Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C = Ascorbate = E300

CAS Number: 50-81-7
Formula: C6H8O6
Molar mass: 176.124 g·mol−1

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.
Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.
Ascorbic acid is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.
Ascorbic acid also functions as an antioxidant.
Most animals and plants are able to synthesize their own vitamin C, however, humans and other apes, most bats, some rodents and certain other animals cannot and must acquire it from dietary sources.

There is some evidence that regular use of supplements may reduce the duration of the common cold, but Ascorbic acid does not appear to prevent infection.
Ascorbic acid is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.
Ascorbic acid may be taken by mouth or by injection.

Vitamin C is generally well tolerated.
Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.
Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.
The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.

Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication.
Partly for Ascorbic acids discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively.
Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries.
Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.

Uses of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C has a definitive role in treating scurvy, which is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. 
Beyond that, a role for vitamin C as prevention or treatment for various diseases is disputed, with reviews reporting conflicting results. 
A 2012 Cochrane review reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on overall mortality.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.

Ascorbic acid is a nutrient that the human body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. 
An antioxidant, ascorbic acid can help prevent cell damage caused by free radicals —unstable molecules that can damage cells. 
Ascorbic acid also helps prevent and treat scurvy.
According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, ascorbic acid can help the human body fight bacterial infections and help form collagen, an important protein in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, skin and capillaries.

Food and Beverages of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C occurs naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables, from oranges and grapefruits to broccoli, Brussel sprouts and tomatoes. 
In these foods however, vitamins can be diminished by heat, boiling water or air.
Many foods are fortified with ascorbic acid to help replenish vitamin C content that may be lost in these ways. 
Ascorbic acid is often added to fruit juices, cereals, fruit-flavored candies, dried fruit, cured meats and frozen fruits, to fortify or add a citrus flavor.
Ascorbic acid also acts as a preservative to keep food such as bread, cured meats, jams and jellies, from spoiling.

Ascorbic acid and personal Care Products & Cosmetics
Cosmetics and other personal care products may include less acidic forms of ascorbic acid, such as calcium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, sodium ascorbate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, which act as antioxidants to slow deterioration of the finished product caused by exposure to the air and also to control the pH of the product.

Ascorbic acid and Industrial/Manufacturing Uses
Ascorbic acid is used in a range of industrial and manufacturing applications, including as a developing agent and preservative in photo production, and in water purification, where it is used to help remove the taste of iodine in sterilized, potable water. 
Scientists also use ascorbic acid in fluorescence microscopy, an essential tool to understanding cell biology. 
In this application, ascorbic acid helps increase fluorescence, making cells more visible to researchers. 
In plastic manufacturing, ascorbic acid helps bring about the chemical reaction that makes plastic.

Ascorbic acid: Vitamin C, an essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. 
The body requires ascorbic acid in order to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. 
Ascorbic acid also promotes the healing of cuts, abrasions and wounds; 
helps fight infections; inhibits conversion of irritants in smog, tobacco smoke, and certain foods into cancer-causing substances; 
appears to lessen the risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease; 
helps regulate cholesterol levels; 
prevents the development of scurvy; appears to lower the risk of developing cataracts; and aids in iron absorption. 
Ascorbic acid can cause adverse reactions when taken with some drugs.

Why is Ascorbic acid prescribed?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of ascorbic acid in the diet is not enough. 
People most at risk for ascorbic acid deficiency are those with a limited variety of food in their diet, or who have intestinal malabsorption problems from cancer or kidney disease. 
Ascorbic acid is also used to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease that causes fatigue, gum swelling, joint pain, and poor wound healing from a lack of vitamin C in the body). 
Ascorbic acid is in a class of medications called antioxidants. 
Ascorbic acid is needed by the body to help wounds heal, to enhance the absorption of iron from plant foods, and to support the immune system. 
Ascorbic acid works as an antioxidant to protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

How should Ascorbic acid be used?
Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, chewable tablets, chewable gels (gummies), and liquid drops to be given by mouth. 
Ascorbic acid usually is taken once a day or as directed by your doctor. 
Ascorbic acid is available without a prescription, but your doctor may prescribe ascorbic acid to treat certain conditions. 
Follow the directions on the package or on your product label or doctor's instructions carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take ascorbic acid exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of it or take Ascorbic acid more often than recommended by your doctor.

Ascorbic acid may take up to 4 weeks for symptoms of scurvy to improve.
Ascorbic acid supplements are available alone and in combination with other vitamins.

Other uses for Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.
Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ascorbic acid,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ascorbic acid, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ascorbic acid products. 
Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. 
Be sure to mention any of the following: chemotherapy medications, fluphenazine, and niacin taken in combination with simvastatin (Flolipid, Zocor). 
Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had medical conditions.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor.
tell your doctor if you use tobacco products. 
Cigarette smoking may decrease the effectiveness of ascorbic acid and you may need to take a larger dose. 
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your dose of ascorbic acid if you use tobacco products.

What happens if I miss a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. 
Skip the missed dose if Ascorbic acid is almost time for your next scheduled dose. 
Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking ascorbic acid?
Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

How should I take ascorbic acid?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) increases with age. 
Follow your healthcare provider's instructions. 
You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly "Recommended Daily Allowances") listings for more information.
Drink plenty of liquids while you are taking ascorbic acid.
The chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it.

What special dietary instructions should I follow when using Ascorbic acid?
Some forms of ascorbic acid contain sodium and should be avoided if you are on a sodium- or salt-restricted diet.

What should I do if I forget a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember Ascorbic acid. 
However, if Ascorbic acid is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take Ascorbic acid double dose to make up for a missed one.

The disease scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency and can be prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.
Ascorbic acid takes at least a month of little to no vitamin C before symptoms occur.
Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy, progressing to shortness of breath, bone pain, bleeding gums, susceptibility to bruising, poor wound healing, and finally fever, convulsions and eventual death.
Until quite late in the disease the damage is reversible, as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. 
Treatment can be oral supplementation of the vitamin or by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Scurvy was known to Hippocrates in the classical era. 
The disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruits in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747, on board HMS Salisbury and from 1796 lemon juice was issued to all Royal Navy crewmen.

Ascorbic acid infection
Further information: Vitamin C and the common cold
Black and white photo of Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling.
The Nobel prizewinner Linus Pauling advocated taking vitamin C for the common cold in a 1970 book.
Research on vitamin C in the common cold has been divided into effects on prevention, duration, and severity. 
A Cochrane review which looked at at least 200 mg/day concluded that vitamin C taken on a regular basis was not effective in prevention of the common cold. 
Restricting analysis to trials that used at least 1000 mg/day also saw no prevention benefit. 
However, taking vitamin C on a regular basis did reduce the average duration by 8% in adults and 14% in children, and also reduced severity of colds.
A subsequent meta-analysis in children found that vitamin C approached statistical significance for prevention and reduced the duration of upper respiratory tract infections.
A subset of trials in adults reported that supplementation reduced the incidence of colds by half in marathon runners, skiers, or soldiers in subarctic conditions.
Another subset of trials looked at therapeutic use, meaning that vitamin C was not started unless the people started to feel the beginnings of a cold. 
In these, vitamin C did not affect duration or severity.
An earlier review stated that vitamin C did not prevent colds, did reduce duration, did not reduce severity.

The authors of the Cochrane review concluded that:
The failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population indicates that routine vitamin C supplementation is not justified.
Regular supplementation trials have shown that vitamin C reduces the duration of colds, but this was not replicated in the few therapeutic trials that have been carried out. 
Nevertheless, given the consistent effect of vitamin C on the duration and severity of colds in the regular supplementation studies, and the low cost and safety, it may be worthwhile for common cold patients to test on an individual basis whether therapeutic vitamin C is beneficial for them."
Vitamin C distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, promotes lymphocyte proliferation, and is consumed quickly during infections, effects indicating a prominent role in immune system regulation.
The European Food Safety Authority found a cause and effect relationship exists between the dietary intake of vitamin C and functioning of a normal immune system in adults and in children under three years of age.

What is Ascorbic Acid and how is Ascorbic acid used?
Ascorbic Acid is an over the counter and prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency (Scurvy), Urinary Acidification and as a nutritional supplement. 
-Ascorbic Acid may be used alone or with other medications.
-Ascorbic Acid belongs to a class of drugs called Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) Injection is a sterile solution. 
Each mL contains: Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) 250 mg and Edetate Disodium 0.025% in Water for Injection qs. 
Prepared with the aid of Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may have been used to adjust pH.

No preservative added.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Ascorbic acid occurs as a white or slightly yellow crystal or powder with a slight acidic taste. 
Ascorbic acid is an antiscorbutic product. On exposure to light, it gradually darkens. 
In the dry state, Ascorbic acid is reasonably stable in air, but in solution it rapidly oxidizes. 
Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is freely soluble in water; sparingly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, in ether, and in benzene. 
The chemical name of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is L-ascorbic acid (vitamin c) . 
The empirical formula is C6H806, and the molecular weight is 176.13. 

Take this vitamin by mouth with or without food, usually 1 to 2 times daily. 
Follow all directions on the product package, or take as directed by your doctor.
If you are taking the extended-release capsules, swallow them whole. 
Do not crush or chew extended-release capsules or tablets. 
Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. 
Also, do not split extended-release tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. 
Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. 
Take this product with a full glass of water (8 ounces/240 milliliters) unless your doctor directs you otherwise.
If you are taking the wafers or chewable tablets, chew them thoroughly and then swallow. 
If you are taking the lozenges, place the lozenge in your mouth and allow it to slowly dissolve.
If you are taking the powder, mix Ascorbic acid thoroughly in the proper amount of liquid or soft food and stir well. 
Take all of the mixture right away. 
Do not prepare a supply for future use. 
If you are using the liquid form of this vitamin, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. 
Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Use this vitamin regularly to get the most benefit from it. 
To help you remember, take Ascorbic acid at the same time(s) each day.
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.


Ascorbic acid significance:
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. 
The term vitamin C encompasses several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals. 
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. 
These release ascorbate upon digestion. 
Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH. 
Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.

Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. 
In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy.
Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions.
Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid. 
These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms.
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. 
This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by converting it to water (H2O) and oxygen.

CAS Number: 50-81-7 
as salt: 134-03-2 
PubChem CID: 54670067
as salt: 23667548
DrugBank: DB00126 
as salt: DB14482 
ChemSpider: 10189562 
as salt: 16736174 
as salt: S033EH8359 
KEGG: D00018 
as salt: D05853
ChEBI: CHEBI:29073 
as salt: CHEBI:113451 
as salt: ChEMBL591665
NIAID ChemDB: 002072
PDB ligand: ASC (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
E number: E300 (antioxidants, ...) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5020106
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.061 


Main article: Scurvy
Vitamin C blood serum levels are considered saturated at levels > 65 μmol/L (1.1 mg/dL), achieved by consuming amounts which are at, or above, the Recommended Dietary Allowance, while adequate levels are defined as ≥ 50 μmol/L. 
Hypovitaminosis in the case of vitamin C is defined as ≤ 23 μmol/L and deficiency occurs at ≤ 11.4 μmol/L.
For those 20 years of age or above, data from the U.S. 2003-04 NHANES survey showed mean and median serum concentrations of 49.0 and 54.4 μmol/L, respectively. 
The percent of people reported as deficient was 7.1%.

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. 
Without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function and several other enzymes in the body do not operate correctly.
Scurvy is characterized by spots on and bleeding under the skin, spongy gums, 'corkscrew' hair growth, and poor wound healing. 
The skin lesions are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. 
In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds, loss of teeth, bone abnormalities and, eventually, death.

Notable human dietary studies of experimentally induced scurvy were conducted on conscientious objectors during World War II in Britain and on Iowa state prisoners in the late 1960s to the 1980s. 
Men in the prison study developed the first signs of scurvy about four weeks after starting the vitamin C-free diet, whereas in the earlier British study, six to eight months were required, possibly due to the pre-loading of this group with a 70 mg/day supplement for six weeks before the scorbutic diet was fed. 
Men in both studies had blood levels of ascorbic acid too low to be accurately measured by the time they developed signs of scurvy. 
These studies both reported that all obvious symptoms of scurvy could be completely reversed by supplementation of only 10 mg a day.

Ascorbic acid
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. 
You have to get what you need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes.

You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. 
Ascorbic acid helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. 
Ascorbic acid also helps the body absorb iron from nonheme sources.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. 
Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. 
The build up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.

Ascorbic acid’s rare to be seriously deficient in vitamin C, although evidence suggests that many people may have low levels of vitamin C. 
Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency.

Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair;
gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums;
rough, dry, scaly skin;
decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising;
and a decreased ability to ward off infection. 
A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy.

Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. 
Getting enough vitamin C from your diet by eating lots of fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. 
There is no conclusive evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help or prevent any of these conditions.

Vitamin C plays a role in protecting against the following:

-Heart Disease
Results of scientific studies on whether vitamin C is helpful for preventing heart attack or stroke are mixed. 
Vitamin C doesn't lower cholesterol levels or reduce the overall risk of heart attack, but evidence suggests it may help protect arteries against damage.
Some studies suggest that vitamin C can slow down the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). 
Ascorbic acid helps prevent damage to LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which then builds up as plaque in the arteries and can cause heart attack or stroke. 
Other studies suggest that vitamin C may help keep arteries flexible.
In addition, people who have low levels of vitamin C may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or peripheral artery disease, all potential results of having atherosclerosis. 
Peripheral artery disease is the term used to describe atherosclerosis of the blood vessels to the legs. 
Ascorbic acid can lead to pain when walking, known as intermittent claudication. 
But there is no evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help.
The best thing to do is get enough vitamin C through your diet. 
That way, you also get the benefit of other antioxidants and nutrients contained in food. 
If you have low levels of vitamin C and have trouble getting enough through the foods you eat, ask your doctor about taking a supplement.

-High Blood Pressure
Population-based studies (which involve observing large groups of people over time) suggest that people who eat foods rich in antioxidants, including vitamin C, have a lower risk of high blood pressure than people who have poorer diets. 
Eating foods rich in vitamin C is important for your overall health, especially if you are at risk for high blood pressure. 
The diet physicians most frequently recommend for treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, known as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, includes lots of fruits and vegetables, which are loaded with antioxidants.

-Common Cold
Despite the popular belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold, scientific evidence doesn't support that theory. 
Taking vitamin C supplements regularly (not just at the beginning of a cold) produces only a small reduction in the duration of a cold (about 1 day). 
The only other piece of evidence supporting vitamin C for preventing colds comes from studies examining people exercising in extreme environments (athletes, such as skiers and marathon runners, and soldiers in the Arctic). 
In these studies, vitamin C did seem to reduce the risk of getting a cold.

Results of many population-based studies suggest that eating foods rich in vitamin C may be associated with lower rates of cancer, including skin cancer, cervical dysplasia (changes to the cervix which may be cancerous or precancerous, picked up by pap smear), and, possibly, breast cancer. 
But these foods also contain many beneficial nutrients and antioxidants, not only vitamin C, so it's impossible to say for certain that vitamin C protects against cancer. 
Taking vitamin C supplements, on the other hand, has not been shown to have any helpful effect.
In addition, there is no evidence that taking large doses of vitamin C once diagnosed with cancer will help your treatment. 
In fact, some doctors are concerned that large doses of antioxidants from supplements could interfere with chemotherapy medications. 
More research is needed. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any supplement.

Vitamin C is essential for the body to make collagen, which is part of normal cartilage. 
Cartilage is destroyed in osteoarthritis (OA), putting pressure on bones and joints. 
In addition, some researchers think free radicals may also be involved in the destruction of cartilage. 
Antioxidants such as vitamin C appear to limit the damage caused by free radicals. 
However, no evidence suggests that taking vitamin C supplements will help treat or prevent OA. 
What the evidence does show is that people who eat diets rich in vitamin C are less likely to be diagnosed with arthritis.
Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lower your levels of vitamin C. 
If you take these drugs regularly for OA, you might want to take a vitamin C supplement.

Age-related Macular Degeneration
Vitamin C (500 mg) appears to work with other antioxidants, including zinc (80 mg), beta-carotene (15 mg), and vitamin E (400 IU) to protect the eyes against developing macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the United States. 
The people who seem to benefit are those with advanced AMD. 
Ascorbic acid isn't known whether this combination of nutrients helps prevent AMD or is beneficial for people with less advanced AMD. 
This combination includes a high dose of zinc, which you should only take under a doctor’s supervision.

Some studies suggest that taking vitamin C along with vitamin E may help prevent pre-eclampsia in women who are at high risk. 
Pre-eclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and too much protein in the urine, is a common cause of premature births. Not all studies agree, however.

Studies are mixed when Ascorbic acid comes to the effect of vitamin C on asthma. 
Some show that low levels of vitamin C are more common in people with asthma, leading some researchers to think that low levels of vitamin C might increase the risk for this condition. 
Other studies seem to show that vitamin C may help reduce symptoms of exercise-induced asthma.

Although the information is limited, studies suggest that vitamin C may also be helpful for:
-Boosting immunity
-Maintaining healthy gums
-Improving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part of the eye)
-Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever (called allergic rhinitis)
-Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (called erythema)
-Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (a common side effect from these drugs)
-Healing burns and wounds
-Decreasing blood sugar in people with diabetes
Some viral conditions, including mononucleosis; Although scientific evidence is lacking, some doctors may suggest high-dose vitamin C to treat some viruses

-Dietary Sources
Excellent sources of vitamin C include oranges, green peppers, watermelon, papaya, grapefruit, cantaloupe, strawberries, kiwi, mango, broccoli, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, and citrus juices or juices fortified with vitamin C. 
Raw and cooked leafy greens (turnip greens, spinach), red and green peppers, canned and fresh tomatoes, potatoes, winter squash, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, and pineapple are also rich sources of vitamin C. 
Vitamin C is sensitive to light, air, and heat, so you'll get the most vitamin C if you eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked.

-Available Forms
You can purchase either natural or synthetic vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, in a variety of forms. 
Tablets, capsules, and chewables are probably the most popular forms, but vitamin C also comes in powdered crystalline, effervescent, and liquid forms. 
Vitamin C comes in doses ranging from 25 - 1,000 mg.
"Buffered" vitamin C is also available if you find that regular ascorbic acid upsets your stomach. 
An esterified form of vitamin C is also available, which may be easier on the stomach for those who are prone to heartburn.

How to Take Ascorbic acid
The best way to take vitamin C supplements is 2 - 3 times per day, with meals, depending on the dosage. 
Some studies suggest that adults should take 250 - 500 mg twice a day for any benefit. 
Talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C on a daily basis and before giving vitamin C to a child.
Daily intake of dietary vitamin C (according to the National Academy of Sciences) is listed below.

Birth - 6 months: 40 mg (Adequate intake)
Infants 6 - 12 months: 50 mg (Adequate intake)
Children 1 - 3 years: 15 mg
Children 4 - 8 years: 25 mg
Children 9 - 13 years: 45 mg
Adolescent girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mg
Adolescent boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mg

Men over 18 years: 90 mg
Women over 18 years: 75 mg
Pregnant women 14 - 18 years: 80 mg
Pregnant women over 18 years: 85 mg
Breastfeeding women 14 - 18 years: 115 mg
Breastfeeding women over 18 years: 120 mg
Because smoking depletes vitamin C, people who smoke may need an additional 35 mg per day.
The dose recommended to prevent or treat many of the conditions mentioned in the Uses section is often 500 - 1,000 mg per day.

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.
Vitamin C supplements have a diuretic effect, meaning the help the body get rid of excess fluid. 
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids when taking them.
Most commercial vitamin C is made from corn. 
People sensitive to corn should look for alternative sources, such as sago palm.
Vitamin C increases the amount of iron absorbed from foods. 
People with hemochromatosis, an inherited condition where too much iron builds up in the body, should not take vitamin C supplements.
Vitamin C is generally considered safe because your body gets rid of what it does not use. 
But at high doses (more than 2,000 mg daily) it can cause diarrhea, gas, or stomach upset. 
If you experience these side effects, lower the dose of vitamin C.
People with kidney problems should talk to their doctor before taking vitamin C.
People who smoke or use nicotine patches may need more vitamin C because nicotine makes vitamin C less effective in the body.

Infants born to mothers taking 6,000 mg or more of vitamin C may develop rebound scurvy because their intake of vitamin C drops after birth. 
If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C.
People with sickle cell anemia, as well as people with a metabolic disorder called G6PD, can potentially have serious side-effects from taking high levels of vitamin C.
Thalassemia and Hemochromatosis patients could be negatively affected by increased iron absorption, which may occur from vitamin C supplementation.
Vitamin C may raise blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. 
In older women with diabetes, doses of vitamin C above 300 mg per day were associated with an increased risk of death from heart disease.
Taking vitamin C right before or after angioplasty may interfere with healing.
If you are being treated for cancer, talk to your oncologist before taking vitamin C. 
Vitamin C may potentially interact with some chemotherapy drugs.

Possible Interactions
If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin C supplements without first talking to your health care provider:
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- Both aspirin and NSAIDs can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body because they cause more of the vitamin to be lost in urine. 
In addition, high doses of vitamin C can cause more of these drugs to stay in the body, raising the levels in your blood. 
Early research suggests that vitamin C might help protect against stomach upset that aspirin and NSAIDs can cause. 
If you regularly take aspirin or NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking more than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) -- High doses of vitamin C may lower the amount of acetaminophen passed in urine, which could cause the levels of this drug in your blood to rise.
Aluminum-containing antacids -- Vitamin C can increase the amount of aluminum your body absorbs, which could cause the side effects of these medications to be worse. 
Aluminum-containing antacids include Maalox and Gaviscon.
Barbiturates -- Barbiturates may decrease the effects of vitamin C. 
These drugs include phenobarbital (Luminal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), and seconobarbital (Seconal).
Chemotherapy drugs -- As an antioxidant, vitamin C may interfere with the effects of some drugs taken for chemotherapy. 
However, some researchers speculate that vitamin C might help make chemotherapy more effective. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, do not take vitamin C or any other supplement without talking to your oncologist.
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- Vitamin C can cause a rise in estrogen levels when taken with these drugs. 
Oral estrogens can also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body.
Protease inhibitors -- Vitamin C appears to slightly lower levels of indinavir (Crixivan), a medication used to treat HIV and AIDS.
Tetracycline -- Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin C with the antibiotic tetracycline may increase the levels of this medication. 
It may also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body. 
Other antibiotics in the same family include minocycline (Minocin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin).
Warfarin (Coumadin) -- There have been rare reports of vitamin C interfering with the effectiveness of this blood-thinning medication. 
In recent follow-up studies, no effect was found with doses of vitamin C up to 1,000 mg per day. 
However, if you take warfarin or another blood thinner, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any other supplement.

ascorbic acid
vitamin C
l-ascorbic acid
L(+)-Ascorbic acid
Cevitamic acid

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Unlike most mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize vitamin C and must obtain it from the diet.
Vitamin C is an essential cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, e.g., in the biosynthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neuropeptides, and in the regulation of gene expression. 
Ascorbic acid is also a potent antioxidant. 
Prospective cohort studies indicate that higher vitamin C status, assessed by measuring circulating vitamin C, is associated with lower risks of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. 
There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin C may be a useful adjunct to conventional medical practice to reduce myocardial injury and arrhythmia following a cardiac procedure or surgery in patients with cardiovascular disease.
There are insufficient data to suggest a link between vitamin C status and the risk of developing a given type of cancer. 
Most observational studies examining vitamin C intake in relation to cancer incidence have found no association. 
Randomized controlled trials have reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on cancer risk. 
Current evidence of the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer patients is limited to observational studies, uncontrolled interventions, and case reports. 
There is a need for large, longer-duration phase II clinical trials that test the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer progression and overall survival. 
Overall, regular use of vitamin C supplements shortens the duration of the common cold but does not reduce the risk of becoming ill. 
Taking supplements once cold symptoms have already begun has no proven benefits.
Vitamin C supplements are available in many forms, but there is little scientific evidence that any one form is better absorbed or more effective than another. 
There is no scientific evidence that large amounts of vitamin C (up to 10 grams [g]/day in adults) exert any adverse or toxic effects. 
An upper intake level of 2 g/day is recommended in order to prevent some adults from experiencing diarrhea and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Supplemental vitamin C increases urinary oxalate concentrations, but whether an increase in urinary oxalate elevates the risk for kidney stones is not yet known. 
Those predisposed for kidney stone formation may consider avoiding high-dose (≥1 g/day) vitamin C supplementation.  

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a potent reducing agent, meaning that it readily donates electrons to recipient molecules. 
Related to this oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, two major functions of vitamin C are as an antioxidant and as an enzyme cofactor.
Vitamin C is the primary water-soluble, non-enzymatic antioxidant in plasma and tissues. 
Even in small amounts, vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during normal metabolism, by active immune cells, and through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g., certain chemotherapy drugs and cigarette smoke). 
Vitamin C also participates in redox recycling of other important antioxidants; for example, vitamin C is known to regenerate vitamin E from its oxidized form.
The role of vitamin C as a cofactor is also related to its redox potential.
By maintaining enzyme-bound metals in their reduced forms, vitamin C assists mixed-function oxidases in the synthesis of several critical biomolecules.
These enzymes are either monooxygenases or dioxygenases. 
Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency, such as poor wound healing and lethargy, likely result from the impairment of these vitamin C-dependent enzymatic reactions leading to the insufficient synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and catecholamines (see Deficiency). 
Moreover, several dioxygenases involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome integrity require vitamin C as a cofactor. 
Indeed, research has recently uncovered the crucial role played by enzymes, such as the TET dioxygenases and Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, in the fate of cells and tissues. 
These enzymes contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by catalyzing reactions involved in the demethylation of DNA and histones.

M.Wt: 176.12
Formula: C6H8O6
Solubility: Soluble to 500 mM in water and to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity: ≥99%
Storage: Store at RT
CAS No: 50-81-7


Ascorbic acid is vitamin C, an antioxidant that’s sometimes used as a dietary supplement or to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the body).  
People also commonly take vitamin C to lessen the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold.
Vitamin C is important for maintaining healthy bones, teeth, connective tissue, muscles, skin, and capillaries. 
Ascorbic acid also helps your body absorb iron.
Many foods are naturally high in vitamin C, including citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, and tomatoes.

Ascorbic acid BENEFITS:
-Provides advanced environmental protection by neutralizing damaging free radicals
-Visible anti-aging benefits, such as the improvement of the appearance of lines and wrinkles, loss of firmness, and brightens skin’s complexion
-Neutralizes free radicals on the upper layer of the skin to help prevent the impact of ozone damage to skin
-Once absorbed, this vitamin C serum remains effective for a minimum of 72 hours
-Paraben-free and ideal for normal, dry, and sensitive skin types
-Tested suitable for use post-laser, always consult with a physician for individual post-procedure care

Your body uses extra vitamin C during times of increased need such as illness or infection so unless extra care is taken to increase dietary intake during these times, daily supplies are likely to fall short. 
This is when supplemental vitamin C may be a useful addition to your diet.
-Ascorbic acid is the form of vitamin C found naturally in food. 
Ascorbic acid has good bioavailability but some people find it too acidic on their gut and can’t tolerate higher doses.
-Bioflavonoids are beneficial plant compounds often added to vitamin C supplements. 
They deliver extra immune benefits and may help to increase bioavailability.
-Mineral ascorbates such as calcium and magnesium ascorbate are often called ‘buffered’ vitamin C. 
Many people find these to be gentler forms of vitamin C that are better tolerated by the gut. 
Ascorbic acid is important however to consider the accompanying dose of mineral (calcium, magnesium etc.) when taking higher levels.
-Time-release vitamin C is often the preferred choice since vitamin C has better bioavailability when taken in smaller doses throughout the day. 
A time-release formula aims to solve this problem without taking multiple tablets, by releasing the vitamin C slowly throughout the day.

What is Ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic Acid, also known as Vitamin C, is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties found in many foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, and red peppers.  
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for the human body and also a common dietary supplement.
Historically, Ascorbic acid was common knowledge to sailors in the 18th century that lemon and lime juice could help prevent scurvy. 
By early 1907, two Norwegian physicians investigating dietary-deficiency diseases discovered an essential disease-preventing compound in foods, which eventually came to be called vitamin C.

What does Ascorbic acid do?
Ascorbic acid’s primary function in our personal care products is as an antioxidant. 
While ascorbic acid when taken as a supplement helps prevent cell damage in the human body, the antioxidant properties in the finished product help to protect the product integrity and extend the shelf life of the product. 
Ascorbic acid can also be used as a pH adjuster.

How is Ascorbic acid made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
Ascorbic acid can be sourced from citrus fruits or prepared from corn glucose by a method based on the historical “Reichstein process”. The ascorbic acid that we use is derived from citrus fruits.

What are the alternatives?
There are many ingredients with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E – another commonly used natural antioxidant. There are also many synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) that Tom’s of Maine would not consider as they do not meet our Stewardship Model guidelines.


Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. 
Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation from the sun, X-rays or other sources. 
Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. 
Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron.
Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. 
Ascorbic acid is found in citrus fruits, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. 
Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets.
Most people get enough vitamin C from a healthy diet. 
Ascorbic acid deficiency is more likely in people who:

Smoke or are exposed to secondhand smoking
Have certain gastrointestinal conditions or certain types of cancer
Have a limited diet that doesn't regularly include fruits and vegetables
Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease called scurvy, which causes anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing.

If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
The recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 90 milligrams for adult men and 75 milligrams for adult women.


What are the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid?
Ascorbic Acid may cause serious side effects including:
-stomach cramps, and
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.

L-Ascorbic acid is an inhibitor of Cav3.2 channels (IC50 = 6.5 μM); displays no effect on Cav3.1 or Cav3.3 channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. 
Also enhances the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse and human somatic cells by increasing reprogramming efficiency. 
Commonly used antifade reagent in live cell microscopy. 
Naturally occurring antioxidant.

Davitamon C
Planavit C
Catavin C
Ce lent
Vicomin C
Cetane-Caps TD
Antiscorbic vitamin

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has several important functions.
Ascorbic acid include:
-helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy
-maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage
-helping with wound healing
-Lack of vitamin C can lead to scurvy.

Good sources of vitamin C
Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Good sources include:
-citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice
-brussels sprouts

How much vitamin C do I need?
Adults aged 19 to 64 need 40mg of vitamin C a day.

You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need from your daily diet.
Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body, so you need it in your diet every day.

What happens if I take too much vitamin C?
Taking large amounts (more than 1,000mg per day) of vitamin C can cause:
-stomach pain
These symptoms should disappear once you stop taking vitamin C supplements.

What does the Department of Health and Social Care advise?
You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
If you take vitamin C supplements, do not take too much as this could be harmful.
Taking less than 1,000mg of vitamin C supplements a day is unlikely to cause any harm.

Cee-Caps TD
L-Lyxoascorbic acid
L-Xyloascorbic acid
Antiscorbutic vitamin
Cetane-Caps TC
Natrascorb injectable
L-(+)-Ascorbic Acid
Ferrous ascorbate
Acidum ascorbinicum

What is the difference between Vitamin C and ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C and ascorbic acid are chemically identical. 
The vitamin C that occurs naturally in an orange or lemon is the same molecule as synthetic ascorbic acid developed in a laboratory.

What are the health benefits of ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid is also well studied for Ascorbic acids health benefits. 
Oregon State University’s Micronutrient Information Center states that the antioxidant properties of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and Ascorbic acids role in collagen synthesis make it a vital molecule for skin health.
According to NCI, dietary antioxidants like vitamin C can neutralize damage to cells caused by free radicals, which may play a role in the prevention of cancer and other health conditions.

Acidum ascorbicum
Kyselina askorbova
Acido ascorbico
Acide ascorbique
Antiscorbutic factor
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
L-Threoascorbic acid
Kyselina askorbova [Czech]

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. 
Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free radicals, being able to interact with superoxide, hydroxyl and free oxygen ions, preventing the inflammatory processes, carcinogens, and other processes that accelerate photoaging in the skin. 
Current research focuses on the search for stable compounds of ascorbic acid and new alternatives for administration in the dermis. 
Unlike plants and most animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize our own ascorbic acid due to the deficiency of the enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the passage terminal in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis. 
To deal with this situation, humans obtain this vitamin from the diet and/or vitamin supplements, thus preventing the development of diseases and achieving general well-being. 
Ascorbic acid is involved in important metabolic functions and is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Ascorbic acid is a very unstable vitamin and is easily oxidized in aqueous solutions and cosmetic formulations. 
Ascorbic acid is extensively used as an ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic products, as sodium ascorbate or ascorbyl palmitate. 
This review discusses and describes the potential roles for ascorbic acid in skin health and their clinical applications (antioxidative, photoprotective, anti-aging, and anti-pigmentary effects) of topical ascorbic acid on the skin and main mechanisms of action. 
Considering the instability and difficulty in administering ascorbic acid, we also discuss the importance of several factors involved in the formulation and stabilization of their topical preparations in this review.

Caswell No. 061B
Acide ascorbique [INN-French]
Acido ascorbico [INN-Spanish]
Acidum ascorbicum [INN-Latin]
L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid, gamma-lactone
L-threo-Ascorbic acid
FEMA No. 2109
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone (enol form)

Possible interactions include:
Taking vitamin C can increase your absorption of aluminum from medications containing aluminum, such as phosphate binders. 
This can be harmful for people with kidney problems.
There is concern that use of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, during chemotherapy might reduce the effect of chemotherapy drugs.
Taking vitamin C with oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy might increase your estrogen levels.
Protease inhibitors:
Oral use of vitamin C might reduce the effect of these antiviral drugs.
Statins and niacin: 
When taken with vitamin C, the effects of niacin and statins, which might benefit people with high cholesterol, could be reduced.
Warfarin (Jantoven):
High doses of vitamin C might reduce your response to this anticoagulant.

monodehydro-L-ascorbic acid
(+)-Ascorbic acid
Hex-2-enonic acid gamma-lactone, L-threo-
Iron(II) ascorbate
component of E and C-Level
component of Endoglobin Forte
component of Cortalex
component of Ferancee
HSDB 818
Iron-ascorbic acid complexes

Ascorbic acid—also known as L-ascorbic acid—has the most research of any form of vitamin C when it comes to skin, and in fact is the most abundant naturally occurring antioxidant in our skin. 
Concentrations between 5–20% can improve numerous the appearance of signs of aging, including discolorations, wrinkles, and loss of firmness due to sun damage. 
Lower concentrations such as those between 0.3–2% also offer benefits, such as improvement of uneven skin tone, fine lines, and boosting skin’s antioxidant supply.
Ascorbic acid is also a powerhouse when mixed with other antioxidants, especially vitamin E, and is particularly great for evening out skin tone when used alone in higher concentrations, such as 15%, 20%, or greater. 
Vitamins C and E work together to keep each other stabilized and able to exert their benefits in skin longer.
In order to be most effective in higher concentrations, any water-based vitamin C formula’s pH should be 3.5 or lower. 
This helps improve stability and permeability of ascorbic acid, allowing it to do more than work as an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is a particularly vulnerable antioxidant when exposed to UV light and air, so it must be packaged to protect it from these elements during routine use. 
If not, its effectiveness will gradually become diminished to the point of not working at all. 
You will see this as discoloration from oxidation which causes the product to turn a copper to brownish color. 
For this reason, avoid any vitamin C (ascorbic acid) products packaged in traditional, open-mouthed jars or clear bottles.
Dropper-based dispenser-type packaging should also have air-restrictive capabilities to improve stability. 
And for maximum potency, it’s best to use a water-based vitamin C treatment within 3 months of opening. 
With once-daily usage, most people will find they go through their vitamin C product within a couple months.
Considered safe as used in cosmetics, ascorbic acid is also fine to use with retinol and niacinamide without any of these ingredients causing the other to break down or lose effectiveness beyond what would normally occur due to air and light exposure, which is why ingredients like these need to be routinely applied.

L(+)-Ascorbic acid, 99%
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate
Rovimix C
Scorbu C
Cell C
L(+)-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent
Viscorin 100M
Ronotec 100
Suncoat VC 40
Rontex 100
Ascorbicap (TN)
Xyloascorbic acid, L-
Ascoltin (TN)

Ascorbic Acid is a naturally occurring lactone that is produced by plants and many animals, but not humans or other primates. 
Ascorbic acid acts as an electron donor (i.e. reducing agent), and shows antioxidant activity, particularly against reactive oxygen species. 
Ascorbic Acid is a cofactor for monooxygenase and dioxygenase as well as other enzymes (Arrigoni & De Tullio; Du et al.).

-Increases the efficiency of reprogramming mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (Esteban et al.) partly through JHDM1 histone demethylase activity (Wang et al.).
-Prevents aberrant DNA methylation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus during reprogramming of mouse somatic cells to iPS cells (Stadtfeld et al.).

-Supports proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (Choi et al.).

-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from human and mouse mesenchymal cells (Pittenger et al.; Tropel et al.).
-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (zur Nieden et al.).
-Enhances differentiation of cardiomyocytes from mouse ES cells (Takahashi et al.).

Some notes on ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is an unnecessary additive, which can weaken the gluten in longer-fermented doughs.
One of its functions is to help ‘convey the impression of improved freshness to the customer.
We believe that bakers improving their knowledge and skills to get the most out of natural ingredients is more beneficial all round than falling back on an artificial additive
By helping gluten to ‘relax’ it can have the incidental effect of increasing the speed of rising, which is moving in the wrong direction of our aim to encouraging bakers to prolong dough fermentation

What are the possible side effects of ascorbic acid?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using ascorbic acid and call your doctor at once if you have:
joint pain, weakness or tired feeling, weight loss, stomach pain;
chills, fever, increased urge to urinate, painful or difficult urination; or
severe pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine.
Common side effects may include:

heartburn, upset stomach; or
nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 

What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

[14C]ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid [BAN:INN:JAN]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
[14C]-ascorbic acid
ascorbic acid (vit C)
L-Ascorbic acid, meets USP testing specifications
EINECS 200-066-2
NSC 33832
Vitamin B mixture with vitamin C
Ester C

Isn’t ascorbic acid just vitamin C?
Consuming the ascorbic acid that can be used in baking does not provide the beneficial effects of vitamin C found in, say, an orange as it is:
-Used in far smaller quantities than the recommended daily intake
-Largely denatured (or degraded) and its residues no longer have any beneficial properties of vitamin C
-A highly-refined substance, without the many complex bioflavonoids and other beneficial micronutrients that accompany vitamin C in fresh fruit
Like many processing aids and other food additives, is it not destroyed (as industrial loaf fabricators sometimes like to claim about such things) in the sense that its residues remain in the loaf.

How do I know if there’s ascorbic acid in flour or a loaf?
All bakers using The Real Bread Loaf Mark have signed an agreement that they will only use it for loaves baked without the use of any artificial additives or processing aids.
By law, any mill that has added ascorbic acid (E300) to its flour or baking mixes has to declare so on the label – you will find it on the ingredients, perhaps alongside other unnecessary extras, such as added enzymes… 
The same applies to wrapped loaves and other pre-packed baked goods – though if deemed by the producer to be ‘processing aids’ the added enzymes would not have to appear on a loaf wrapper.
At present, bakers and retailers do not have to provide ingredients lists for unwrapped loaves. 
As noted in our call for an Honest Crust Act, we demand a change in law to require that they do and in the meantime urge all bakers to do so voluntarily.  

L-Ascorbic acid, free radical form
Ascorbic acid [USP:INN:BAN:JAN]
Ascorbic acid mixture with Vitamin B
Vitamin C,(S)
E 300
Ascorbic Acid DC97SF
L-Ascorbic acid, 99%
Ascorbic Acid mixture with Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has a controversial history in cancer treatment. 
Emerging evidence indicates that ascorbate in cancer treatment deserves re-examination. 
As research results concerning ascorbate pharmacokinetics and its mechanisms of action against tumor cells have been published, and as evidence from case studies has continued to mount that ascorbate therapy could be effective if the right protocols were used, interest among physicians and scientists has increased. 
In this review, high-dose vitamin C therapy in cancer treatment is re-evaluated.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has been well documented to reduce the incidence of most malignancies in humans. 
What has been hotly debated is whether vitamin C has any therapeutic effect in the treatment of cancer. 
Cameron and Pauling reported in 1976 and 1978 that high-dose vitamin C (typically 10 g/day, by intravenous infusion for about 10 days and orally thereafter) increased the average survival of advanced cancer patients and for a small group of responders, survival was increased to up to 20 times longer than that of controls. 
Other researchers reported benefit consisting of increased survival, improved well-being and reduced pain. 
However, two randomized clinical trials with oral ascorbate conducted by the Mayo Clinic showed no benefit. 
These negative results dampened, but did not permanently extinguish, interest in ascorbate therapy or research. 
Some research groups conducted rigorous research, particularly in the area of administering mega-doses of ascorbate intravenously 

L-Ascorbic acid, FCC, FG
INS NO.300
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade
L-Ascorbic acid, >=99.0%

How does Vitamin C work for our skin?
Generally, vitamin C helps brighten skin tone, even out skin texture, and smooth out fine lines and wrinkles. 
Ascorbic acid’s also known as the MVP of protecting the skin against free radicals and UV ray damage from the sun because of its high levels of antioxidants. 
When you look closely in the deeper layers of the skin, vitamin C is responsible for stimulating production of collagen and elastin, which are essential in keeping your skin bouncy, firm, and youthful. 

Unfortunately, with many benefits comes some disadvantages. 
In some cases, pure ascorbic acid is irritating to work with, especially for sensitive skin types. 
In other cases, ascorbic acid itself is an unstable ingredient. 
This means that it is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, light, humidity, and air. 
This sensitivity eventually translates to loss in efficacy over time and a potential to go bad in a short period of time. 
But this doesn’t mean that you should turn away from it right away! 
There is a lot of scientific evidence that shows vitamin C being an effective ingredient for helping the skin. 
Since Ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid can be very unstable and potent, it can be quite irritating to some people, especially if you have sensitive skin. 
Luckily, there are many products formulated using Vitamin C derivatives. 
But to sum it up, the derivatives are very stable and can provide similar effects as ascorbic acid: from brightening the skin to delivering antioxidants for protecting the skin against the sun. 
Some of the common derivative ingredients include tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), and ascorbyl glucoside. 
There’s also derivatives like bis-glyceryl ascorbate and 3-O ethyl ascorbic acid that may also appear as an ingredient in your skincare products. 

Ascorbic acid (JP17/USP/INN)
L-Ascorbic acid ACS reagent grade

Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is by far one of the known forms of vitamin C. 
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that helps keep our skin, hair, and bones healthy. 
Most fruits and vegetables contain ascorbic acid, and its drug form helps treat those who have vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound, and bone healing.

gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonate
L-Ascorbic acid, analytical standard
L-Ascorbic acid, AR, >=99.5%
L-Ascorbic acid, mixt. with vitamin B
NSC 218455
gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid
L-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent, >=99%

Is a glass of OJ or vitamin C tablets your go-to when the sniffles come? Loading up on this vitamin was a practice spurred by Linus Pauling in the 1970s, a double Nobel laureate and self-proclaimed champion of vitamin C who promoted daily megadoses (the amount in 12 to 24 oranges) as a way to prevent colds and some chronic diseases.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
This means that Ascorbic acid dissolves in water and is delivered to the body’s tissues but is not well stored, so it must be taken daily through food or supplements. 
Even before its discovery in 1932, nutrition experts recognized that something in citrus fruits could prevent scurvy, a disease that killed as many as two million sailors between 1500 and 1800.
Vitamin C plays a role in controlling infections and healing wounds, and is a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free radicals. 
Ascorbic acid is needed to make collagen, a fibrous protein in connective tissue that is weaved throughout various systems in the body: nervous, immune, bone, cartilage, blood, and others. 
The vitamin helps make several hormones and chemical messengers used in the brain and nerves.

L-Ascorbic acid, plant cell culture tested
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade, crystalline
Ascorbic Acid (L-Ascorbic Acid; Vitamin C)
L-Ascorbic acid, BioUltra, >=99.5% (RT)
L-Ascorbic acid, tested according to Ph.Eur.

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. 
Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. 
Vitamin C is required for the enzymatic amidation of neuropeptides, production of adrenal cortical steroid hormones, promotion of the conversion of tropocollagen to collagen, and metabolism of tyrosine and folate. 
Ascorbic acid also plays a role in lipid and vitamin metabolism and is a powerful reducing agent or antioxidant. 
Specific actions include: activation of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, antioxidation, interception and destruction of free radicals, preservation and restoration of the antioxidant potential of vitamin E, and blockage of the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. 
In addition, vitamin C appears to function in a variety of other metabolic processes in which its role has not been well characterized.
Prolonged deficiency of vitamin C leads to the development of scurvy, a disease characterized by an inability to form adequate intercellular substance in connective tissues. 
This results in the formation of swollen, ulcerative lesions in the gums, mouth, and other tissues that are structurally weakened. 
Early symptoms may include weakness, easy fatigue and listlessness, as well as shortness of breath, and aching joints, bones, and muscles.
The need for vitamin C can be increased by the use of aspirin, oral contraceptives, tetracycline, and a variety of other medications. 
Psychological stress and advancing age also tend to increase the need for vitamin C. 
Among the elderly, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables often adds vitamin C depletion to the inherently increased need, with development of near-scurvy status.

Ascorbate is transported across the plasma membrane via a Na+-dependent transporter enriched in neuroendocrine tissue, SVCT2. 
How cytosolic ascorbate reaches the lumen of the secretory pathway is currently unclear. 
Nevertheless, concentrations of ascorbate are 5- to 10-fold higher in the lumen of the secretory pathway than in the cytosol. 
The millimolar concentrations of ascorbate in the lumenal compartment ensure that lumenal copper is reduced, as required for the enzymatic cleavage of molecular oxygen by PHM. 
In this oxidation–reduction reaction, PHM converts 2 mol of ascorbate into 2 mol of semidehydroascorbate, which disproportionate to form dehydroascorbate and ascorbate. 
Other single-electron reductants can substitute for ascorbate to provide reducing equivalents for Cu2+; consistent with this, no ascorbate-specific binding site has been identified on PHM.


What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.

Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid?
You should not use ascorbic acid if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a vitamin C supplement.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist about using ascorbic acid if you have:
-kidney disease or a history of kidney stones;
-hereditary iron overload disorder (hematochromatosis); or
-if you smoke (smoking can make ascorbic acid less effective).
Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are breast-feeding a baby. 
Do not use ascorbic acid without your doctor's advice in either case.

Major Food Sources
-Green or red peppers
-Tomato juice
-Baked potato
-Green peas

Health Implications
Populations at Risk for Vitamin C Deficiency
The following populations may be at risk for vitamin C deficiency and may require a supplement:

People who smoke cigarettes—Due to an increased metabolic turnover of vitamin C, smokers have lower blood vitamin C levels. 
Ascorbic acid is recommended that smokers take 35 mg more per day than the applicable RDA.
People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol—This may, in part, be due to a nutritionally inadequate diet.
The elderly—Studies have shown that older adults have lower levels of serum vitamin C. 
This may be due to a diet lacking in essential nutrients.
Infants—Feeding babies evaporated or boiled milk can cause vitamin C deficiency. 
This is because heat can destroy the vitamin C found in cow's milk.
People with limited variety in their diet—People whose diets are affected by poverty; food faddists; and people with mental illness may not prepare meals that contain a variety of foods to obtain enough vitamin C.
People with malabsorption and certain chronic diseases—Those with certain medical conditions like severe intestinal malabsorption, renal disease, or cancer may not be able to absorb enough vitamin C.

Antioxidant Capabilities
Free radicals are normal by-products of metabolism, but they can cause chain reactions that result in cell damage. 
This cell damage can, in turn, increase the risk of chronic diseases, including certain forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Antioxidants have the ability to stop this chain reaction. 
Vitamin C functions in the body as an antioxidant. 
Because of this antioxidant capability, vitamin C is being studied for a possible role in prevention of certain conditions like age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 
Currently there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin C for any of these conditions.

Respiratory Infections
Many people believe that taking mega-doses of vitamin C will cure a cold.
There is no scientific evidence to support this idea in the general population. 
However, there may be some preventative benefit in people exposed to extreme physical stress, cold environments, or those not getting enough vitamin C normally. 
Studies have found that taking vitamin C daily may help slightly reduce the symptoms and the duration of a cold. 
But taking vitamin C after the onset of the cold does not appear to effect the course of the illness. 
In addition, a review of studies on vitamin C found that it may be able to prevent and treat pneumonia, particularly in people who do not get enough vitamin C in their diet.

Tips For Increasing Your Vitamin C Intake:
To help increase your intake of vitamin C:
-Serve fruits and vegetables raw whenever possible.
-Leave the skin on potatoes and sweet potatoes.
-Add sliced strawberries, mango, or kiwi to your breakfast cereal.
-Use mashed avocado in place of mayonnaise as a sandwich spread.
-Throw snow peas in your stir-fry.
-Replace your morning coffee with a glass of orange or grapefruit juice.
-If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin C.


Vitamin C absorption and megadosing
The intestines have a limited ability to absorb vitamin C. Studies have shown that absorption of vitamin C decreases to less than 50% when taking amounts greater than 1000 mg. 
In generally healthy adults, megadoses of vitamin C are not toxic because once the body’s tissues become saturated with vitamin C, absorption decreases and any excess amount will be excreted in urine. 
However, adverse effects are possible with intakes greater than 3000 mg daily, including reports of diarrhea, increased formation of kidney stones in those with existing kidney disease or history of stones, increased levels of uric acid (a risk factor for gout), and increased iron absorption and overload in individuals with hemochromatosis, a hereditary condition causing excessive iron in the blood.
Absorption does not differ if obtaining the vitamin from food or supplements. 
Vitamin C is sometimes given as an injection into a vein (intravenous) so higher amounts can directly enter the bloodstream. 
This is usually only seen in medically monitored settings, such as to improve the quality of life in those with advanced stage cancers or in controlled clinical studies. 
Though clinical trials have not shown high-dose intravenous vitamin C to produce negative side effects, it should be administered only with close monitoring and avoided in those with kidney disease and hereditary conditions like hemochromatosis and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Vitamin C is involved with numerous metabolic reactions in the body, and obtaining the RDA or slightly higher may be protective against certain disease states. 
However, a health benefit of taking larger amounts has not been found in people who are generally healthy and well-nourished. 
Cell studies have shown that at very high concentrations, vitamin C can switch roles and act as a tissue-damaging pro-oxidant instead of an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acids effects in humans at very high doses well beyond the RDA are unclear, and can lead to increased risk of kidney stones and digestive upset.


Ascorbic acid is another name for vitamin C.
One dose a day of 25-75 mg is sufficient to prevent vitamin C deficiency. 
Higher doses are sometimes prescribed by doctors to treat a condition called scurvy (although this occurs only rarely in the UK).
Some ascorbic acid tablets should be chewed before they are swallowed and others need to be dissolved in water first.


vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. 
Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy, a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. 
First isolated in 1928, vitamin C was identified as the curative agent for scurvy in 1932.

The most common side effects of Ascorbic Acid include:
-injection site soreness,
-faintness, and

Ascorbic acid is also known as vitamin C. 
Our bodies need vitamin C to make a substance called collagen which is required for the health and repair of our skin, bones, teeth and cartilage. 
We get vitamin C from the food we eat, particularly fruit and vegetables. 
A lack of vitamin C in our diet over a period of time can lead to a condition called scurvy, although this is rare in the UK. 
Symptoms of scurvy include bleeding from the gums, bruising, and joint and muscle pains. 
Ascorbic acid has also been suggested that a lack of vitamin C may cause poor wound healing and problems fighting infection, although this has not been proved. 
Vitamin C deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid tablets) and eating foods which are rich in vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid is an ingredient of a number of vitamin preparations and some cough and cold remedies that are available to buy from retail outlets.

Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid. 
For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.


What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of the following conditions:
-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
-kidney stones
-low sodium diet
-an unusual or allergic reaction to ascorbic acid, tartrazine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
-pregnant or trying to get pregnant

How should I use this medicine?
Take this medicine by mouth. Chew it completely before swallowing. 
Follow the directions on the package or prescription label. 
You may take this medicine with or without food. 
If it upsets your stomach take it with food. 
Take your medicine at regular intervals. 
Do not take your medicine more often than directed.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. 
While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. 
Do not share this medicine with others.

Ascorbate serves as an important line of defense against H2O2 along with ascorbate peroxidase (APX).
Two molecules of ascorbate are used by APX for reduction of H2O2 to H2O. 
In addition, ascorbate reacts with other forms of ROS such as hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals and singlet O2. 
Ascorbate quenches ROS directly, acts as a substrate in both violaxanthin de-epoxidase and APX reactions and regenerate α-tocopherol. 
MDA is produced by reaction of ascorbate with ROS produces. 
The enzyme monodehydro ascorbate reductase reduces MDA back to ascorbate by using electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) or ferredoxin. 
MDA disproportionates to form dehydroascorbate (DHA) and ascorbate, if not reduced immediately.


Vitamin C is a water-soluble, essential nutrient necessary for the normal structure and function of the skin. 
The antioxidant properties of vitamin C are due to its ability to donate electrons to neutralize free radicals. 
Vitamin C also helps to regenerate another antioxidant, vitamin E. 
Vitamin C is necessary in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine during collagen crosslinking, and the transcriptional regulation of collagen synthesis. 
Vitamin C also inhibits the elastin biosynthesis seen in aged elastotic skin.
The role of vitamin C in photoaging is linked to its ability to stimulate collagen repair as well as to prevent UVB-induced erythema and sunburn cell formation, both markers of photodamage. 
Several well controlled studies have shown its benefits in decreasing the appearance of fine lines, Vitamin C increases type I collagen mRNA, aids in elastic tissue repair, and clinically improve skin texture and pigmentation.

C 1000
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, 99.0%
L-Ascorbic acid 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
L-Ascorbic acid, JIS special grade, >=99.0%
L-Ascorbic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
L-Ascorbic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%, crystalline
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., >=99.0% (RT)
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, 99.7%
Ascorbic acid, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Reference Standard
Ascorbic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
L-Ascorbic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
L-Ascorbic acid, powder, cell culture tested, gamma-irradiated
Ascorbic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (non-preferred name)
L-Ascorbic acid solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material
L-Ascorbic acid, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99%
L-Ascorbic acid, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, >=98%
L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)-13C6 solution, 500 mug/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material, ampule of 1 mL
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.7-100.5% (oxidimetric)
Valeryl fentanyl hydrochloride solution, 100 mug/mL in methanol (as a free base), certified reference material, ampule of 0.5 mL

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