ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

CAS Number: 21645-51-2 
EC number: 244-492-7
Chemical formula: Al(OH)3
Molar mass: 78.00 g/mol

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. 
Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. 
Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric. 
Aluminum hydroxide, the formulation of which is Al(OH)3, can be found in nature in the following forms: gibbsite, which is a mineral, and doyleite, nordstrandite and bayerite, all of which are rare polymorphs. Based on its properties, we can say that aluminum hydroxide appears to be an antacid. It has various uses, primary among which is medical application.

Chemical Properties of Aluminium hydroxide:
There are many different forms of aluminum oxide, including both crystalline and non-crystalline forms. 
Aluminium hydroxide’s an electrical insulator, which means it doesn’t conduct electricity, and Aluminium hydroxide also has relatively high thermal conductivity. 
In addition, in Aluminium hydroxides crystalline form, corundum, its hardness makes it suitable as an abrasive. 
The high melting point of aluminum oxide makes it a good refractory material for lining high-temperature appliances like kilns, furnaces, incinerators, reactors of various sorts, and crucibles. 
The chemical formula for aluminum hydroxide is Al(OH)₃.

Aluminium hydroxide is taken for indigestion. 
Aluminium hydroxide is also taken to control high phosphate levels in people with kidney disease.

Aluminium hydroxide is an antacid, which means that it neutralises excess stomach acid associated with indigestion. 
Aluminium hydroxide also helps to protect the lining of your stomach from acid irritation.

Aluminium hydroxide can also reduce the amount of phosphate which your body absorbs from the food you eat.
Aluminium hydroxide combines with phosphate in your stomach, and this is then removed instead of being absorbed. 
Although aluminium hydroxide is sometimes prescribed for this purpose in people with certain kidney diseases, other medicines are usually used in preference to it.

Uses of Aluminium hydroxide:
Fire retardant filler:
Aluminium hydroxide also finds use as a fire retardant filler for polymer applications. 
Aluminium hydroxide is selected for these applications because it is colorless (like most polymers), inexpensive, and has good fire retardant properties.
Magnesium hydroxide and mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite are used similarly.
Aluminium hydroxide decomposes at about 180 °C (356 °F), absorbing a considerable amount of heat in the process and giving off water vapour. 
In addition to behaving as a fire retardant, Aluminium hydroxide is very effective as a smoke suppressant in a wide range of polymers, most especially in polyesters, acrylics, ethylene vinyl acetate, epoxies, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rubber.

Precursor to Al compounds:
Aluminium hydroxide is a feedstock for the manufacture of other aluminium compounds: calcined aluminas, aluminium sulfate, polyaluminium chloride, aluminium chloride, zeolites, sodium aluminate, activated alumina, and aluminium nitrate.
Freshly precipitated aluminium hydroxide forms gels, which are the basis for the application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification. 
This gel crystallizes with time. 
Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. 
Heating converts it to activated aluminas, which are used as desiccants, adsorbent in gas purification, and catalyst supports.

Pharmaceutical:
Under the generic name "algeldrate", aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid in humans and animals (mainly cats and dogs). 
Aluminium hydroxide is preferred over other alternatives such as sodium bicarbonate because Al(OH)3, being insoluble, does not increase the pH of stomach above 7 and hence, does not trigger secretion of excess acid by the stomach. 
Aluminium hydroxide reacts with excess acid in the stomach, reducing the acidity of the stomach content, which may relieve the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn or dyspepsia. 
Such products can cause constipation, because the aluminium ions inhibit the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, slowing peristalsis and lengthening the time needed for stool to pass through the colon.
Some such products are formulated to minimize such effects through the inclusion of equal concentrations of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate, which have counterbalancing laxative effects.

Aluminium hydroxide is also used to control hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate, or phosphorus, levels in the blood) in people and animals suffering from kidney failure. 
Normally, the kidneys filter excess phosphate out from the blood, but kidney failure can cause phosphate to accumulate. 
The aluminium salt, when ingested, binds to phosphate in the intestines and reduce the amount of phosphorus that can be absorbed.

Precipitated aluminium hydroxide is included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine). 
One of the well-known brands of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant is Alhydrogel, made by Brenntag Biosector.
Since Aluminium hydroxide absorbs protein well, it also functions to stabilize vaccines by preventing the proteins in the vaccine from precipitating or sticking to the walls of the container during storage. 
Aluminium hydroxide is sometimes called "alum", a term generally reserved for one of several sulfates.

Vaccine formulations containing aluminium hydroxide stimulate the immune system by inducing the release of uric acid, an immunological danger signal. 
This strongly attracts certain types of monocytes which differentiate into dendritic cells. 
The dendritic cells pick up the antigen, carry it to lymph nodes, and stimulate T cells and B cells.
Aluminium hydroxide appears to contribute to induction of a good Th2 response, so is useful for immunizing against pathogens that are blocked by antibodies. 
However, Aluminium hydroxide has little capacity to stimulate cellular (Th1) immune responses, important for protection against many pathogens, nor is it useful when the antigen is peptide-based.

Properties of aluminum hydroxide:
The purified aluminum hydroxide has form of bulky powder of white color or granules with density nearly 2.42 g per mL. 
Aluminum hydroxide won’t dissolve in water, but will dissolve only in bases and acids. 
You can expect aluminum hydroxide to act as an amphoteric substance in water. 
If a strong base is present, aluminum hydroxide will act as an acid. 
And if a strong acid is present, Aluminium hydroxide will act as a strong base.
Aluminum hydroxide should be handled with caution because its exposure can cause irritation. 
However, only minor and residual injuries will be present. 
As for flammability, aluminum hydroxide is not flammable and will not burn. 
Besides, aluminum hydroxide is not reactive, therefore, it is stable in both fire and water conditions.

Uses of Aluminium hydroxide:
-Aluminium hydroxide is used as a flame retardant in plastics.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used in aluminium Hydroxide gel.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used to manufacture activated alumina.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used as a filler in cosmetics.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used as a chemical intermediate.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used as a soft abrasive for plastics.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used in glass additive to increase resistance to thermal shock.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used in waterproofing fabrics.
-Aluminium hydroxide is used in the manufacturing of glass.

Al(OH)3: Aluminium hydroxide
Molecular weight of Al(OH)3: 78.00 g/mol
Density of Aluminium hydroxide: 2.42 g/dm3
Flashpoint of Aluminium hydroxide: Non-flammable
Melting Point of Aluminium hydroxide: 300 °C

Applications of aluminum hydroxide:
Aluminum hydroxide has plenty of applications; some people believe that these uses are really endless. 
Just to illustrate the broadness of the uses, we can say that aluminum hydroxide is used as mordant in dyes, purifier for water, ingredient for cosmetics, and even in as an element for processes in photography. 
There are also applications of minor character in ceramics and construction. 
But the most important field where aluminum hydroxide is applied is medicine.

Aluminum Hydroxide Applications in medicine:
Given that aluminum hydroxide is able to neutralize acids, it serves as a natural antacid. 
Aluminum hydroxide also has a very useful property as it stimulates the immune system of human. 
Besides, various vaccines, including those that are used to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis A, and tetanus, are prepared using aluminum hydroxide. 
Aluminium hydroxide can be also used for the treatment of kidney patients who have high level of phosphates in blood due to renal failure. 
This useful feature exists due to the ability of aluminum hydroxide to bind with phosphates. 
After binding with aluminum hydroxide, phosphates are flushed out of the human body easily.

Cosmetics applications of Aluminium hydroxide:
There are various applications for aluminum hydroxide in the field of cosmetics. 
Aluminum hydroxide is most frequently used for the production of lipsticks, make-ups, and other products for skin care. 
Aluminium hydroxide is used there because it is totally stable and non toxic for people. 
Sometimes aluminum hydroxide manufacturers of cosmetics also use aluminum hydroxide to produce cleansers for skin, suntan products, body lotions, and moisturizers. 
Personal care products, for example, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants and many others, also involve using of aluminum hydroxide. 
Aluminum hydroxide is also sometimes used for protection of human skin.

Applications of Aluminium hydroxide in industry:
Concrete could not be produced without aluminum hydroxide. 
On the stage of production of concrete aluminum hydroxide is added to cement. 
Aluminium hydroxide is also very useful because cement with aluminum hydroxide addition dries rapidly if it is being exposed to heat.
Ceramics and glass of both industrial and home application is manufactured using aluminum hydroxide. 
The most useful feature of aluminum hydroxide when it is added to glass consists in the fact that it makes glass heat-resistant. 
Aluminium hydroxide is possible because, as have been already mentioned, aluminum hydroxide is not flammable and has high melting point. 
Aluminum hydroxide combined with polymers appears to be a very good fire retardant.

Uses of Aluminium hydroxide in textile field:
Don’t forget that aluminum hydroxide doesn’t dissolve in water. 
For this reason, Aluminium hydroxide can be applied in textiles by adding it in order to produce waterproof clothes. 
Besides, when Aluminium hydroxide is needed to bind colors of vegetable dyes to fabric, aluminum hydroxide will also be very useful. 
In this case, aluminum hydroxide is used as a mordant. 
Any mordant is used in cases when fabrics are resistant to dyes. 
In such situations, a mordant allows penetrating fabric by the dye. 
Another instance of aluminum hydroxide usage is when it is used to make some dyes fire-resistant.

Aluminum Hydroxide Formula Other field of applications:
Given how actively aluminum hydroxide is used in various fields we could not omit other field of its applications. 
Apart from what we have already mentioned above, aluminum hydroxide, as well as any other aluminum compound, is used to purify water in order to remove particles and various kinds of impurities. 
In manufacturing of inks aluminum hydroxide acts as an extender and preservative. 
Aluminum hydroxide can be also used as chromatography in laboratories in order to separate chemicals into different compounds.

Reactions in humans:
Unlike some other aluminum compounds, aluminum hydroxide causes no adverse reaction in humans, at least towards the majority of persons. 
Aluminium hydroxide is very broadly used in many fields of life and has plenty of applications in home use and industry. 
Most people may not know what aluminum hydroxide is or where this compound is used, but we already know it and useful features of aluminum hydroxide are obvious to all people interested in this subject.

Medical precautions of aluminum hydroxide:
There is no surprise that the most important application of aluminum hydroxide is its medical application. 
Even though aluminum hydroxide is relatively safe to humans and is applied in various fields of human life, oral administration of aluminum hydroxide should be completed cautiously. 
Aluminium hydroxide is always recommended to advise your doctor before starting taking aluminum hydroxide or if any problems occur during the taking.
If you have any health problems related to kidneys, including stones, constipation or disease, you should see a doctor or get an advice of a pharmacist before taking any medicine that contains aluminum hydroxide. 
Besides, the doctor’s advice is also necessary in case you are dehydrated or drink alcohol on a regular basis. 

Nomenclature:
CAS No.: 21645-51-2
Molecular Formula: Al(OH)3
Molecular Weight: 78
Synonyms: Aluminic acid, Aluminic hydroxide, Aluminium(III) hydroxide, Aluminum hydroxide,Hydrated alumina, Orthoaluminic acid
Physical Property:
Physical state: White amorphous powder
Melting Point: 300°C
Solubility: in water, Soluble in acids, alkalis, HCl and H2SO4
Acidity (pKa): >7
Flash point: Noninflammable

Application & Use of Aluminium hydroxide:
Mainly used as an Active medicament in an Antacid Formulations, also used in manufacturing of Lake colors, Inks, catalysts carrier etcs. 
Aluminum hydroxide is used to treat symptoms of increased stomach acid, such as heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. 
Aluminum hydroxide is also used to reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.

Advantage and Disadvantages of Aluminium hydroxide:
Aluminium hydroxide is used to treat the symptoms of too much stomach acid such as stomach upset, heartburn, and acid indigestion.
Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid that works quickly to lower the acid in the stomach. 
Stop using the medication and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as: severe stomach pain or constipation; bloody, black, or tarry stools; coughing up blood that looks like coffee grounds; pain when you urinate; extreme drowsiness; tired feeling, loss of appetite, and muscle weakness

Taking aluminum hydroxide for more than two weeks with no advice of your doctor is strongly not recommended. 
Besides, you should not take any other medications when taking aluminum hydroxide.
If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant during your treatment with aluminum hydroxide, you must have an advice of your doctor. 
The same should be done if you are a breast-feeding mother. 
Effect of aluminum hydroxide on a nursing baby can be harmful. 
For this reason, you should consult the doctor of yours in such a situation.

Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 – ATH) is the most widely used inorganic flame retardant in the World. 
ATH is cost effective and non toxic flame retardant can be used in wide variety of molding compounds such as rubber, polyster and epoxy composites, polyurethane foams, latex based formulations, silicone, wall coverings, wire and cables. 
ATH flame retardants are in the non halogenated and low smoke and fume (LSF) category which is important for human health and environment.

Some important properties of Aluminium hydroxide for flame retardants are listed below:
-Decomposition temperature,
-Toxicity (effects on human health and environment),
-Cost,
-Specific gravity,
-Optical properties (colour, refractive index etc),
-Effect on mechanical and electrical properties of the final product

What does aluminium hydroxide do?
Aluminium is a metal that occurs naturally. 
The antacid is the hydroxide of aluminium. 
Aluminium hydroxide is used in the treatment of heartburn, stomach pain, sore stomach or indigestion with acid. 
Aluminium hydroxide is also used in humans with other kidney disorders to reduce phosphate levels.

Is Aluminium hydroxide safe in cosmetics?
The synthetic ingredient which acts as an opacifier. 
Primary applications include agent and absorbent for painting. 
There is no known skin toxicity to the aluminium hydroxide.

What is another name for aluminium hydroxide?
Aluminium hydroxide is an over-the-counter antacid drug used to treat peptic ulcer and hyperphosphatemia.

Is aluminium hydroxide a weak base?
Aluminium hydroxide has molecular formula Al(OH)3 as a chemical compound. 
For example, in aluminium hydroxide the hydroxide (OH) can act as a weak base when reacting with the strong acid, hydrochloric acid (HCl). 
A weak base is a base that partially dissociates in solution, or breaks apart.

Applications of Aluminium hydroxide:
-Construction & Civil Engineering>Others
-Daily Life>Others
-Daily Life>Sanitary products
-Daily Life>Public hygiene products
-Industrial Chemicals>Others
-Industrial Chemicals>Adhesives
-Industrial Chemicals>Plasticizers
-Industrial Chemicals>Rubber chemicals
-Industrial Chemicals>Polymer additives
-IT-related Materials>Others
-IT-related Materials>Electronic materials
-IT-related Materials>Display materials
-IT-related Materials>Semiconductor processing materials
-IT-related Materials>Lithium-ion secondary battery materials
-Environment & Energy>Others
-Environment & Energy>Lithium-ion secondary battery materials

PRODUCTION METHOD of Aluminium hydroxide:
Conventional powder production methods are used for the production. 
Aluminum hydroxide (ATH) powders can be used as flame retardant additive for polymer applications and production of aluminum oxide powders.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES of Aluminium hydroxide:
Chemical purity: > %99.5
Whiteness: > %97
Particle size: 20-25 µm

APPLICATIONS of Aluminium hydroxide:
Raw material for alumina production
Flame retardant applications

Aluminium hydroxide is a white crystalline product. 
Aluminium hydroxide is also known as hydrated alumina, aluminium hydrate or alumina tri-hydrate (ATH). 
Aluminium hydroxide is typically used as a raw material for the production of other alumina based chemicals such as calcined alumina, aluminium sulfate, poly aluminium chloride (PAC), aluminium fluoride and synthetic zeolite. 
Aluminium hydroxides chemical formula is Al2O3•3H2O or Al(OH)3.

Formula: 
AlH3O3
H3AlO3
Net Charge:    0
Average Mass: 78.00356
Monoisotopic Mass: 77.98976
InChI: InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
InChIKey: WNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
SMILES: [H]O[Al](O[H])O[H]

How to take aluminum hydroxide?
You should take this aluminum compound only in the way this is specified on its label or how your doctor prescribes it. 
Don’t exceed the dose prescribed by your doctor and don’t take aluminum hydroxide for longer than it was prescribed.

To be sure that your dose is accurate, measure it with medicine spoon or cup instead of regular spoon. 
Don’t have a special medical device for measuring? Buy it or ask your doctor to provide it. 
Aluminum hydroxide should be taken with full glass of water. 
Usually aluminum hydroxide is taken before bedtime or between meals. 
Don’t take Aluminium hydroxide longer than two months if your doctor hasn’t advised you otherwise. 
Aluminum hydroxide should be stored away from heat, light, and moisture.

Don’t worry if you have missed a dose. 
Usually aluminum hydroxide should not be taken regularly, but if it is, take it as soon as you remember about it. 
But if the time for the next dose has almost come, skip the missed dose. 
In case of an overdose with aluminum hydroxide, you should contact poison help service or seek emergency medical help. 
The symptoms of an overdose with aluminum hydroxide are weight loss, mood changes, confusion, constipation, and urinating less than usually or not urinating at all.

What is aluminum hydroxide?
Aluminum is a naturally occurring mineral. 
Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid.
Aluminum hydroxide is used to treat heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. 
Aluminum hydroxide is also used to reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.
Aluminum hydroxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Structure of Aluminium hydroxide:
Al(OH)3 is built up of double layers of hydroxyl groups with aluminium ions occupying two-thirds of the octahedral holes between the two layers.
Four polymorphs are recognized.
All feature layers of octahedral aluminium hydroxide units, with hydrogen bonds between the layers. 
The polymorphs differ in terms of the stacking of the layers. 

All forms of Al(OH)3 crystals are hexagonal:
-gibbsite is also known as γ-Al(OH)3 or α-Al(OH)3
-bayerite is also known as α-Al(OH)3 or β-alumina trihydrate
-nordstrandite is also known as Al(OH)3 
-doyleite

What is aluminum hydroxide?
Aluminum hydroxide is an over-the-counter oral antacid and phosphate binder, most commonly used to treat high phosphate levels secondary to kidney dysfunction (abnormal or impaired function of the kidneys). 
Aluminium hydroxide can also be used to reduce stomach acid production.

Aluminium hydroxides use in cats, dogs, or small mammals to treat high phosphate levels is 'off label' or 'extra label'. 
Many drugs are commonly prescribed for off label use in veterinary medicine. 
In these instances, follow your veterinarian’s directions and cautions very carefully as their directions may be significantly different from those on the label.

How is aluminum hydroxide given?
Aluminum hydroxide is given by mouth in the form of a liquid gel or in powder form mixed with food. 
Aluminium hydroxide can also be compounded into capsules. 
Aluminium hydroxide should be given immediately before food or mixed into the food.
Aluminium hydroxide should take effect within 1 to 2 hours; however, effects may not be visibly obvious and therefore laboratory tests may need to be done to evaluate this medication’s effectiveness.

Hydrargillite, once thought to be aluminium hydroxide, is an aluminium phosphate. 
Nonetheless, both gibbsite and hydrargillite refer to the same polymorphism of aluminium hydroxide, with gibbsite used most commonly in the United States and hydrargillite used more often in Europe. 
Hydrargillite is named after the Greek words for water (hydra) and clay (argylles).

What is aluminum hydroxide?
Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid available in over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, sour stomach, and upset stomach. 
Aluminum hydroxide can be found in heartburn medicines that contain more than one antacid active ingredient. 
Aluminium hydroxide can also be found in medicines that treat other symptoms, such as gas.

What is aluminum hydroxide used to treat?
-Heartburn
-Acid Indigestion
-Sour Stomach
-Upset Stomach

What is Aluminium Hydroxide?
Al(OH)3 is amphoteric in nature with chemical name Aluminium hydroxide.

Aluminium hydroxide is also called Aluminic acid or Aluminic hydroxide or Aluminium (III) hydroxide. 
Aluminium hydroxide is found in nature in the form of mineral gibbsite and its polymorphs viz doyleite, nordstrandite, and bayerite.
Aluminic hydroxide is an amorphous powder white. 
Aluminium hydroxide is insoluble in water but soluble in alkaline and acidic solutions.

Properties of Aluminium hydroxide:
Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric. 
In acid, Aluminium hydroxide acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base. 
Aluminium hydroxide neutralizes the acid, yielding a salt:
3 HCl + Al(OH)3 → AlCl3 + 3 H2O

In bases, Aluminium hydroxide acts as a Lewis acid by binding hydroxide ions:
Al(OH)3 + OH− → Al(OH)4−

ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE
Aluminium hydroxide or aluminium hydroxycarbonate, is the most widely used antacid active. 
Aluminium hydroxide is available as both a suspension and powder and maybe used alone or in combination with magnesium hydroxide. 
The widespread use of aluminium hydroxide gel in the formulation of antacids is based on its excellent pharmacological properties, which have been confirmed repeatedly over many years of administration. 
Aluminium hydroxide gel is an effective neutralizer and buffer of gastric hydrochloric acid, with no known harmful side effects. 
We offer a vast selection of aluminium hydroxide grades with a variety of properties.

ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE POWDER:
Aluminium hydroxide powders are manufactured from suspensions via defined drying processes which result in powders with varying density and particle size characteristics. 
The powders are primarily used in the production of antacid tablets, preferably after pre-granulation.

Preferred IUPAC name:
Aluminium hydroxide

Systematic IUPAC name:
Trihydroxidoaluminium

CAS Number: 21645-51-2  
CHEBI: 33130  
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1200706 
ChemSpider: 8351587 
DrugBank: DB06723
ECHA InfoCard: 100.040.433 
KEGG: D02416
PubChem CID: 10176082
RTECS number: BD0940000
UNII: 5QB0T2IUN0  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2036405

How should I take aluminum hydroxide?
Use of Aluminium hydroxide exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.
Aluminum hydroxide is usually taken between meals or at bedtime.
Take aluminum hydroxide with a full glass (8 ounces) of water.
Shake the oral suspension (liquid) before you measure a dose. 
Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon).
Do not take aluminum hydroxide for longer than 2 weeks without your doctor's advice.
Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Chemical formula: Al(OH)3
Molar mass: 78.00 g/mol
Appearance: White amorphous powder
Density: 2.42 g/cm3, solid
Melting point: 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Solubility in water: 0.0001 g/100 mL
Solubility product (Ksp): 3×10−34
Solubility: soluble in acids and alkalis
Acidity (pKa): >7
Isoelectric point: 7.7

Color: White
pH: 8.5 to 10 (5% aq. suspension)
Linear Formula: Al(OH)3
Merck Index: 15,338
Solubility Information: Solubility in water: insoluble
Formula Weight: 78
Physical Form: Powder
Percent Purity: ≥63.5% (Al2O3)
Grade: Extra Pure
Loss on Ignition: 36.5% max.
Packaging: Plastic bottle
Water Soluble Substances: 0.2% max.
Chemical Name or Material: Aluminium hydroxide

Before taking aluminium hydroxide
To make sure this is the right treatment for you, before you take aluminium hydroxide capsules it is important that your doctor or pharmacist knows:
-If you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
-If you have any problems with the way your liver works or any problems with the way your kidneys work.
-If you have been told you have low levels of phosphate in your blood.
-If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a medicine.
-If you are taking any other medicines. 
This includes any medicines you are taking which are available to buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines.

How to take aluminium hydroxide
For indigestion in adults, take one capsule four times a day with meals and one at bedtime. 
The capsules are not suitable for children to take as an antacid. 
Antacids are best taken when symptoms are likely to occur.
If you are taking aluminium hydroxide to reduce the amount of phosphate in your body, your doctor will tell you how many capsules to take each day. 
You could be asked to take between 4-20 capsules a day. 
Take the capsules spaced out throughout the day with your meals.
Aluminium hydroxide can interfere with other medicines taken at the same time and can prevent them form being absorbed properly. 
Aluminium hydroxide is best if you leave two hours between taking aluminium hydroxide and any other medicines.

Other names:
Aluminic acid
Aluminic hydroxide
Aluminium(III) hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
Aluminum trihydroxide
Hydrated alumina
Orthoaluminic acid

Aluminium hydroxide is regarded as being the most important mineral flame retardant in the world and, thanks to its freedom from halogens, it is environmentally friendly and is characterized by its high efficiency as a smoke gas suppressant. 
Aluminium hydroxide is made from bauxite in accordance with the Bayer process. 
Besides the flame retardant property, the excellent features of aluminium hydroxide are its high degree of whiteness and low degree of hardness. 
In addition, dehydration takes place at 200°C.

Properties of Aluminium hydroxide:
-low degree of hardness, 3
-density of 2.4 g/cm3
-high degree of whiteness (colour value Y > 94)
-thermal coefficient of expansion 15*10-6K-1 (at a temp. of 20–300°C)
-flame retardant

What is Aluminium Hydroxide?
Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant comprises aluminium hydroxide gel in saline solution. 
Moreover, aluminium hydroxide is an inorganic salt that has usage as an antacid. 
Also, Aluminium hydroxide is a basic compound that neutralizes the hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. 
Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric in nature.

Main applications of Aluminium hydroxide:
-cables for example made of PVC
-textile applications
-solid surface composites made of PMMA
-epoxy casting resins
-SMC/BMC and latex

Product Properties:
Physical state: Liquid
Form:    Liquid
Al2O3: 10% (w/w)
Charge: +1350
Colour: Colourless to light yellow
Odour: Not significant
pH: >= 2
Melting point/freezing point:    < 0 °C (< 32 °F)
Boiling point, initial boiling point: 100 – 120 °C (212 – 248 °F)
Density: 1200 – 1400 kg/m3 @ 20 oC
Solubility (water):    Miscible

Indications of Aluminium hydroxide:
Aluminum hydroxide is often administered orally for the temporary relief of heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux. 
Aluminium hydroxide may be used topically, temporarily, to protect and relieve chafed and abraded skin, minor wounds and burns, and skin irritations resulting from friction and rubbing.
Patients may also receive Aluminium hydroxide to treat chemo-induced oral mucositis in the form of a mouthwash.
Additionally, Aluminium hydroxide is approved for use as an adjuvant in numerous vaccines due to its ability to increase phagocytosis and spur immune responses.

Aluminium hydroxide also has approval for use in a wide array of cosmetic products at varying concentrations.
Aluminum hydroxide can also serve as a phosphate binder in patients with chronic renal disease. 
However, Aluminium hydroxides use in this manner is infrequent due to the risk of adverse effects.
Commonly, oral aluminum hydroxide is a liquid formulation of both aluminum and magnesium hydroxide. 

Mechanism of Action:
Aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] dissociates into Al3+ and OH- in the stomach. 
The freed hydroxide groups then bind to free protons, ultimately producing water and insoluble aluminum salts, mostly Al(Cl)3, within the stomach. 
The proton binding serves to increase the overall pH of the stomach, i.e., less acidic, reducing the symptoms of indigestion. 
The produced aluminum salt primarily gets excreted in the feces, with less than 1% of the bioavailable aluminum absorbed within the GI tract.

Aluminum exists at a steady-state within the body, so the body manages transient increases in aluminum uptake from use as an antacid with an equivalent increase in urinary excretion of unmodified aluminum. 
However, the setpoint of that steady-state may become elevated with prolonged increased intake of aluminum, so aluminum hydroxide treatment should not be considered as a long-term solution for patients suffering from acid indigestion. 
Furthermore, patients with chronic kidney disease may not be able to excrete the increased aluminum and thus also should be carefully considered.

Topical aluminum hydroxide creates an acidic, hydrophilic layer over the area of irritation; this serves as a protective barrier to prevent infection and deter bacterial growth within the wound. 
As an adjuvant in vaccines, aluminum hydroxide is known to increase macrophage phagocytosis, possibly via the upregulation of the NLRP3-inflammasome, increasing uptake of the desired antigen. 
Additionally, it is known to facilitate what is known as the "repository effect," whereby the antigens aggregate on and around the molecule, which helps to prevent their degradation within the body.

Administration:
Aluminum hydroxide when used as an antacid is to be delivered orally. 
Shake the aluminum hydroxide suspension well before use.
Aluminium hydroxide should be taken 5 to 6 times daily after meals and at bedtime, not to exceed 3.84 g per 24 hours. 
The patient should follow the dose with water intake.

Topical aluminum hydroxide should be applied to the desired area and left in place. 
Topical aluminum has minimal skin absorption, so topical treatment with aluminum hydroxide may require reapplication as necessary. 

The administration of aluminum hydroxide as an antacid should not be for prolonged management of patient symptoms. 
Similarly, aluminum hydroxide should not be administered to patients with renal impairment.
In these instances, increased aluminum may precipitate more severe adverse effects or deplete the body's phosphate reserves.

Formula for Aluminum Hydroxide:  H3AlO3
Properties for Aluminum Hydroxidee
Molar mass: 78.00 g/mol
Melting point: 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Density: 2.42 g/cm3, solid

Production of Aluminium hydroxide:
Virtually all the aluminium hydroxide used commercially is manufactured by the Bayer process which involves dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide at temperatures up to 270 °C (518 °F). 
The waste solid, bauxite tailings, is removed and aluminium hydroxide is precipitated from the remaining solution of sodium aluminate. 
This aluminium hydroxide can be converted to aluminium oxide or alumina by calcination.

The residue or bauxite tailings, which is mostly iron oxide, is highly caustic due to residual sodium hydroxide. 
Aluminium hydroxide was historically stored in lagoons; this led to the Ajka alumina plant accident in 2010 in Hungary, where a dam bursting led to the drowning of nine people. 
An additional 122 sought treatment for chemical burns. 
The mud contaminated 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) of land and reached the Danube. 
While the mud was considered non-toxic due to low levels of heavy metals, the associated slurry had a pH of 13.

Why is Aluminium hydroxide prescribed?
Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. 
Aluminium hydroxide may be used to treat these symptoms in patients with peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, hiatal hernia, or too much acid in the stomach (gastric hyperacidity). 
Aluminium hydroxide combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. 
Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription.

Aluminium hydroxide is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What is aluminum hydroxide?
Aluminum is a naturally occurring mineral. Aluminum hydroxide is an antacid.
Aluminum hydroxide is used to treat heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. 
Aluminum hydroxide is also used to reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.
Aluminum hydroxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Formula: AlH3O3 / Al(OH)3
Molecular mass: 78.0
Melting point: 300°C
Density: 2.42 g/cm³
Solubility in water: none
Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: <10  

Aluminium hydroxide Benefits:
-High performance coagulant based on aluminium hydroxide chloride
-Excellent turbidity / suspended solids removal
-Automatic buffering effect reduces pH depression
-High cationic charge density
-Very low sludge volume
-Reduce your chemical dose and treatment costs

How should Aluminium hydroxide be used?
This medication comes as a chewable tablet and liquid to take by mouth. 
Chew tablets thoroughly; do not swallow them whole. 
Drink a full glass of water after taking the tablets. 
Shake the oral liquid well before each use to mix the medicine evenly. 
The liquid may be mixed with water or milk.

Follow the directions on the package label or on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Aluminium hydroxide or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not take antacids for more than 1 to 2 weeks unless prescribed by your doctor.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids or any other drugs.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially aspirin, cinoxacin (Cinobac), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), digoxin (Lanoxin), diazepam (Valium), enoxacin (Penetrex), ferrous sulfate (iron), fluconazole (Diflucan), indomethacin, isoniazid (INH), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), levofloxacin (Levaquin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), nalidixic acid (NegGram), norfloxacin (Noroxin), ofloxacin (Floxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), tetracycline (Achromycin, Sumycin), and vitamins. If your doctor tells you to take antacids while taking these medications, do not take them within 2 hours of taking an antacid.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids, call your doctor.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?
If you are taking this medication for an ulcer, follow the diet prescribed by your doctor carefully.

What should I do if I forget a dose?
If you are taking scheduled doses of Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. 
However, if Aluminium hydroxide is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

aluminum;trihydroxide
Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried
aluminium trihydroxide
aluminum hyroxide
Hydroxyde d' aluminium
Dried aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide, dried
Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried
CHEMBL1200706
DTXSID2036405
NIOSH/BD070800
Di-mu-hydroxytetrahydroxydialuminum
Aluminum Hydroxide, Technical Grade
AF-260
AKOS015904617
Aluminum, di-mu-hydroxytetrahydroxydi-
DB06723
BD07080000
Q407125
J-014205
UNII-F41V936QZM component WNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Aluminium hydroxide [Wiki] [REDIRECT]
14762-49-3 [RN]
21645-51-2 [RN]
244-492-7 [EINECS]
5QB0T2IUN0
Aluminium trihydroxide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
aluminium(3+) hydroxide
aluminium(III) hydroxide
Aluminiumtrihydroxid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE [USP]
Aluminum trihydroxide
Aluminum(III) hydroxide
GIBBSITE
Trihydroxyaluminum
Trihydroxyde d'aluminium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1330-44-5 [RN]
135151-77-8 [RN]
13765-93-0 [RN]
150828-31-2 [RN]
24623-77-6 [RN]
36201-72-6 [RN]
37324-42-8 [RN]
51668-55-4 [RN]
52350-11-5 [RN]
7784-30-7 [RN]
8022-59-1 [RN]
89686-54-4 [RN]
93237-81-1 [RN]
ALternaGEL
AlternaGel (Trade name)
AlternaGel; Alu-Cap; Amphojel
Alu-Cap
Alu-Cap (Trade name)
aluminium (III) hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried
Aluminium hydroxide, dried
Aluminium hydroxide; Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried; Aluminium hydroxide, dried; Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried; Aluminum hydroxide, dried; Dried aluminium hydroxide; Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
Aluminium tri-hydroxide
aluminium(3+) ion trihydroxide
aluminium(3+) ion trioxidanide
ALUMINIUM(3+) TRIHYDROXIDE
aluminiumhydroxide
Aluminum (III) Hydroxide (reagent)
aluminum and trihydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried
Aluminum hydroxide, dried [JAN]
Aluphos
Amphojel
BASIC ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE
Dried aluminium hydroxide
Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
EINECS 232-056-9
hydroxide aluminium
MFCD00003420
UNII:5QB0T2IUN0
UNII-5QB0T2IUN0
UNII-F41V936QZM
氢氧化铝 [Chinese]

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