ACRYLAMIDE

Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH2=CHC(O)NH2. 
Acrylamide is a white odorless solid, soluble in water and several organic solvents. 
Acrylamide is produced industrially as a precursor to polyacrylamides, which find many uses as water-soluble thickeners and flocculation agents. 
Acrylamide is highly toxic, likely to be carcinogenic, and partly for that reason it is mainly handled as an aqueous solution.


EC / List no.: 201-173-7
CAS no.: 79-06-1
Mol. formula: C3H5NO


Acrylamide is a colorless, odorless, crystalline amide that polymerizes rapidly and can form as a byproduct during the heating of starch-rich foods to high temperatures. 
Acrylamide is used in the production of polymers mainly in the water treatment industry, pulp and paper industry and textile treatment industry and is used as a laboratory reagent. 
The polymer is nontoxic, but exposure to the monomer can cause central and peripheral nervous system damage resulting in hallucinations, drowsiness and numbness in the hands and legs. 
Acrylamide is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. 


Acrylamide with chemical formula C3H5NO is an organic compound. 
Synonyms for acrylamide are acrylamide monomer, acrylic amide, propenamide, 2- propenamide, acrilamida (DOT Spanish), acrylamide (DOT French), acrylamide solution , acrylic acid amide (50%), acrylic amide (50%), ethylene carboxamide, ethylenecarboxamide, propenamide (50%), propenoic acid, amide, RCRA Waste Number U007, UN 2074, and vinyl amide (Ware, 1989). 
Acrylamide is a chemical that commonly used in industry to prepare polymeric material that used in many products in contemporary living known as polyacrylamide. 
Acrylamide can be present in either monomer (single unit) or polymer (multiple units that joined together by chemical bonds) (The Merck Index, 1996). 
The polymeric form of acrylamide called polyacrylamide, known to be non toxic (Friedman et al., 2003), while the single unit substance is toxic and cause damage to the central nervous system, carcinogen in laboratory animals, producing an ascending central/peripheral axonopathy and also suspected to be carcinogen in humans.

Acrylamide appears as white crystalline solid shipped either as a solid or in solution. 
A confirmed carcinogen. Toxic by skin absorption. 
Less dense than water and soluble in water. 
May be toxic by ingestion. Used for sewage and waste treatment, to make dyes, adhesives. 
The solid is stable at room temperature, but upon melting may violently polymerize. 
Toxic, irritating to skin, eyes, etc.


Acrylamide is an odorless, white crystalline solid which has chemically active amide group and solid bond in the molecular structure; melting at 84.5 C; highly soluble in water and soluble in ethanol, ether and acetone; insoluble in benzene and heptane. 
Polymer of acrylamide, a white, odourless solid, is soluble in water but insoluble in such solvents as alcohols, hexane, ethyl acetate, glacial acetic acid, and lactic acid. 
Solid acrylamide is stable at room temperature, but may polymerize explosively when heated to the melting point and or in contact with oxidizing agents such as chlorine dioxide and bromine. 
It may polymerize on exposure to light. 
When heated to decomposition, acrylamide emits carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and/or derivatives, hydrogen gas. 
Acrylamide is commercially available in aqueous solution form stabilized with hydroquinone, t-butylpyrocatechol, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine or other antioxidants. 
Acrylamide monomer is produced mostly by the catalytic (copper) hydration of acrylonitrile. 

The major use of acrylamide and its derivatives is in the production of polymers and modified copolymers for various purposes such as waste and sewage treatment, paper and pulp manufacturing, oil recovery and ore processes, photografic emulsion, soil stabilizer, adhesive coating and food processing.


Acrylamide can occur both in crystalline solid and liquid form. 

It is colorless to white solid monomer, free flowing crystal that is soluble in water, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, but is insoluble in heptane and benzene. 
The solubility of acrylamide in water at 30oC is 2155 g/L. 
The molecular weight of acrylamide is 71.08 Da, melting point of 84.5°C and 125°C boiling point at 25 mmHg (European Commission, 2002).

The crystalline acrylamide monomer is available as pellets of 98% and 95% purity. 
The specific gravity of acrylamide is 1.122 at 30°C. The 50% aqueous form is form for applications in which water can be tolerated. 
The monomer readily polymerizes at the melting point or under ultraviolet light (NICNAS, 2002). 
Solid acrylamide is stable at room temperature, but it may polymerize violently when melted or in contact with oxidizing agents. 
Commercial acrylamide monomer contains residual levels of acrylonitrile (1 to 100 mg/ kg) (IARC 1986). 

Uses of Acrylamide and Polyacrylamide
Since the last century, the use of acrylamide has increased. 
Acrylamide is widely use in many industrial applications as well as for chemical and environmental purposes. 
It is known that the main use of acrylamide is in the production of high molecular weight polyacrylamide. 
Polyacrylamide is an important polymer to produce various compounds with different physical and chemical properties suited for industrial needed. 
It is estimated that almost 99.9% of acrylamide is used in the production of polyacrylamide in Europe Union (European Commission, 2002). 

In the paper manufacturing industry, polyacrylamide plays an important part as binders and retention supports for fibres and to retain pigments on paper fibres. 

In United Kingdom, approximately 12,000 tons of polyacrylamide is used in the paper production industry annually.

The physical properties of polyacrylamides are decided by copolymerizing with a variety of different vinylic monomers. 

Polyacrylamide can be manufactured as cationic, non-ionic, or anionic polymer. Both cationic and anionic polyacrylamides are produced by the process of copolymerisation of acrylamide. 

Cationic polyacrylamides are useful for flocculation of sewage sludge and various industrial wastes, as well as retention aids in the paper industry (Barvenik, 1994).

Large quantities of acrylamide are used in the production of polyacrylamide gel as a grouting agent to stabilize mineshafts in the mining industry, tunnels, and dams to increase the strength and to restrict the flow of water through a structure (Mona et al., 2001). 

In the mining process, polyacrylamides are used as flocculants to separate solids from aqueous solutions. 

It is also used in the disposal of industrial wastes and in the cleansing of water supplies (European Commission, 2002). 

Polyacrylamide allow more concentrated sludge when they are used as sludge conditioning or dewatering agent than inorganic coagulants. 

When polyacrylamide is used in potable water treatment, it must not exceed of 0.05% of its monomer; however there are polyacrylamides containing 0.1-5% of monomer used as industrial coagulants (Croll et al., 1974). The principle of the coagulation process is when the polymers bind with the particles, it will form heavy aggregates that quickly settle out of solution and leave clear supernatant (Barvenik, 1994). The most effectual polymer is the one that have high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (1.5 X106 g mol-1) as it obtains a high exclusion efficiency % with dosage as low as 64 mg L-1 (Arifin et al., 2004).

Acrylamide also used to decrease soil erosion, and this part has received rising of attention in recent years. 

The most extensively published is in furrow irrigation systems, in which polyacrylamides is added to the irrigation water to evade erosion of the furrows (Lentsz et al., 1992). Polyacrylamide adds to the irrigation water will reduced up to 94% of furrow erosion. Polyacrylamide has been shown to reduce erosion when introduced through a sprinkler irrigation system (Byornberg and Aase, 2000; Green et al., 2000).

Smaller quantities of acrylamides are formulated in cosmetics and soap preparations as thickeners. 
It is also use in dental fixtures, preshave lotions, and hair grooming preparations. 
This compound also use as permanent press fabrics, in molecular biology applications, photographic emulsions, and food processing industry; in the production of diazo compounds; and for gel chromatography and electrophoresis (Sittig, 1985; IARC, 1986). In the textile industry, acrylamide polymer, polyacrylamides are used to size and shrink-proof material and as water repellents. Home appliances, building materials, and automotive parts are coated with acrylamide resins and thermosetting acrylics.

Polyacrylamide gel is used as a medium for hydroponically grown crops, and as a binder of bone cements (European Commission, 2002). 
Hydroponics is a conventional method in horticulture technique. 

This technique allows crops to grow faster and more consistent in quality than conventionally grown produce. 
This is because; polyacrylamide that used in this technique is essentially inert and has high ability to absorb water to supply for the crops and capable of holding moisture.

There is no specific data regarding the usage of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in Malaysia; however, several industries in Malaysia use polyacrylamide. 
The industries that use the most polyacrylamide are in waste water treatment, paper, and pulp processing. 

For the golf course in Malaysia, polyacrylamide was used to toughen the foundation of the artificial lakes. 
These cause the contamination of underground water supplies and therefore cause several poisoning and disorders of the central nervous system. 
Chatterjee (1993) has reported that many golfer, caddies, as well as local peoples have been found to endure irritations, skin diseases and other allergic symptoms.

In agricultural area, polyacrylamide is used as a stabilizer (25-30% solutions) in herbicide glyphosate (ROUNDUP™) formulation. 
Polyacrylamides are mixed up with various organic solvents forming thickening agents, and then combined with herbicides to increase the herbicides surfactants capabilities (Bouse et al., 1996).
 According to Mansor (1996), the glyphosate is the most famous herbicide used to solve the weeds problem all over Malaysia. 
This herbicide is used for the control of a wide range of broad-leaved weeds and grasses in agricultural estate crops such as rubber, oil palm and cocoa. 
It is estimated up to 8 million litres of glyphosate were used in year 2000 and from that data, at least 2 million litres of polyacrylamide is dumped into the soil and the rivers every years (AGRIQUEST, 2000).

Generally, most part of polyacrylamides is nontoxic. 
However, due to the polymerization process, these polymers can have a residual of its monomer, acrylamide; a peripheral nerve toxin. 
The range of acrylamide that might contaminate polyacrylamide is in between 0.05 to 5.0% of the final product. 
After flocculation with polyacrylamides, acrylamide will remnants in the water due to its high water solubility and have high tendency not to be absorbed by sediment and sludge, although some of it may be trapped in the sediment (Brown et al., 1980).

Production of Acrylamide
For the production of many chemical compounds, usually large amount of energy needed to generate the reaction, and this can adversely affect the environment. 
Even though there are many alternative biotechnological production processes exist, they are often hampered by economics, although it is known to have potentially beneficial with respect to environmental protection. 
Nevertheless, increasingly severe environmental constraints will favor processes that can be done under milder conditions.

Usually biotransformations are used commercially when conventional chemical approaches are too expensive. 
In contrast to the conventional usage of fine chemicals, commodity chemicals used in biotransformation are low-priced, have a larger demand, and are produced and sold in high volume. 
In addition, commodity chemicals are characterized by the low cost of raw materials compared with the cost of production which characterizes fine chemicals. 
One of the most important commodity chemicals used in coagulators, soil conditioners and stock additives for paper treatment and paper sizing, and for adhesives, paints and petroleum recovering agents is acrylamide.

Conventional chemical synthesis involves hydration of acrylonitrile with the use of copper salts as a catalyst. 
However, this chemical method has various problems: 
(i) the rate of acrylic acid formation is higher than that acrylamide formation, 
(ii) the double bond of both substrate and product causes the formation of by- product such as nitrylotrispropionamide and ethylene cyanohydrate and 
(iii) polymerization occurs at the double bond of both substrate and product. 


For that reason, the enzymatic conversion from acrylonitrile to acrylamide could be done by microorganisms’ catabolyzing acrylonitrile. 

Since it is inhibitory for nitrile hydratase activity when added to the reaction mixture at a high concentration, acrylonitrile, which functions as a substrate, was added in small portions to the mixture. 
More than 99% of the substrate (in this case, acrylonitrile) was converted to acrylamide without formation of any by products.

Acrylamide as pollutant
The contamination of acrylamide monomers in the environment through the use of polyacrylamide in china clay, paper industry, and water industry have occur long ago. 
The exposed workers will have symptoms of numbness, limb pain, peeling skin, and sweating hand. 
Acrylamide monomers can enter the environment by many ways. 
In the acrylamide production, closed system is now being used. 
Thus, the production processes of acrylamide are unlikely to be source of environmental contamination, except if there is a problem such as leaking from the reactor. 
Acrylamide discharge to water and environment also occur from acrylamide-based sewer grouting and wastepaper recycling.

Because of the high water solubility, acrylamide can easily contaminate water system and not likely to be source of air contaminant due to its low vapour pressure. 

The usage of polyacrylamide flocculants that contain residual levels of acrylamide monomer is a major source of drinking water contaminate by acrylamide. 
Public can expose to the acrylamide contamination from the polyacrylamide that used as flocculants agent in water treatment system. 
In potable water treatment, polyacrylamide containing in it must not exceed more than 0.05% (w/v) monomer. 
It may not be removed in most of the technique used in water treatment process. 
Igisu has reported the cases of acrylamide poisoning in Japan as a result of acrylamide contaminate the water supply. 
Acrylamide was found to remain in tap water at least for two month after flocculation with polyacrylamides as it is water soluble and is not readily absorbed by sediment (Brown et al., 1980).

The recommended standard for drinking water in Malaysia was set on the basis of WHO Guidelines of 1976. 

The maximum allowable level of acrylamide containing in drinking water of Malaysia is 0.0005 mg/L (National Technical Committee, 2000). 

In both tap water and river area where polyacrylamide ware used for the treatment of potable tap water, acrylamide was detected at levels of less than 5µg/L. 

In West Virginia (USA), acrylamide was reported to contain 0.024 – 0.041 mg/L in the sample collected from public drinking water supply (Brown and Rhead, 1979).

In Malaysia, report by The Environmental Quality Report (1997) showed that a total of 908 water quality stations along 117 rivers were monitored by six parameters namely pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen and suspended solids are taken for consideration to compute the quality index. 
Based on the calculation by 1997 WQI, only 24 rivers were categorized as clean, 68 slightly polluted and 25 rivers polluted. 
In terms of NH3-N (Ammoniacal Nitrogen) contain in the river, a total of 93 rivers were categorized as polluted. 
This is largely due to livestock farming and domestic waste.

Environmental pollution of acrylamide may caused by the disposal or leaching of residual monomer from polyacrylamides. 

Report from the Toxic Chemical Release inventory (TRI) shows that estimated 5, 912, 663 lbs were released to the environment from 43 facilities that manufactured or used acrylamide in United States in 1996 (TRI96, 1998). 
In 1999, the number of facilities increased to 90, and the amount of acrylamide released is drastically increased up to 7, 542, 385 lbs. 
99.6% of the total acrylamide released was on the underground soil injection. 
Statistic shows that 24, 874 lbs of acrylamide were released to air from forty-four facilities. 
Twenty-one facilities, each were found to release >100 lbs of acrylamide to air, which represented 98.7% of the total emission (TRI99, 2001). 
Other 1999 from the total released with the amount of 370 lbs were to water and another 6, 289 lbs to land (TRI99, 2001).

Acrylamide also can be exposed to the working environment. 
Even the small amount of polyacrylamide used in industry can resulted in acrylamide contamination in the workplace. 
Exposure of acrylamide can occur during the production of acrylamide and polyacrylamide, during acrylamide grouting, and also during chemicals preparation in laboratory. 
People who work in industries that use acrylamide and polyacrylamide such as in construction, plastics manufacturing, cosmetics, paper and pulp, mining, and agricultural industry are potentially exposed to acrylamide poisoning. 
There is no report regarding acrylamide exposure and poisoning for grouters, but the exposure for these particular person may be greater than workers in other industry (WHO, 1985).

1950s is the year where acrylamide grouts were started to use in USA. 

Acrylamide grouts generally consist of a 19:1 mixture of acrylamide and a cross-linking agent (EU Risk Assessment Report, 2002). 
In the end of 1970, the production of acrylamide grout in USA dropped because of the human health concern by the operators. 
However, in 1989 approximately 43% of grouts still be used in USA.

In 1997, product Rocha-Gil (Siprogel) that contains acrylamide and methylolacrylamide (N-hydroxymethylacrylamide) was used in the construction site for building tunnel in Holland, Sweden and in Romeriksporten, Norway. 
In both areas, the water released from the construction sites causes the high concentration of acrylamide in recipient’s waters (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 1997);.

In the middle of the various uses of polyacrylamide, it is mixed with variety of organic solvents to form thickening agents that are then combined with herbicides (i.e., glyphosate) to boost its surfactant capabilities. 
For the commercial herbicide, polyacrylamide is used as additive (25% to 30% solutions) to reduce spray drift and to act as a surfactant. 
Glyphosate formulation can be more toxic than glyphosate alone, for example: RoundupTM can be 30 times more poisonous to fish than the glyphosate itself.

Studies show that heat, light, and environmental condition, promoted the depolymerisation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide. 
Photodegradation of polyacrylamide is a major factor in environmental degradation.


here are no reports available regarding acrylamide concentration contaminate in plants and food products. 

Suggested that plants and foods product may expose to acrylamide via air or contaminated water during growth or manufacture. 

However, acrylamide may present in foods result from the Maillard reaction between the amino acid asparagine and certain reducing carbohydrates when the foods is prepare at high temperatures. 
Acrylamide level will increase with the time of heating. 
Maillard reaction is a reaction that produces the tasty crust and golden colour in fried and baked foods (Friedman, 2003).

In heated protein-rich foods, moderate levels of acrylamide (5-50 mg/kg) were detected and even higher content were detected (150-4000 mg/kg) in carbohydrate-rich foods, such as potato, beetroot, also commercially potato products and crisp bread. 
Acrylamide cannot be detected in unheated or boiled foods 

Toxicity of Acrylamide
Yang et al. (2005) has evaluated the toxicity of acrylamide. The result showed the mutagenic potency of acrylamide for Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100. 

Mice that exposed to acrylamide via intraperitoneal injection at dose of = 50 mg/kg shows an increasing in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in its bone marrow cells (Chiak and Vontorkova 1988). 

Marlowe et al., (1986) study shows that group of mice received single of oral dose of 116-121 mg/kg. 
Acrylamide has been found in epithelia of oral cavity and oesophagus, liver and gall bladder. 
High concentration of acrylamide was present in kidneys, testis, and pancreas. 
Besides causes several histopathological lesions in the seminiferous tubules, acrylamide also shows effects of toxicological on male rat’s reproductive system. 
Research by Ikeda et al., (1987) suggested that persistence of acrylamide or its metabolites in red blood cell following repeatedly exposure of acrylamide in dogs and pigs.

Acrylamide can damage nervous system, causing numbness and weakness in the hand and feet. 

Acrylamide can affect human health through inhalation, absorption through skin, causing a rash or burning feeling on contact. 
It can also cause loss of balance, slurred speech, and heavy sweating. Contact may cause eye burns and a skin rash. 


Acrylamide is a toxic three-carbon compound containing an amide group and an a,ß-unsaturated olefin bond. 
This compound will reacts with nucleophilic compounds via a Michael addition. 

It exerts toxic effects by forming adducts to nucleophilic moieties such as sulfhydryl groups containing proteins and amino acids. 
Human exposure to acrylamide is primarily occupational from dermal contact. 
Acrylamide or its metabolites bind to RNA, DNA, and protein in a range of tissues.

Degradation of acrylamide
Polyacrylamides for the most part are non-toxic. 
However, after polymerization, these polymers can have a residue of acrylamide, a known peripheral nerve toxin (Eldon et al., 1997). 
On release to the environment, acrylamide may undergo a number of degradation depending upon the place into which the release occurs. 
Due to its high water solubility, most probably acrylamide will be eliminated from the atmosphere by rain out (European Commission, 2002).

The degradation of acrylamide in river was studied by Brown et al. 
Two parameters were used in this study, which were sterilized river water and non-sterilized river water. 
Tested river water was added with acrylamide monomer at concentration of 0.5 and 5 mg/L. 
Then, the samples were stored under anaerobic conditions. 
No degradation was observed in any samples after 41 days incubation. 
For non-sterilized river water, degradation was observed. 
The absence of acrylamide degradation in sterilized river water proposes that the degradation occurs through a biotic process, with abiotic process such as hydrolysis and photolysis being negligible.


Acrylamide (also named 2-propenamide, acrylic amide, ethylene carboxamide, structural formula: CH2=CH-CO-NH2) is a low molecular weight, highly water soluble, organic compound produced for different uses in chemical industry. 
The concern about hazardous exposure arose in 2002 when acrylamide was discovered to be formed in certain high carbohydrate food at high temperature.

Acrylamide was discovered in foods in April 2002 by Eritrean scientist Eden Tareke in Sweden; she found the chemical in starchy foods such as potato chips (potato crisps), French fries (chips), and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F).
 
Production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent. 
It was not found in food that had been boiled, or in foods that were not heated.

Cigarette smoking is a major acrylamide source.
It has been shown in one study to cause an increase in blood acrylamide levels three-fold greater than any dietary factor.


Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, baking, roasting and also industrial processing, at +120°C and low moisture. 
The main chemical process that causes this is known as the Maillard Reaction; it is the same reaction that ‘browns’ food and affects its taste. 
Acrylamide forms from sugars and amino acids (mainly one called asparagine) that are naturally present in many foods. 
Acrylamide is found in products such as potato crisps, French fries, bread, biscuits and coffee. 
It was first detected in foods in April 2002 although it is likely that it has been present in food since cooking began. 
Acrylamide also has many non-food industrial uses and is present in tobacco smoke.


Acrylamide
Acrylamide, a widely-used vinyl monomer in the polymer and paper industry, reliably induces a progressive peripheral neuropathy. 


Acrylamide
Acrylamide is a chemical that is used to make polyacrylamide materials, known not only from use in plastics but also in the treatment of drinking water. 
When using polyacrylamide, low levels of acrylamide will often form. 
Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in animals, and certain doses of acrylamide are toxic to the nervous system of both animals and humans. 
However, most recorded concentrations of acrylamide in water have been very low and are generally no cause of concern

2-Propenamide
AAM
Acrylagel
Acrylamide
Acrylamide
acrylamide
ACRYLAMIDE SOLUTION
ACRYLAMIDE, SOLID
e, Annex II - RID
acrylamide; prop-2-enamide
Acrylic acid amide
Acrylic amide
Akrylamid
Amid kyseliny akrylove
Amresco Acryl-40
Ethylenecarboxamide
Optimum
prop-2-enamide
Propenamide
Propeneamide
Propenoic acid amide
Vinyl amide


2-propenamida (pt)
2-propenamida (ro)
acrilamida (es)
acrilamida (pt)
acrilamida (ro)
acrilamide (it)
acrylamid (da)
Acrylamid (de)
acrylamide (nl)
acrylamide;prop-2-énamide (fr)
akrilamid (hr)
akrilamid (hu)
akrilamid (sl)
akrilamidas (lt)
akrilamīds (lv)
akrylamid (cs)
akrylamid (no)
akrylamid (pl)
akrylamid (sk)
akrylamid (sv)
Akryyliamidi (fi)
akrüülamiid (et)
amid kwasu akrylowego (pl)
prop-2-eenamiid (et)
Prop-2-eeniamidi (fi)
prop-2-enamid (cs)
Prop-2-enamid (de)
prop-2-enamid (hr)
prop-2-enamid (sl)
prop-2-enamidas (lt)
prop-2-enoamid (pl)
prop-2-énamid (hu)
prop-2-énamid (sk)
propēn-2-amīds (lv)
ακρυλαμίδιο (el)
акриламид (bg)
проп-2-енамид (bg)

CAS names
2-Propenamide


IUPAC names
2-Propenamide
2-propenamide
2-Propenamide
2-Propenamide, Acrylic acid amide, Prop-2-enamide
ACM
Acrylamid
Acrylamid
ACRYLAMIDE
Acrylamide
acrylamide
Acrylamide
acrylamide
Acrylamide Monomer
acrylamide; prop-2-enamide
acrylamideprop-2-enamide
Prop-2-enamide
prop-2-enamide

Trade names
2-Propenamide
2-Propeneamide
Acrylamide
acrylamide
Acrylamide solution 50%
EUROAMD
Flocryl Acrylamide 50
PR-4218


ACRYLAMIDE
2-Propenamide
79-06-1
prop-2-enamide
Propenamide
Acrylic amide
Akrylamid
Ethylenecarboxamide
Acrylic acid amide
Vinyl amide
2-Propeneamide
Propeneamide
Acrylagel
Optimum
Amresco Acryl-40
Propenoic acid amide
POLYACRYLAMIDE
poly(acrylamide)
Akrylamid [Czech]
Ethylene Carboxamide
RCRA waste number U007
Amid kyseliny akrylove
Acrylamide polymer
Acrylamide Monomer
Acrylamide solution
Amide propenoic acid
Polystolon
Polystoron
Porisutoron
Amid kyseliny akrylove [Czech]
acryl amide
CCRIS 7
Flokonit E
Aminogen PA
Acrylamide Monomer
Flygtol GB
Stipix AD
NSC 7785
Superfloc 84
Cytame 5
UNII-20R035KLCI
Polyhall 27
Sursolan P 5
Polyacrylamide resin
Solvitose 433
Sumitex A 1
Superfloc 900
Cyanamer P 35
Gelamide 250
Nacolyte 673
Polyhall 402
Versicol W 11
Magnafloc R 292
Sumirez A 17
Sumirez A 27
HSDB 191
Aerofloc 3453
Cyanamer P 250
Praestol 2800
Himoloc SS 200
Propenoic acid, amide
Sanpoly A 520
CHEBI:28619
Stokopol D 2624
Bio-Gel P 2
Reten 420
American Cyanamid KPAM
BioGel P-100
K-PAM
Acrylamide solution (50% or less)
EINECS 201-173-7
MFCD00008032
UN2074
2-Propenamide, homopolymer
American Cyanamid P-250
RCRA waste no. U007
Dow ET 597
BRN 0605349
Taloflote
Pamid

AI3-04119
20R035KLCI
1-carbamoylethyl
Acrylamide, electrophoresis grade
NSC7785
Acrylamide polymers
Acrylamide [UN2074] [Poison]
Acrylamide, polymer
PAM (polymer)
Acrylamide, polymers


201-173-7 [EINECS]
2-Propenamide [ACD/Index Name]
2-Propeneamide
605349 [Beilstein]
6185892
79-06-1 [RN]
Acrylamid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acrylamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acrylamide [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acrylic acid amide
Acrylic amide
Akrylamid [Czech]
Amid kyseliny akrylove [Czech]
AS3325000
prop-2-enamide
Propenamide
Propeneamide
propenoic acid, amide
vinyl amide
08/05/9003
108152-65-4 [RN]
122775-19-3 [RN]
1HC
2-Propeneamide201-173-7MFCD00008032
4-02-00-01471 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) [Beilstein]
9003-05-8 [RN]
AAM
Acrylamide (ca. 50% in water)
Acrylamide 100 µg/mL in Methanol
Acrylamide 1000 µg/mL in Methanol
Acrylamide 1000 µg/mL in Methanol
Acrylamide 1000 �g/mL in Methanol
Acrylamide monmer solution
Acrylamide, 98%
Acrylamide, electrophoresis grade
Acrylamide, suitable for electrophoresis
ACRYLAMIDE, ULTRAPURE
Acrylamide|2-Propenamide|Acrylic acid amide
Acrylamide-2,3,3-d3
Acrylamide-d5
Aerofloc 3453
Akrylamid
Akrylamid [Czech]
Amid kyseliny akrylove [Czech]
Amide propenoate
Amide propenoic acid
Aminogen PA
Cytame 5
D020106
Dow J 100
EINECS 201-173-7
Ethylene Carboxamide
ethylenecarboxamide
Flokonit E
Flygtol GB
Gelamide 250
Himoloc OK 507
Himoloc SS 200
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:28619
K-PAM
Magnafloc R 292
Nacolyte 673
NCGC00090736-03
OmniPur Acrylamide - CAS 79-06-1 - Calbiochem
Porisutoron
Praestol 2800
Propenamide, Acrylic Acid Amide
Propenoic acid amide
Q 41F
Sanpoly A 520
Solvitose 433
spironolactone [BAN] [INN] [JAN] [Wiki]
Stipix AD
Stokopol D 2624
Sumirez A 17
Sumirez A 27
Sumitex A 1
Superfloc 84
Superfloc 900
Sursolan P 5
Taloflote
Tryptone
UN 2074
Versicol W 11
WLN: ZV1U1
丙烯酰胺 [Chinese]


Propenamide
Ethylenecarboxamide
Acrylamide ultra sequencing gel
Acrylamide, Molecular Biology Grade
Acrylamide monomer
Acrylamide-bis premix 37.5:1
Acrylamide electrophoresis
prop-2-enamide
2-Propenamide


EC / List no.: 201-173-7
CAS no.: 79-06-1
Mol. formula: C3H5NO


Preferred IUPAC name: Prop-2-enamide

Other names
Acrylamide
Acrylic amide


CAS Number: 79-06-1 


The industrial and laboratory use of acrylamide mainly concerns the production of polyacrylamides, which are used primarily as flocculants, mainly for clarifying drinking water and treating wastewater. 
Acrylamide and polyacrylamides are also used in the production of dyes, organic chemicals, permanent-press fabrics, textiles, pulp and paper products.
In the oil industry, acrylamide is used as a flow control agent to enhance oil production from wells. 
Beyond the chemical industry use, acrylamide is used in building and construction (e.g. as grouting agent and soil stabilizer for the construction of tunnels, sewers, wells, and reservoirs), health service, and scientific research (10). Moreover, in 2002 it was observed to be generated during food processing at temperatures above 120 degrees Celsius under low moisture conditions. 
It is formed predominantly by food containing asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction when processed at high temperature such as frying, roasting and baking (not boiling).
The main food sources of acrylamide are coffee (and solid coffee substitute), potatoes fried products (including potatoes and vegetables crisps), biscuits, cereals and other products such as roasted nuts, olives in brine, prunes and dates and baby food. 
Protein-based foods (such as meats) probably contain low amounts of acrylamide. 
Acrylamide is also present in tobacco smoke.


2-Propenamid
AAM
Akrilajel
Akrilamid
Akrilamid
akrilamid
AKRİLAMİT ÇÖZELTİSİ
AKRİLAMİD, KATI
e, Ek II - RID
akrilamid; prop-2-enamid
Akrilik asit amid
Akrilik amid
Akrilamid
Kyseliny akrylove arasında
Amresco Acryl-40
Etilenkarboksamid
Optimum
prop-2-enamid
Propenamid
Propeneamid
Propenoik asit amid
Vinil amid


2-propenamida (pt)
2-propenamida (ro)
acrilamida (lar)
acrilamida (pt)
acrilamida (ro)
akrilamid (o)
akrilamid (da)
Akrilamid (de)
akrilamid (nl)
akrilamid; prop-2-énamide (fr)
akrilamid (saat)
akrilamid (hu)
akrilamid (sl)
akrilamidas (lt)
akrilamīds (lv)
akrilamid (cs)
akrilamid (hayır)
akrilamid (pl)
akrilamid (sk)
akrilamid (sv)
Akryyliamidi (fi)
akrüülamiid (et)
arasında kwasu akrylowego (pl)
prop-2-eenamiid (et)
Prop-2-eeniamidi (fi)
prop-2-enamid (cs)
Prop-2-enamid (de)
prop-2-enamid (saat)
prop-2-enamid (sl)
prop-2-enamidalar (lt)
prop-2-enoamid (pl)
prop-2-énamid (hu)
prop-2-énamid (sk)
propēn-2-amīds (lv)
ακρυλαμίδιο (el)
акриламид (bg)
проп-2-енамид (bg)

CAS adları
2-Propenamid


IUPAC isimleri
2-Propenamid
2-propenamid
2-Propenamid
2-Propenamid, Akrilik asit amid, Prop-2-enamid
ACM
Akrilamid
Akrilamid
AKRİLAMİD
Akrilamid
akrilamid
Akrilamid
akrilamid
Akrilamid Monomer
akrilamid; prop-2-enamid
akrilamidprop-2-enamid
Prop-2-enamid
prop-2-enamid

Ticari isimler
2-Propenamid
2-propeneamid
Akrilamid
akrilamid
Akrilamid çözeltisi% 50
EUROAMD
Flocryl Akrilamid 50
PR-4218


AKRİLAMİD
2-Propenamid
79-06-1
prop-2-enamid
Propenamid
Akrilik amid
Akrilamid
Etilenkarboksamid
Akrilik asit amid
Vinil amid
2-propeneamid
Propeneamid
Akrilajel
Optimum
Amresco Acryl-40
Propenoik asit amid
POLİAKRİLAMİD
poli (akrilamid)
Akrilamid [Çekçe]
Etilen Karboksamid
RCRA atık numarası U007
Kyseliny akrylove arasında
Akrilamid polimer
Akrilamid Monomer
Akrilamid çözeltisi
Amid propenoik asit
Polistolon
Polistoron
Porisutoron
Kyseliny akrylove arasında [Çekçe]
akril amid
CCRIS 7
Flokonit E
Aminojen PA
Akrilamid Monomer
Flygtol GB
Stipix AD
NSC 7785
Süperfloc 84
Cytame 5
UNII-20R035KLCI
Polyhall 27
Sursolan P 5
Poliakrilamid reçine
Solvitoz 433
Sumitex A 1
Superfloc 900
Siyanamer P 35
Gelamid 250
Nacolyte 673
Polyhall 402
Versicol W 11
Magnafloc R 292
Sumirez A 17
Sumirez A 27
HSDB 191
Aerofloc 3453
Siyanamer P 250
Praestol 2800
Himoloc SS 200
Propenoik asit, amid
Sanpoly A 520
CHEBI: 28619
Stokopol D 2624
Bio-Gel P 2
Reten 420
Amerikan Cyanamid KPAM
BioGel P-100
K-PAM
Akrilamid çözeltisi (% 50 veya daha az)
EINECS 201-173-7
MFCD00008032
UN2074
2-Propenamid, homopolimer
Amerikan Siyanamidi P-250
RCRA atık no. U007
Dow ET 597
BRN 0605349
Taloflote
Pamid

AI3-04119
20R035KLCI
1-karbamiletil
Akrilamid, elektroforez derecesi
NSC7785
Akrilamid polimerler
Akrilamid [UN2074] [Zehir]
Akrilamid, polimer
PAM (polimer)
Akrilamid, polimerler


201-173-7 [EINECS]
2-Propenamid [ACD / Endeks Adı]
2-propeneamid
605349 [Beilstein]
6185892
79-06-1 [RN]
Akrilamid [Almanca] [ACD / IUPAC Adı]
Akrilamid [ACD / IUPAC Adı]
Akrilamid [Fransızca] [ACD / IUPAC Adı]
Akrilik asit amid
Akrilik amid
Akrilamid [Çekçe]
Kyseliny akrylove arasında [Çekçe]
AS3325000
prop-2-enamid
Propenamid
Propeneamid
propenoik asit, amid
vinil amid
08/05/9003
108152-65-4 [RN]
122775-19-3 [RN]
1HC
2-Propenamid201-173-7MFCD00008032
4-02-00-01471 (Beilstein El Kitabı Referansı) [Beilstein]
9003-05-8 [RN]
AAM
Akrilamid (suda yaklaşık% 50)
Metanol içinde akrilamid 100 µg / mL
Metanol içinde 1000 µg / mL akrilamid
Metanol içinde Akrilamid 1000 µg / mL
Metanol içinde Akrilamid 1000 �g / mL
Akrilamid monmer çözeltisi
Akrilamid,% 98
Akrilamid, elektroforez derecesi
Akrilamid, elektroforeze uygun
AKRİLAMİD, ULTRAPÜR
Akrilamid | 2-Propenamid | Akrilik asit amid
Akrilamid-2,3,3-d3
Akrilamid-d5
Aerofloc 3453
Akrilamid
Akrilamid [Çekçe]
Kyseliny akrylove arasında [Çekçe]
Amid propenoat
Amid propenoik asit
Aminojen PA
Cytame 5
D020106
Dow J 100
EINECS 201-173-7
Ethylene Carboxamide
ethylenecarboxamide
Flokonit E
Flygtol GB
Gelamide 250
Himoloc OK 507
Himoloc SS 200
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:28619
K-PAM
Magnafloc R 292
Nacolyte 673
NCGC00090736-03
OmniPur Acrylamide - CAS 79-06-1 - Calbiochem
Porisutoron
Praestol 2800
Propenamide, Acrylic Acid Amide
Propenoic acid amide
Q 41F
Sanpoly A 520
Solvitose 433
spironolactone [BAN] [INN] [JAN] [Wiki]
Stipix AD
Stokopol D 2624
Sumirez A 17
Sumirez A 27
Sumitex A 1
Superfloc 84
Superfloc 900
Sursolan P 5
Taloflote
Tryptone
UN 2074
Versicol W 11
WLN: ZV1U1
丙烯酰胺 [Chinese]


 

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