Benzene-1,4-diol, also known as quinol and hydroquinone, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. 
Benzene-1,4-diol has two hydroxyl groups bonded to a benzene ring in a para position. 
The most common use of Benzene-1,4-diol is in skin lightening products, although it can also be used in a technique for developing black and white photos.

CAS Number: 123-31-9 
EC Number: 204-617-8
Chemical formula: C6H6O2
Molar mass: 110.112 g·mol−1

Substituted derivatives of this parent compound are also referred to as Benzene-1,4-diols. 
The name "Benzene-1,4-diol" was coined by Friedrich Wöhler in 1843
Benzene-1,4-diol is applied to the the skin to lighten areas that have darkened. 

Benzene-1,4-diol also contain sunscreens.
Benzene-1,4-diol is an organic chemical that is normally produced industrially and has a very similar structure to the precursors of Melanin.

Benzene-1,4-diol is the most commonly prescribed depigmenting agent worldwide.
Benzene-1,4-diol is a white granular solid. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is a topical skin-bleaching agent used in the cosmetic treatment of hyperpigmented skin conditions. 
The effect of skin lightening caused by Benzene-1,4-diol is reversible when exposed to sunlight and therefore requires regular use until desired results are achieved. 

Various preparations are available including creams, emulsions, gels, lotions and solutions. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is available over the counter in a 2% cream and can be prescribed by your dermatologist in higher concentrations.
Benzene-1,4-diol is an organic chemical that is normally produced industrially and has a very similar structure to the precursors of Melanin.

Mechanism of Benzene-1,4-diol: 
Benzene-1,4-diol produces reversible lightening of the skin by interfering with melanin production by the melanocytes. 
Specifically, inhibition of the enzymatic conversion of tyrosine to DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine) results in the desired chemical reduction of pigment. 
Ultimately, this causes a decrease in the number of melanocytes and decreased transfer of melanin leading to lighter skin.

Uses of Benzene-1,4-diol: 
Popularized by Benzene-1,4-diols usage as a photo-developer.
Benzene-1,4-diol can be used in any condition causing hyperpigmentation. 
Common conditions of Benzene-1,4-diol include melasma, freckles, lentigines, age spots and acne scars. 

Skin sensitivity to Benzene-1,4-diol may be determined before treatment by applying a small amount of cream to the hyperpigmented area and noting any redness or itching. 
If no reaction occurs, initiate treatment. 

As a general rule, always ensure the area is clean and dry then apply a thin film to the lesion and rub it into the skin well. 
Hands should be washed after the application to avoid unwanted lightening of the fingers.

To maintain the desired affect, Benzene-1,4-diol should be used concurrently with a strong sunscreen. 
Many preparations are available as a combination product. 
Lightening of the skin should be noticed within 4 weeks of initiation, if no change is seen in 3 months, contact your dermatologist for further recommendations.

Benzene-1,4-diol is a chemical that a person can use to lighten their skin tone. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is available as a cream, gel, lotion, or emulsion. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is generally safe to use, but some people may experience side effects, such as dry skin.
Benzene-1,4-diol is a chemical that bleaches the skin. 

Benzene-1,4-diol can come as a cream, emulsion, gel, or lotion. 
A person can apply Benzene-1,4-diol directly to the skin.

Creams that contain 2% Benzene-1,4-diol are available to buy over the counter in most drugstores. 
Stronger creams are available with a prescription from a doctor.
People may use Benzene-1,4-diol as a form of treatment for hyperpigmentation skin conditions, wherein some areas of skin grow darker than surrounding areas.

Some conditions that people may use Benzene-1,4-diol for include:
-Benzene-1,4-diol and Melasma
-People with melasma have brown or gray-brown patches on their skin. 
-These patches tend to develop on the face, such as the cheeks or nose. 
-They can also appear on areas of skin with high sun exposure, such as the forearms and neck.

Benzene-1,4-diol and Freckles:
Freckles are darker spots or patches that usually occur in fair skin. 
Benzene-1,4-diol can become more noticeable with exposure to sunlight.

Benzene-1,4-diol and Lentigines:
Lentigines, or age spots, develop on areas of skin with the highest sun exposure. 

For example, Benzene-1,4-diol can appear on the face or the backs of the hands.
They tend to be flat, dark, and between 0.2 centimeters (cm) and 2 cm in width.

Benzene-1,4-diol and acne scars:
Excess oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria can build up in skin pores and cause acne. 
The body tries to repair the damage, but sometimes, it leaves scars.

Other uses of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Some people may want to lighten their skin for cosmetic reasons. 
Benzene-1,4-diol can have benefits for confidence and self-esteem.
Benzene-1,4-diol is important to note that the above conditions are all harmless.

How does Benzene-1,4-diol work?
Melanin is a pigment that gives the skin and hair their color. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is responsible for freckles and other dark patches on the skin. 

Melanin is made by melanocytes, which are cells present in the skin and other parts of the body.
When a person applies Benzene-1,4-diol to the skin, it reduces the number of melanocytes. 

Fewer melanocytes means that the body produces less melanin in the treated area. 
The skin usually appears lighter within about 4 weeks.

Exposure to sunlight reverses the effects of Benzene-1,4-diol. 
Doctors recommend that people who use this product also use a strong sunscreen.

Benzene-1,4-diol is known to inhibit melanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. 
In this study, 2% and 5% Benzene-1,4-diol creams were topically applied to the hyperpigmented skin of 56 patients. 

Benzene-1,4-diol used in this way, Benzene-1,4-diol was a moderately effective depigmenting agent in 80% of cases. 
The 2% cream appeared to be as effective therapeutically as the 5% cream and to evoke untoward side effects (primary irritation) much less often. 
Therapy with topically applied Benzene-1,4-diol did not lead to complete disappearance of pathological hypermelanosis, but results were satisfactory enough to help most patients become less self-conscious about their pigmentary abnormalities.

Benzene-1,4-diol production:
Benzene-1,4-diol is produced industrially by two main routes.

The most widely use of Benzene-1,4-diol route is similar to the cumene process in reaction mechanism and involves the dialkylation of benzene with propene to give 1,4-diisopropylbenzene. 
This compound reacts with air to afford the bis(hydroperoxide), which is structurally similar to cumene hydroperoxide and rearranges in acid to give acetone and Benzene-1,4-diol.
A second route involves hydroxylation of phenol over a catalyst. 

Benzene-1,4-diol topical (for the skin) is used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, melasma (sun damage), or chloasma (darkened skin caused by hormonal changes).
Benzene-1,4-diol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

The conversion uses hydrogen peroxide and affords a mixture of Benzene-1,4-diol and catechol (benzene-1,2-diol):
C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H4(OH)2 + H2O

Other, less common methods include:
A potentially significant synthesis of Benzene-1,4-diol from acetylene and iron pentacarbonyl has been proposed. 
Iron pentacarbonyl serves as a catalyst, rather than as a reagent, in the presence of free carbon monoxide gas. 

Rhodium or ruthenium can substitute for iron as the catalyst with favorable chemical yields but are not typically used due to their cost of recovery from the reaction mixture.
Benzene-1,4-diol and its derivatives can also be prepared by oxidation of various phenols. 

Examples include Elbs persulfate oxidation and Dakin oxidation:
Benzene-1,4-diol was first obtained in 1820 by the French chemists Pelletier and Caventou via the dry distillation of quinic acid.

Benzene-1,4-diol Reactions:
The reactivity of Benzene-1,4-diol's hydroxyl groups resembles that of other phenols, being weakly acidic. 
The resulting conjugate base undergoes easy O-alkylation to give mono- and diethers. 

Similarly, Benzene-1,4-diol is highly susceptible to ring substitution by Friedel–Crafts reactions such as alkylation. 
This reaction is exploited en route to popular antioxidants such as 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA). 
The useful dye quinizarin is produced by diacylation of Benzene-1,4-diol with phthalic anhydride.

Benzene-1,4-diol undergoes oxidation under mild conditions to give benzoquinone. 
This process of Benzene-1,4-diol can be reversed. 

Some naturally occurring Benzene-1,4-diol derivatives exhibit this sort of reactivity, one example being coenzyme Q. 
Industrially this reaction is exploited both with Benzene-1,4-diol itself but more often with its derivatives where one OH has been replaced by an amine.

When colorless Benzene-1,4-diol and benzoquinone, a bright yellow solid, are cocrystallized in a 1:1 ratio, a dark-green crystalline charge-transfer complex (melting point 171 °C) called quinhydrone (C6H6O2·C6H4O2) is formed. 
Benzene-1,4-diol dissolves in hot water, where the two molecules dissociate in solution.

An important reaction is the conversion of Benzene-1,4-diol to the mono- and diamine derivatives. 

Methylaminophenol, used in photography, is produced in this way:
C6H4(OH)2 + CH3NH2 → HOC6H4NHCH3 + H2O

Similarly diamines, useful in the rubber industry as antiozone agents, are produced similarly from aniline:
C6H4(OH)2 + 2 C6H5NH2 → C6H4(N(H)C6H5)2 + 2 H2O

Benzene-1,4-diol uses:
Benzene-1,4-diol has a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent that is soluble in water. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is a major component in most black and white photographic developers for film and paper where, with the compound metol, it reduces silver halides to elemental silver.

There are various other uses associated with its reducing power. 
As a polymerisation inhibitor, exploiting its antioxidant properties, Benzene-1,4-diol prevents polymerization of acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, cyanoacrylate, and other monomers that are susceptible to radical-initiated polymerization. 

By acting as a free radical scavenger, Benzene-1,4-diol serves to prolong the shelflife of light-sensitive resins such as preceramic polymers.
Benzene-1,4-diol can lose a hydrogen cation from both hydroxyl groups to form a diphenolate ion. 
The disodium diphenolate salt of Benzene-1,4-diol is used as an alternating comonomer unit in the production of the polymer PEEK.

Skin depigmentation of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is used as a topical application in skin whitening to reduce the color of skin. 
Benzene-1,4-diol does not have the same predisposition to cause dermatitis as metol does. 

This is a prescription-only ingredient in some countries, including the member states of the European Union under Directives 76/768/EEC:1976.
In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration revoked Benzene-1,4-diols previous approval of Benzene-1,4-diol and proposed a ban on all over-the-counter preparations.

The FDA stated that Benzene-1,4-diol cannot be ruled out as a potential carcinogen.
This conclusion was reached based on the extent of absorption in humans and the incidence of neoplasms in rats in several studies where adult rats were found to have increased rates of tumours, including thyroid follicular cell hyperplasias, anisokaryosis (variation in nuclei sizes), mononuclear cell leukemia, hepatocellular adenomas and renal tubule cell adenomas. 

The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics has also highlighted concerns.
Numerous studies have revealed that Benzene-1,4-diol, if taken orally, can cause exogenous ochronosis, a disfiguring disease in which blue-black pigments are deposited onto the skin; however, skin preparations containing the ingredient are administered topically. 

The FDA had classified Benzene-1,4-diol in 1982 as a safe product - generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE), however additional studies under the National Toxicology Program (NTP) were suggested in order to determine whether there is a risk to humans from the use of Benzene-1,4-diol.
NTP evaluation showed some evidence of long-term carcinogenic and genotoxic effects.

While using Benzene-1,4-diol as a lightening agent can be effective with proper use, it can also cause skin sensitivity. 
Using Benzene-1,4-diol a daily sunscreen with a high PPD (persistent pigment darkening) rating reduces the risk of further damage. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is sometimes combined with alpha-hydroxy acids that exfoliate the skin to quicken the lightening process. 
In the United States, topical treatments usually contain up to 2% in Benzene-1,4-diol. 

Otherwise, higher concentrations (up to 4%) should be prescribed and used with caution.
While Benzene-1,4-diol remains widely prescribed for treatment of hyperpigmentation, questions raised about its safety profile by regulatory agencies in the EU, Japan, and USA encourage the search for other agents with comparable efficacy.

Several such agents are already available or under research, including azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, cysteamine, topical steroids, glycolic acid, and other substances. 
One of these, 4-butylresorcinol, has been proven to be more effective at treating melanin-related skin disorders by a wide margin, as well as safe enough to be made available over the counter.

What Is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is the common name for the ingredient 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, and may be used safely in a variety of cosmetics.

Why is Benzene-1,4-diol used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance ingredient and oxidizing agent in hair dyes.  
Benzene-1,4-diol may also be used as a stabilizer that inhibits the polymerization of the adhesive in artificial nails.

Natural occurrences of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diols are one of the two primary reagents in the defensive glands of bombardier beetles, along with hydrogen peroxide (and perhaps other compounds, depending on the species), which collect in a reservoir. 
The reservoir opens through a muscle-controlled valve onto a thick-walled reaction chamber. 

This chamber is lined with cells that secrete catalases and peroxidases. 
When the contents of the reservoir are forced into the reaction chamber, the catalases and peroxidases rapidly break down the hydrogen peroxide and catalyze the oxidation of the Benzene-1,4-diols into p-quinones. 

These reactions release free oxygen and generate enough heat to bring the mixture to the boiling point and vaporize about a fifth of it, producing a hot spray from the beetle's abdomen.
Farnesyl Benzene-1,4-diol derivatives are the principal irritants exuded by the poodle-dog bush, which can cause severe contact dermatitis in humans.

Benzene-1,4-diol is thought to be the active toxin in Agaricus hondensis mushrooms.
Benzene-1,4-diol has been shown to be one of the chemical constituents of the natural product propolis.

Benzene-1,4-diol is also one of the chemical compounds found in castoreum. This compound is gathered from the beaver's castor sacs.
In bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), arbutin is converted to Benzene-1,4-diol.

WHAT IS Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is an organic compound that can be found naturally in different fungi, plants and animals but was first synthetically produced in the 1800s for the purposes of developing black and white photography. 
Later on, in the beginning of the 20th century, the effects of Benzene-1,4-diol on the skin as a melanin inhibitor, and antioxidant were discovered and the ingredient was put to use in topical skincare. 

For the last 50+ years, Benzene-1,4-diol has been the gold standard for dark spot correcting and recommended by a number of board-certified dermatologists including SLMD founder, Dr. Sandra Lee, for reducing the appearance of pigmentation resulting from acne, melasma, and sun exposure. 
Misinformation and confusion has caused Benzene-1,4-diol to become a controversial ingredient, but we’re here to set the record straight and share the right info with you!

Is Benzene-1,4-diol dangerous?
The first misconception that Benzene-1,4-diol is dangerous stemmed from a controversy in South Africa, in 1980, after they identified products containing Benzene-1,4-diol to be hazardous. 
As a result, South Africa placed a ban on the ingredient, and Japan, EU and Australia followed suit. 

However, further research uncovered that these products they identified as hazardous also contained mercury and other illegal contaminants. 
Therefore, there was no substantial evidence that the reason for this toxicity was due to the Benzene-1,4-diol, and plenty more research upholds Benzene-1,4-diol to be safe and effective when used topically!

A skin disorder known as exogenous ochronosis, which causes skin to darken with blue-black pigmentation, has been linked to the use of prescription strength Benzene-1,4-diol chronically (long-term) and at very high percentages. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is important to note that this occurrence is very rare — there have been less than 40 cases recorded in the US. 
For this reason, when using prescription strength HQs, dermatologists will recommend that after a couple months of use you take a break from the product before continuing your treatment.

Similarly, there has been no evidence or study that indicates that use of a topical Benzene-1,4-diol causes cancer in humans. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is true that Benzene-1,4-diol should not be ingested orally in high doses, but as it's manufactured in its powdered form for topical skincare, it's a very stable, safe ingredient!

How does Benzene-1,4-diol work?
Benzene-1,4-diol works to reduce the appearance of dark spots over time by decreasing the production of melanin (the protein that gives your skin pigment) and increasing the breakdown of melanocytes (the cells that create melanin). 
This works because Benzene-1,4-diol prevents the activity of tyrosinase, the enzyme needed to make melanin.

Melanin is a natural function of our skin — it’s how we get the pigment in our skin, eyes, and hair, but it becomes problematic when Melanocytes (which sit in the Dermis layer of our skin) are stimulated to release extra melanin that form dark spots on the top layer of our skin. 
This process can be triggered by UV exposure and trauma (from picking at your skin). 

Benzene-1,4-diol also has some antioxidant properties that help protect the skin from UV damage and brighten complexion. 
Because Benzene-1,4-diol functions on the cell-level, it requires consistent use to see results  — it is not bleaching your skin over time, just making the melanin production of your skin more even. 

About Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 10 000 to < 100 000 tonnes per annum.
Benzene-1,4-diol is used by consumers, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following products: photo-chemicals.
Other release to the environment of Benzene-1,4-diol is likely to occur from: indoor use as reactive substance.

Article service life of Benzene-1,4-diol:
ECHA has no public registered data on the routes by which Benzene-1,4-diol is most likely to be released to the environment. 
ECHA has no public registered data indicating whether or into which articles Benzene-1,4-diol might have been processed.
Widespread uses by professional workers of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following products: photo-chemicals, coating products, inks and toners and polymers. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following areas: printing and recorded media reproduction, health services and scientific research and development. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners).

Formulation or re-packing of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following products: photo-chemicals, water treatment chemicals and fuels.
Release to the environment of Benzene-1,4-diol can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and formulation in materials.

Uses at industrial sites of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following products: photo-chemicals, polymers, coating products, inks and toners and water treatment chemicals.
Benzene-1,4-diol has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Benzene-1,4-diol is used in the following areas: printing and recorded media reproduction and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Benzene-1,4-diol is used for the manufacture of: chemicals and plastic products.
Release to the environment of Benzene-1,4-diol can occur from industrial use: as processing aid, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and for thermoplastic manufacture.

Manufacture of Benzene-1,4-diol:
Release to the environment of Benzene-1,4-diol can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

Safety Information: 
CIR Safety Reviews

Benzene-1,4-diol is an organic chemical that is normally produced industrially and has a very similar structure to the precursors of Melanin.

123-31-9, 204-617-8, 1 4-Dihydroxybenzene, p-Benzenediol, p-Hydroquinone, Benzene p-dihydroxy-, NCGC00015523-02, beta-quinol, para-Hydroxyphenol, alpha-hydroquinone

Benzene-1,4-diol’s safety has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel on four separate occasions since 1986. 
CIR concluded that Benzene-1,4-diol is safe at concentrations of ≤ 1% in cosmetic formulations designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by rinsing from the skin and hair. 

In addition, Benzene-1,4-diol is safe for use as a polymerization inhibitor in nail adhesives and in artificial nail coatings that are cured by LED light. 
However, Benzene-1,4-diol is not safe for use in other leave-on cosmetic products.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is a skin-lightening agent. 
Benzene-1,4-diol bleaches the skin, which can be helpful when treating different forms of hyperpigmentation.

Historically, there's been some back-and-forth on the safety of Benzene-1,4-diol. 
In 1982, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recognized the ingredient as safe and effectiveTrusted Source.

Several years later, concerns about safety prompted retailers to pull Benzene-1,4-diol from the market. 
The FDA went on to discover that many of the products in question contained contaminants like mercury. 

They established that these contaminants were behind reports of adverse effects.
Since then, the FDA has confirmed that Benzene-1,4-diol can be safely sold over the counter (OTC) in 2 percent concentrations.
Read on to learn more about how it works, who might benefit from use, products to try, and more.

How does Benzene-1,4-diol work?
Benzene-1,4-diol bleaches your skin by decreasing the number of melanocytes present. 
Melanocytes make melanin, which is what produces your skin tone.

In cases of hyperpigmentation, more melanin is present due to an increase in melanocyte production. 
By controlling these melanocytes, your skin will become more evenly toned over time.

Benzene-1,4-diol takes about four weeks on average for the ingredient to take effect. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may take several months of consistent use before you see full results.

If you don't see any improvements within three months of OTC use, talk to your dermatologist. 
They may be able to recommend a prescription-strength formula better suited to your needs.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Benzene-1,4-diol decreases the formation of melanin in the skin. 
Melanin is the pigment in skin that gives it a brown color.

Benzene-1,4-diol topical is used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, Chloasma, and Melasma. 
Benzene-1,4-diol works by inhibiting an enzyme reaction in skin cells.

How should I use Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol topical on skin that is sunburned, dry, chapped, or irritated, or on an open wound. 
Benzene-1,4-diol could make these conditions worse. 

Discontinue use if excessive irritation develops. 
Apply the medication to clean, dry skin.

Dispense a pea size amount on the back of your hand, apply to cheeks, forehead and then to chin. 
Blend in the product to cover face. 

Avoid the corners of the mouth and nose; these areas can be irritated easily. 
Apply to the affected area(s) morning and night. 

For Melasma, once the discoloration has resolved or adequately faded, you may either discontinue use or continue weekly maintenance.
Benzene-1,4-diol may take 3 months or more to see improvements. 
For Lentigines, use the creams for a maximum of 3 months.

What skin conditions can benefit from Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is used to treat skin conditions related to hyperpigmentation. 

Benzene-1,4-diol includes:
-acne scars
-age spots
-post-inflammatory marks from psoriasis and eczema

Although Benzene-1,4-diol can help fade red or brown spots that have lingered, Benzene-1,4-diol won’t help with active inflammation. 
For example, Benzene-1,4-diol can help minimize acne scarring, but Benzene-1,4-diol won’t have an effect on redness from active breakouts.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Benzene-1,4-diol?
If you have an allergy to Benzene-1,4-diol or any other part of Benzene-1,4-diol.
If you are allergic to Benzene-1,4-diol; any part of Benzene-1,4-diol; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. 

Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had.
Benzene-1,4-diol may interact with other drugs or health problems.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is a topical cream that is used to lighten dark patches of the skin (also called hyperpigmentation). 
Benzene-1,4-diol is available as a prescription alone and as a combination cream containing a topical steroid and a topical retinoid. 
In some countries, including the United States, Benzene-1,4-diol is available over the counter, most often in a 2-3% formulation. 

What is Benzene-1,4-diol used for?
Benzene-1,4-diol is used to lighten dark patches of the skin. 
These dark spots can be related or triggered by many factors including pregnancy, birth control pills, inflammation, and injury to the skin.  
The most common use is for melasma, a condition in which people develop dark patches on the face and other areas of skin, such as the arms.

How is Benzene-1,4-diol used?
Safe use of Benzene-1,4-diol includes using it under the supervision of a dermatologist. 
Benzene-1,4-diol should be applied only to the affected darkened areas of skin to avoid lightening of normal skin. 

Benzene-1,4-diol should not be used for extended periods of time as it can cause a paradoxical darkening. 
Cycling of use with breaks is recommended to limit overuse and the side effect known as exogenous ochronosis.  

What else do I need to know about Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is an out of pocket expense as insurance will not cover this medication. 
If using Benzene-1,4-diol to treat melasma, Benzene-1,4-diol should be used in combination with a broad-spectrum sunscreen SPF 30 or higher daily. 

Sunscreen should be applied to the affected areas after Benzene-1,4-diol to avoid relapse of the condition. 
Dark areas may recur if the cream is discontinued but this is less likely happen if sun protective measures are followed.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. 
You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Benzene-1,4-diol with all of your drugs and health problems.
Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

Benzene-1,4-diol cream is the standard depigmentation or skin lightening agent. 
Clinically Benzene-1,4-diol is used to treat areas of dyschromia, such as in melasma, chloasma, solar lentigines, freckles, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, important adverse effects, contraindications, and monitoring of Benzene-1,4-diol, so providers can direct patient therapy to optimal outcomes in conditions where it is indicated.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol also known as tocopheryl acetate, Benzene-1,4-diol is found in skin-lightening creams, serums, cleansers, and moisturizers. 
"Benzene-1,4-diol is a topical skin treatment for melasma, freckles, age and sun spots, and even acne scars," Shafer says. 

"Benzene-1,4-diol is used in combination with other acne products such as Retin-A, Benzene-1,4-diol can help dramatically improve skin complexion.
"Shamban adds to this, reporting that Benzene-1,4-diol can also be used to lighten up freckles as well as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which is usually seen after an injury such as a burn or inflammatory acne.

While Benzene-1,4-diol is effective at lightening spots, the results aren't immediate. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may take a matter of weeks (or months) before results are discernible to the naked eye. 

"Patients need to understand that the treatment is working at the cellular level to reduce the production of pigment," Shafer explains. 
"So the effects take several weeks to realize. 
As the old skin sheds and new skin is produced, the amount of pigment will be less, leading to a more even skin tone."

Benefits of Benzene-1,4-diol for Skin
Benzene-1,4-diol has several benefits for the skin.
Lightens dark spots (hyperpigmentation): Benzene-1,4-diol is one of the most effective ingredients to lighten hyperpigmentation. 
"If you have dark areas from melasma, age spots, or brown spots left from acne, Benzene-1,4-diol helps by decreasing the formation of melanin in the skin (the pigment in the skin that gives it a dark color)," says Buttiglione. 

Ng adds: "To date, Benzene-1,4-diol is considered the topical gold standard in dermatology for reducing hyperpigmentation."
Evens out skin tone: Because Benzene-1,4-diol lightens certain areas of the skin that are darkened, the end result is a more balanced, even complexion.

Treats melasma: "Benzene-1,4-diol serves as the backbone of any treatment for a wide variety of conditions, including melasma," notes Shamban. 
"Melasma, which is manifested by patches of darker skin typically on the forehead, cheeks, and upper lip, often runs in families and is triggered by UV and visible light exposure often in combination with hormonal shifts such as birth control pills, pregnancy or hormone replacement therapy." 
Benzene-1,4-diol can help rectify the side effects of melasma.

How to Use Benzene-1,4-diol
"Over the years I have never found a more effective treatment for unwanted pigmentation than glycolic acid and Benzene-1,4-diol," says Bottiglione. 
"I recommend using Benzene-1,4-diol after cleansing the skin with a glycolic acid cleanser, like the Dermatologist's Choice pH Balanced Cleanser with Glycolic Acid ," says Bottiglione. 
"The key is to eliminate excess oil, dirt, and makeup that can block the Benzene-1,4-diol from entering the pores. 

The deeper the Benzene-1,4-diol can penetrate into the skin, the better the benefits." 
And, while we all know the harmful effects of the sun on our skin, Benzene-1,4-diol can cause further darkening of spots, so using a UV-blocking sunscreen during the time you're using any Benzene-1,4-diol product is a must.

"Most people don't need it all over the skin, just in particular areas," Bottiglione advises. 
"You should use Benzene-1,4-diol in the areas with hyperpigmentation." 

If you tend to be sensitive, Bottiglione recommends using Benzene-1,4-diol on alternating days, which can help the skin tolerate Benzene-1,4-diol better. 
"Using an over-the-counter option at a low concentration can help the skin tolerate it better as well," he notes.
Over-the-counter Benzene-1,4-diol products are available at concentrations up to 2%. 

Anything higher than that requires a prescription. 
"I usually recommend evening before bedtime as I like to use the cellular regenerative hours overnight for the product to get to work," says Shamban. 
Also, Ng notes that Benzene-1,4-diol makes skin more susceptible to UV damage and that insufficient sun protection during treatment can lead to the development of more hyperpigmentation—always ensure your skin is protected while donning a Benzene-1,4-diol treatment.

What do I do if I miss a dose?
-Put on a missed dose as soon as you think about Benzene-1,4-diol.
-If Benzene-1,4-diol is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
-Do not put Benzene-1,4-diol on 2 doses or extra doses.

Preferred IUPAC name:

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol (hahy droh kwi NOHN) is applied to the the skin to lighten areas that have darkened. 
Some products also contain sunscreens.
Benzene-1,4-diol may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

What should I tell my health care provider before I take Benzene-1,4-diol?
They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
-an unusual or allergic reaction to Benzene-1,4-diol, sunscreens, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
-pregnant or trying to get pregnant

How should I use Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is for external use only. 
Do not take Benzene-1,4-diol by mouth. 

Follow the directions on the prescription label. 
Wash your hands before and after applying Benzene-1,4-diol. 

Make sure the skin is clean and dry. 
Apply Benzene-1,4-diol just enough to cover the affected area. 
Rub in gently but completely. 

Do not apply Benzene-1,4-diol near the eyes, mouth, or other areas of sensitive skin. 
If accidental contact occurs, large amounts of water should be used to wash the affected area. 

If the eyes are involved and eye irritation persists after thoroughly washing, contact your doctor. 
If you are using other skin medicines, apply them at different times of the day. 

Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol more often than directed.
Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of Benzene-1,4-diol in children. 
Special care may be needed.

If you think you have taken too much of Benzene-1,4-diol contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

Benzene-1,4-diol is only for you.
Do not share Benzene-1,4-diol with others.

What if I miss a Benzene-1,4-diol dose?
If you miss a dose, apply Benzene-1,4-diol as soon as you can. 
If Benzene-1,4-diol is almost time for your next dose, use only that dose. 
Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol double or extra doses.

What may interact with Benzene-1,4-diol?
benzoyl peroxide
This list may not describe all possible interactions. 
Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. 
Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. 
Some items may interact with Benzene-1,4-diol.

Benzene-1,4-diol, the major benzene metabolite, is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment due to its widespread application in human and industrial activities. 
Benzene-1,4-diol can be used as a developing agent in photography, dye intermediate, stabilizer in paints, varnishes oils, and motor fuels. 

In addition, Benzene-1,4-diol has been used as an antioxidant in the rubber and food industry. 
From 1950s to 2001 Benzene-1,4-diol was applied in the commercially available cosmetic skin lightening formulations in European Union countries and since 1960s it was commercially available as a medical product. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is also present in cosmetic formulations of products for coating finger nails and hair dyes. 
On the other hand, Benzene-1,4-diol can be a component of high molecular aromatic compounds (e.g., resin), an intermediate, or appear as a degradation product generated by transformation of aromatic compounds. 

Advanced oxidation processes (APOs) of aromatic compounds, particularly of phenol, yield several benzene derivatives, such as Benzene-1,4-diol, catechol, and resorcinol, as intermediate metabolites of its transformation. 
The formation of Benzene-1,4-diol and -benzoquinone at early stages of phenol oxidation increases the toxicity of phenol wastewaters, showing that these compounds were more toxic and less degradable than the original pollutant. 

Meanwhile, in the oxidative degradation of Benzene-1,4-diol under a supercritical condition (409.9°C and 24.5 MPa) and subcritical condition (359.9°C and 24.5 MPa), -benzoquinone was to be an important intermediate. 
Despite the toxic properties, a number of microorganisms can utilize Benzene-1,4-diol, especially under aerobic conditions, which has led to the development of low-cost treatment of polluted effluents. 

The chemical method applied conventionally to the treatment of industrial wastewater used FeSO4 and H2O2; however, the application of this technology generates ferric sulfate, which enables recycled reactants. 
Therefore, biological transformations are generally preferred for being considered as more economical and environmentally friendly.

What should I watch for while using Benzene-1,4-diol?
Contact your doctor or health care professional if your condition does not improve in the first two months or if you experience too much skin irritation.
Benzene-1,4-diol will work best if you avoid excessive exposure to sunlight and wear sunscreens and protective clothing. 

Some Benzene-1,4-diol products contain sunscreens. 
Use a sunscreen (SPF 15 or higher). 
Do not use sun lamps or sun tanning beds or booths. 

Do not apply Benzene-1,4-diol to sunburned areas or if you have a skin wound in the area of application.
Most cosmetics, sunscreens, and moisturizing lotions may be worn over Benzene-1,4-diol. 
Wait several minutes after application of v before applying them.

What side effects may I notice from receiving Benzene-1,4-diol?
Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:
-severe burning, itching, crusting, or swelling of the treated areas
-unusual skin discoloration

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):
-mild itching or stinging
-reddening of the skin
This list may not describe all possible side effects. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Benzene-1,4-diol is one of the most effective skin brightening agents in skincare. 
However, Benzene-1,4-diol’s scientifically proven to have negative side effects. 

Are the Benzene-1,4-diol dangers worth risking your health?
Snow White set the bar high when Benzene-1,4-diol comes to fair skin.
Many women want overall brighter complexions, and they’re enlisting the help of cosmetics marketed towards brightening dull skin and lightening dark spots.
Skin brightening is so popular and in demand that Benzene-1,4-diol’s become its own industry with Asian countries accounting for more than half of sales.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is a skin lightening agent frequently used in skin brightening spot treatments and face creams. 
Benzene-1,4-diol’s been long established as the most effective ingredient for lightening skin, fading uneven skin tone, and improving dark spots.

How does Benzene-1,4-diol work? Benzene-1,4-diol bleaches the skin and, therefore, alters the skin tone.
Your skin tone is determined by the amount of melanocytes present in the skin. 

Melanocytes are skin cells that create melanin, a dark brown or black pigment. 
Melanin is also responsible for making skin appear tanned or darker when exposed to sunlight. 

Melanin is beautiful, but Benzene-1,4-diol disagrees.
If bleaching your skin doesn’t sound safe to you, you’re right. 

Benzene-1,4-diol’s not safe or healthy. 
Yes, Benzene-1,4-diol works for its desired purposes, but Benzene-1,4-diol’s not good for your skin or body.
Despite its popularity and effectiveness, Benzene-1,4-diol use is controversial for health and safety reasons.

Where should I keep my medicine?
Keep out of the reach of children.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). 

Do not freeze. 
Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may not cover all possible information. 
If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

How to use Benzene-1,4-diol?
A person should check to see if they are at risk of side effects before they start to use a Benzene-1,4-diol cream, gel, or lotion regularly. 
Benzene-1,4-diolThey can do this by applying a small amount of the product to the affected area of skin.

Check for signs of irritation, such as itching or redness. 
If there is no reaction, Benzene-1,4-diol is usually safe to start treatment.

First, make sure that the area is clean and dry. 
Apply Benzene-1,4-diol a thin layer of product to the affected skin and rub it in well. 
Lastly, wash the hands thoroughly. 

This will stop the Benzene-1,4-diol from lightening the skin on the fingers.
Repeat this process as often as the product label advises. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is important to protect the affected areas of skin from sunlight. 
Benzene-1,4-diol will stop the sun from reversing the effects of the cream.

According to the AOCD, people should start to notice that they have lighter skin within about 4 weeks of using the product. 
If there are no changes after 3 months, a person can speak to a doctor or skin specialist.

Other names:
1,4-Hydroxy benzene

Benzene-1,4-diol is the LeBron James of skin care. 
The skin lightener is as controversial as Benzene-1,4-diol is effective. 

When incorporated into your complexion regimen properly, Benzene-1,4-diol decreases the production of melanin by inhibiting tyrosinase, an enzyme needed for melanin production, to decrease the appearance of hyperpigmentation. 
Because of this, many people consider Benzene-1,4-diol to be a skin-bleaching ingredient.
According to Miami-based board-certified dermatologist Roberta Del Campo, it should be considered a "color blender" instead. 

What are some things I need to know or do while I take Benzene-1,4-diol?
-Tell all of your health care providers that you take Benzene-1,4-diol. 
-This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
-After stopping Benzene-1,4-diol, some of the color change may come back.
-If you have a sulfite allergy, talk with your doctor.
-This medicine may cause harm if swallowed. 
-If Benzene-1,4-diol is swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away.
-Avoid sun, sunlamps, and tanning beds. 
-Use sunscreen and wear clothing and eyewear that protects you from the sun.
-Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan on getting pregnant. 
-You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using Benzene-1,4-diol while you are pregnant.
-Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. 
-You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.

Boiling Point: 285.0°C to 287.0°C
Flash Point: 165°C
Packaging: Glass Bottle
Sulfated Ash: 0.05% max.
Quantity: 5g
Melting Point: 170.0°C to 174.0°C
Color: White
Density: 1.32
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Assay Percent Range: 99.4% min. (HPLC)
Linear Formula: C6H4(OH)2
Beilstein: 06,836
Fieser: 05,341; 14,249
Merck Index: 15,4845
Solubility Information: 
Solubility in water: 70g/L in water (20°C). 
Other solubilities: soluble in alcohol and ether,slightly soluble in benzene,readily soluble in ethanol,acetone and methanol
Formula Weight: 110.11
Physical Form: Needle-Like Crystals or Crystalline Powder
Percent Purity: 99.5%
Chemical Name or Material: Benzene-1,4-diol, p.a.

How is Benzene-1,4-diol best taken?
-Use Benzene-1,4-diol as ordered by your doctor. 
-Do not take Benzene-1,4-diol by mouth. 
-Use Benzene-1,4-diol on your skin only. 
-Keep out of your mouth, nose, and eyes (may burn).
-Wash your hands before and after using Benzene-1,4-diol. 
-Do not wash your hands after use Benzene-1,4-diol if putting this on your hand.
-Clean affected part before use. 
-Make sure to dry well.
-Put Benzene-1,4-diol a thin layer on the affected skin and rub in gently.
-Practice good skin care and avoid the sun.
-Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol coverings (bandages, dressings, make-up) unless told to do so by the doctor.
-Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol on irritated skin.

Is Benzene-1,4-diol safe for all skin types and tones?
Although Benzene-1,4-diol is generally well-tolerated, there are a few exceptions.
If you have dry or sensitive skin, you may find that Benzene-1,4-diol causes further dryness or irritation. 

Benzene-1,4-diol usually tapers off as your skin adjusts to the ingredient.
People who have normal or oily skin are less likely to experience these side effects.
Benzene-1,4-diol tends to work best on fair skin tones. 

If you have a medium-to-dark skin tone, talk with your dermatologist before use. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may actually worsen hyperpigmentation in darker skin tones.

How effective is Benzene-1,4-diol?
In most cases, lightening of skin should be seen after four weeks of treatment. 
Sometimes Benzene-1,4-diol may take longer to see any change, but if no bleaching effect is seen after three months of treatment, you should stop using Benzene-1,4-diol.

To increase the effectiveness of Benzene-1,4-diol, you should stay out of the sun, or wear protective clothing and use an SPF15+ sunscreen when outdoors. 
Do not use sunlamps or tanning salons.
Benzene-1,4-diol is important to use Benzene-1,4-diol regularly as directed until you achieve the desired bleaching, after which use as needed to maintain results.


How to use Benzene-1,4-diol?
Consistency is key to treating hyperpigmentation. 
You’ll want to use Benzene-1,4-diol every day for maximum results. 
Follow all product instructions carefully.

Benzene-1,4-diol’s important to do a patch test before your first full application. 
This will allow you to determine how your skin will react and whether it results in unwelcome side effects.

Benzene-1,4-diol is a white, odorless, crystalline solid with an extremely low vapor pressure. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is moderately soluble in water and highly soluble in alcohol. 

Benzene-1,4-diol occurs in the environment as a result of anthropogenic processes, as well as in natural products from plants and animals. 
In the soil, Benzene-1,4-diol is expected to biodegrade under aerobic conditions. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may be removed from the soil by oxidation processes or by direct photolysis on the surface. 

What is the most important information I should know about Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Benzene-1,4-diol topical (for the skin) is used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, melasma (sun damage), or chloasma (darkened skin caused by hormonal changes).

Benzene-1,4-diol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to Benzene-1,4-diol or peroxide.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if Benzene-1,4-diol is safe to use if you have ever had:
-liver or kidney disease;
-asthma or sulfite allergy; or if you are using any antibiotic medicine.
Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Do not give this medicine to anyone under 12 years old without medical advice.

How should I use Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Use Benzene-1,4-diol exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.
Benzene-1,4-diol topical is usually applied each morning and at bedtime. 

Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully.
Do not take Benzene-1,4-diol by mouth. 

Topical medicine is for use only on the skin.
Before you start using Benzene-1,4-diol topical, use a "test dose" to see if you have an allergic reaction to Benzene-1,4-diol. 

Apply Benzene-1,4-diol very small amount of the medicine to a small area of healthy skin, and check the area within 24 hours. 
If there is no reaction other than minor redness, begin using the full prescribed amount of Benzene-1,4-diol.
Wash your hands before and after applying Benzene-1,4-diol, unless you are using Benzene-1,4-diol to treat the skin on your hands.

Apply Benzene-1,4-diol only to the affected skin areas that need to be lightened. 
Try not to get any medicine on the skin around these areas applyed Benzene-1,4-diol.
Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol topical on open wounds or on sunburned, windburned, dry, chapped, or irritated skin.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 2 months, or if your condition gets worse.
Store Benzene-1,4-diol at room temperature away from moisture and heat. 
Keep the Benzene-1,4-diol container tightly closed when not in use.

What happens if I miss Benzene-1,4-diol dose?
Apply Benzene-1,4-diol as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if Benzene-1,4-diol is almost time for your next dose. 
Do not apply two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?
An overdose of Benzene-1,4-diol topical is not expected to be dangerous. 

What should I avoid while using Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Avoid getting Benzene-1,4-diol in your eyes.
Avoid getting Benzene-1,4-diol on your lips or inside your nose or mouth. 

What are the possible side effects of Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using Benzene-1,4-diol topical and call your doctor at once if you have:
-severe skin redness, burning, or stinging;
-severe skin dryness, cracking, or bleeding;
-blisters or oozing; or
-blue or black discoloration of the skin (especially if you are Hispanic or African-American).

Common side effects may Benzene-1,4-diol include:
-mild burning or stinging of treated skin; or
-mild itching, redness, or other irritation.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect Benzene-1,4-diol topical?
Medicine used on the skin is not likely to be affected by other drugs you use. 
But many drugs can interact with each other. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all medicines you use, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products.

Where can I get more information?
Your pharmacist can provide more information about Benzene-1,4-diol topical.

Volatilization would be minimal. 
In the water, Benzene-1,4-diol would degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. 
Benzene-1,4-diol can also slowly oxidize to quinone, which is more volatile. 

In the air, Benzene-1,4-diol undergoes photochemical degradation. 
Benzene-1,4-diol is listed as undergoing rapid biodegradation in a commercial activated sludge unit under aerobic conditions. 
The estimated and experimental bioconcentration factors for Benzene-1,4-diol of 40–65 have been obtained. 

These data indicate that Benzene-1,4-diol is not expected to significantly bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms. 
Benzene-1,4-diol, also, does not persist in the environment.

CAS Number: 123-31-9 
Beilstein Reference: 605970
CHEBI: 17594 
ChemSpider: 764 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.199 
EC Number: 204-617-8
Gmelin Reference: 2742
KEGG: D00073
PubChem CID: 785
RTECS number: MX3500000
UNII: XV74C1N1AE check
UN number: 3077, 2662
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7020716

Benzene-1,4-diol is a skin lightening agent available as either a pharmaceutical or a cosmeceutical. 
Benzene-1,4-diols mechanism of action depends on its ability to inhibit tyrosinase synthesis, thereby inhibiting the production of melanin. 
Other functions of Benzene-1,4-diol include its ability to inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis, and to degrade melanosomes. 

Products sold at 2% concentration are available in more than 100 over-the-counter products, whereas those with a 3–10% concentration are prescription products and regulated as drugs. 
New products on the market today use Benzene-1,4-diol in combination with topical retinoids and topical steroids for treatment of melasma and photopigmentation.

Benzene-1,4-diol has received scrutiny recently owing to Benzene-1,4-diols risk of ochronosis, a severe but rare side-effect. 
Endogenous ochronosis is a manifestation of a rare metabolic disorder known as alkaptonuria, which results from a deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase. 

Exogenous ochronosis is a rare cutaneous side-effect of the long-term use of topical depigmenting agents such as Benzene-1,4-diol. 
Ochronosis is characterized by an asymptomatic blue–black pigmentation of skin and cartilage. 

Although the exact cause of ochronosis from topical Benzene-1,4-diol is not known, studies suggest that Benzene-1,4-diol may inhibit homogentisic acid oxidase in the dermis, with the accumulation of homogentisic acid in the dermis causing ochronotic pigment deposition. 
Other agents reported in the literature to cause exogenous ochronosis are antimalarials, resorcinol, phenol, mercury, and picric acid.

Benzene-1,4-diol is used as an inhibitor of polymerization. 
Due to Benzene-1,4-diols outstanding photo developing properties, Benzene-1,4-diol is also used as a photo developer, and as a raw material in manufacturing dye intermediates.

To do this:
Rub a small amount of the product into the inside of your forearm.
Cover the area with a bandage.
Wash your hands to prevent the product from staining your clothes or other materials.

Wait 24 hours.
Discontinue use if you experience severe itching or other irritation during this time.

If you don’t experience any side effects, you should be able to safely add it to your skin care routine. 
You should apply Benzene-1,4-diol after cleansing and toning, but before your moisturizer.

Benzene-1,4-diol is used to lighten the dark patches of skin (also called hyperpigmentation, melasma, "liver spots," "age spots," freckles) caused by pregnancy, birth control pills, hormone medicine, or injury to the skin.
Benzene-1,4-diol works by blocking the process in the skin that leads to discoloration.

If OVERDOSE is suspected:
If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

How do I store and/or throw out Benzene-1,4-diol?
Store Benzene-1,4-diol at room temperature.
Store Benzene-1,4-diol in a dry place. 

Do not store Benzene-1,4-diol in a bathroom.
Keep Benzene-1,4-diol in a safe place. 

Keep Benzene-1,4-diol out of the reach of children and pets.
Throw away unused or expired drugs. 

Do not flush Benzene-1,4-diol down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. 
Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. 
There may be drug take-back programs in your area.

Consumer information use
If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else's drugs.

Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. 
Check Benzene-1,4-diol with your pharmacist. 
If you have any questions about Benzene-1,4-diol, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Benzene-1,4-diol, a bleaching agent, is most frequently used to treat melasma. 
A 2% concentration is available over the counter, whereas 4% Benzene-1,4-diol cream requires a prescription. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is applied twice daily to affected areas. 
Sunscreens with a SPF of 30 should be used prophylactically. 

If after several months no lightening has occurred, tretinoin cream 0.1% may be cautiously applied daily in addition to the use of Benzene-1,4-diol and a sunscreen. 
In addition, a combination product containing fluocinolone, Benzene-1,4-diol, and tretinoin (Tri-Luma) is effective. 
Less commonly used treatments include azelaic acid cream (Azelex) and chemical peels.

How to use Benzene-1,4-diol Skin Bleaching Cream?
Follow all directions on the product package, or use as directed by your doctor. 
Before using, apply a small amount of Benzene-1,4-diol to an area of unbroken skin, and check the area within 24 hours for any serious side effects. 

If the test area is itching, red, puffy, or blistering, do not use Benzene-1,4-diol and contact your doctor. 
If there is just mild redness, then treatment with Benzene-1,4-diol may begin.
Apply Benzene-1,4-diol to the affected areas of skin, usually twice daily or as directed by your doctor. 

Benzene-1,4-diol is for use on the skin only. 
If Benzene-1,4-diol is used incorrectly, unwanted skin lightening may occur. 
Avoid getting Benzene-1,4-diol in your eyes or on the inside of your nose or mouth. 

If you do get Benzene-1,4-diol in those areas, flush with plenty of water.
Benzene-1,4-diol may make the treated areas of skin more sensitive to the sun. 

Avoid prolonged sun exposure, tanning booths, and sunlamps. 
Use Benzene-1,4-diol a sunscreen and wear protective clothing on the treated areas of skin when outdoors.

Use Benzene-1,4-diol regularly to get the most benefit from it. 
To help you remember, use Benzene-1,4-diol at the same times each day.

Benzene-1,4-diol is a depigmenting agent used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, chloasma, and melisma caused by pregnancy, birth control pills, hormone medicine, or injury to the skin. 
Benzene-1,4-diol decreases the formation of melanin in the skin. 
Melanin is the pigment in skin that gives it a brown color.

Chemical formula: C6H6O2
Molar mass: 110.112 g·mol−1
Appearance: white solid
Density: 1.3 g cm−3, solid
Melting point: 172 °C (342 °F; 445 K)
Boiling point: 287 °C (549 °F; 560 K)
Solubility in water: 5.9 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Vapor pressure: 10−5 mmHg (20 °C)[2]
Acidity (pKa): 9.9[3]
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −64.63×10−6 cm3/mol

Benzene-1,4-diol has been used for over 40 years to treat several disorders of hyperpigmentation.
Benzene-1,4-diol is the most commonly studied agent for lightening pigment. 

Benzene-1,4-diol inhibits the activity of tyrosinase, the enzyme necessary for melanin biosynthesis. 
There are many formulations in the market that combine Benzene-1,4-diol with alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), retinol, vitamin C, and topical steroids.

The authors instruct patients to apply a 4% Benzene-1,4-diol topical cream to the entire face twice daily. 
Patients are cautioned against “spot treatment” to avoid developing a blotchy complexion. 

Patients should be reassured that contrary to popular opinion, Benzene-1,4-diol does not bleach the skin but rather restores the skin to the patient's baseline skin color.
The evening application should be applied prior to the patient's evening topical retinoid. 
Pretreatment with Benzene-1,4-diol before skin resurfacing plays an important role in minimizing post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH).

Take just a small amount of the product and apply it evenly across the entire area of skin. 
Gently massage into your skin until it’s completely absorbed.

Make sure you wash your hands after use — this will prevent the product from affecting other areas of skin or staining your clothes and other materials.
You should also wear sunscreen while using this ingredient. 

Sun exposure can not only make hyperpigmentation worse, but also reverse the effects of your Benzene-1,4-diol treatment.
Sunscreen is usually the last step of a skin care routine. Be sure to reapply as needed throughout the day.
While consistency is important for maximum results, you shouldn’t use it for long periods of time. 

If you don’t see any improvement after three months, discontinue use.
If you do see improvement, you can use the product for up to four months, and then begin to taper off use. 

You shouldn’t use Benzene-1,4-diol for more than five months at a time.
If you want to begin using the product again, wait two to three months before you resume use.

Normally Benzene-1,4-diol is very well tolerated, however side effects may be seen. 
These include dryness, irritation, pruritus, erythema, and a mild irritant contact dermatitis. 

Furthermore, remember to avoid contact with eyes and use sparingly on the face. 
Prolonged usage of Benzene-1,4-diol has been associated with ochronosis, a blue-black pigmentation with caviar-like papules on the skin.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol?
Benzene-1,4-diol is an organic compound that’s used to treat a variety of discoloration-related skin conditions. 
Benzene-1,4-diol’s a skin lightening agent that works by reducing your production of melanin. When used topically, Benzene-1,4-diol can cause your skin to lighten in color.

Benzene-1,4-diol is widely used as a scar treatment. 
Applied topically, Benzene-1,4-diol can cause darkened scars to lose some or all of their extra pigmentation, causing them to blend in and match the color of the surrounding skin.

Benzene-1,4-diol’s also used as a treatment for skin hyperpigmentation caused by UV exposure (spending too much time in the sun) and inflammation.
Topical Benzene-1,4-diol creams are available as prescription medication to treat melasma and other pigmentation-related skin conditions. 
You can also buy limited strength Benzene-1,4-diol as an over-the-counter medicine in most pharmacies.

What is Benzene-1,4-diol used for?
Benzene-1,4-diol is a skin-bleaching agent that is used to lighten areas of darkened skin. 
Benzene-1,4-diol decreases the formation of melanin in the skin. 

Melanin is the pigment in skin that gives it a brown color.
Benzene-1,4-diol has been prescribed for your present skin condition only and should not be given to other people or used for other problems.

How to Use Benzene-1,4-diol to Get Rid of Melasma:
If you’ve been prescribed Benzene-1,4-diol, the best approach is to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider.
Applying Benzene-1,4-diol is simple. 

Benzene-1,4-diol's best to test yourself for sensitivity before you begin using Benzene-1,4-diol regularly. 
To test your skin, apply a small amount of Benzene-1,4-diol cream to your melasma-affected skin, then check for itchiness or redness over the next 24 hours.

Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. 
Right now, there simply isn’t enough scientific evidence to show that Benzene-1,4-diol is completely safe to use in pregnancy — it currently carries a Category C rating from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
On average, Benzene-1,4-diol takes four to eight weeks for Benzene-1,4-diol to produce noticeable skin lightening results, meaning you’ll need to apply it consistently before your melasma-affected skin begins to lighten and match the rest of your face.

Benzene-1,4-diol has been one of the top ingredients physicians use to treat hyperpigmentation. 
There is a lot of controversy on whether to use Benzene-1,4-diol or go Benzene-1,4-diol-free. 

With ¼ of all skin care product sales being for hyperpigmentation, this is the time to discuss this controversy.
How you use Benzene-1,4-diol will depend on how safe Benzene-1,4-diol is.  

For over fifty years, Benzene-1,4-diol has been used in teeth whitening. 
Benzene-1,4-diol has even been exposed to humans through industrial and photography development.  
Reportedly, there have been no known reports of anyone developing cancer because of Benzene-1,4-diol.

Learn More About Melasma:
Studies show that Benzene-1,4-diol works well as a treatment for melasma, helping to reduce skin discoloration and make blotchy, uneven patches of skin more consistent. 
However, it's far from the only treatment available for melasma and other pigmentation-related skin conditions.
Our guide to melasma goes into more detail on how and why melasma occurs, as well as the most effective treatments available for reducing hyperpigmentation and returning your skin to normal.

How should I use this medicine?
Wash the skin with cleanser, then rinse and pat dry.
Apply enough Benzene-1,4-diol to cover the affected areas, and rub in gently to ensure good absorption.

Apply Benzene-1,4-diol once or twice daily, as instructed by your doctor.
You may use a moisturizer to help avoid skin dryness. 

When using moisturizers, sunscreens, cosmetics and other topical preparations together with the Benzene-1,4-diol cream, apply them in the sequence as instructed by your doctor. 
Wait approximately 3 – 4 minutes before applying the next product.
Do not use the medicine on skin that is sunburned, chapped, or irritated, or on an open wound. 

Benzene-1,4-diol could make these conditions worse. 
Wait until these conditions have healed before applying the medicine.

Do not use Benzene-1,4-diol in or around the eyes, lips or mouth. 
Benzene-1,4-diol may irritate these sensitive areas.

What should I do if I forget a dose?
Skip the missed dose. 
Do not apply more of Benzene-1,4-diol to make up for the missed dose as it could result in severe irritation.

What possible side effects may Benzene-1,4-diol cause?
Certain side effects of this medicine are not unusual and may even disappear during treatment. 

If any of the following effects on the sites of application persist or are severe, consult your doctor:
-mild burning

Stop using Benzene-1,4-diol and consult your doctor if the following occurs:
-severe burning
-severe dryness
-severe irritation or itching
-stretch marks
-tiny red lines or blood vessels showing through the skin (telangiectasia)

Benzene-1,4-diol and unusual skin discoloration
Prolonged use of Benzene-1,4-diol has been associated with the development of exogenous ochronosis (a persistent blue-black pigmentation). 
Therefore, please use as instructed by your doctor and stop after you have achieved the desired lightening effect.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. 
However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
The medication may contain sodium bisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people.

What precautions should I take?
Inform your doctor if you have asthma, other skin conditions (e.g., eczema, psoriasis) or, any unusual or allergic reactions to any topical preparations.

For women: Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

Benzene-1,4-diol may make the treated areas of skin more sensitive to the sun. 
Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight, sunlamps or ultraviolet light. 
Use a sunscreen of at least SPF 30 or greater and wear protective covering (e.g. hats, clothing) over the treated areas.

How do I store Benzene-1,4-diol?
Keep this medicine away from heat and direct sunlight in a cool, dry place, out of reach of children.

Does Benzene-1,4-diol Work for Melasma?
Benzene-1,4-diol is one of the most effective topical treatments on the market for melasma. 
Benzene-1,4-diol has been thoroughly tested in numerous studies, almost all of which show that it works effectively to reduce pigmentation and even out the blotchy, darkened patches of skin that melasma causes.

In one 2007 study, application of a cream containing Benzene-1,4-diol and retinol as part of a combination therapy led to “sustained improvements” in skin coloration in people with melasma.
Benzene-1,4-diol also performed well in a 2013 study, producing a measurable reduction in MASI scoring (Melasma Area and Severity Index, a scoring system used to assess melasma) over a period of 12 weeks.

In the same study, Benzene-1,4-diol also produced better results than kojic acid cream—a popular over-the-counter treatment for melasma and skin hyperpigmentation.
In short, Benzene-1,4-diol is scientifically proven to reduce the amount of skin discoloration caused by melasma. 
For most people, Benzene-1,4-diol produces a noticeable improvement after eight to 12 weeks of consistent use, although some people might see improvements in their skin sooner. 

If there is no improvement after two months to three months, you should discontinue and follow up with your healthcare provider. 
However, this doesn’t mean that Benzene-1,4-diol is guaranteed to treat melasma completely on its own. 
For more severe cases of melasma, Benzene-1,4-diol is often combined with a topical retinoid such as tretinoin.

For persistent melasma, Benzene-1,4-diol’s often used in combination with a retinoid and a corticosteroid. 
This obviously increases the risk of side effects occurring, as many corticosteroids can produce side effects when used over the long term.

Solaquin forte
Eldopaque Forte
Eldoquin Forte
Tenox HQ
Diak 5
Benzene, p-dihydroxy-
Usaf ek-356
Black and White Bleaching Cream
Pyrogentistic acid
HE 5
Idrochinone [Italian]
Hydrochinon [Czech, Polish]
1,4-Dihydroxybenzen [Czech]
1,4-Diidrobenzene [Italian]
1,4-Dihydroxy-benzeen [Dutch]
1,4-Dihydroxy-benzol [German]
NSC 9247
Hydroquinone [USP]
Hydroquinone [UN2662] [Poison]
Hydroquinone (USP)
p Benzendiol
HSDB 577
EINECS 204-617-8
hydroq uinone
hydroquinone gr
Black & White Bleaching Cream
Hydroquinone, HQ
1,4 benzenediol
p-dihydroxy benzene
Artra (Salt/Mix)
1, 4-Benzenediol
phenol derivative, 4
4-hydroxyphenyl alcohol
hydroquinone for synthesis
Epitope ID:116206
EC 204-617-8
1,4-Dihydroxybenzene Quinol
1,4-Dihydroxybenzene, XIII
Hydroquinone, LR, >=99%
Hydrochinon(CZECH, POLISH)
Hydroquinone, puriss., 99.0%
UN 2662
Hydroquinone, ReagentPlus(R), >=99%
Hydroquinone, USP, 99.0-100.5%
Hydroquinone, ReagentPlus(R), >=99.5%
Hydroquinone, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
Hydroquinone, SAJ special grade, >=99.0%
Hydroquinone, meets USP testing specifications
H 9003
Quinol; 1,4-Benzenediol; 1,4-Dihydroxybenzene
Hydroquinone, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
Hydroquinone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Hydroquinone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material

Regulatory process names:
1,4-dihydroxybenzene; hydroquinone; quinol

Translated names:
1,4- benzodiol (cs)
1,4-dihidroksibenzen (hr)
1,4-dihidroksibenzen (sl)
1,4-dihidroksibenzenas (lt)
1,4-dihidroksibenzols (lv)
1,4-dihidroxibenceno (es)
1,4-dihidroxibenzen (mt)
1,4-dihidroxibenzen (ro)
1,4-dihidroxibenzeno (pt)
1,4-dihidroxibenzol (hu)
1,4-Dihydroksibentseeni (fi)
1,4-dihydroksybenzen (no)
1,4-dihydroksybenzen (pl)
1,4-dihydroxibensen (sv)
1,4-dihydroxybenzeen (nl)
1,4-dihydroxybenzen (da)
1,4-Dihydroxybenzol (de)
1,4-dihydroxybenzène; hydroquinone; quinol (fr)
1,4-dihüdroksübenseen (et)
1,4-diidrossibenzene (it)
1,4-διυδροξυ-βενζόλιο (el)
1,4-дихидрооксибензен (bg)
benzén-1,4-diol (sk)
chinol (cs)
Chinol (de)
chinol (mt)
chinol (nl)
chinol (ro)
chinol (sk)
chinolis (lt)
chinolo (it)
hidrochinonas (lt)
hidrochinonă (mt)
hidrochinonă (ro)
hidrohinons (lv)
hidrokinon (hr)
hidrokinon (hu)
hidrokinon (sl)
hidroquinona (es)
hidroquinona (pt)
hinols (lv)
hydrochinon (cs)
Hydrochinon (de)
hydrochinon (nl)
hydrochinon (pl)
hydrochinón (sk)
hydrokinon (no)
hydrokinon (sv)
hydrokinoni (fi)
hydroquinon (da)
hydroquinone (fr)
hüdrokinoon (et)
idrochinone (it)
kinol (hr)
kinol (hu)
kinol (sl)
kinol (sv)
kinoli (fi)
kinool (et)
quinol (da)
quinol (es)
quinol (fr)
quinol (pt)
κινόλη (el)
υδροκινόνη (el)
хидрохинон (bg)
хинол (bg)

CAS names:

IUPAC names:
1,4-Benzenediol, 1,4-Dihydroxybenzene, HQ, Quinol
1,4-dihydroxybenzene; hydroquinone; quinol
1,4-dyhydroxybenzene; hydroquinone, quinol
benzene, 1,4-dihydroxy

Trade names:
Hydroquinone IG
Hydroquinone Photo
Hydroquinone Technical
Idrochinone IG
Idrochinone Photo
Idrochinone tecnico

Other identifiers:


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