Behenyl alcohol is a synthetic or plant-derived thickening agent and emulsifier used in cosmetics.
It’s considered a fatty alcohol, and is not related to sensitizing forms of alcohol.
Behenyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol used in skincare and cosmetic products to help soften the skin and improve the texture and consistency of the formulation.
Its main four uses are as an opacifying ingredient, thickener, emollient, and emulsifier.
Behenyl alcohol, also known as docosanol, is saturated fatty alcohol with 22 carbons.
Fatty alcohols are a group of ingredients that are often misunderstood, mostly due to their name.
Despite having alcohol in their name, fatty alcohols actually help to effectively condition and soften the skin and hair.
Fatty alcohols have a high molecular weight, straight-chain primary alcohols derived from natural fats and oils.
Behenyl alcohol is derived from vegetable sources such as corn, but it can also be synthetically produced.
Behenyl alcohol is primarily used in face moisturizers and body lotions, but can also be found in deodorant, lipstick, foundation, and hair care products.
EC / List no.: 211-546-6
CAS no.: 661-19-8
Mol. formula: C22H46O
CAS names: 1-Docosanol
Behenyl alcohol helps the skin to retain moisture, improving the hydrated look of the skin.
Behenyl alcohol also has many benefits to the texture and sensory feel of products.
Behenyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol (the non-drying type with a long oil loving chain of 22 carbon atoms) that is used to increase the viscosity of the formula and it also helps the oily and the watery parts to stay nicely mixed together (called emulsion stabilizing).
Categories: Texture Enhancer
Behenyl alcohol is a synthetic or plant-derived thickening agent and emulsifier used in cosmetics. It’s considered a fatty alcohol, and is not related to sensitizing forms of alcohol.
INCI: Behenyl alcohol
What is Behenyl alcohol?
Behenyl alcohol, also known as docosanol, is a colorless, waxy solid. It’s usually found naturally from vegetables, in their long-chain fatty acid mixture.
Use & Benefits:
It has one characteristic of making a layer over water to minimize evaporation. This is particularly useful in hot weather. Same way it does not let moisture evaporate from skin or hair’s surface, thus act as emollient. It is similar to other members of the behenic group a good emulsion stabilizer. It is used as viscosity increasing agent. It is used in formulations such as ointments, scrubs, and body butter.
Behenyl alcohol is Raw material for surfactants, for conditioners, for disinfectants, for plasticizers.
Behenyl alcohol is Oil base for lubricants of synthetic resin, for emulsifiers of emulsion polymerization. It is Raw material for creams/ointment, metal rolling oil etc,.
This highly desirable, long chain fatty alcohol is used to thicken and stabilize formulations.
Behenyl alcohol can also serve as a co-emulsifier in some formulations.
Behenyl alcohol will produce elegant emulsions and impart a soft, velvety feel to the skin.
Behenyl alcohol can be used in water-in-oil emulsions, oil-in-water emulsions, and anhydrous formulations-----cream, lotion, ointment, body butter, salt scrubs.
Preferred IUPAC name
Loxiol VPG 1451
CAS Number: 661-19-8
Chemical formula: C22H46O
Molar mass: 326.609 g·mol−1
Melting point: 70 °C
Boiling point: 180 °C
log P: 10.009
One of the most common side effects that has been reported from docosanol is headache. Headaches caused by the drug tend to be mild and can occur in any region of the head.
In clinical trials, headache occurred in 10.4% of people treated with docosanol cream and 10.7% of people treated with placebo.
Skin irritation may also occur at the site of application.
Usually, skin irritation is mild to moderate and does not need any further treatment.
It may also diminish after prolonged use of docosanol.
The most serious side effects, although rare, are allergic reactions.
Some of the patients experienced the symptoms of allergic reactions, including difficulty breathing, confusion, angioedema (facial swelling), fainting, dizziness, hives or chest pain.
Allergic reactions are medical emergencies and individuals who experience them are advised to seek immediate medical care in order to prevent further complications.
Other side effects may include: acne, burning, dryness, itching, rash, redness, acute diarrhea, soreness, swelling.
This topical has not been yet tested if it is safe to be used by pregnant women.
It is not established whether the active ingredient in the medicine passes into the breast milk.
Docosanol has not been specifically approved for treatment of children under 12 but is not expected to produce different side effects or problems than it does in adults.
This topical is only intended for external, oral-facial use and not for genital herpes or shingles.
Cosmetic products are recommended to be avoided while using docosanol because no interaction studies have been done.
Mechanism of action
Docosanol is thought to act by inhibiting the fusion of the human host cell with the viral envelope of the herpes virus, thus preventing its replication.
This mechanism has not been demonstrated empirically.
Two experiments with n-docosanol cream failed to show statistically significant differences by any parameter between n-docosanol cream and vehicle control–treated sites or between n-docosanol and untreated infection sites.
Marketed by Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Abreva was the first over-the-counter antiviral drug approved for sale in the United States and Canada.
In Europe, it is marketed by Healthcare Brands under the name Erazaban.
In the UK it is known by the name Blistex Cold Sore Cream.
Behenyl alcohol is a plant-based emulsifier and thickening agent. It is considered a fatty alcohol which is by far the best type of alcohol for skin care and cosmetics.
This is because it acts as both an emulsifier and emollient, but more on that below.
As an emulsifier, behenyl alcohol, holds the water and oils together in cosmetics.
It is typically made from the fats in vegetable oils.
However, the greatest thing about fatty alcohols is they aren't drying or irritating on your skin, as some other alcohols might be.
Instead, because of the "fatty" part of the molecule, they also act as an emollient. This means that they protect your skin and keep the moisture in your skin.
Behenyl alcohol is actually a really common ingredient, and unfortunately can be made synthetically as well.
It is important to look out for natural behenyl alcohol in your products, but all in all, this is one of the best fatty alcohols and is healthy for your skin.
1-Docosanol, also known as behenyl alcohol, is a saturated fatty alcohol containing 22 carbon atoms, used traditionally as an emollient, emulsifier, and thickener in cosmetics, and nutritional supplement (as an individual entity and also as a constituent of policosanol).
More recently, docosanol has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a pharmaceutical antiviral agent for reducing the duration of cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus in the OTC medication Abreva.
In Europe, this cream is available as Erazaban.
Behenyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol used as an emollient, co-emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickening agent. It is a high-melting solid for use in stick products and a viscosity-modifier in creams.
Applications include but are not limited to:
Lotions and creams
Skin conditioning agent
Behenyl alcohol is a natural fatty alcohol in the form of a white, waxy solid. Also known as docosanol
Behenyl alcohol is an emulsifier that also keeps the oil and liquid parts of a solution from separating.
Other functions of Behenyl Alcohol include altering the thickness of a liquid, increasing foaming capacity, and stabilizing foams.
When applied to the skin, Behenyl alcohol gives it a smooth feel and helps prevent moisture loss.
Many products incorporate this ingredient because of its unique sensory properties and non-greasy feel after application.
Behenyl alcohol is mainly used in face/body lotions and creams, but can also be found in deodorant, lipstick and foundation.
INCI: Behenyl Alcohol
Melting point: 64 - 67 °C
Processing: melting in the oil phase
Application concentration: 1 - 25 %
Behenyl alcohol is a saturated fatty alcohol of vegetable origin, used to regulate viscosity in formulations.
Behenyl alcohol acts as a thickener and stabilizer and can be used as a co-emulsifier.
Behenyl alcohol can be used in water-in-oil emulsions, oil-in-water emulsions and anhydrous formulations such as ointments, body butters and peelings.
Behenyl Alcohol produces elegant emulsions and gives the skin a soft, velvety feel.
CAS No. 661-19-8
Behenyl Alcohol is a natural, vegetable source long chain fatty alcohol used to regulate viscosity in formulations. It functions as a thickener and stabilizer and may be used as a co-emulsifier. It may be used in anhydrous formulations such as ointments, body butters and scrubs.
BEHENYL ALCOHOL is classified as :
CAS Number 661-19-8
EINECS/ELINCS No: 211-546-6
COSING REF No: 74589
Chem/IUPAC Name: Docosan-1-ol
Behenyl alcohol is an ingredient used both as an emulsifier and as a rheology additive.
Behenyl alcohol also promotes hydration of the skin by limiting transepidermal water loss. It leaves the skin soft and not oily (with a matte effect).
In cosmetic and skincare formulations, behenyl alcohol functions as an opacifying ingredient, thickener, emollient, and emulsifier.
The texture, appearance, and feel of a product can have a big impact on how pleasant the product is to use. Elements such as opacity and thickness are an important part of the formulating process. For the most part, these elements are purely sensory. However, the thickness of a product can have a mild impact on how evenly key ingredients are spread across the skin.
As an opacifying agent and a thickener, behenyl alcohol can be added to clear or transparent cosmetic formulations to render them more resistant to visible light. This results in a creamy-looking formulation, think your facial moisturizer with that rich- light texture and color.
Behenyl alcohol’s thickening property allows products to achieve a more desirable, spreadable texture. Thus, manufacturers will add behenyl alcohol to formulations to create a thick, smooth, and creamy product.
Behenyl alcohol is used as an emollient in cosmetic formulations because of its ability to soften and soothe the skin.
After topical application, behenyl alcohol forms a protective layer on the skin that helps to prevent moisture loss. This helps to trap moisture in the skin, improving the hydrated appearance of the skin. Plus, behenyl alcohol does not leave a greasy feel after application as other emollients can.
Similarly, behenyl alcohol functions as an emollient in hair care products, working to increase the hair’s moisture content and improve manageability. Behenyl alcohol can also provide slip to hair conditioners which allows you to detangle your hair better.
Another function of behenyl alcohol is as an emulsifier. Emulsifiers are necessary for products that contain both water and oil components.
This is because when oil and water-based ingredients are mixed together they often experience separating or splitting.
This can change the texture and efficacy of your product. To avoid this issue, emulsifiers are added.
An emulsifier like behenyl alcohol can be added to help ensure the two-ingredient types remain mixed.
This improves the consistency of a product, which enables an even distribution of topical skincare benefits.
As an emulsifier, behenyl alcohol consists of a water-loving hydrophilic head and an oil-loving hydrophobic tail.
The hydrophilic head is directed to the water-based ingredients and the hydrophobic tail to the oil-based ingredients.
Behenyl alcohol reduces the surface tension by positioning itself at the oil/water or air/water interface, which has a stabilizing effect on the emulsion.
Is Behenyl Alcohol Vegan?
Behenyl alcohol is a vegan ingredient.
It is derived from vegetable sources, such as vegetable oils.
If you are looking for a vegan product it is always best to check with the brand to ensure that the rest of the ingredients in the formulation are vegan and that the brand is cruelty-free.
Does Behenyl Alcohol Irritate Or Dry Out Your Skin?
Due to its name, behenyl alcohol is often misunderstood. It is often lumped in with alcohol-based ingredients such as alcohol denat or ethanol which can be drying or irritating to some skin types.
However behenyl alcohol is actually a fatty alcohol which is a different class of ingredient altogether.
In fact, fatty alcohols, unlike traditional alcohol in skincare, are actually known to effectively condition and soften the skin and hair.
Is Behenyl Alcohol Safe?
The safety of behenyl alcohol has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel.
The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that behenyl alcohol is safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products.
In 2005, the Expert Panel considered available new data on behenyl alcohol and the other fatty alcohols and reaffirmed the above conclusion.
The data for the five commonly used fatty alcohols included in the report revealed no significant toxicity.
Cosmetic formulations containing these fatty alcohols were not dermal irritants or sensitizers.
What Are The Other Uses of Behenyl Alcohol?
In addition to use in the cosmetic industry, behenyl alcohol is available as a nutritional supplement and a pharmaceutical antiviral agent. In the OTC cold sore medication Abreva, docosanol has been shown to reduce the duration of cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus.
What Are The Other Commonly Used Fatty Alcohols?
Cetearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, isostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, and stearyl alcohol are commonly used fatty acids in skincare
Cetearyl, Cetyl, Isostearyl, Myristyl, and Behenyl Alcohols are long-chain aliphatic alcohols that are, at most, only slightly toxic when administered orally at doses of 5 g/kg and greater
Cetearyl, Cetyl, Myristyl, and Behenyl alcohols are straight-chain aliphatic alcohols.
Behenyl alcohol, also known as docosanol, is a saturated fatty alcohol with 22 carbons. It is used as thickener, emulsifier, and opacifying ingredient
Behenyl Alcohol or n-docosanol (CAS No. 661-l 9-8) is a 22-carbon aliphatic alcohol.
Behenyl Alcohol is a colorless, waxy solid that is soluble in ethanol and chloroform and insoluble in water.
Behenyl Alcohol is a white, waxy pellets and functions as a thickener, binding agent, solubilizer and gellant.
Our Behenyl Alcohol is produced from Vegetable sources from Non-GMO plants.
Behenyl Alcohol can be used in color cosmetics, sunscreens, skin and hair care.
You will commonly find this product in formulations that include SPF products, mascaras, sticks, lip balms, emulsions, hair products and antiperspirants.
Behenyl Alcohol can also be used in anhydrous formulations such as scrubs and butters.
Behenyl Alcohol functions as a thickener, binding agent, solubilizer and gellant.
Behenyl Alcohol can be used in color cosmetics, sunscreens, skin and hair care.
Uses of Behenyl Alcohol includes SPF products, mascaras, sticks, lip balms, emulsions, hair products and antiperspirants.
1-Docosanol is a saturated fatty alcohol used traditionally as an emollient, emulsifier, and thickener in cosmetics, and nutritional supplement; inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.
Behenyl alcohol, also known as docasanol, is a saturated fatty alcohol that is traditionally used as an emulsifier, emollient, and as a thickener in nutritional supplements and cosmetics.
It is also used to thicken or neutralize formulations.
In recent times, docasanol has been approved as an antiviral agent by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
It is effective in reducing cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Docasanol with the purity level of approximately 70% is used widely.
Docasanol with the purity level of more than 80% is seldom used.
This product accounts for a minimal share of the total market for fatty alcohols.
Growing usage of behenyl alcohol in pharmaceuticals and organic cosmetics industries is the key factor fuelling the demand for the product at the global level.
Europe is the major producer of rapeseed in the world.
Most of the companies based in Europe arrange for raw materials at a price lower than their rivals from other regions such as North America and Asia Pacific.
Further, Europe is home to more than 450 large- and small-scale manufacturers. Rising consumption of anti-aging products is expected to drive the behenyl alcohol market in Europe.
Additionally, abundance of low-cost raw materials and labor and increased demand for organic cosmetics are expected to drive the demand for behenyl alcohol in Asia Pacific.
However, oversupply of fatty alcohol is a major factor hampering the growth of the behenyl alcohol market at present.
Further, higher prices of behenyl alcohol as compared to other forms of long-chain fatty alcohols is another major hindrance to growth of this market.
Side-effects of using behenyl alcohol include headache, difficulty in breathing, facial swelling, confusion, chest pain, and dizziness.
Severe side effects include diarrhea, soreness, rash, burning, dryness, and swelling.
These may refrain consumers from using products infused with behenyl alcohol.
This can greatly hinder the overall growth of the market.
Increased market penetration by major manufacturers of behenyl alcohol in underdeveloped markets is anticipated to create growth opportunities for the market in the near future.
On the basis of applications, the global behenyl alcohol market has been segmented into emollients, emulsifiers, and thickeners.
On the basis of end-uses, the market can be segmented into cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and nutritional supplements.
Cosmetics find the maximum application of behenyl alcohol as compared to other end-user industries.
Geographically, Asia Pacific leads the market for behenyl alcohol, with Japan and India being the top exporters across the world.
However, South Korea is one of the leading importers of behenyl alcohol in Asia Pacific.
India is the major producer of behenyl alcohol and rapeseed.
Several companies based in India export rapeseed to other regions such as North America and Europe and to certain key parts of Asia Pacific.
Latin America is expected to witness steady growth owing to increasing size of the industry for organic cosmetics in key countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
Further, Brazil is one of the major importers of behenyl alcohol.
It imports from suppliers based in North America and Europe.
Behenyl alcohol (CAS: 661-19-8), often referred to as docosanol, is a saturated fatty alcohol used to thicken and stabilise formulations.
Behenyl alcohol is categorised on the basis of purity level.
Behenyl alcohol with the purity level of 70% is most commonly used. However, behenyl alcohol with purity over 80% is very rarely used.
Behenyl alcohol accounted for a mere 1.4% share of the overall fatty alcohols market, and 14% share of the overall C16+ fatty alcohols market
The behenyl alcohol industry is supported by the growing product demand in the pharmaceutical and organic cosmetic industries across the globe.
Antivirals against Herpes Viruses
Fred Y. Aoki, in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2015
Docosanol (n-docosanol or behenyl alcohol; Abreva) is a saturated 22-carbon aliphatic alcohol that is inhibitory for a broad range of lipid-enveloped viruses, including HSV-1 and HSV-2, at millimolar concentrations in vitro.227
Docosanol is not directly virucidal, and its principal anti-HSV mechanism of action in vitro apparently relates to interference with viral fusion to host cell membranes early in replication, although other inhibitory effects may be possible.
227 A non-antiviral mechanism of action resulting from anti-inflammatory effects has been described.
In a guinea pig model of cutaneous HSV, topical docosanol does not show antiviral or therapeutic benefits, and is less active than topical penciclovir and acyclovir.
228 No emergence of resistance has been described to date.
Docosanol 10% cream is available over the counter for treatment of recurrent herpes labialis in immunocompetent individuals.
Early treatment (five applications daily until healing, up to a maximum of 10 days) shortens the time to complete healing by about 0.7 day and time to resolution of symptoms by 0.5 day.
229 Application site reactions occur in about 2%, and its use is generally well tolerated.
Whether combined treatment with docosanol and topical nucleosides might provide greater therapeutic effects remains to be determined.
Behenyl alcohol is also referred to as docosanol, is a large fatty straight-chain alcohol. It is used as thickener, emulsifier, and opacifying ingredient. It is used to reduce the clear or transparent appearance of the cosmetic product as an opacifying agent. As a thickener it offer products to attain more desirable and spreadable texture.
The global behenyl alcohol market was valued at US$ 142.8 Mn in 2018 and is anticipated to reach US$ 199.8 Mn by the end of 2027, growing at a CAGR of 3.7% during the forecast period (2019 to 2027).
The growing market of personal care product industry in the U.S region a prominent factor expected to fuel the market growth of the behenyl alcohol. According to LoudCloudHealth.com the cosmetics industry was worth $93.5 billion in the US market in 2019. Women in the USA spend around $3,000 on cosmetics annually and 4 out of 5 American women follow beauty industry trends and regularly use fragrance products. Hence, expanding personal care product industry is expected to foster the market growth of behenyl alcohol over the forecast period.
Increasing demand for the organic cosmetic product in the Europe region is expected to propel the market growth of behenyl alcohol. For instance, according to the premium beauty news, in Europe, sales of natural and organic cosmetics have grown at an average of +7% per year over the past five years and are expected to reach 5 billion euros by 2023. It was recorded 757 million euros in 2018, a leap of +18.7% compared to 2017. Hence, the rising demand for organic cosmetics is expected to fuel market growth over the forecast period.
Asia Pacific region dominated the global behenyl alcohol market in 2018, accounting for 38.8% share in terms of value, followed by North America and Western Europe, respectively
High cost of behenyl alcohol products is a major factor expected to hinder the market growth over the forecast timeframe. Manufacturer of cosmetics in Brazil is highly dependent on the import of behenyl alcohol products from suppliers in Asia and price fluctuation in rapeseed oils could impact overall sales of behenyl alcohol in Brazil. Hence, the high cost of the behenyl alcohol-based products is projected to hamper the market growth in the near future.
Growing consumption of stearyl alcohol as a substitute of behenyl alcohol could decrease the demand for behenyl alcohol in cosmetic products. The Asia Pacific has witnessed a strong demand for stearyl alcohol from the cosmetic industry that could impact the demand for behenyl alcohol and in turn market growth of behenyl alcohol. Stearyl alcohol has widely used in manufacturing of anti-aging products as it has excellent lubricant properties.
Rising investment by major players on the research and development of new cosmetics and cosmeceuticals products is projected to foster market growth over the forecast period. Players are investing heavily in innovations like hypoallergenic creams, which have minimal impact on health. Hence, rising investment in the innovation in a cosmetic product is projected to boost the market growth of behenyl alcohol over the forecast period.
The increasing availability of small, handy and affordable cosmetic products coupled with the growing number of working women is expected to foster the market growth over the forecast period. Growing consumer interest towards herbal and Ayurveda cosmetic products coupled with the rising demand for premium cosmetic beauty products due to the changing lifestyle of the consumer and rapid urbanization is projected to propel the market growth over the forecast period.
The rising trend of innovative packaged cosmetic products is fueling the demand for cosmetic products, in turn accelerating the market growth of the behenyl alcohol. Currently, innovative packaging is playing a very crucial role in increasing the sales of cosmetics. Moreover, advanced feature such as easy to open caps, packs which could stand up better in showers, pump packs which are convenient and easy to use is further projected to fuel the market growth of behenyl alcohol.
Increasing usage of behenyl alcohol in anti-aging creams is anticipated to augment the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in September 2018, SkinCeuticals, a leader in advanced skincare technology, has announced the launch of Retinol 0.3. This new concentrated facial cream with pure retinol improves the appearance of visible signs of aging and skin discoloration while minimizing breakouts and refining pores. Hence, the increasing launch of anti-aging creams is expected to fuel the demand for behenyl alcohol.
Suggested Use Levels:
Storage: Protected from direct light and humidity at a temperature of 50°-77°F (10°-25°C)
Shelf life: 12 months, properly stored, in sealed container.
This product should be added to a formulation at the recommended usage rate.
Obtaining: Behenyl alcohol, also known as docosanol, is a colorless, waxy solid It is usually found naturally in vegetables, in their long-chain fatty acid blend.
Benefits: It has the characteristic of forming a layer over the water to minimize evaporation. This is particularly useful in hot climates. In the same way, it does not allow moisture to evaporate from the surface of the skin or hair, so it acts as an emollient. It is similar to other members of the behenic group, a good emulsion stabilizer. It is used as a viscosity increasing agent. It is used in formulations such as ointments, exfoliants and body butter.
Europe is one of the leading producers of rapeseed in the world, and, thus, the region significantly contributes to the growth of the market. The growing penetration of cosmetic manufacturers in Europe and the rising consumption of anti-ageing products are expected to drive the regional market growth. BASF SE, one of the key players in the industry, sells behenyl alcohol under the name Lanette® 22, which is particularly designed to be used for viscosity regulation in cosmetic oil-in-water emulsions. It is known for its consistency giving characteristics and is a white to light yellowish hydrophilic wax supplied in the form of pellets. The ingredient is ideal for use in antiperspirants and deodorants, sun-care products, face cleansing formulations, and baby-care, among others.
Moreover, the growing internet penetration and rise in the number of smartphone users has made online shopping a great success. The e-commerce giants, namely, Amazon.com, Inc. (NASDAQ: AMZN) and Alibaba Group Holding Ltd (NYSE: BABA), provide various cosmetic products to the consumers at a discounted price, which is expected to boost their sales in the coming years. This, in turn, is expected to enhance the growth of the global behenyl alcohol industry over the forecast period.
Market Breakup by Application, End Use, and Regions:
Based on application, the market can be segmented into emollients, emulsifiers, and thickeners, among others.
On the basis of end use, the market is divided into cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and nutritional supplement, among others.
Region-wise, the global market for behenyl alcohol can be divided into North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
Key Findings of the Report:
The global behenyl alcohol industry is being driven by the growing sales of cosmetics and personal care products.
The growing R&D activities and advancing pharmaceuticals industry are further propelling the market growth.
The rising disposable incomes and improved availability of the end-use products are significantly contributing to the industry growth.
The industry will find further impetus with the rising health concern among consumers and the growing shift towards products with natural or plant-based ingredients.
ATAMAN CHEMICALS offers all Fatty Alcohols Products
HEXANOL (C6 ALCOHOL)
OCTANOL (C8 ALCOHOL)
DECANOL (C10 ALCOHOL)
LAURYL ALCOHOL (C1299)
MIDCUT ALCOHOL (C1214)
MIDCUT ALCOHOL (C1216)
MYRISTYL ALCOHOL (C14)
CETYL ALCOHOL (C16)
CETEARYL ALCOHOL (C16 CETYL/STEARYL ALCOHOL)
STEARYL ALCOHOL (C18)
ARACHIDYL (C20 ALCOHOL)
BEHENYL ALCOHOL 45 (C1822)
BEHENYL ALCOHOL 70 (C2270)
Table with common names
This table lists some alkyl alcohols.
Note that in general the alcohols with even numbers of carbon atoms have common names, since they are found in nature, whereas those with odd numbers of carbon atoms generally do not have a common name.
Name Carbon atoms Branches/saturation Formula
tert-Butyl alcohol 4 carbon atoms branched C4H10O
tert-Amyl alcohol 5 carbon atoms branched C5H12O
3-Methyl-3-pentanol 6 carbon atoms branched C6H14O
1-Heptanol (enanthic alcohol) 7 carbon atoms C7H16O
1-Octanol (capryl alcohol) 8 carbon atoms C8H18O
Pelargonic alcohol (1-nonanol) 9 carbon atoms C9H20O
1-Decanol (decyl alcohol, capric alcohol) 10 carbon atoms C10H22O
Undecyl alcohol (1-undecanol, undecanol, Hendecanol) 11 carbon atoms C11H24O
Lauryl alcohol (dodecanol, 1-dodecanol) 12 carbon atoms C12H26O
Tridecyl alcohol (1-tridecanol, tridecanol, isotridecanol) 13 carbon atoms C13H28O
Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) 14 carbon atoms C14H30O
Pentadecyl alcohol (1-pentadecanol, pentadecanol) 15 carbon atoms C15H32O
Cetyl alcohol (1-hexadecanol) 16 carbon atoms C16H34O
Palmitoleyl alcohol (cis-9-hexadecen-1-ol) 16 carbon atoms unsaturated C16H32O
Heptadecyl alcohol (1-n-heptadecanol, heptadecanol) 17 carbon atoms C17H36O
Stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) 18 carbon atoms C18H38O
Oleyl alcohol (1-octadecenol) 18 carbon atoms unsaturated C18H36O
Nonadecyl alcohol (1-nonadecanol) 19 carbon atoms C19H40O
Arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) 20 carbon atoms C20H42O
Heneicosyl alcohol (1-heneicosanol) 21 carbon atoms C21H44O
Behenyl alcohol (1-docosanol) 22 carbon atoms C22H46O
Erucyl alcohol (cis-13-docosen-1-ol) 22 carbon atoms unsaturated C22H44O
Lignoceryl alcohol (1-tetracosanol) 24 carbon atoms C24H50O
Ceryl alcohol (1-hexacosanol) 26 carbon atoms C26H54O
1-Heptacosanol 27 carbon atoms C27H56O
Montanyl alcohol, cluytyl alcohol, or 1-octacosanol 28 carbon atoms C28H58O
1-Nonacosanol 29 carbon atoms C29H60O
Myricyl alcohol, melissyl alcohol, or 1-triacontanol 30 carbon atoms C30H62O
1-Dotriacontanol (Lacceryl alcohol) 32 carbon atoms C32H66O
Geddyl alcohol (1-tetratriacontanol) 34 carbon atoms C34H70O
Fatty alcohols, derived from natural fats and oils, are high molecular straight chain primary alcohols. They include lauryl (C12), MyrIstyl (C14), Cetyl ( or palmityl: C16), stearyl (C18), Oleyl (C18, unsaturated), and Linoleyl (C18, polyunsaturated) alcohols. There are synthetic fatty alcohols equivalent physically and chemically to natural alcohols obtained from oleochemical sources such as coconut and palm kernel oil. Fatty alcohols are emulsifiers and emollients to make skin smoother and prevent moisture loss. Identical fatty esters are used to improve rub-out of formulas and to control viscosity and dispersion characteristics in cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceutical ingredients. As chemical intermediates, the primary use of fatty alcohols are as raw material for the production of fatty sulfate salts and alcohol ethoxylates for foaming and cleaning purposes in the field of detergent industry. Chemical reactions of primary alcohols include esterifications, ethoxylation, sulfation, oxidation and many other reactions. Their derivatives and end use applications include;
Nonionic surfactants (Ethoxylates and propoxylates)
Anionic surfactants (Alkyl sulfates and alkyl ethoxy sulfates)
Chemical intermediates and polymerization modifiers (Alkyl halides, Alkyl mercaptans)
Quaternary ammonium compounds for detergent sanitisers, softner for textiles, phase transfer catalyst and biocides
Antioxidants for plastics (Alkyl thiopropionates and alkyl phosphites)
Lubricant additives (Metallic and thio alkylphosphates)
Flavor and Fragrance (Aldehydes and ketones)
PVC plasticizers (Dialkyl Phthalates, adipates and trimellitates)
Coatings and inks (acrylate and methacrylate esters)
Water treatment (acrylate and methacrylate esters)
Large amount of fatty alcohols are used as special solvents, fillers in plasticizer and insulating materials for the building industry. Fatty alcohols are used as ingredients in the industries of agricultural, foodstuff, metal processing, cosmetics, lube additive, pharmaceutical, rubber, textile, perfume and flavouring as well as synthetic detergent.
In pharmaceutical application, behenyl alcohol (a saturated 22-carbon alcohol) exhibits antiviral activity against lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex virus (HSV). Behenyl alcohol is used as an ingredient in the cream for topical treatment of recurrent herpes. It acts by inhibiting fusion between the human plasma cell membrane and the viral envelope.