that plays a role in energy metabolism and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is also important for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) because (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride enhances electrical conductivity across cell membranes.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride appears as white crystals. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is practically neutral aqueous solution. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt with choline cation and chloride anion. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has a role as an animal growth promotant. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a chloride salt and a quaternary ammonium salt. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride contains a choline.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.

Applications of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an important additive in feed especially for chickens where (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride accelerates growth. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride forms a deep eutectic solvent with urea, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and many other compounds.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is also used as a clay control additive in fluids used for hydraulic fracturing.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has been used:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in choline release assay
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used as an endogenous agonist of sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs)
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used as a standard to analyse interrelationships between methionine and choline metabolism

Uses of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an animal feed additive, classified as a water-soluble B-vitamin that increases animal growth. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is added exogenously to feed stocks because (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride plays an essential role in fat transport, metabolism, and protects cell membrane structure. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be supplied to tissue culture media, animal feed additive and used in clinical anti-fatty liver agent.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be used for treating fatty liver and cirrhosis. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can also be used as the feed additive which is capable of stimulating ovaries for giving birth to more eggs and farrowing. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can also facilitate the weight gaining process of livestock, fish, etc.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is effective in the prevention and treatment of the fat deposition and tissue degeneration in the organs of livestock and poultry. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can also promote the absorption and synthesis of amino acids. 

Moreover, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can enhance physical fitness and disease resistance of livestock, promote their growth and development, and improve poultry laying rate. 
The usage amount is 1-2 g/kg.

As a kind of feed additive, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has the following physiological effects: (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can prevent the accumulation of the fat in liver and the kidney and tissue degeneration; (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can promote recombination of amino acids; (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can improve the utilization efficiency of amino acids, especially the essential amino acid methionine in vivo. 
In Japan, 98% of the applied (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used as the feed additives of chickens, pigs, cattle and fish and other animal. 

Most of them have been processed into powder; the preparation process of 50% powder is that: first add an appropriate excipient of certain particle size into the mixer is prepared by previously adding an appropriate particle size of the excipient, and then add drop wise of aqueous solution of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride, after mixing, drying to derive it. 
Some powder products are also blended with vitamins, minerals, and drugs. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is the vitamin B-class drug which can be used for the treatment of hepatitis, liver function degradation, early cirrhosis, and pernicious anemia.

B vitamins:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an indispensible fundamental component in humans and animal body, often referred to as B vitamins or vitamin B4, and is a necessary low-molecule organic compound for maintaining physiological function off animal body. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be synthesized inside animal body but still often need to be supplied to dietary and is a kind of vitamin in maximal usage amount. 
Inside animal cells, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be used to adjust the in vivo metabolism and conversion of fats, preventing the fat deposition and tissue degeneration of liver and kidney, and then promote the regeneration of amino acids, enhance utilization of amino acids as well as save some part of methionine.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is the most commonly used as well as most economical form of synthetic choline and is a water soluble vitamin, and is the component for constituting of acetylcholine, lecithin, and nerve phospholipids of biological tissue. 
Moreover, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can save methionine and is an important material required for livestock, poultry, and fish. 

Inside animal body, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be used for adjusting in vivo metabolism and conversion of fats and can prevent the deposition in liver and related tissue degeneration. 
As a methyl donor, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can promote the re-formation of amino acids and improve the utilization of amino acids. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is mainly used as an additive for being mixing into the animal feed. 
During the exact usage process, in addition to prevent moisture deliquescence, you should also note that all kind of feeds usually take the addition of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride as the last step. 

Because of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride destruction effects on other vitamins, especially (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride rapid destruction on vitamin A, D, K in the presence of metal elements, multi-dimensional formulation should not include choline. 
Daily feed supplied with (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride should be used as soon as possible after the addition. 

Tests have showed that (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is especially important for chicken poultry. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride synthetic amino acids and lecithin can be delivered to various locations inside chicken bodies, being able to prevent the fat deposition in the liver and kidney and accelerate the growth of chickens and increase egg production and hatchability.

Widespread uses by professional workers:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in the following products: plant protection products, laboratory chemicals, washing & cleaning products, pH regulators and water treatment products and fertilisers.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in the following areas: agriculture, forestry and fishing, health services, scientific research and development and mining.
Other release to the environment of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use as processing aid.

Uses at industrial sites:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in the following products: pH regulators and water treatment products, laboratory chemicals, fertilisers, washing & cleaning products and plant protection products.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in the following areas: mining, scientific research and development, health services and agriculture, forestry and fishing.
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used for the manufacture of: chemicals.
Release to the environment of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and as processing aid.

Industry Uses:
Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Not Known or Reasonably Ascertainable
Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
Soil amendments (fertilizers)
Stabilizing agent

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an essential nutrient that plays a role in energy metabolism and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. 

67-48-1, 200-655-4, CHOLINE CHLORIDE, Hepacholine, 2-Hydroxy-N N N-trimethylethanaminium chloride, Luridin chloride, Choline hydrochloride, Ethanaminium 2-hydroxy-N N N-trimethyl- chloride, DTXSID4020325, FEMA NO. 4500

Consumer Uses:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals and washing & cleaning products.
Other release to the environment of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is likely to occur from: indoor use as reactive substance and indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters).

Other Consumer Uses:
Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Not Known or Reasonably Ascertainable
Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
Soil amendments (fertilizers)

Chemical Properties of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is white hygroscopic crystal and is odorless with fish stench. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride melting point of 240 ℃. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride 10% aqueous solution has a pH 5-6. 
However, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is unstable in alkaline solution. 

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride  is easily soluble in water and ethanol but insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene and carbon disulfide. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride has a low toxicity with LD50 (rat, oral) being 3400 mg/kg.

General Manufacturing Information of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

Industry Processing Sectors:
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
All Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing
Not Known or Reasonably Ascertainable
Oil and Gas Drilling, Extraction, and Support activities

Synthesis of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
In the laboratory, choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999.
Industrially, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide, hydrogen chloride, and trimethylamine, or from the pre-formed salt.

(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can also be made by treating trimethylamine with 2-chloroethanol.

(CH3)3N + ClCH2CH2OH → [(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]+Cl−

Production method of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
(1) Continuous method for preparation of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride solution: 
Continuously send the trimethylamine hydrochloride and a certain amount of ethylene oxide separately through pump into the reactor; the reactants had a residence time at the reactor of 1-1.5h; the reaction was carried out under stirring and has (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride resulting product being continuously withdrawn so that the liquid level within the reactor remained stable. 
The withdrawn (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride extraction crude product entered into the stripper to obtain 60-80% (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride liquid product from the bottom.

(2) Trimethylamine hydrochloride was reacted with ethylene oxide, and then added with an organic acid for neutralization and further concentration to obtain the (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride (3) Chloro-ethanol was reacted with trimethylamine to generate (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride.

(3)Ethylene oxide method:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride can be made from the reaction between ethylene oxide and trimethylamine.
Add the trimethylamine ethanol solution into the reactor, send through ethylene oxide at about 30 ℃ and stirring reaction of 4 hour and further obtain (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride through neutralization with hydrochloric acid (control PH at 6.5-7.0). 

The yield of the crude product can be as high as 98%. The crude product can further be subject to activated carbon decolorizing and vacuum concentration to obtain 70% aqueous solution. 
The aqueous solution was added with ground corn cobs, rice hull flour, wheat bran or diatomaceous earth and some other kinds of excipients and can give 50% of the powder.

(4) Chlorohydrin method:
Use chlorohydrin to substitute ethylene oxide and hydrochloric acid; have (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride reacted with trimethylamine in the presence of a small amount of ethylene oxide or alkaline substance;
First add 100 parts of chlorohydrin into the reaction vessel, further add 130 parts of trimethylamine from the liquid surface, while supplying of ethylene oxide to trigger the reaction. 

After the addition, stir at 32-38 ℃ for 4h with the yield being 84% (calculated from chlorohydrin). 
For example, if catalyzed with an alkaline substance (such as quaternary ammonium salts), the one-way conversion rate can reach over 97%. 
Trimethylamine methanol solution and chlorohydrin is subject to heating reaction, concentration under reduced pressure, and re-crystallization to generate it.

Biochem/physiol Actions of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
Choline is an essential nutrient, commonly grouped with the B complex vitamins, that plays key roles in many biological processes.
The enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), two serum enzymes synthesized by the liver and related with inflammation, were decreased in a sepsis animal model injected with LPS. 
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride administered intravenously at 20 mg/kg body weight prevents the LPS-mediated decreases in the activities of these two enzymes.

Pharmacology and Biochemistry of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

MeSH Pharmacological Classification:

Lipotropic Agents:
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.

Nootropic Agents:
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. 
These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. 

Handling and Storage of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

Nonfire Spill Response:

If you spill this chemical, you should dampen the solid spill material with water, then transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. 
Use absorbent paper dampened with water to pick up any remaining material. 

Seal your contaminated clothing and the absorbent paper in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. 
Wash all contaminated surfaces with a strong soap and water solution. 
Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.

You should store this chemical under refrigerated temperatures, and protect (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride from moisture.

Reactivity Profile of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
(2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt. Quaternary ammonium salts often serve as catalysts in reactions. 
They are incompatible with many strong oxidizers and reducing agents, such as metal hydrides, alkali/active metals, and organometallics.

Quaternary ammonium salts often serve as catalysts in reactions. 
They are incompatible with many strong oxidizers and reducing agents, such as metal hydrides, alkali/active metals, and organometallics.

Unlike the ammonium ion, [NH4]+, and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution.

First Aid Measures of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. 
Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. 

Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. 
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. 
Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. 
If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. 
If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. 

Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. 
Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. 

Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. 
If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. 

IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.

Fire Fighting of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
To fight fires involving this chemical, you should be equipped with an air line or self-contained breathing apparatus. 
Extinguish with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam or halon extinguisher.

Accidental Release Measures of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

Spillage Disposal of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. 
If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting.

Disposal Methods of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. 
Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

Identifiers of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
CAS Number: 67-48-1
ChEBI: CHEBI:133341
ChEMBL: ChEMBL282468
ChemSpider: 5974
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.596
E number: E1001(iii) (additional chemicals)
PubChem CID: 522265
UNII: 45I14D8O27
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID4020325
InChI: InChI=1S/C5H14NO.ClH/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7;/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3;1H/q+1;/p-1
SMILES: [Cl-].OCC[N+](C)(C)C

CAS number: 67-48-1
EC number: 200-655-4
Grade: DAB 10
Hill Formula: C₅H₁₄ClNO
Molar Mass: 139.63 g/mol
HS Code: 2923 10 00

Synonym(s): (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
Linear Formula: (CH3)3N(Cl)CH2CH2OH
CAS Number: 67-48-1
Molecular Weight: 139.62
Beilstein: 3563126
EC Number: 200-655-4
MDL number: MFCD00011721
PubChem Substance ID: 57654039

Properties of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
Chemical formula: [(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]+Cl−
Molar mass: 139.62 g·mol−1
Appearance: White hygroscopic crystals
Melting point: 302 °C (576 °F; 575 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water: very soluble (>650 g/L)

Ignition temperature: 355 °C
Melting Point: 200 °C
pH value: 5.0 - 6.5 (140 g/l, H₂O, 25 °C)
Bulk density: 430 kg/m3

biological source: synthetic
Quality Level: 200
Assay: ≥99%
form: powder
color: white
mp: 302-305 °C (dec.) (lit.)
SMILES string: [Cl-].C[N+](C)(C)CCO
InChI: 1S/C5H14NO.ClH/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7;/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3;1H/q+1;/p-1

Molecular Weight: 139.62 g/mol
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 2
Rotatable Bond Count: 2
Exact Mass: 139.0763918 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass: 139.0763918 g/mol
Topological Polar Surface Area: 20.2Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 8
Complexity: 46.5
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 2
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Specifications of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
Assay (argentometric; calculated on dried substance): 98.0 - 100.5 %
Identity (wet chemistry): passes test
Identity (IR): passes test
Appearance of solution (10 %; water): passes test
Acidity or alkalinity: passes test
Heavy metals (as Pb): ≤ 0.001 %
As (Arsenic): ≤ 0.0003 %
Pb (Lead): ≤ 0.5 ppm
Ammonium, volatile amines: passes test
Ammonium, primary amines: passes test
1,4 Dioxane: passes test
Residual solvents (ICH Q3C): excluded by the manufacturing process
Residue on ignition: ≤ 0.05 %
Loss on drying (120 °C): ≤ 1.5 %
Water: ≤ 0.5 %

Related salts of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. 
In foodstuffs, (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is often present as phosphatidylcholine.

Names of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:

Regulatory process names:
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
Chlorure de choline
Choline chloride
Choline Chloride
Choline chloride
choline chloride

IUPAC names:
(2 - Hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride
(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-trimethyl-ammonium chloride
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium chloride
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium Chloride
2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride
2-Hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
Cholin Chlorid
Choline Chloride
Choline chloride
choline chloride
Choline Chloride
Choline chloride
choline chloride
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride

Preferred IUPAC name:
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium chloride

Trade names:
CC 75 - Choline chloride, aqueous solution

Other names:
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride

Other identifiers:

Synonyms of (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride:
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
Luridin chloride
Choline hydrochloride
Bilineurin chloride
Cholinium chloride
Choline, chloride
Chloride de choline
Choline chlorhydrate
Cholini chloridum
Colina cloruro
Choline chloride [INN]
Cloruro de colina
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride
Chlorure de choline
Choline (chloride)
Trimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride
CCRIS 3716
HSDB 984
Colina cloruro [DCIT]
(beta-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
EINECS 200-655-4
Chloride de choline [French]
NSC 402838
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N,-trimethylethanaminium chloride
Cholini chloridum [INN-Latin]
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium chloride
FEMA NO. 4500
Cloruro de colina [INN-Spanish]
Chlorure de choline [INN-French]
Ammonium, (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl-, chloride
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
EC 200-655-4
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (1:1)
Cloruro de colina (INN-Spanish)
Chlorure de choline (INN-French)
cholinii chloridum
Chloride, Choline
cholinium chloratum
Choline Chloride,(S)
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)ammonium chloride
Choline chloride [HOEtN1,1,1]Cl
hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride
WLN: Q2K1&1&1 &Q &G
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl ammonium chloride
(.beta.-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium chloride
Etanamino, 2-hidroxi-n, n, n-trimetil-, cloruro (1:1)
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride (1:1)
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl-Ammonium chloride
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(β-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
200-655-4 [EINECS]
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminiumchlorid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
67-48-1 [RN]
Chlorure de 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-triméthyléthanaminium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
chlorure de choline [French] [INN]
Choline (chloride)
choline chloride [INN]
Cholini chloridum [Latin] [INN]
cholinium chloride
cloruro de colina [Spanish] [INN]
Colina cloruro [DCIT]
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
холина хлорид [Russian] [INN]
كلوريد كولين [Arabic] [INN]
氯化胆碱 [Chinese] [INN]
(2-H2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium chloride
(β-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
[67-48-1] [RN]
2-(trimethylamino)ethan-1-ol, chloride
285979-70-6 [RN]
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)ammonium chloride
2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylazanium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl-azanium chloride
2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-ethanaminium, monochloride
352438-97-2 [RN]
61037-86-3 [RN]
Ammonium, (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl-, chloride
Bilineurin chloride
Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride
hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride
Luridin chloride
trimethyl-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride
Trimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride
WLN: Q2K1&1&1 &Q &G
холина хлорид

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