ACRYLIC ACID

CAS Number: 79-10-7
EC Number: 201-177-9
Chemical formula: C3H4O2
Molar mass: 72.063 g/mol

Acrylic acid (CAS 79-10-7) is an organic molecule and the simplest of the unsaturated acids. 
At room temperature, acrylic acid is a liquid and has a characteristic acid and tart aroma. 
Acrylic acid is corrosive in liquid and vapor forms. 
Acrylic acid is used mainly in the formation of polymers. 

Acrylic acid is an organic compound. 
Acrylic acid is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a carboxylic acid terminus. 
Acrylic acid and Acrylic acids esters readily combine with themselves or other monomers by reacting at their double bond, forming homopolymers or copolymers which are used in the manufacture of various plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers, as well as floor polishes, and paints.
Acrylic acids uses include plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers, paints, and polishes. 
Additionally, acrylic acid is used in the production of hygienic medical products, detergents, and wastewater treatment chemicals. 
The low toxicity of acrylic acid is due to its corrosive nature. 
Studies have suggested that acrylic acid poses some reproductive hazards; however, conflicting data exist regarding the genotoxicity of acrylic acid.

Acrylic acid's production and use in the manufacture of plastics, paint formulations, leather finishings, paper coatings, and in medicine and dentistry for dental plates, artificial teeth, and orthopedic cement may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. 
Acrylic acid has also been identified in nine species of chlorophyceae algae, 10 species of rhodophyceae algae, and in the rumen fluid of sheep. 
If released to air, a vapor pressure of 3.97 mmHg at 25 °C indicates acrylic acid will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. 
Vapor-phase acrylic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 2 days. 

Uses of Acrylic acid
Acrylic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, in latex applications, in floor polish, in polymer solutions for coatings applications, emulsion polymers, paint formulations, leather finishings, and paper coatings.  
Acrylic acid is also used as a chemical intermediate.
Acrylic acid will polymerize to form homopolymers and can be copolymerized with their esters and other vinyl monomers. 
Acrylic acids carboxylic acid functionality provides anionic character and reactivity with alcohols and epoxides.

If released to soil, acrylic acid is expected to have very high mobility. 
Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be slow. 
Acrylic acid may potentially volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon Acrylic acids vapor pressure. 
If released into water, acrylic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in the water column. 
Biodegradation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions is expected to occur.

Reactions and uses
Acrylic acid undergoes the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid. 
When reacted with an alcohol, Acrylic acid forms the corresponding ester. 
The esters and salts of acrylic acid are collectively known as acrylates (or propenoates). 
The most common alkyl esters of acrylic acid are methyl, butyl, ethyl, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate.
Acrylic acid and Acrylic acids esters readily combine with themselves (to form polyacrylic acid) or other monomers (e.g. acrylamides, acrylonitrile, vinyl compounds, styrene, and butadiene) by reacting at their double bond, forming homopolymers or copolymers, which are used in the manufacture of various plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers, as well as floor polishes and paints.
Acrylic acid is used in many industries like the diaper industry, the water treatment industry or the textiles industry.
On a worldwide scale the consumption rate of acrylic acid is projected to reach more than an estimated 8,000 kilotons, by 2020. 
This increase is expected to occur as a result of using this product in new applications, including personal care products, detergents and products that are used for adult incontinence.

IUPAC name
Acrylic acid
Preferred IUPAC name
Prop-2-enoic acid

Other names
Acrylic acid
Acroleic acid
Ethylenecarboxylic acid
Propenoic acid
Vinylformic acid

Acrylic acid has traditionally been used as the raw material for acrylic esters – methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. 
These bulk acrylates were originally used to produce solvent-based acrylic resins but environmental concerns over solvent use led to the development of water-based acrylics. 
Applications for water-based acrylics are primarily in decorative, masonry and industrial coatings but other uses include adhesives, paper and leather coatings, polishes, carpet backing compounds and tablet coatings.
Another major use for acrylic acid is the manufacture of polyacrylates which are used as thickeners, dispersants and rheology controllers. 
Acrylic acid is also employed as a comonomer with acrylamide in anionic polyacrylamide and to produce hydroxy acrylates for use in industrial coating formulations.

Chemical formula: C3H4O2
Molar mass: 72.063 g/mol
Appearance: Clear, colorless liquid
Odor: Acrid
Density: 1.051 g/mL
Melting point: 14 °C (57 °F; 287 K)
Boiling point: 141 °C (286 °F; 414 K)
Solubility in water: Miscible
log P: 0.28
Vapor pressure: 3 mmHg
Acidity (pKa): 4.25 (H2O)
Viscosity: 1.3 cP at 20 °C (68 °F)

Uses
Starting material for acrylates and polyacrylates used in plastics, water purification, paper and cloth coatings, and medical and dental materials.

Basic Information
Acrylic acid (AAc, IUPAC: prop-2-enoic acid) is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a carboxylic acid terminus with the formula CH2=CHCO2H which is a colorless liquid above its freezing point of 13°C ( 56°F) with a distinctive acrid odor. 
Acrylic acid is corrosive to metals and tissue and prolonged exposure to fire or heat can cause polymerization. 
If polymerization takes place in a closed container, violent rupture may occur because the polymerizaiton of acrylic acid is exothermic. 
The inhibitor (usually hydroquinone) can greatly reduce the tendency to polymerize. 
Acrylic acid is miscible with water, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, and acetone, but incompatible with strong oxidisers, strong bases, strong alkalies and pure nitrogen. 
Acrylic acid may polymerize (sometimes explosively) when contacting with amines, ammonia, oleum and chlorosulfonic acid, iron salts and peroxides.

Preparation methods`
Acrylic acid can be prepared in different ways, for example as follows:
The easiest way to prepare pure acrylic acid in the laboratory is to exchange the ester of formic acid and readily available methyl acrylate. 
Sulfuric acid is a good catalyst.
CH2=CHCOOCH3 +HCOOH → CH2=CHCOOH+HCOOCH3

Acrolein can be oxidized in the liquid phase at 20-40℃ with silver or vanadium as the catalyst and methoxybenzene as the solvent which glacial acetic acid is more commonly used. 
Acrylic acid has been reported that the yield of acrylic acid can reach 65-90% based on the consumption of acrolein.
CH2=CHCHO+ 1⁄2 O2 → CH2=CHCOOH

A mixture of water and 2,3 dibromopropionic acid is treated with zinc powder can obtain an aqueous solution of acrylic acid with a yield of 90%.
CH2BrCHBrCOOH +Zn → CH2=CHCOOH+ZnBr2

Acrylic acid also can be obtained by pyrolyzing sec-butyl acrylate at 500℃, or pyrolyzing ethyl acrylate at 570℃.
CH2=CHCOOCH(CH3)CH2CH3 → CH2=CHCOOH+CH3CH=CHCH3

At 200-300℃, acrylic acid can be obtained by passing carbon dioxide and ethylene through the silica gel impregnated with iron sulfite.
CH2=CH2+CO2→CH2=CHCOOH

Application
Acrylic acid is a carboxylic acid, of which the primary use is in the production of acrylic esters. 
Acrylic acid has been traditionally used as the raw material for acrylic esters – methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate which were originally used to produce solvent-based acrylic resins but environmental concerns about solvent use led to the development of water-based acrylics. 
Acrylic acid can readily react with a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds which results in Acrylic acid’s considered as a very useful feedstock to manufacture many low molecular compounds, such as propionic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, heterocyclic compounds, and Diels-Alder addition products. 
As a vinyl compound and a carboxylic acid, acrylic acid is used widely for polymerisation, including production of polyacrylates. 
Acrylic acid is also a monomer for polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids and other acrylic polymers.
Acrylic acid and esters are flammable, reactive, volatile liquids based on an alpha-, beta-unsaturated carboxyl structure. 
Incorporation of varying percentages of acrylate monomers permits the production of many formulations for latex and solution copolymers, copolymer plastics and cross-linkable polymer systems. 

Their performance characteristics—which impart varying degrees of tackiness, durability, hardness, and glass transition temperatures—promote consumption in many end-use applications. 
Major markets for the esters include surface coatings, textiles, adhesives, and plastics.
Polyacrylic acid which produced by acrylic acid can be further modified to produce superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and other polyacrylic acid homopolymers or copolymers used as detergents, dispersants/antiscalants, anionic polyelectrolytes for water treatment, and rheology modifiers.
SAPs are cross-linked polyacrylates with the ability to absorb and retain more than 100 times their own weight in liquid. 
They have experienced very strong growth, primarily in baby diapers (nappies) and incontinence products.
A new application for SAPs is soaker pads used in food packaging. 
In 2007, the US Food and Drug Adminstration authorised SAPs in packaging with indirect food contact for poultry, meat, fish, fruit and vegetables.

Crude acrylic acid (CAA) is made by the oxidation of propylene. 
About 55% of the CAA is converted to acrylate esters. 
The remaining 45% is purified to 98–99.5% purity to glacial acrylic acid (GAA), which, in turn, is converted to polyacrylic acid, which is used to produce superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and other polyacrylic acid copolymers. 
In 2016, global glacial acrylic acid consumption was estimated to account for about 45% of total crude acrylic acid consumption, of which 79% was consumed for superabsorbent polymers. 
Growth in GAA consumption is forecast at about 5% per year during 2016?21. 
Growth in demand for crude acrylic acid is forecast at 4.5% per year during 2016?21, driven by growth in superabsorbent polymers at 5.5% and acrylate esters at about 4%. 
SAP growth will be strongest in China and other areas of Asia, but will be much more moderate in the mature regions of North America, Western Europe, and Japan.

CAS Number: 79-10-7 
Beilstein Reference: 635743
CHEBI:18308
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1213529 
ChemSpider: 6333 
DrugBank: DB02579 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.001.071
EC Number: 201-177-9
Gmelin Reference: 1817
KEGG: D03397 
PubChem CID: 6581
RTECS number: AS4375000
UNII: J94PBK7X8S 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0039229

During Acrylic acids production, acrylic acid undergoes unwanted reactions to form higher molecular weight compounds. 
Uncontrolled, these reactions can lead to fouling deposits and recovery loss. 
The current industry-standard inhibitor treatments are only partially effective, leaving a unit struggling with fouling problems. 
Nalco Water technology addresses the limitations of standard inhibitors and offers acrylic acid producers a more effective solution and a competitive advantage.

ACRYLIC ACID
2-Propenoic acid
79-10-7
Propenoic acid
prop-2-enoic acid
Vinylformic acid
Acroleic acid
Propene acid
Ethylenecarboxylic acid
POLYACRYLIC ACID
Polyacrylate
Propenoate
Carbomer
Glacial acrylic acid
Acrylic acid, glacial
Kyselina akrylova
Carbopol 934p
Carbomer 940
RCRA waste number U008
Acrylic polymer
9003-01-4
Carbopol 940

Benefits:
Impact strength, flexibility, durability, toughness
Weather resistance, moisture resistance
Crosslinking sites, acid group reacts readily with alcohols, acrylates and styrenics
Hardness, wet and dry adhesion and abrasion resistance are also properties of GAA copolymers

Acrylic acid (also known as 2-proenoic acid, vinyl formic acid, and propene acid) is a clear, colourless, corrosive, and flammable liquid that has an acrid/pungent odour. 
Acrylic acid has the formula C3H4O2 and is miscible with water, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, and acetone. 
Acrylic acid is very versatile and valuable as Acrylic acid is a chemical intermediate utilised in the production of many industrial and consumer products.

Acrylic acid, polymer
Carbopol
Acrylic resin
Aron
Antiprex A
UNII-J94PBK7X8S
NSC 4765
Versicol E9
Acrylic acid resin
Acrysol ase-75
Acrysol lmw-20X
Versicol E 7
Versicol E15
Acrysol A 1
Acrysol A 3
Acrysol A 5
Acrysol AC 5

Chemical Properties of Acrylic acid
colourless liquid with an acrid odour

Chemical Properties of Acrylic acid
Acrylic acid is a colorless, flammable, and corrosive liquid or solid (below 13 C) with an irritating, rancid, odor. 
Sinks and mixes with water; irritating vapor is produced.

Acrylic acids Uses
An antibacterial agent.

Acrylic acids Uses
Usually used in preparing monodispersed poly (N-isopropylacryamide) (PNIPAM)/AAc microgels.
And also used primarily as an intermediate in the production of acrylates.

Acrylic acids Uses
In the manufacture of plastics.

Uses
Acrylic acid is produced by oxidation of acrolein or hydrolysis of acrylonitrile. 
Acrylic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics; in paints, polishes, and adhesives; and as coatings for leather.

Uses
Acrylic acid undergoes the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid and, when reacted with an alcohol, Acrylic acid will form the corresponding ester. 
The esters and salts of acrylic acid are collectively known as acrylates (or propenoates). 
The most common alkyl esters of acrylic acid are methyl-, butyl-, ethyl-, and 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate.
Acrylic acid and Acrylic acids esters readily combine with themselves (to form polyacrylic acid) or other monomers (e.g. acrylamides, acrylonitrile, vinyl, styrene, and butadiene) by reacting at their double bond, forming homopolymers or copolymers which are used in the manufacture of various plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers, as well as floor polishes, and paints.

Production Methods
Acrylic acid is produced from propene which is a by product of ethylene and gasoline production. 
CH2=CHCH3 + 1.5 O2→ CH2=CHCO2H + H2O Because acrylic acid and Acrylic acids esters have long been valued commercially, many other methods have been developed but most have been abandoned for economic or environmental reasons. 
An early method was the hydrocarboxylation of acetylene ("Reppe chemistry") : HCCH + CO + H2O → CH2=CHCO2H This method requires nickel carbonyl and high pressures of carbon monoxide. 
Acrylic acid was once manufactured by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile which is derived from propene by ammoxidation, but was abandoned because the method cogenerates ammonium derivatives. 
Other now abandoned precursors to acrylic acid include ethenone and ethylene cyanohydrin.

Acrylic acids definition
An unsaturated liquid carboxylic acid with a pungent odor. 
The acid and its esters are used to make ACRYLIC RESINS.

General Description
Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid with a distinctive acrid odor. 
Flash point 130°F. 
Boiling point 286°F. 
Freezing point 53°F. 
Corrosive to metals and tissue. 
Prolonged exposure to fire or heat can cause polymerization. 
If polymerization takes place in a closed container, violent rupture may occur. 
The inhibitor (usually hydroquinone) greatly reduces the tendency to polymerize.

Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. Soluble in water. 
The presence of water, due to different solubilities of the acid and inhibitor (partitioning one from the other), may initiate polymerization.

Reactivity Profile
ACRYLIC ACID may polymerize violently especially when the frozen acid is partially thawed (freezing point 12°C or 53°F). 
Frozen acid should be melted at room temperature and the process should be well stirred. 
Do not use heat during the melting process. 
Corrodes iron and steel and polymerization may occur on contact with iron salts. 
The uninhibited acid polymerizes exothermically at ambient temperature and explodes if confined. 
The inhibitor (usually hydroquinone) greatly reduces the tendency to polymerize. 
Explosive polymerization can also occur with strong bases, amines, ammonia, oleum, chlorosulfonic acid, and peroxides. 
Mixing with 2-aminoethanol, 28% ammonium hydroxide, ethylenediamine or ethyleneimine in a closed container causes an increase in temperature and pressure. 
Can react violently with oxidizing reagents and strong bases

Synonyms: Acrylic acid
Linear Formula: CH2=CHCOOH
CAS Number: 79-10-7
Molecular Weight: 72.06

CAS number: 79-10-7
EC index number: 607-061-00-8
EC number: 201-177-9
Hill Formula: C₃H₄O₂
Chemical formula: CH₂=CHCOOH
Molar Mass: 72.06 g/mol
HS Code: 2916 11 00

Boiling point: 141 °C (1013 hPa)
Density: 1.05 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Explosion limit: 3.9 - 19.8 %(V)
Flash point: 48.5 °C
Ignition temperature: 390 °C DIN 51794
Melting Point: -13 °C
pH value: 2.1 (72.06 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C)
Vapor pressure: 5.29 hPa (25 °C)
Solubility: 1000 g/l

Glacial Acrylic Acid (GAA) is an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid monomer which is a clear, colourless liquid with an acrid odour which is miscible with water, alcohols and ethers.  
Acrylic acid’s molecular formula is C3H4O2.
Glacial acrylic acid has useful properties such as flexibility, good weathering, adhesion, hardness and resistance to abrasion and oils and as such Acrylic acid is used as an additive in a wide range of products.
GAA readily copolymerizes with acrylic and methacrylic esters, ethylene, vinyl acetate, styrene, butadiene, acrylonitrile, maleic esters, vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride.

2-Propenoic acid, homopolymer
Carbopol 960
Carboset 515
Primal Ase 60
Versicol K 11
Versicol S 25
Viscalex HV 30
Dispex C40
Acrysol WS-24
Cyguard 266
Joncryl 678
Jurimer AC 10H
Jurimer AC 10P
Nalfloc 636
Rohagit SD 15

Uses
GAA has 2 main application, for the polymeric application and for the manufacture of acrylate esters.
Glacial acrylic acid is commonly used as an additive in a variety of copolymer-based finishes, coatings, adhesives, inks, lubricants, textile, leather, paper finishes, floor polish, plastics, scale inhibitors, hair styling and finishing products, paints, lacquers, plastics, adhesives, dispersants, and thickeners.
Acrylic acid is also used in a range of esters for specialist applications such as in water treatment chemicals when Acrylic acid’s copolymerised with acrylamides, in drilling fluids, in mineral processing chemicals, detergent builders and in super absorbents polymers (SAP) for the production of nappies and sanitary products.
Arpadis is one of the largest chemical distributor in Europe.
Arpadis is handling the storage, transport, export & import formalities of Glacial acrylic acid globally.

Carboxy vinyl polymer
Good-rite K 37
Revacryl A 191
Dow Latex 354
Junlon 110
Propenoic acid polymer
Viscon 103
Good-rite K 702
Good-rite K 732
Polyacrylate elastomers
Acrylic acid, polymers
Good-rite WS 801
Acrylic acid homopolymer
Polymerized acrylic acid
Synthemul 90-588
Aron A 10H

Acrylic acid esters in water-based coating, in particular butyl acrylates, are replacing more an more solvent borne paints. 
Typical commodity esters of acrylic acid are methyl-, ethyl-, n-butyl- and 2-ethylhexyl (2EHA)- esters. 
The strongest growth rates are expected with 2EHA, followed by butyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate.
Esters from alcohols like polyols, isobutanol, hexanol and iso-octanol are of less importance in the polymer industry.
Acrylic polymers are considered as non toxic and are gaining more and more importance. 
Typically these esters are catalysed at a temperature range between 70°C (160°F) and 130°C (265°F) to avoid the formation of the ethers from the alcohols.

Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid above Acrylic acids freezing point of +13°C ( +56°F). 
Acrylic acid is fully miscible in water at +20°C (+68°F).
Acrylic acid will polymerize to form homopolymers and can be copolymerized with their esters and other vinyl monomers. 
Acrylic acids carboxylic acid functionality provides anionic character and reactivity with alcohols and epoxides.

Atactic poly(acrylic acid)
Carboset Resin No. 515
J94PBK7X8S
OLD 01
PA 11M
PAA-25
25987-55-7
CHEBI:18308
NSC4765
Carboxypolymethylene
P 11H
P-11H
WS 24
C3:1n-1
Acrysol A-1
Revacryl A191
MFCD00004367
WS 801
NCGC00166246-01
R968
Carbopol CV 940
Caswell No. 009A
Acrylates
Acide acrylique
Acido acrilio
Phytogel base

Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic acrid odor. 
Acrylic acid is miscible with water, alcohols and ethers. 
Acrylic acid will undergo the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid, as well as reactions of the double bond similar to those of the acrylate esters. 
Acrylic acid lends itself to polymer preparation as well as use as a chemical intermediate. 
Acrylate esters, both mono- and multifunctional, are generally prepared from acrylic acid.

Uses:
Paints and Coatings
Adhesives
Detergents
Diapers
Floor Polish
Variety of Medical Applications

Used as film former, emulsifier, and thickener in cosmetics
Acrylic acid can be an irritant if not combined with the appropriate formula

Functions:
Ethylene/Acrylic Acid Copolymer is a synthetic polymer used as a binder and film-former in dyes, adhesives and recently, skin creams. 
There is not much information available on Ethylene/Acrylic Acid Copolymer beyond its thickening and binding properties.

Formula: C3H4O2 / CH2=CHCOOH
Molecular mass: 72.07
Boiling point: 141°C
Melting point: 14°C
Relative density (water = 1): 1.05
Solubility in water: miscible
Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: 413
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 2.5
Flash point: 48-55°C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 395°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 3.9-19.8
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.36 (estimated)
Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.01 

Acido acrilio [Spanish]
Acide acrylique [French]
Synthalen K
Kyselina akrylova [Czech]
Calcium polyacrylate
XPA
Acritamer 940
CCRIS 737
Carbomer 934P
Acrylic acid, 98%, extra pure, stabilized
HSDB 1421
EINECS 201-177-9
Acrylic acid homopolymer calcium salt
UN2218
RCRA waste no. U008
allenediol
BRN 0635743
UNII-4Q93RCW27E
Carbomerum
Carbomere
Carbomero
Carpolene
Texcryl
Arolon
Racryl
Tecpol

Acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) is a highly reactive carboxylic acid that can react with itself to form polyacrylic acid, which is used as an absorbent in hygiene products. 
Acrylic acid also can react with alcohols to form acrylates (esters) that are used in a wide range of polymers. 
However, polymers commonly called acrylic (Plexiglas, textiles, etc.) contain acrylate monomers but are often produced from chemicals other than acrylic acid.

Acrylic acid, also known as 2-propenoic acid or acrylate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acrylic acids. 
These are organic compounds containing acrylic acid CH2=CHCO2H. 
Acrylic acid is a drug. 
Acrylic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. 
Eye contact can result in severe and irreversible injury. 
Acrylic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. 
Outside of the human body, acrylic acid has been detected, but not quantified in, pineapples. 
This could make acrylic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. 
On a worldwide scale the consumption rate of acrylic acid is projected to reach more than an estimated 8,000 kilo tons, by 2020. 
The 2-carboxyethenyl group, with the removal of a −H from carbon-3. 
Acrylic acid is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a carboxylic acid terminus.

Carbomer 940 [USAN:NF]
Acrylic Resins
AI3-15717
Solidokoll N
2-Propenoic acid, homopolymer, calcium salt
76050-42-5
Poly(acrylamide), granular, non-ionic, approx. M.W. 5 to 6.000.000
Poly(acrylic acid), 25 wt% solution in water; approx. M.W. 240,000
Poly(acrylic acid), 50 wt% solution in water, approx. M.W. 5,000
Poly(acrylic acid), 63 wt% solution in water; approx. M.W. 2,000
Sokalan PAS
acrylic acid group
Poly(acrylic acid), sec. stand., aver. MW 1,080,000, aver. MN 135,000
G-Cure
Pemulen TR-1
Pemulen TR-2
Acrylic acid polymer
Antiprex 461
Carbomer 910
Carbopol 910
Carbopol 961
Carbopol 980
Haloflex 202
Haloflex 208
Arasorb 750
Polytex 973
Good-rite K727
29862-29-1
Acrylic polymer resins
Arasorb S 100F
Carbopol(R) 940
Good-rite K-700

Ethylene/Acrylic Acid Copolymer is a synthetic polymer used as a binder and film-former in dyes, adhesives and recently, skin creams. 
There is not much information available on Ethylene/Acrylic Acid Copolymer beyond its thickening and binding properties.

Acrylic acid and esters are versatile monomers used as building blocks for thousands of polymer formulations. 
They are flammable, reactive, volatile liquids based on an alpha-, beta-unsaturated carboxyl structure. 
Incorporation of varying percentages of acrylate monomers permits the production of many formulations for latex and solution copolymers, copolymer plastics and cross-linkable polymer systems. 
Their performance characteristics—which impart varying degrees of tackiness, durability, hardness, and glass transition temperatures—promote consumption in many end-use applications. 
Major markets for the esters include surface coatings, textiles, adhesives, and plastics. 
Polyacrylic acid or copolymers find applications in superabsorbents, detergents, dispersants, flocculants, and thickeners. 
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are used primarily in disposable diapers.

Polymer, carboxy vinyl
Colloids 119/50
Neocryl A-1038
PubChem21090
Acrylic acid, inhibited
ACMC-1CHHZ
CH2=CHCOOH
DSSTox_CID_28
Carbomer 934 (NF)
Carbomer 940 (NF)
Carbomer 941 (NF)
Carbomere [INN-French]
Carbomerum [INN-Latin]
Carbopol 910 (TN)
Carbopol 934 (TN)
Carbopol 940 (TN)
Carbopol 941 (TN)
Carboxypolymethylene resin
UNII-K6MOM3T5YL
Carbomero [INN-Spanish]
Carbomer 934P (NF)
Carbopol 934P (TN)
2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate vinyl acetate 2-ethylhexyl acrylate polymer
K6MOM3T5YL
Carbomer 910 (USAN)
Carbomer 934 [USAN]
Carbomer 940 [USAN]
Carbomer 1342 (NF)
Carbomer 934p [USAN]
Carbopol 1342 (TN)
UNII-59TL3WG5CO
UNII-9G2MAD7J6W
UNII-D0I6NSZ87U
UNII-F68VH75CJC
UNII-HHT01ZNK31
UNII-U990QE4LKP
EC 201-177-9
59TL3WG5CO
9G2MAD7J6W
D0I6NSZ87U

GAA (glacial acrylic acid) means the acrylic acid monomer contains only a low amount of water and freezes at 13°C (55°F). 
Glacial acrylic acid is typically min. 99.0 % pure with a water content less than 0.3%. 
Deionized water is sometimes added to acrylic acid to reduce Acrylic acids freezing point for some applications. 
However, the use of deionized water increases the dimerization rate of the acrylic acid and reduces the solubility of oxygen, which is needed for inhibition. 
Acrylic acid-water mixtures should be quickly used after preparation.  
GAA can be stable for up to one year from the date of manufacture if stored properly.

Glacial acrylic acid (GAA) can rapidly homopolymerize and is highly reactive with a wide variety of chemicals.  
GAA will readily polymerize if not properly inhibited, so Acrylic acid is important to give attention to the proper inhibition, handling, storage and use of GAA to avoid dangerous conditions. 
GAA is generally inhibited with hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ, methoxyphenol); when properly inhibited GAA is normally stable for up to one-year from the manufacturing date, if stored and handled under recommended conditions.  
However, even when properly inhibited, polymerization can occur due to freezing-thawing cycles, which affects the proper distribution of the inhibitor, and by contamination or excessive heat. 
A partial listing of Incompatible materials include peroxy-compounds, metal salts, metals susceptible to corrosion, oxidizing agents, acids and bases.

DSSTox_RID_79425
F68VH75CJC
HHT01ZNK31
U990QE4LKP
UNII-0A5MM307FC
UNII-1N11AG4X4L
UNII-KD3S7H73D3
WLN: QV1U1
DSSTox_GSID_39229
2-Propenic acid, homopolymer
Polyacrylic acid calcium salt
2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, polymer with ethenyl acetate and 2-ethylhexyl 2-propenoate
4-02-00-01455 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
OC(O)=C=C
UN 2218 (Salt/Mix)
Acrylic acid, p.a., 99%
UNII-132584PQMO
UNII-71DD5V995L
UNII-A8371R0U5J
Carbomer 910 [USAN:NF]
0A5MM307FC
1N11AG4X4L
4Q93RCW27E
CCRIS 3234
KD3S7H73D3
CHEMBL1213529

Acrylic acid (propenoic acid) is prepared using acrolein from the catalytic oxidation of propylene. 
Acrylates are primarily used to prepare emulsion and solution polymers. 
The emulsion polymerization process provides high yields of polymers in a form suitable for a variety of applications. 
Acrylic acid is used in the form of esters. 
A large amount (80–85%) of raw materials is used in the manufacture of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid) and its salts are also used in detergents, water treatment, and dispersants. 
Solution polymers of acrylates are employed in the preparation of industrial coatings. 
The polymeric products share qualities of high resistance to chemical and environmental attack and attractive strength properties. 
Acrylic acid and Acrylic acids esters react readily with electrophilic, free-radical, and nucleophilic agents.

What Is Acrylic acid?
Acrylates Copolymer is a general term for copolymers of two or more monomers consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or one of their simple esters. 
Other copolymers of acrylic acid and other monomers (Ammonium Acrylates Copolymer, Ammonium VA/Acrylates Copolymer, Sodium Acrylates Copolymer, Ethylene/Acrylic Acid Copolymer, Ethylene/Calcium Acrylate Copolymer, Ethylene/Magnesium Acrylate Copolymer, Ethylene/Sodium Acrylate Copolymer, Ethylene/Zinc Acrylate Copolymer, Ethylene/Acrylic Acid/VA Copolymer, Acrylates/VP Copolymer, Acrylates/VA Copolymer, Steareth-10 Allyl

Ether/Acrylates Copolymer, Acrylates/Steareth-50 Acrylate Copolymer, Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer, Acrylates/Ammonium Methacrylate Copolymer, Styrene/Acrylates Copolymer, Styrene/Acrylates/Ammonium Methacrylate Copolymer, Ammonium Styrene/Acrylates Copolymer, Sodium Styrene/Acrylates Copolymer, Acrylates/Hydroxyesters Acrylates Copolymer, Methacryloyl Ethyl Betaine/Acrylates Copolymer, Lauryl Acrylate/VA Copolymer, VA/Butyl Maleate/Isobornyl Acrylate Copolymer, Ethylene/Methacrylate Copolymer, Vinyl Caprolactam/VP/Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate Copolymer, Sodium Acrylates/Acrolein Copolymer, VP/Dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate Copolymer, AMP-Acrylates Copolymer) are similar to Acrylates Copolymer in their function in cosmetics and personal care products. Polymers of acrylic acid and its salts (Polyacrylic Acid, Ammonium Polyacrylate, Potassium Aluminum Polyacrylate, Potassium Polyacrylate, Sodium Polyacrylate) also have similar properties and functions. In cosmetics and personal care products, Acrylates Copolymer and the related copolymers and polymers are used in a wide variety of product types.

DTXSID0039229UNII-73861X4K5F
UNII-809Y72KV36
UNII-Z135WT9208
HSDB 7826
132584PQMO
71DD5V995L
A8371R0U5J
ZINC895281
NSC-4765
STR00040
Tox21_112372
7023AF
ANW-43674
LMFA01030193
NSC106034
NSC106035
NSC106036
NSC106037
NSC112122
NSC112123
NSC114472
NSC165257NSC226569
STL281870

Acrylic acid, also known as 2-propenoic acid or acrylate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acrylic acids. 
These are organic compounds containing acrylic acid CH2=CHCO2H. 
Acrylic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. 
Acrylic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. 
Acrylic acid has been detected, but not quantified in, pineapples. 
This could make acrylic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods.

Acrylic acid is a contaminant, when reacted with an alcohol, forms esters, known as Acrylates.
Acrylates play an important role in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, floor polishes, paints, and coatings and adhesives of various types. 
In their monomer states are very strong irritants, which can cause contact dermatitis, especially in the cosmetic industry.
The monomers usually come in the form of powders and liquids and when combined in the process of polymerization make a pliable mixture that can be formed into any shape and then hardened.

1-$l^{1}-oxidanylprop-2-en-1-one
AKOS000118799
73861X4K5F
809Y72KV36
DB02579
MCULE-9352227082
NSC 106034
NSC 106035
NSC 106036
NSC 106037
NSC 112122
NSC 112123
NSC 114472
NSC 165257
NSC-106034
NSC-106035
NSC-106036
NSC-106037
NSC-112122
NSC-112123
NSC-114472
NSC-165257
NSC-226569
TB 1131
Z135WT9208
CAS-79-10-7

About this substance
Helpful information
Acrylic acid is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.

Acrylic acid is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses
Acrylic acid is used in the following products: inks and toners, adhesives and sealants and coating products. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use.

Article service life
Other release to the environment of Acrylic acid is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).
Acrylic acid can be found in products with material based on: fabrics, textiles and apparel (e.g. clothing, mattress, curtains or carpets, textile toys), stone, plaster, cement, glass or ceramic (e.g. dishes, pots/pans, food storage containers, construction and isolation material), metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper), rubber (e.g. tyres, shoes, toys), wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys) and plastic (e.g. food packaging and storage, toys, mobile phones).

Widespread uses by professional workers
Acrylic acid is used in the following products: inks and toners, adhesives and sealants, coating products, non-metal-surface treatment products, paper chemicals and dyes, polymers, washing & cleaning products and laboratory chemicals.
Acrylic acid is used in the following areas: printing and recorded media reproduction and scientific research and development.
Acrylic acid is used for the manufacture of: plastic products.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.

Formulation or re-packing
Acrylic acid is used in the following products: polymers, inks and toners, laboratory chemicals, coating products and adhesives and sealants.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures.

Uses at industrial sites
Acrylic acid is used in the following products: polymers.
Acrylic acid has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Acrylic acid is used for the manufacture of: chemicals and plastic products.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), for thermoplastic manufacture and as processing aid.

Manufacture of Acrylic acid:
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose or pentaerythritol
BP-30259
A0141
FT-0621875
FT-0660730
1312-EP2270113A1
1312-EP2272935A1
1312-EP2275469A1
1312-EP2287940A1
1312-EP2289965A1
1312-EP2298753A1
1312-EP2305033A1
1312-EP2308857A1
1312-EP2308861A1
1312-EP2308865A1
1312-EP2308882A1
1312-EP2374784A1
1312-EP2374785A1
1313-EP2272537A2
1313-EP2289894A2
1313-EP2298743A1
1313-EP2308833A2
1313-EP2311840A1
1313-EP2371811A2
1313-EP2374787A1
2186-EP2277879A1
2186-EP2305636A1
2186-EP2311821A1
2186-EP2374787A1
3854-EP2270113A1
3854-EP2272849A1
3854-EP2272935A1
3854-EP2275414A1
3854-EP2275418A1

Acrylic Acid Production
Acrylic acid manufacturers produce this chemical by the vapour-phase oxidation of propylene. 
This process involves two reactors, with the first reactor converting the propylene to acrolein and the second converting the acrolein to acrylic acid.
This method is quite expensive due to the propylene however there are some cheaper options that may be more suitable. 
Another commercial manufacturing process involves the sequential oxidative dehydrogenation of selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid using a two-catalyst bed in a reactor.

How is Acrylic acid stored and distributed?
Acrylic acid is sensitive to heat and sunlight and should be stored in a cool, dry and well-ventilated chemical store that is free from all sources of ignition. 
This is why acrylic acid suppliers transport Acrylic acid in stainless steel or aluminium tank trucks, railroad tankers, barges, and in polyethylene drums. 
Acrylic acid’s also supplied with inhibitors that prevent hazardous polymerisation as Acrylic acid can become quite unstable. 
Acrylic acid has a flashpoint of 50 o C (closed cup) and is therefore flammable and Acrylic acid has a specific gravity of 1.05.  
For transportation purposes, Acrylic acid’s classified as pack group II, hazard class 8 and should Acrylic acid be labelled as corrosive, flammable, and dangerous to the environment.

What is Acrylic Acid used for?
Acrylic acid is an important industrial chemical as Acrylic acid is a chemical intermediate that is employed in the production processes of many common industrial and consumer products.
There are two main uses for acrylic acid. 
The first is to use Acrylic acid as a chemical intermediate in the production of acrylic esters and resins which include ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, methyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. 
They are then polymerised and become ingredients in paint formulations, coatings, textiles (woven and non-woven), adhesives, polishes, and plastics. 
Methyl acrylate is also used in the manufacturing of vitamin B1. 
The resins are employed in such things as moulding powders for signs, construction units, and decorative emblems.
The second major use for acrylic acid is as a building block in the production of polyacrylic acid polymers.  
These polymers are cross-linked polyacrylates and are super absorbent with the ability to absorb and retain more than one hundred times their own weight.  
They are used to make nappies, and feminine hygiene products.
Acrylic acid is also utilised in the production of detergent polymers and in the production of flocculants which are employed in waste water treatment plants.

3854-EP2277565A2
3854-EP2277566A2
3854-EP2277567A1
3854-EP2277568A2
3854-EP2277569A2
3854-EP2277570A2
3854-EP2289879A1
3854-EP2292280A1
3854-EP2298753A1
3854-EP2302003A1
3854-EP2305219A1
3854-EP2305683A1
3854-EP2305684A1
3854-EP2308857A1
3854-EP2308858A1
3854-EP2309584A1
3854-EP2311816A1

Acrylic: Definition
We have acrylic paint, acrylic nails, acrylic plastic, and many other acrylic products. 
So what exactly is acrylic? 
Acrylic is any compound that includes acrylic acid or related compounds called acrylates. 
Typically, the products that are called acrylic are a polymer of acrylic acids or acrylates.
A polymer is a long strand of repeating sections, in this case the repeating sections are the acrylic acids or acrylates.

Chemical Structure
In order to understand the structure of acrylic, we first need to examine the structures of acrylic acid and other acrylates. 
Acrylic acid has the chemical formula of CH2 CHCOOH. 
So, Acrylic acid is a 3-carbon compound starting with a carboxylic acid and between carbons 2 and 3 is a double bond:

Acrylic acid
Acrylic acid is a clear liquid and has a tart scent when Acrylic acid isn't in a polymer form.
Methyl compounds don't like having a double bond, so that double bond will easily react with each other forming a polymer in order to get rid of the double bond on the terminal carbon.
Acrylates are acrylic acid compounds where the hydrogen has been removed on the COOH group and replaced with another group.

3854-EP2311817A1
3854-EP2311831A1
3854-EP2311839A1
3854-EP2311840A1
3854-EP2314589A1
3854-EP2315303A1
3854-EP2316837A1
3854-EP2371803A1
3854-EP2372017A1
3854-EP2374538A1
3854-EP2374786A1
3854-EP2377842A1
3854-EP2377843A1
3854-EP2377847A1

Where is acrylate found?
-Acrylic nails and glue for nails, eyelashes and eyebrows
-Mascara, nail polish, lipstick, hairspray, body wash, shampoo, sunscreen and hair dye
-Acrylic resin, glues and sealants
-Dental materials (prostheses and composites)
-Acrylic fibres and material
-Disposable nappies and Sanitary pads
-Plastics & rubber
-Synthetic Latex
-Vinyl & PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
-Acrylic paints
-Paper finishes
-Pesticides
-Just a few of the acrylates and their wide range of applications:

Polyacrylate
Sodium polyacrylate is an absorbent polymer that is used as an emulsion stabilizer, a hair fixative, a film former, skin conditioner, and a viscosity agent. 
Acrylic acid's the gel-like crystals in baby diapers and the polyacrylate polymer foam core in sanitary pads, which makes them absorbent. 
Acrylic acid may cause redness, itching, and pain on the skin or in the eyes; and coughing, shortness of breath, and inflammation of the respiratory tract. 
Questions have been raised about possible health effects on babies who wear disposable diapers containing sodium polyacrylate. 
Some people suggest that a baby's tender skin may be more sensitive to the irritation caused by sodium polyacrylate than the skin of an adult. 
The compound was removed from tampons in 1985 because some women who left their tampons in place too long experienced unacceptable levels of irritation caused by sodium polyacrylate in the product.

In detergents Acrylic acid works as a chelating agent, which neutralizes the heavy metals in water & dirt so that the detergent can be more effective at cleaning. 
Acrylic acid is also used as a thickening agent because Acrylic acid can absorb and hold onto water molecules. 

Another name for these crystals is Waterlock. 
Acrylic acid’s also used for plants to help retain water in the soil.
The Environment Canada Domestic Substance List classifies sodium polyacrylate as “expected to be toxic or harmful”. 
Small particles of sodium polyacrylate, if inhaled may irritate the airways, cause lung irritation with prolonged exposure.  
The manufacturing process can create contaminants like acrylic acid, which is associated with skin burns, eye damage & skin corrosion.

Sodium polyacrylate may be listed on ingredients labels under the following synonyms:
sodium salt polyacrylic acid; 2-propenoic acid, homopolymer, sodium salt; 2propenoic acis, homopolymer, sodium salt; rhotex gs; acrylic acid homopolymer sodium salt; polyco; homopolymer sodium salt 2-propenoic acid; polyacrylic acid, sodium salt; propenoic acid, sodium carbonate polymer; sodium polyacrylate; sodium salt 2-propenoic acid, homopolymer 

Methyl methacrylate Acrylic bone cements are used in orthopaedic surgery, acrylic fibres, films, and inks, solvent-based adhesives and binder, medical spray adhesives, UV inks, adhesives, lacquers, dental materials, artificial nails, adhesive for false eyelashes and eyebrows, coating for scratch-resistant glass, paint resins, and binders for textiles and paper.
(Acrylates Copolymer: acrylic acid and methacrylic acid)

A stabilizer mostly used in hair styling products to set, add body and protect Acrylic acid from humidity and static, as well as an adhesive for nail binding products
Acrylic acid’s also adds water-resistance in cosmetic products; creams, sunscreen and mascara, hair dye, nail polish, lipstick, hairspray, body wash and anti-aging treatments.

Ethyl acrylate
Acrylic resin is used in paint formulations, industrial coatings and latexes, acrylic rubber and plastics, denture materials, floor polishes, sealants, shoe polishes, adhesives and in textiles and paper coatings.

Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate
Used to make plastic bottles for soft drinks, dental materials, artificial nails, printing inks, automobile antifreeze and engine-cooling liquids.

Other names for acrylates:
2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)
Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate
Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate
Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA)
Triethylene glycol diacrylate
Ethyl cyanoacrylate

C00511
C19501
D03392
D03393
D03394
D03395
D03396
D03397
Acrylic Acid contains 200ppm MEHQ as inhibitor
Acrylic acid, inhibited [UN2218] [Corrosive]
A830860
Q324628
Z57127944
F0001-2070
2-Propenoic acid, block polymer with sulfonated ethenylbenzene
Acrylic acid, anhydrous, contains 200 ppm MEHQ as inhibitor, 99%
Polymer of 2-propenoic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose
Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of pentaerythritol
Polymer von linksdrehender acrylsaeure mit einem polyfunktionalen agens
Acrylic acid, SAJ first grade, >=97.0%, contains 190-210 ppm MEHQ as stabilizer
Block copolymer of sulfonated polystyrene and polyacrylic acid (MW 250,000)
Polymer of 2-propenoic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of pentaerythritol
Polymer of 2-propenoic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose or pentaerythritol
55927-87-2
Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of pentaerythritol. Molecular weight is approximately 1,250,000
Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of pentaerythritol. Molecular weight is approximately 750,000
Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose or pentaerythritol. Molecular weight is approximately 3,000,000
Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose. Molecular weight is approximately 3,000,000
 

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