Allantoin is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3.
It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide.
It is a diureide of glyoxylic acid. Allantoin is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms including animals, plants and bacteria.
It is produced from uric acid, which itself is a degradation product of nucleic acids, by action of urate oxidase (uricase)
INCI name: Allantoin
CAS n°: 97-59-6
INCI name: allantoin
Synonyms: 5-ureidohydantoin, glyoxyldiureide, cordianine
Molecular formula: C4H6N4O3
Molecular weight: 158.116 g/mol
IUPAC name: (2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl) urea
CAS number: 97-59-6
EC number: 202-592-8
Synonym: 5-Ureidohydantoin, Glyoxylic(acid) diureide, NSC 7606
2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl-urea NIST Chemistry WebBook
5-Ureidohydantoin KEGG COMPOUND
Allantoin KEGG COMPOUND
Glyoxyldiureide KEGG COMPOUND
In nature, allantoin is found in the comfrey plant (Symphytum officinale L.).1 It is also a metabolic product in many other plants, animals, and bacteria, forming as a result of the oxidation of uric acid. In humans and other primates, who lack the urate oxidase enzyme, the formation of uric acid is the final step in purine metabolism. While allantoin may be obtained from natural sources, it is normally prepared synthetically for cosmetic use, either by oxidation of uric acid, reaction of dichloroacetic acid and urea, or condensation reaction between glyoxylic acid and urea.2
Historically, allantoin was used to promote wound healing and treat skin ulcers.
Nowadays, it is well recognized that allantoin has keratolytic properties in which it facilitates the desquamation of the stratum corneum.
One of the key benefits of allantoin, in respect to other desquamation agents, is that it is non-irritating to the skin.
Allantoin is typically used at concentrations of 0.0001% – 2.0% (w/w) in cosmetic formulations.
In fact, allantoin is an FDA approved skin protectant that is approved for use in over-the-counter medications at 0.5% – 2.0%.
Allantoin is widely used as antiseptic for its bactericidal effect.
It can constrain the bacterium, yeast, mould, gram-positive bacterium and gram-negative bacterium.
Allantoin can be applied in cream, dew liquid, shampoo, hair conditioner, eye cosmetics, liquid cosmetics and other cosmetics.
An exceptional healing, soothing and moisturizing agent, Allantoin enhances the efficacy and appeal of dermatological and cosmetic formulations, leaving skin soft and supple.
Melting point: 238 °C5
Solubility: water (1 g/190 mL) and ethanol (1 g/500 mL); solubility increases with elevated temperature.
Ointments made out of allantoin-rich comfrey roots have been used as wound healing aids in naturopathic medicine since ancient times.
Allantoin is a common and well-regarded ingredient found in and widely used in many popular skin care products.
As a chemical compound that’s good for the skin, it’s one of the more versatile ingredients in use.
ALLANTOIN is used as an active ingredient in a lot of cosmetics with several beneficial effects including: a moisturizing and keratolytic effect, increasing the water content of the extracellular matrix and enhancing the desquamation of upper layers of dead skin cells, increasing the smoothness of the skin; promoting cell proliferation and wound healing; and a soothing, anti-irritant, and skin protectant effect by forming complexes with irritant and sensitizing agents.
ALLANTOIN is frequently present in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other oral hygiene products, in shampoos, lipsticks, anti-acne products, sun care products, and clarifying lotions, various cosmetic lotions and creams, and other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
■ Cell proliferation and regeneration
■ Skin soothing
■ Skin moisturizing
■ INCI: Allantoin
■ CAS No.: 97 – 59 – 6
■ Appearance: White powder
■ Active content: Min. 98.6%
■ pH (0.5% aq. solution, 20°C): 4.0 – 6.0
■ Recommended usage level: 0.1 – 0.5% w/w
■ Compatible with most cosmetic ingredients
■ Adaptive in O/W and W/O emulsions and hydrogels
Use: Allantoin is used in cosmetic applications such as shaving creams, shampoos, lipsticks, suntan products, hair gels, body powder, lotions and creams.
Usage recommended rate is from .5% to 2%. Make your emulsion, then add Allantoin during the cooling process (the emulsion should be below 90 deg. F).
To completely mix and disperse Allantoin, very good mixing is a must.
Allantoin is sometimes considered a type of moisturizer despite it acting differently chemically and physically than most other moisturizers.
For dehydrated dry skin, it’s often most regarded for its soothing properties in softening the skin and allowing it to absorb more moisture.
To increase the skin’s renewal process, it helps your body remove dead skin cells in the upper layers of the skin while making it softer and smoother.
Allantoin as a compound removes barriers like dead skin and keratin.
This increases the skin’s hydration by helping the lower layers of the skin absorb moisture normally and reduces the appearance of wrinkles.
Natural moisture production from Allantoin prevents itchy or flaky skin through its dead skin removal.
It’s also helpful that Allantoin is non-toxic, non-allergenic, and odorless with anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant properties.
Allantoin has a natural affinity for the skin as an active moisturizing compound with its aforementioned ability to remove excess skin cells.
The many benefits of allantoin include:
hydration: increases skin’s moisture absorption
dryness relief: promotes cellular regeneration and counteracts dryness
desquamation: encourages natural exfoliation in the skin’s outer layer
heals: actively works to protect your skin
protection: softens skins and combats sun damage
prevention: treats acne breakneck while combating whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples
repairs: stimulates cell proliferation and new tissue growth and helps heal wounds
soothes: calms skin as an anti-irritant with anti-inflammatory properties and reduces redness
Allantoin also helps shed outer layer of epidermis and furthers healthy tissue formation while being treating wounds, burns, skin ulcers, and eczema effectively.
Allantoin is a white crystalline powder. It is a nitrogenous compound that is found both in the plant environment (Comfrey Root for example) or animal (in the urine of calves). It can also be obtained synthetically from uric acid. In cosmetics, allantoin is used for its astringent, anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, healing and moisturizing properties. It is also used in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Allantoin is not authorized in organic in France.
Its functions (INCI)
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Skin protecting : Helps to avoid the harmful effects of external factors on the skin
Soothing : Helps lighten the discomfort of the skin or scalp
It is known to promote skin healing and is an anti-irritant that makes it an excellent ingredient for skin care products, especially when formulated properly in tandem with other nourishing ingredients in a regular skin care regimen.
Origins and Usage
It commonly comes from botanical extracts found in the root of the comfrey plant, aloe vera, chamomile, lotus, yam, and other plants.
Its use dates as far back as ancient Egypt and China.
As an ingredient, its chemical composition is also known to be safe when applied ono the skin with low instances of any side effects and applicable for all skin types.
Allantoin is widely considered to be a versatile, safe, and effective skin care ingredient with many different benefits including smoothing, softening, and moisturizing the skin.
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Allantoin, a white colorless crystalline powder, is well known skin and oral mucosa protectant. Allantoin USP meets current US Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacpeia (EP) monographs. The United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists Allantoin as a skin protectant at 0.5% to 2.%.
Features and Benefits
promotes a healthy environment
acts as skin and oral mucosa gent
protects mucous membranes
Allantoin improves the skin's moisture retention providing a smoothening effect.
ALLANTOIN is used in cosmetic products as an ideal addition to anti-aging products to help to minimize the appearance aging and skin damage.
In addition to its moisturizing properties, ALLANTOIN is an effective anti-irritant, protecting the skin.
Due to this multifunctionality Allantoin is broadly used in a wide range of beauty care application, including skin care, toiletries, and sun and hair care products.
Allantoin is a white to off-white, practically odorless crystalline powder.
Allantoin is a white odorless powder.
Other Allantoin containing compounds that may be used in cosmetics and personal care products, include the Allanotin salt of vitamin C, Allantoin Ascorbate, and the Allantoin salt of vitamin B7, Allantoin Biotin.
Allantoin complexes that may be used in cosmetics and personal care products include Allantoin Galacturonic Acid, Allanotoin Polygalacturonic Acid, Allantoin Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Allantoin Panthenol.
Among the Allantoin containing ingredients, Allantoin itself is most likely to be used in cosmetics and personal care products.
It is used in the formulation of bath products, eye makeup, hair care products, oral hygiene products and skin care products.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Allantoin, Allantoin Ascorbate, Allantoin Biotin, Allantoin Galacturonic Acid, Allantoin Polygalacturonic Acid, Allantoin Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Allanotin Panthenol all function as skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous.
Allantoin also functions as a skin protectant
Allantoin is a skin active ingredient with keratolytic, moisturizing, soothing, anti-irritant properties, promotes the renewal of epidermal cell and accelerates wounds healing.
Allantoin is safe and non-irritant, highly compatible with the skin and with cosmetic raw materials.
Allantoin enjoys a long history of use in cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals with no findings of toxicity or adverse reactions.
Comply with CTFA and JSCI requirements.
ALLANTOIN is an effective bioactive ingredient used in a wide range of beauty care formulations, including skin care, toiletries, and sun and hair care products.
Allantoin improves skin moisture retention providing a smoothing effect. In addition, it is an effective anti-irritant and protecting agent for the skin and is therefore an ideal addition to anti-aging products, to help minimize the appearance of aging and skin damage.
Allantoin is a white to off-white, practically odorless, crystalline powder.
Mode of action
The beneficial effects on the skin of Allantoin were well documented.
Allantoin is a mild keratolytic agent that dissolves the intercellular cement that holds the cornified cells together, helping the natural desquamation of stratum corneum and increasing skin smoothness.
The moisturizing effect results from its ability to increase the water bounded to the intercellular matrix and keratin, thereby softening skin and making the skin look healthier.
The soothing, anti-irritant and skin protectant effect is due to the ability of Allantoin to form complexes and neutralize many irritant and sensitizing agents.
Allantoin enhances epidermal cell-proliferation, promotes the regeneration of damaged epitelium and accelerates wound healing.
Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of a wide variety of organisms: from bacteria, to vegetals and animals.
Allantoin was found in many plants, and particularly in the leaves and roots of comfrey (Symphytum officinale), an herb of family Boraginacee.
The roots and leaves of this herb contain from 0.6 to 1% Allantoin and have a long history of use in the treatment of wounds in form of poultices and decoctions.
Allantoin is the end product of purine degradation in Mammalians (except Primates) and derives from the oxidation of uric acid.
Allantoin can’t be extracted from animals with industrial advantages, thus all internet alerts on the animal origin of Allantoin are completely unsubstantiated.
Properties and stability
Allantoin is a heterocyclic compound derived from purine. It is an odourless white powder, soluble in water to 0.5%, very slightly soluble in alcohols, insoluble in oils and apolar solvents.
Allantoin is stable in the pH range 3-8 and to 80°C prolonged heating.
It is fully compatible with cosmetic ingredients and with anionic, non-ionic, cationic systems.
Allantoin is suitable for any personal care application. Its use notably increases the performance of every cosmetic preparation: used at low levels on intact skin gives a smooth and healthy appearance; used on irritated, chapped and cracked skin provide relief from pain and promote healing.
Allantoin is also useful as only active ingredient.
The many cosmetic applications include:
Body and face care: tonics, gels, creams, lotions, wipes.
Hand-care: gels, lotions, creams.
Shaving-care: shaving soaps, aftershaves, gels, lotions, creams.
Baby-care: diaper rash, bath products, gels, lotions, creams, powders, wipes.
Lips-care: sticks, creams.
Sun-care: sunscreens, aftersuns, suntans, gels, lotions, creams.
Hair products: shampoos, tonics.
Bath products: shower gels, bubble baths, intimate, powders, wipes.
Oral preparations: toothpastes, mouthwashes
The typical use of allantoin is between 0.1-0.5%, but may be increased upto 2%.
Allantoin can be easily dissolved in acqueous formulations at room temperature upto 0.5%.
It can be incorporated in emulsions at 0.5-2% with temperature over 50°C.
For further information, documentation and sample please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org
IUPAC name:(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl) urea
Other names: Glyoxyldiureide; 5-Ureidohydantoin
CAS Number: 97-59-6
EC Number: 202-592-8
Chemical formula: C4H6N4O3
Molar mass: 158.117 g·mol−1
Appearance: colourless crystalline powder
Density: 1.45 g/cm3
Melting point: 230 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water: 0.57 g/100 mL (25 °C)
4.0 g/100 mL (75 °C)
Solubility: soluble in alcohol, pyridine, NaOH
insoluble in ethyl ether
log P: -3.14
Acidity (pKa): 8.48
Allantoin was first isolated in 1800 by the Italian physician Michele Francesco Buniva (1761–1834) and the French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, who mistakenly believed it to be present in the amniotic fluid.
In 1821, the French chemist Jean Louis Lassaigne found it in the fluid of the allantois; he called it "l'acide allantoique".
In 1837, the German chemists Friedrich Wöhler and Justus Liebig synthesized it from uric acid and renamed it "allantoïn".
Allantoin is present in botanical extracts of the comfrey plant and in the urine of most mammals.
Chemically synthesized bulk allantoin, which is chemically equivalent to natural allantoin, is safe, non-toxic, compatible with cosmetic raw materials and meets CTFA and JSCI requirements.
Over 10,000 patents reference allantoin.
Cosmetics and toiletries
Manufacturers cite several beneficial effects for allantoin as an active ingredient in over-the-counter cosmetics, including: a moisturizing and keratolytic effect, increasing the water content of the extracellular matrix and enhancing the desquamation of upper layers of dead skin cells, increasing the smoothness of the skin; promoting cell proliferation and wound healing; and a soothing, anti-irritant, and skin protectant effect by forming complexes with irritant and sensitizing agents.
An animal study in 2010 found that based on the results from histological analyses, a soft lotion with 5% allantoin ameliorates the wound healing process, by modulating the inflammatory response.
The study also suggests that quantitative analysis lends support to the idea that allantoin also promotes fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix.
A study published in 2009 reported the treatment of pruritus in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis with a topical nonsteroidal agent containing allantoin.
It is frequently present in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other oral hygiene products, in shampoos, lipsticks, anti-acne products, sun care products, and clarifying lotions, various cosmetic lotions and creams, and other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
Biomarker of oxidative stress
Since uric acid is the end product of the purine metabolism in humans, only non-enzymatic processes with reactive oxygen species will give rise to allantoin, which is thus a suitable biomarker to measure oxidative stress in chronic illnesses and senescence.
Lab-created allantoin is chemically equivalent to its naturally-occurring counterpart, and has been shown to be non-toxic and safe for use in a variety of cosmetic applications (International Journal of Toxicology).
In its organic form, allantoin is found in several plants, such as sugar beet, comfrey, chamomile, tobacco seed, and wheat sprouts.
A popular source of allantoin is the extract of comfrey, a species of herb native to Europe.
Interestingly, it is named for the allantois, a structure involved in the exchange of nutrients and waste for developing embryos.
Allantoin has been shown to be non-toxic and safe for use in a variety of cosmetic applications.
POSSIBLE ANTI-AGING BENEFITS OF ALLANTOIN
Most notably, allantoin is considered an effective moisturizing ingredient when used in skincare, and its gentle, non-irritating qualities make it an excellent addition to anti-aging products for those with sensitive or easily irritated skin.
Additionally, allantoin is a known keratolytic, meaning that it can increase the water content of cells while also aiding in the process of desquamation of the outer layers of skin. Allantoin may also help to:
Increase skin smoothness
Aid in wound healing
Promote cell proliferation and longevity (Aging Cell)
ALLANTOIN IN SKINCARE
When used in skincare, lab-created allantoin compounds such as allantoin glycyrrhetinic acid, can mimic the effects of naturally-occurring allantoin, providing moisturizing and skin nourishing benefits
Allantoin is an imidazolidine-2,4-dione that is 5-aminohydantoin in which a carbamoyl group is attached to the exocyclic nitrogen.
It has a role as a vulnerary, a human metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite and an Escherichia coli metabolite.
It is a member of ureas and an imidazolidine-2,4-dione. It derives from a hydantoin.
It is a tautomer of a 1-(5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroimidazol-4-yl)urea.
Allantoin is a substance that is endogenous to the human body and also found as a normal component of human diets.
In healthy human volunteers, the mean plasma concentration of allantoin is about 2-3 mg/l.
During exercise, the plasma allantoin concentration rapidly increases about two fold and remains elevated.
In human muscle, urate is oxidized to allantoin during such exercise.
The concentration of allantoin in muscles increases from a resting value of about 5000 ug/kg to about 16000 ug/kg immediately after short-term exhaustive cycling exercise.
More specifically, allantoin is a diureide of glyoxylic acid that is produced from uric acid.
It is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms.
Allantoin is found in OTC cosmetic products and other commercial products such as oral hygiene products, in shampoos, lipsticks, anti-acne products, sun care products, and clarifying lotions.
Allantoin has also demonstrated to ameliorate the wound healing process in some studies.
Caswell No. 024
Allantoin, p.a., 98.5-101.0%
Urea, (2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)- (9CI)
5-Ureidohydantoin; Glyoxyldiureide; Glyoxylic diureide; Cordianine; Glyoxyldiureid; (2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea
allantoin powder USP
4H- imidazole-2,5-diol, 4-[(hydroxyiminomethyl)amino]-
1-(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)harnstoff [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1-(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1-(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urée [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
4H-imidazole-2,5-diol, 4-[(hydroxyiminomethyl)amino]- [ACD/Index Name]
Acide N-(2,5-dihydroxy-4H-imidazol-4-yl)carbamimidique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Allantoin [BAN] [JAN] [USAN] [USP] [Wiki]
MFCD00005260 [MDL number]
N-(2,5-Dihydroxy-4H-imidazol-4-yl)carbamimidic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
N-(2,5-Dihydroxy-4H-imidazol-4-yl)carbamimidsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Urea, N-(2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
3-Amino-N-isopropylbenzenesulfonamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Urea, (2, 5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)-
Extracted from the root of the comfrey plant, Allantoin is a non-irritating ingredient that soothes and protects the skin.
With the ability to help heal the skin and stimulate the growth of new tissue, it's a great all-rounder for keeping skin at the top of its game.
It effectively softens and helps protect the skin, making it suitable for sensitive skin in need of a little extra TLC.
Good to know
Soothing and non-irritating
Supports cell regeneration
Allantoin is a commonly used ingredient in cosmetic applications, particularly for skin creams, where it exerts a skin protective function.
Many such cosmetic compositions and other compositions are prepared as emulsions, particularly oil-in-water emulsions.
One emulsifier system used with such compositions is a combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and beeswax.
Although solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate are alkaline with an approximate pH of 9.5, the simultaneous use of beeswax with its organic acids produces a complex and neutralized system with a pH of about 6.8 to about 7.5.
However, in such a system with a pH range of 6.8 to 7.5, allantoin degrades significantly with time and in accelerated stability tests at 40° C.
Because cosmetics and other preparations designed for application to the skin are typically stored by users at room temperature, and room temperatures can fluctuate with climatic conditions, such a degree of stability is undesirable.
Therefore, there is a need for an oil-in-water emulsified composition containing allantoin in which the stability of allantoin is increased.
In particular, there is a need for compositions that are suitable for treating a number of severe and difficult-to-treat skin conditions.
One of these skin conditions is epidermolysis bullosa. This is a severe genetic skin disorder in which the skin breaks down and large blisters appear.
These blisters are difficult to treat by conventional means.
Other skin diseases for which improved treatments are needed are pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers or bed sores, and diabetic ulcers, as well as milia.
Therefore, improved compositions that are suitable for treating these diseases are needed.
Allantoin is a heterocyclic organic compound. Allantoin ascorbate, allantoin biotin, allantoin galacturonic acid, allantoin glycyrrhetinic acid, allantoin panthenol, and allantoin polygalacturonic acid are complexes of allantoin.
All of the ingredients in this review act as skin-conditioning agents.
Allantoin was reported to be used in 1376 cosmetic products at concentrations up to 2%.
There are data gaps regarding use and concentration of the remaining allantoin complexes.
CAS No. 97-59-6
Allantoin is a synthetic, free-flowing hygroscopic powder widely used in cosmetic, dermatological and pharmaceutical formulations for its soothing and anti-irritating properties. Allantoin has a moisturizing and keratolytic effect, increasing the water content of the extracellular matrix and enhancing the desquamation of upper layers of dead skin cells, increasing the smoothness of the skin; promoting cell proliferation and wound healing; and a soothing, anti-irritant, and skin protectant effect by forming complexes with irritants and sensitizing agents. Allantoin stimulates healthy, normal tissue formation even at low concentrations.
While allantoin is present in botanical extracts of the comfrey plant, it is generally chemically synthesized to meet worldwide demand. Our Allantoin is a nature-identical, synthesized product made to USP specifications. It is non-toxic, non-irritating, and non-allergenic.
Allantoin has been classified by the FDA as an Over-The-Counter (OTC) Category I (safe and effective) active ingredient skin protectant. It is FDA approved for this use at 0.5% to 2.0% in formulations. If you include it in your formulations and on your ingredient labels, but make no drug claims for it, it remains a cosmetic ingredient and need not be declared as an "active ingredient."