CAS Number:1341-49-7
EC Number:215-676-4

Ammonium bifluoride (ABF) is one of the most common, and dangerous, wheel cleaners used in automatic carwashes today. 
Ammonium Bifluoride effectiveness removing brake dust and difficult contaminants from chrome wheels is undisputed, but some chemists say ABF presents an unjustifiable and potentially lethal risk to carwash operators and their employees. 
But just how aware are carwash operators of the risks inherent to the use of ABF in carwash applications? 

Industry experts say that the dangers of ABF are clearly outlined on the chemical's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), and many operators consciously ignore the obvious risks because ABF is cost effective and reliable. 
However, some manufacturers and operators worry that ABF is being marketed as a safe alternative to highly-corrosive hydrofluoric acid (HF), even though the two chemicals pose nearly identical health risks. 
Experts say that some operators have been lead to believe that ABF is "up to 20 times safer" than HF and that this misinformation may be causing a time bomb at hundreds of carwashes.

White, deliquescent crystals that are corrosive to most materials. 
Ammonium bifluoride is used as an etchant for Glass and Aluminum. 
Ammonium Bifluoride is also used to sterilizing brewing and dairy equipment.
Ammonium Bifluoride is produced from ammonia and hydrogen fluoride. 
This colourless salt is a glass-etchant and an intermediate in a once-contemplated route to hydrofluoric acid.

Ammonium bifluoride, as its name indicates, contains an ammonium cation (NH4+) and a bifluoride, or hydrogen(difluoride), anion (HF2−). 
The centrosymmetric triatomic bifluoride anion features the strongest known hydrogen bond, with a F−H length of 114 pm. and a bond energy greater than 155 kJ mol−1.

Ammonium Bifluoride solid [NH4][HF2], each ammonium cation is surrounded by four fluoride centers in a tetrahedron, with hydrogen-fluorine hydrogen bonds present between the hydrogen atoms of the ammonium ion and the fluorine atoms.
[citation needed] Solutions contain tetrahedral [NH4]+ cations and linear [HF2]− anions.

Production and applications
Ammonium bifluoride is a component of some etchants. 
Ammonium Bifluoride attacks silica component of glass:

SiO2 + 4 [NH4][HF2] → SiF4 + 4 NH4F + 2 H2O
Potassium bifluoride is a related more commonly used etchant.

Ammonium bifluoride has been considered as an intermediate in the production of hydrofluoric acid from hexafluorosilicic acid. 
Thus, hexafluorosilicic acid is hydrolyzed to give ammonium fluoride, which thermally decomposes to give the bifluoride:

H2SiF6 + 6 NH3 + 2 H2O → SiO2 + 6 NH4F
2 NH4F → NH3 + [NH4]HF2
The resulting ammonium bifluoride is converted to sodium bifluoride, which thermally decomposes to release HF.

Ammonium bifluoride is also used as an additive in tin-nickel plating processes as the fluoride ion acts as a complexing agent with the tin, allowing for greater control over the resulting composition and finish.

AMBI (NH4HF2) is used for aluminium anodization, metal surface treatment, glass processing, building protection, mineral oil/ natural gas drilling, cleaning of industrial plants and in the electronic industry. 
Ammonium hydrogen fluoride is used in the the following applications:
Glass processing: for matt etching
Metal surface treatment: as essential component of bright digo baths for etching and cleaning of non-ferrous metal pieces
Mineral oil / natural gas drilling: as aid for drilling through silicate rocks
Cleaning of industrial plants: as component in cleaning and disinfecting solutions, e.g. in power stations
Building protection: as component in cleaning agents

Goods labelled as “dual use” are subject to special controls and export restrictions in most countries. 
Before exporting such goods the exporter must apply for an appropriate export licence from the competent authority. 
For deliveries within the EU, for example, the seller must include an appropriate note in the commercial papers in accordance with article 22, paragraph 10, of the dual use regulation. 

500 g in Plastic bottle
12 kg in Plastic drum
Analysis Note
Assay: 96% min
Color: White (typical)
Form: Flakes

We were deeply saddened to read the report of the tragic death of a child after exposure to an art material at home in the article, “What Should OEM Physicians Know About Ammonium Bifluoride?” by Downs et al.
Ammonium Bifluoride authors’ discussion of this case expertly highlights the toxicity of ammonium bifluoride and hydrofluoric acid and the special risks for children.
Their description of the use of ammonium bifluoride in an art project also demonstrates the importance of an awareness of the hazards encountered by those involved in the arts, whether as professionals, students, hobbyists, or bystanders. 
We discussed these issues in a series of articles on Occupational Health (OH) and the visual and performing arts in JOEM September 2017.2–4

Ammonium Bifluoride those articles we describe examples of common art materials, tools, and working conditions that can have acute health effects (polyurethane resins, power tools, etc) and chronic effects (heavy metal pigments, n-hexane, etc) on artists and others. 
In one of these articles3 we discuss etching glass with hydrofluoric acid or ammonium bifluoride and the precautions that are recommended.
Working at home on art or craft projects with hazardous materials is extremely common.
Visitors to those art work areas, including children, older adults, and those with underlying health conditions, can be at particular risk. 
Hazardous art materials are readily available, but users often lack the material safety information and training required to protect themselves and others.

Linear Formula:NH4HF2
CAS Number:1341-49-7
Molecular Weight:57.04
EC Number:215-676-4

Occupational Health professionals are particularly well qualified to recognize and understand the significance of these art-related exposures. 
Our articles describe art activities and how the OH approach can help manage the health and safety challenges. 
This OH approach can be life or health saving, but these art exposures may be unfamiliar, so resources for further information are also included.6–9

Artists contribute a lot that makes our communities better places to live and work. 
We in OH have much to contribute that could help our artist neighbors live safer and more productive lives. 
Ammonium Bifluoride horrific accident described in this article demonstrates just how important these contributions can be.

Respiratory protection
Where risk assessment shows air-purifying respirators are appropriate use a full-face particle respirator type N100 (US) or type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. If the respirator is the sole means of protection, use a full-face supplied air respirator. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).
Hand protection Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique (without touching 
glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands.

Eye protection
Face shield and safety glasses Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).
Skin and body protection Complete suit protecting against chemicals, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.
Hygiene measures Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. 
Wash hands before breaks and immediately after handling the product.

Synonyms and Related Terms
ammonium acid fluoride; ammonium hydrogen fluoride; white acid

Compound Formula: F2H5N
Molecular Weight: 57.043206 g/mol
Appearance: White crystals
Melting Point: 125 °C
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: 1.500 g/cm3
Solubility: in H2O N/A
Exact Mass: 57.039006 g/mol

Results are given for elevated temperature tests of the effects of ammonium bifluoride on corrosion rates of 5 and 10% solutions of inhibited citric, sulfamic, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acid scale solvents. 
Mild steel coupons were evaluated for weight loss after 12 hr exposures. 
Ammonium Bifluoride rate of attack for citric and sulfamic acid systems on steel decreased as concentration of ammonium bifluoride increased. 
Ammonium Bifluoride attack rate of HCL increased at lower ammonium bifluoride concentrations, but at higher concentrations tended to stabilize at a rate equivalent to that from 5% acid without ammonium bifluoride. 
The rate of 5% phosphoric acid attack decreased with increased concentration of ammonium bifluoride, but in 10% phosphoric acid, the rate increased with increased concentration of ammonium bifluoride. 
Ammonium Bifluoride is hypothesized that in citric and sulfamic acids the ammonium ion is inhibitive, but that in the more aggressive hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, the corrosion rates do not hold a relationship with ammonium bifluoride concentrations.

Product description
Ammonium Bifluoride, 96.5%, 500g For Research & Development Not for drug, human, animal, or food use Certificate of Analysis: Appearance (Color) White Appearance (Form) Crystalline powder Assay (NH4HF2) 96.5% Ammonium Fluoride (NH4F) 3.41% Water (H2O) 0.04% Iron (Fe) 7.56 ppm Arsenic (As) 1.47 ppm Sulfate (SO4) 11 ppm CAS: 1341-49-7 FORMULA: NH4HF2

Air & Water Reactions
Dissolves in water and forms a weak solution of hydrofluoric acid.

Mineral-Based & Clay-Based Absorbents
Response Recommendations
What is this information? 
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.
SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.
FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)

Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:
SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray.
LARGE FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. 
Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. 
Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. 
Do not get water inside containers.
Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. 
Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. 
ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2016)

Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:
ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). 
Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. 
Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. 
Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. 

Protective Clothing
NIOSH approved respirator; rubber gloves; safety goggles; chemical resistant clothing. (USCG, 1999)

Ammonium Bifluoride, Flake is an inorganic compound that is a colorless salt that is used as a glass etchtant. 
Ammonium Bifluoride is produced from ammonia and hydrogen fluoride.

Chemical Name:Ammonium Bifluoride
CAS Number:1341-49-7
Chemical Formula:NH4HF2
Synonyms:Ammonium Acid Fluoride, Ammonium Hydrogen Fluoride

Detailed Product Description:
A white crystalline powder.  Soluble in water and alcohol.
Commonly used for etching glass or in electroplating and electropolishing.

Reagent grade with 95% minimum purity.

Contents of 200 grams comes packed in 250ml sized wide-mouth polypropylene bottle. 
These corrosion data are mainly based on results of general corrosion laboratory tests, carried out with pure chemicals and water solutions nearly saturated with air (the corrosion rate can be quite different if the solution is free from oxygen).

All concentrations are given in weight-% and the solvent is water if nothing else is shown. 
The corrosion data apply to annealed materials with normal microstructure and clean surfaces, throughout.

Background: Ammonium bifluoride and hydrofluoric acid are potent toxins with severe local and systemic toxicity due to high permeability coefficient and binding of divalent cations with disruption of the Na-K-ATPase pump. 
Case report: A 52-year-old developmentally delayed deaf and mute male with known pica was attending a craft workshop involving glass etching. 
When the teacher was distracted, he swallowed about 3 ounces of Armour Etch cream. 
On the initial call to the poison center the patient had vomited, but otherwise appeared well. 

Ammonium Bifluoride patient's calcium continued to drop as low as <5 and potassium rose as high as 5.3 8 h post arrival. 
Ammonium Bifluoride patient arrested as helicopter transport was packaging for travel. 
He was unable to be resuscitated despite receiving 5 gm CaCl2, epinephrine, bicarbonate, and amiodarone over a 20min resuscitation attempt. 
In total, he received 10-12 g of CaCl2 and 2 g of magnesium during his ED stay. 
Post-mortem showed gastric perforation with barium staining of the peritoneum and mediastinum. 
Case discussion: Most patients who ingest these products will die; those who survived reportedly received 25-50 g of calcium in the first 24 h. 

Early decontamination is a challenge because of vomiting. 
Oral calcium products or lavage with calcium gluconate should be considered. 
Aggressive calcium and magnesium replacement, correction of acidosis, and CV support are critical management steps. 
For severe cases, hemodialysis may be considered with case reports demonstrating successful clearance of fluoride ions, although it is unclear if this is helpful in patients with normal renal function. 
Conclusion: Significant fluoride and hydrofluoric acid ingestions are extremely deadly and management is very challenging. 
The severity and rapidity of deterioration of patients may be underappreciated.

Fluorides, Inorganic

White crystals, soluble in water; [CAMEO] Hygroscopic; Available as flakes, granules, and solutions; Impurities at <1% include hydrogen fluoride and ammonium fluoride; [CHEMINFO]

Used in chemical analyses, electroplating, and disinfecting food processing equipment; [CAMEO]

Produces weak hydrofluoric acid when dissolved in water; Corrosive; [CAMEO] Decomposes when heated above 240 deg C forming toxic and corrosive hydrogen fluoride gas; [CHEMINFO] Repeated, heavy exposures could cause fluorosis. [NJ-HSFS] See "FLUORIDES."

The advantages of brightened and anodised aluminium for decorative trim are indicated; super-purity alloys are necessary to maintain the transparency of the anodic film. 
The especial advantage of a particular process using ammonium bifluoride and nitric acid is in avoiding much mechanical prepolishing. 
Experiments are described for the determination of satisfactory concentrations of nitric acid and ammonium bifluoride, the effect of lead and other additions, and of temperature. 
The stability, regeneration and control of the brightening solution are discussed. 
The post-brightening and anodising processes are briefly discussed together with the effect of the alloy composition on these processes and on the brightening process.

Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH4HF2 or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. 
The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. 
Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. 
Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. 
Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80–120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90–100% with the exception of iodine.

Colorless or transparent white crystals (the frontal intersection) with little bitterness; 
Ammonium Bifluoride has high deliquescent capacity in the air, and is extremely easy to dissolve in cold water. 
Ammonium Bifluoride is slightly soluble in alcohol. 
By virtue of the higher temperature it can be sublimated and has corrosivity to the glass.

Chemical Name:Ammonium Bifluoride
CAS Number:1341-49-7
Molecular Formula:F₂H₉N₂
Molecular Weight:75.08
CategoryResearch Tools; Materials;
ApplicationsAmmonium bifluoride (cas# 1341-49-7) is a useful research chemical.

A commercial zeolite L was subjected to chemical etching with aqueous solutions of NH 4 F and NH 4 HF 2 to generate secondary porosity. 
Ammonium Bifluoride derived samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, 27 Al MAS NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and their acid sites were quantified by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed basic probe molecules. 
Ammonium Bifluoride catalytic properties of the pristine and modified zeolites were evaluated in the dealkylation of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene. 
Tuning the etching conditions allowed us to generate hierarchical zeolites without losing micropore volume. 
Furthermore, both fluoride etchants did not change the acid properties of the zeolite substantially, which is confirmed by chemical composition anlysis (ICP-AES) and by FTIR spectroscopy of pyridine. 
Ammonium Bifluoride dissolution rate of zeolite L was much faster with NH 4 HF 2 than NH 4 F. 
Ammonium Bifluoride set of experimental data shows that the 1 wt % NH 4 HF 2 solution is an efficient etchant able to generate mesopores without affecting the parent zeolite properties as lower amounts of fluoride source are required than with concentrated (20-40 wt %) NH 4 F solutions.

Synonyms : Ammonium hydrogen fluoride, Ammonium acid fluoride, Ammonium hydrofluoride, Ammonium difluoride, Ammonium hydrogen difluoride
Product description : ammonium bifluoride comes in the form of white, strongly hygroscopic flakes with a purity of at least 95%.
Uses : ammonium bifluoride is used in the treatment of metallic and non-metallic surfaces, as a cleaning product, but also in the oil and gas industry and as a chemical intermediate.
Availability : on stock
Storage : store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place. Keep the product in its original packaging, tightly closed, away from incompatible products..
Safety / MSDS : for industrial use only.

The use of fluorides for controlling bacterial contamination in commercial production of rum led to several experiments to evaluate ammonium bifluoride as a bacterial inhibitor and test its effects on yeast fermentation, yeast growth and preservation. 
Sensitivity tests were performed with bacteria isolated from molasses mashes. 
Ammonium Bifluoride results indicated that with 400 mg. of ammonium bifluoride per liter, bacterial population on fermenting mashes can be reduced considerably. 
Laboratory-scale batch fermentation experiments were conducted to study the effect of ammonium bifluoride on alcohol production. 

The results obtained indicate that ammonium bifluoride does not affect the fermentative characteristics of yeasts in concentrations of up to 1,000 mg. per liter tested. 
Ammonium Bifluoride effect of ammonium bifluoride on yeast growth and viability during storage also was investigated. 
Ammonium Bifluoride was demonstrated that this salt is highly inhibitory to yeast propagation and adversely affects yeast viability after yeast growth terminates.
Chemicals sold by Cole-Parmer are not intended for and should not be (i) used for medical, surgical or other patient oriented applications, or (ii) combined with any food product or ingested in any form. 
Reagents utlilizes the highest quality raw materials to meet of exceed the specifications of the American Chemical Society.

Ammonium hydrogen difluoride
Ammonium difluoride
ammonium fluoride hydrofluoride
Ammonium fluoride ((NH4)(HF2))
Ammonium hydrogendifluoride
Ammonium hydrogen bifluoride
HSDB 480
Fluorure acide d'ammonium [French]
EINECS 215-676-4
Fluorure acide d'ammonium
Ammonium fluoride comp. with hydrogen fluoride (1:1)
Ammonium hydrogendifluoride, solid
Ammonium hydrogendifluoride, solution
EC 215-676-4
Ammonium hydrogendifluoride, solid [UN1727] [Corrosive]
Ammonium hydrogend
Ammonium acid fluoride; 
Ammonium bifluoride; 
Ammonium difluoride; 
Ammonium fluoride ((NH4)(HF2)); 
Ammonium fluoride comp. with hydrogen fluoride (1:1); 
Ammonium hydrofluoride; 
Ammonium hydrogen bifluoride; 
Ammonium hydrogen difluoride; 
Ammonium hydrogen fluoride; 
Fluorure acide d'ammonium [French]; 
[ChemIDplus] UN1727 (Solid); 
UN2817 (Solution)

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