AMMONIUM PERSULFATE


Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8. It is a colourless (white) salt that is highly soluble in water, much more so than the related potassium salt. 
It is a strong oxidizing agent that is used in polymer chemistry, as an etchant, and as a cleaning and bleaching agent.

Ammonium persulfate appears as a white crystalline solid. A strong oxidizing agent. Does not burn readily, but may cause spontaneous ignition of organic materials. Used as a bleaching agent and as a food preservative.
The dissolution of the salt in water is an endothermic process.

Ammonium persulfate acts as a polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, as an etchant and cleaner in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a gel breaker in the oil and gas industry.

Ammonium peroxydisulfate
CAS Number:7727-54-0 
Synonym:   AP, APS, Ammonium peroxodisulfate, Ammonium peroxydisulfate, PER

AMMONIUM PEROXIDODISULFATE
AMMONIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
AMMONIUM PEROXYDISULFATE ((NH4)2S2O8)
AMMONIUM PEROXYSULFATE
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE
AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE
BIS(AMMONIUM) PEROXODISULFATE
DIAMMONIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
DIAMMONIUM PEROXYDISULPHATE
DIAMMONIUM PERSULFATE
PANREAC PA
PEROXYDISULFURIC ACID, DIAMMONIUM SALT

Ammonium persulfate
Ammonium peroxosulphate (short form APS, trade name ammonium persulfate) is the salt of peroxodisulphuric acid. It is a strong oxidizer and radical donator for polymerisation. Due to its high oxidation potential it can cause ignition under certain conditions. APS is highly soluble in water, aqueous solutions show an acidic reaction and have limited stability (see table 1 - 3)

Applications
The most important application for APS is in the water-based emulsion polymerisation of organic monomers in aqueous systems. The monomers are either sufficiently soluble in water and precipitate during polymerisation or polymerisation takes place in an aqueous emulsion of the monomers, as with styrene-butadiene and Acrylonitrile.


Other applications of APS
in the cosmetics industry as a booster for hair bleaches and an oxidizer in hair dyes
in the paper industry for re-pulping and de-inking
in order to recover metals and metal salts, for oxidative treatment of high grade metal ores
in the photographic industry for regenerating bleaching baths for color stock
for the production of desinfectants
in-situ decontamination of industrial areas: degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons


The initiator for emulsion polymerization has to be water-soluble, considering the mechanism of emulsion polymerization. 
Typical initiators are persulfates, for example, sodium, potassium, or ammonium persulfate, which are activated by thermal energy; typical polymerization temperatures are in the range of 70–90 °C.

Ammonium, potassium, and sodium persulfates are used as initiators for emulsion polymerization reactions in the preparation of acrylics, polyvinyl chlorides, polystyrenes, and neoprene. 
They are used as polymerization initiators in the manufacture of synthetic rubber (styrene butadiene and isoprene) for automobile and truck tires. 
Persulfate initiation is used to prepare latex polymers for paints, coatings, and carpet backing.


AMMONIUM PERSULFATE
AMMONIUM PEROXYDISULFATE (NH4)2S2O8
Specifications Value Test Method
Appearance White Crystal Scanning
Purity (NH4)2S2O8 Min. %99 (w/w) Iodometric Titration
Active Oxygen Min. %6.94 (w/w) Iodometric Titration
Acid Content (as H2SO4) Max. %0.10 (w/w) Titration (Reaction with NaOH)
Iron (Fe) Content Max. 5 ppm Colorimetric
Heavy Metals (as Pb) Max. 5 ppm Turbidimetric
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Molecular Weight : 228.2 kg/kmol
Specific Gravity : 1,980 kg/m³
pH Value (%5 solution) : 3-5
Thermal Decomposition : ≥65°C
Solubility in Water : 85(25 °C) 116(50 °C) (g/100 g H2O)

APPLICATION
Initiator for the emulsion or solution Polymerization of acrylic monomers, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride etc. and for the emulsion co-polymerization of styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene etc. oxidizing agent, used in cleaning and pickling of metal surface, accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives and modification of starch, production of binders and coating materials, desizing agent and bleach activator. 
It is an essential component of bleaching formulations for hair cosmetics.


Polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, Oxidizing agents;bleaching agent;photography; etchant for printed circuit boards,etching copper; electroplating; manufacture of other persulfates; deodorizing and bleaching oils; aniline dyes;food preservative;depolarizer in batteries;Secondary oil recovery systems as a polymerization initiator and a gel breaker.


Product Description
Molecular Formula: (NH4)2S2O8
Molecular Weight: 228.2
CAS Number: 7727-54-0
Synonyms: ammonium peroxodisulfate, ammonium peroxydisulfate, AP, APS, PER

This product is designated as Electrophoresis grade and has been tested for suitability as a catalyst in acrylamide polymerization.
Ammonium persulfate is a widely used reagent in biochemistry and molecular biology for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels. 
APS forms oxygen free radicals in aqueous solution by a base-catalyzed mechanism. 
The bases, are most commonly used as catalysts, are tertiary amines such as N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) or 3-dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN). 
The free radicals will cause the polymerization of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide to form a gel matrix, which can be used for separating macromolecules by size.
Protocols for the use of APS to prepare polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis are widely available.

APS has also been utilized to study protein-protein interactions via photoinitiated crosslinking chemistry.

Other applications of APS include its use as a reducer and retarder in photography, the manufacture of aniline dyes, electroplating, the decolorizing and deodorizing of oils.

A protocol on the APS-mediated modification of polypropylene membranes with polyaniline has been published.

APS has been used to prepare biodegradable macroporous hydrogels for application as crosslinkable biomaterials


Ammonium persulfate is a very strong oxidizer used for industrial cleaning and decontamination, as well as a strong radical initiator often used to promote polymerization reactions. Its oxidation potential, at 2.1 V, is only slightly weaker than ozone (O32-, 2.2) but stronger than both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1.8 V) and permanganate (MnO4, 1.7V). It is also widely used in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) within biochemistry labs. The persulfate radical is particularly stable relative to many other radicals, and it is often stabilized even more by the addition of tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED).

Synonyms:    Ammonium Peroxydisulfate; Peroxydisulfuric Acid, Diammonium Salt; Diammonium peroxydisulfate
Formula:    (NH4)2S2O8
Uses:    polymerization initiator, decontamination
Properties:    radical initiator, oxidizer
Hazards:    strong oxidizer, burns

PACKAGING, STORAGE & SHELF LIFE
25 kgs and 1000 kgs net polyethylene and polypropylene bags. 1000 kgs bag has antistatic properties. 
It must be stored in well closed original packing and protected from direct sunlight, heat and humidity. 
Impurities such as dirt, rust or traces of metal and reductants may cause catalytic decomposition. 
It can be stored for 12 months below 30°C. The product as supplied or in solution needs to be handled with appropriate care.
The eye, skin and clothes must be protected when working with APS as damp powder or aqueous solution has a bleaching and slightly corroding effect.

SAFETY & PRECAUTIONS
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Use with adequate ventilation. Do not swallow. Avoid breathing vapors, mists or dust. 
Do not eat, drink or smoke in work area. Prevent contact with combustible or organic materials. 
Label containers and keep them tightly closed when not in use. Wash thoroughly after handing. 
For drinking water applications, the optimum dosing must be max. 43 mg/L.

Ammonium persulfate
7727-54-0
Ammonium peroxydisulfate
Diammonium peroxydisulfate
Diammonium peroxodisulphate
Diammonium persulfate
Ammonium peroxodisulfate
Ammoniumpersulfate
Diammonium peroxydisulphate
UNII-22QF6L357F
CCRIS 1430
Persulfate d'ammonium [French]
PEROXYDISULFURIC ACID, DIAMMONIUM SALT
EINECS 231-786-5
UN1444
22QF6L357F
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), diammonium salt
Ammonium persulfate, 98%, extra pure
Ammonium persulfate, 98+%, ACS reagent
HSDB 7985
Ammonium persulfate, 99+%, for molecular biology, DNAse, RNAse and Protease free
ammonium persuiphate
ammonium per sulphate
ammonium peroxidisulfate
ammonium persulphate-d8
ACMC-209shx
Ammonium peroxydisulphate
Ammonium persulfate [UN1444] [Oxidizer]
CAS-7727-54-0
DB-056201
Ammonium persulfate [UN1444] [Oxidizer]
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), ammonium salt (1:2)


Chemical formula: (NH4)2S2O8
Molar mass: 228.18 g/mol
Appearance: white to yellowish crystals
Density    1.98 g/cm3
Melting point: 120 °C decomposes
Solubility in water: 80 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Solubility: Moderately soluble in MeOH

Preparation
Ammonium persulfate is prepared by electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of either ammonium sulfate or ammonium bisulfate in sulfuric acid at a high current density.


Uses
As an oxidizing agent and a source of radicals, APS finds many commercial applications.

Salts of sulfate are mainly used as radical initiators in the polymerization of certain alkenes. 
Commercially important polymers prepared using persulfates include styrene-butadiene rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene. In solution, the dianion dissociates to give radicals:

[O3SO–OSO3]2− ⇌ 2 [SO4]•−
The sulfate radical adds to the alkene to give a sulfate ester radical. It is also used along with tetramethylethylenediamine to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide in making a polyacrylamide gel, hence being important for SDS-PAGE and western blot.

Illustrative of its powerful oxidizing properties, it is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution.
This property was discovered many years ago. In 1908, John William Turrentine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. 
Turrentine weighed copper spirals before placing the copper spirals into the ammonium persulfate solution for an hour. After an hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded. This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium, and iron, all of which yielded similar results.
The oxidation equation is thus: S
2O2−8 (aq) +  e− → 2 SO2−4 (aq).

Ammonium persulfate is a standard ingredient in hair bleach.

Persulfates are used as oxidants in organic chemistry. For example, in the Minisci reaction.

Safety
Airborne dust containing ammonium persulfate may be irritating to eye, nose, throat, lung and skin upon contact. Exposure to high levels of dust may cause difficulty in breathing.

It has been noted that persulfate salts are a major cause of asthmatic effects in women.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that exposure to ammonium persulfate can cause asthmatic effects in hair dressers and receptionists working in the hairdressing industry. 
These asthmatic effects are proposed to be caused by the oxidation of cysteine residues, as well as methionine residuesThe method was first described by Hugh Marshall.

Ammonium peroxydisulfate
Ammonium persulfate
AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE
ammonium persulphate
Diammonium peroxodisulphate
Diammonium peroxodisulphate
diammonium peroxodisulphate
diammonium peroxodisulphate; ammonium persulphate
Diammonium peroxydisulfate
Diammonium peroxydisulphate
Diammonium persulfate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), ammonium salt (1:2)
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), diammonium salt
Peroxydisulfuric acid, diammonium salt
Persulfate d'ammonium

Translated names
ammoniumpersulfaatti (fi)
Ammoniumpersulfat (de)
ammoniumpersulfat (no)
Ammooniumpersulfaat (et)
ammónium-perszulfát (hu)

Ammonium persulfate
Ammonium peroxosulphate (short form APS, trade name ammonium persulfate) is the salt of peroxodisulphuric acid. 
It is a strong oxidizer and radical donator for polymerisation. Due to its high oxidation potential it can cause ignition under certain conditions. 
APS is highly soluble in water, aqueous solutions show an acidic reaction and have limited stability 

Applications
The most important application for APS is in the water-based emulsion polymerisation of organic monomers in aqueous systems. 
The monomers are either sufficiently soluble in water and precipitate during polymerisation or polymerisation takes place in an aqueous emulsion of the monomers, as with styrene-butadiene and Acrylonitrile.


Other applications of APS
in the cosmetics industry as a booster for hair bleaches and an oxidizer in hair dyes
in the paper industry for re-pulping and de-inking
in order to recover metals and metal salts, for oxidative treatment of high grade metal ores
in the photographic industry for regenerating bleaching baths for color stock
for the production of desinfectants
in-situ decontamination of industrial areas: degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

Ammonium persulfate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Outline
Ammonium persulfate is white, odorless single crystal, the formula is (NH4) 2S2O8, it has strong oxidation and corrosion, when heated, it decomposes easily, moisture absorption is not easy, it is soluble in water, the solubility increases in warm water, it can hydrolyze into ammonium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution. 
The dry product has good stability, storage is easy, and it has the advantage of convenience and safety and so on. 
When heated to 120 °C, it can decompose, it is easily damped and it can cake in moist air. 
It is mainly used as an oxidizing agent and the preparation of hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate and other persulfate. 
It can be used as free initiator of polymerization reaction, particularly vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization of polymerizable compound and redox polymerization. 
It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can be used to prepare aniline dyes and dye oxidation and electroplating industry, photographic industry and chemical analysis. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew. It can be used as metal etchant, circuit board cleaning and etching, copper and aluminum surface activation, modified starch, pulp and textile bleaching at low temperature and desizing, circulating water purification treatment systems, oxidative degradation of harmful gases, low formaldehyde adhesive stick bound to accelerate, disinfectants, hair dye decolorization.
Ammonium persulfate is non-flammable, but it can release of oxygen, so it has the role of combustion-supporting, storage environment must be dry and clean, and well-ventilated. People should pay attention to moisture and rain, it should not be transported in rain. Keep away from fire, heat and direct sunlight. It should keep sealed packaging, clear and intact labels. It should be stored separately with flammable or combustible materials, organic compounds, as well as rust, a small amount of metal, and other reducing substances, it should avoid be mixed to prevent the decomposition of ammonium persulfate and cause explosion.

Chemical properties
It is colorless monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, the solubility is 58.2g/100ml water at 0℃.

Uses
It can be used as analytical reagents, photographic fixing agent and reducing agent.
It can be used as food preservative, oxidizing agent and initiator of high-molecular polymer.
It can be used as raw material of producting persulfate and hydrogen peroxide in chemical industry, inhibitor of polymerization organic polymer, initiator of during the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can also be used as corrodent in plate metals cutting eclipse and oil extraction in oil industry. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew.
It can be used for flour modifier (Limited ≤0.3g/kg, the Japanese standard, 1999); Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungicide (limit 0.1%, FAO/WHO, 1984).
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.

Production methods
It can be derived by the electrolysis of ammonium sulfate and dilute sulfuric acid and then crystallized.
Electrolytic process Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid formulates to form liquid electrolyte, it is decontaminated by electrolysis, HSO4-can discharge and generate peroxydisulfate acidat in the anode, and then reacts with ammonium sulfate to generate ammonium persulfate, ammonium persulfate goes through filtration, crystallization, centrifugal separation, drying to get ammonium persulfate product when the content reaches a certain concentration in the anode.
Anode reaction: 2HSO4--2e → H2S2O8
Cathodic reaction: 2H ++ 2e → H2 ↑
(NH4) 2S2O4 + H2S2O8 → (NH4) 2S2O8 + H2SO4

Category
Oxidant

Toxicity grading
Mid toxicity.

Acute oral toxicity
Rat LD50: 689 mg/kg; intraperitoneal-rat LD50: 226 mg/kg.

Explosive hazardous characteristics
It is strong oxidant, it can explode when mixed with reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus etc; it can explode when be heated, impacted, and meet fire.

Flammability hazard characteristics
It can decompose of oxygen when high heat; it can generate toxic nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia fumes when heated.

Storage characteristics
Treasury should have ventilation and low-temperature drying; loading and unloading should be light; it should be stored separately with organic matter, reducing agents, sulfur, phosphorus combustibles.
Extinguishing agent
Mist of water, sand.
Professional standards
TWA 2 mg/m3.

Description
Persulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents and hair bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. It may induce irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers.

Chemical Properties
Ammonium persulfate is a colorless or white crystalline solid.

Chemical Properties
Off-white crystalline powder

Uses
Used for detection and determination of manganese and iron.

Uses
As oxidizer and bleacher; to remove hypo; reducer and retarder in photography; in dyeing, manufacture of aniline dyes; oxidizer for copper; etching zinc; decolorizing and deodorizing oils; electroplating; washing infected yeast; removing pyrogallol stains; making soluble starch; depolarizer in electric batteries; In animal chemistry chiefly for detection and determination of manganese.

Uses
Ammonium Persulfate is a bleaching agent for food starch that is used up to 0.075% and with sulfur dioxide up to 0.05%.

General Description
A white crystalline solid. A strong oxidizing agent. Does not burn readily, but may cause spontaneous ignition of organic materials. Used as a bleaching agent and as a food preservative.

Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile
Ammonium persulfate is a potent oxidizing agent. A powdered mixture with aluminum and water can explode [NFPA 491M 1991]. A mixture with sodium peroxide will explode if subjected to friction (crushing in a mortar), heating, or if a stream of carbon dioxide is passed over Ammonium persulfate [Mellor 10:464 1946-47]. Acidic solutions dissolve iron violently, [Mellor, 1947, Vol. 10, 470].

Hazard
Fire risk in contact with reducers.

Health Hazard
Inhalation produces slight toxic effects. Contact with dust irritates eyes and causes skin rash.

Contact allergens
Persulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents, and hair bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. It may induce irritant dermatitis, (mainly) nonimmunologic contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers. People reacting to ammonium persulfate also react to other persulfates such as potassium persulfate.

Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A powerful oxidizer that can react vigorously with reducing agents. Releases oxygen when heated. Mxtures with sodium peroxide are explosives sensitive to friction, heating above 75℃, or contact with CO2 or water. Mixtures with (powdered aluminum + water) or (zinc + ammonia) are explosive. Violent reaction with iron or solutions of ammonia + silver salts. Solution with sulfuric acid is a strong oxidzing cleaning solution. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO,, NH3, and NOx.

Potential Exposure
It is used as a bleaching agent, in photographic chemicals, and to make dyes. It is also used as an ingredient of polymerization catalysts.

Shipping
UN1444 Ammonium persulfate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer

Purification Methods
Recrystallise it at room temperature from EtOH/water. It gradually loses NH3 on exposure to air. Its solubility is 0.5g/mL at 20o, and 2g/mL at 100o.

Incompatibilities
Decomposes in water and moist air, forming oxygen gas. A strong oxidizer; reacts with reducing agents; organic and combustible materials. Incompatible with heat, sodium peroxide (produces a friction-, heat-, and water-sensitive explosive); aluminum powder.

Waste Disposal
May be treated with large volumes of water, neutralized and flushed to sewer. This applies to small quantities only.

Ammonium persulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Ammonium sulfate Sulfuric acid Ammonia


AP
APS
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULFATE
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULPHATE
AMMONIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
AMMONIUM PEROXYDISULPHATE
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE, POUCHES
AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE
PEROXIDISULFURIC ACID
PER
diammoniumperoxydisulfate
diammoniumperoxydisulphate
diammoniumpersulfate
Ammonium persulfate Ammonium peroxodisulfate
Ammonium persulfate, Molecular Biology Grade Ammonium peroxodisulfate, Molecular Biology Grade
diammonium peroxodisulphate
Ammonium persuifate
Ammonium Persulfate Ammonium peroxydisulfate Diammonium peroxydisulphate
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE REAGENT GRADE 98%
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE MOLECULAR BIOLOGYREA GENT
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULFATE, ACS
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULFATE, FOR MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE, REAGENTPLUS, 99.99+ %
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE SIGMAULTRA
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE 98+% A.C.S. REAGE&
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULFATE EXTRA PURE
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE 150 MG CAPSULESMOLEC ULAR BIOLO
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE ELECTROPHORESISREAGE NT
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE ACS REAGENT
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE, 98+%, A.C.S. REAGEN T
AMMONIUM PEROXODISULFATE R. G., REAG. AC S, REAG. PH. EUR.
persulphuric acid
AmmoniumPersulphateGr
AmmoniumPersulphate,MolBiologyGrade
AmmoniumPersulphateExtraPure
AmmoniumPersulphateAr
AmmoniumPersulphateAcs
AmmoniumPersulphate99%Min
AmmoniumPersuflateAcsReagent
Ammonium persulfate, 98%, extra pure
Ammonium persulfate, 99+%, dnase, rnase and protease free, for molecular biology
Ammonium persulfate, 98+%, for analysis ACS
Ammonium persulfate, DNAse, RNAse and Protease free, for molecular biology
Ammonium persulfate, for analysis ACS
Peroxodisulfuric acid diammonium salt
Persulfuric acid ammonium salt
Ammonium Peroxydisulfate, Crystal
AMMONIUM PERSULFATEANALYTICAL GRADE
Ammonium persulfate,AP, APS, Ammonium peroxodisulfate, Ammonium peroxydisulfate, PER
Ammonium peroxodisulfate, molecular biology grade
Ammonium peroxodisulfate/ 98+%
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE, REAGENT (ACS) (Ammonium Peroxydisulfate)
Ammonium Peroxydisulfate,AP
AMMoniuM Peroxydisulfate, Crystal, Electrophoresis Grade
AMMoniuM Persulfate, GR ACS
AMMoniuM Persulfate, OMniPur(R)
OMniPur(R) AMMoniuM Persulfate, Pouches

Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic salts. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, mixtures of persulfates such as Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are used in hair bleaches and hair lighteners.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate help to decolorize or lighten hair by oxidizing the colors present in the hair shaft.

Ammonium Persulfate is also used in the baking industry as a bleaching agent for flour.

 Ammonium Persulfate (APS) is an oxidizing agent that is used with TEMED to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide and bisacrylamide to prepare polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis.

Ammonium persulfate (APS) is an oxidizing agent that is often used with tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED, Part No. 17919) to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide and bisacrylamide to prepare polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis.

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