BENZYL CHLORIDE


Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl. 
This colorless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block.

Names
Preferred IUPAC name: (Chloromethyl)benzene

Other names
α-Chlorotoluene
Benzyl chloride

CAS Number: 100-44-7 

Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical products and as a photographic developer

Uses
Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical,perfume and flavor products. 
It is also used as a photographic developer.
Benzyl chloride can be used in the manufacture of synthetic tannins and as a gum inhibitor in petrol. 
Benzyl chloride has been used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare. 

Benzyl chloride is highly reactive, and its ability to readily interact with many other organic chemicals results in thousands of tons being produced each year to use in chemical manufacturing processes. 
This colorless liquid gives off an odor that’s described as very pungent and can have hazardous effects if not handled with extreme caution.

Benzyl chloride is mainly used to make other chemicals used for the synthesis of a quaternary ammonium compound, known as benzalkonium chloride.

Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block. 
Benzyl chloride is the precursor to benzyl esters which are used as plasticizers, flavorants, and perfumes. 
Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which is generated by treatment of benzyl chloride with sodium cyanide. 

Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride. 
Benzyl chloride is an alkylating agent with very irritating properties to the skin. 
Indicative of its high reactivity (relative to alkyl chlorides), benzyl chloride reacts with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid. 

In contact with mucous membranes, hydrolysis produces hydrochloric acid. 
Thus, benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been used in chemical warfare.

Benzyl chloride is used as raw material to synthesize several quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, which may have pharmaceutical applications. 
Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, toluene, chloro derivatives of toluene, and dibenzyl ether are compounds that may be found as impurities in technical benzyl chloride.

Benzyl chloride is a colorless liquid with a very pungent odor. 
Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical products and as a photographic developer. 
The acute (short-term) effects of benzyl chloride from inhalation exposure in humans consist of severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, and lung damage along with pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs).


Preparation
Benzyl chloride is prepared industrially by the gas-phase photochemical reaction of toluene with chlorine:

C6H5CH3 + Cl2 → C6H5CH2Cl + HCl
In this way, approximately 100,000 tonnes are produced annually. 
The reaction proceeds by the free radical process, involving the intermediacy of free chlorine atoms.
Side products of the reaction include benzal chloride and benzotrichloride.

Other methods of production exist, such as the Blanc chloromethylation of benzene. 
Benzyl chloride was first prepared from treatment of benzyl alcohol with hydrochloric acid.

Uses and reactions
Industrially, benzyl chloride is the precursor to benzyl esters, which are used as plasticizers, flavorants, and perfumes. 
Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which in turn is generated by treatment of benzyl chloride with sodium cyanide. 
Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride.

Benzyl ethers are often derived from benzyl chloride. 
Benzyl chloride reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide to give dibenzyl ether. 
In organic synthesis, benzyl chloride is used to introduce the benzyl protecting group in reaction with alcohols, yielding the corresponding benzyl ether, carboxylic acids, and benzyl ester.

Benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) can be prepared by oxidation of benzyl chloride in the presence of alkaline KMnO4:

C6H5CH2Cl + 2 KOH + 2 [O] → C6H5COOK + KCl + H2O
Benzyl chloride may be used in the synthesis of amphetamine-class drugs, and for this reason, sales of benzyl chloride are monitored as a List II drug precursor chemical by the US Drug Enforcement Administration.

Benzyl chloride also reacts readily with metallic magnesium to produce a Grignard reagent.
It is preferable over benzyl bromide for the preparation of this reagent, since the reaction of the bromide with magnesium tends to form the Wurtz coupling product 1,2-diphenylethane.

Safety
Benzyl chloride is an alkylating agent. 
Indicative of its high reactivity (relative to alkyl chlorides), benzyl chloride reacts with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid. 
In contact with mucous membranes, hydrolysis produces hydrochloric acid. 
Thus, benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been used in chemical warfare. 
It is also very irritating to the skin.

It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. 
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities

Benzyl chloride appears as a colorless liquid with an irritating odor. 
Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. 
Flash point 153°F. 
Slightly soluble in water. 
Corrosive to metals and tissue.
A lachrymator. 
Density 9.2 lb /gal.


Benzyl chloride is a member of the class of benzyl chlorides that is toluene substituted on the alpha-carbon with chlorine.

Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical products and as a photographic developer. 
The acute (short-term) effects of benzyl chloride from inhalation exposure in humans consist of severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, and lung damage along with pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs). 
Exposure to high concentrations also causes effects on the central nervous system (CNS). 
Animal data indicate that long- term exposure to benzyl chloride by gavage (placing it experimentally in the stomachs of mice) increased the incidence of benign and malignant tumors at multiple sites and resulted in a significant increase in thyroid tumors in female rats. 
EPA has classified benzyl chloride as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen.

Other names: Benzene, (chloromethyl)-; Toluene, α-chloro-; α-Chlorotoluene; ω-Chlorotoluene; (Chloromethyl)benzene; Chlorophenylmethane; C6H5CH2Cl; α-Chlortoluol; Benzile (cloruro di); Benzylchlorid; Benzyle (chlorure de); Chlorure de benzyle; NCI-C06360; Rcra waste number P028; UN 1738; Phenylmethyl chloride; NSC 8043; Tolyl chloride


Benzyl chloride or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl. 
The colourless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is an extensively used chemical building block. 
Benzyl chloride is made use as a chemical intermediate to manufacture certain dyes and pharmaceutical products, plasticizer, flavorants, and perfumes and as a photographic developer. 
Below are the some of the applications of Benzyl Chloride in chemical industry: 

1. Plasticizers

2. Surfactants

3. Flavor and Fragrance

4. Sanitizing agent

5. Pharmaceuticals

6. Dyes

7. Fuels and additives

8. Paint and coating additives

 

PRODUCTION OF BENZYL CHLORIDE
Benzyl Chloride is produced by the thermal or photochemical chlorination of toluene under 65-100 deg Celsius. 
On lower temperatures the quantity of ring-chlorinated by-products is greater. 
The chlorination is usually carried to barely about 50 percent of toluene conversion so as to reduce the quantity of benzal chloride formed. 
When toluene is recycled and the over chlorinated products are separated by the process of distillation, overall yield based on toluene is more than 90%. 
Distinct materials, comprising the phosphorus pentachloride, have been accounted to catalyze the side-chain chlorination. 
These compounds and others such as amides also reduce ring chlorination by complex metallic impurities. 
In commercial practice, chlorination may be carried out either batch wise or continuously.

 

AS A HAZARD CHEMICAL
Benzyl chloride gets hydrolysed into benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid when it is exposed to water. 
Hence, benzyl chloride is deliberated as a lachrymator agent or a chemical that is cause for eye, respiratory, and skin irritation. 
One of the main effects of benzyl chloride inhalation includes acute irritation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, which can even result in lung damage. 
The nervous system can be damaged because of the exposure to excessive concentration of the chemical. 
Benzyl chloride was initially used for the purpose of a chemical weapon in the course of World War I.

Benzyl chloride burns but does not ignite readily, whereas it ignites combustibles. 
When heated to decomposition, benzyl chloride releases toxic and corrosive fumes. 
Certain organic chlorides decompose to yield phosgene. 
Benzyl chloride is incompatible with metals for instance copper, aluminum, magnesium, iron, zinc, and tin. 
Benzyl chloride needs to kept separate from oxidizing materials. Benzyl chloride reacts with water resulting in some non-violent release of energy.


Chemical formula: C7H7Cl
Molar mass: 126.58 g·mol−1
Appearance: Colorless to slightly yellow liquid
Odor: Pungent, aromatic
Density    1.100 g/cm3
Melting point: −39 °C
Boiling point: 179 °C 
Solubility in water: very slightly soluble (0.05% at 20 °C)
Solubility: soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, chloroform, CCl4
miscible in organic solvents
Vapor pressure: 1 mmHg (20 °C)[1]
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): -81.98·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.5415 (15 °C)


BENZYL CHLORIDE
(Chloromethyl)benzene
100-44-7
Benzylchloride
Chloromethylbenzene
alpha-Chlorotoluene
Benzylchlorid
Chlorophenylmethane
Tolyl chloride
Benzene, (chloromethyl)-
Benzene, chloromethyl-
Chlorure de benzyle
alpha-Chlortoluol
a-Chlorotoluene
omega-Chlorotoluene
RCRA waste number P028
NCI-C06360
Toluene, ar-chloro-
Benzile (cloruro di)
Benzyle (chlorure de)
Benzylchlorid [German]
benzyl-chloride
Toluene, alpha-chloro-
alpha-Chlortoluol [German]
NSC 8043
CCRIS 79
chloromethyl-benzene
Chlorure de benzyle [French]
.alpha.-Chlortoluol
UNII-83H19HW7K6
HSDB 368
Oxsol 10

.alpha.-Chlorotoluene
.omega.-Chlorotoluene
Benzile (cloruro di) [Italian]
Benzyle (chlorure de) [French]
EINECS 202-853-6
UN1738
RCRA waste no. P028
Toluene, .alpha.-chloro-
AI3-15518
CHEBI:615597
83H19HW7K6
EINECS 246-698-2
MFCD00000889
BRN 0471308
Benzyl chloride, 99%, pure, stabilized
(Chloromethyl)-benzene
benzyi chloride
benzyl choride
BnCl
alpha-chloro-toluene
Benzile(cloruro di)
Cl[C]c1ccccc1
PhCH2Cl
Phenylmethyl chloride
Benzyle(chlorure de)
1-(chloromethyl)benzene
ACMC-1BSIO
C6H5CH2Cl
DSSTox_CID_153
EC 202-853-6
TOLUENE,ALPHA-CHLORO
SCHEMBL7413
WLN: G1R
DSSTox_RID_75405
DSSTox_GSID_20153
Benzyl chloride, unstabilized
Cl[CH]C1=CC=CC=C1
KSC163A7T
Benzene, (chloromethyl)- (VA


Benzyl chloride (BzCl) is an organochlorine compound, which is widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of useful chemical building blocks.

Application
Benzyl chloride can be used as:
•  A benzylating agent for the benzylation of benzene and other aromatic compounds.
•  A reactant for the preparation of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with anisole.

It can also be used to introduce the benzyl protecting group to alcohols and carboxylic acids by forming corresponding benzyl ether, and benzyl ester, respectively.

Polymerization of Benzyl Chloride
The polymerization of benzyl chloride has been studied to a greater extent than polymerization of its derivatives, mainly because it is readily available and relatively inexpensive. 

Its polymerization has been investigated extensively with systems that involve conventional Friedel–Crafts catalysts4–9 such as AlCl3, SnCl4, SbF5, TiCl4, FeCl3 and PCL5, some metal oxides,10,11 and transition metal carbonyl complexes,12–14 including Mo(CO)6, Cr(CO)6, W(CO)6, ArCr(CO)3, Re(CO)5Cl, Re(CO)5Br, Mn(CO)5Cl and Mn(CO)5Br.
Theoretically, for every mole of benzyl chloride reacted, one mole of hydrochloric acid is released. 
The conventional Friedel–Crafts catalysts usually require low temperature (−130 to +25 °C) conditions due to their high reactivity and low selectivity. 

The solvents are carefully selected to have relatively high polarity and to be inert, but at the same time the reaction solution must remain homogeneous during polymerization at such low temperatures. Some examples of good solvents that meet these requirements are dichloromethane, chloroform, trichloroethane, sulfur dioxide and nitromethane. 
Despite these low temperature conditions, the resulting polybenzyls prepared with the Friedel–Crafts Lewis acid catalysts are generally low melting, amorphous materials with a great deal of branching or crosslinking. The soluble polybenzyls have normally an average degree of polymerization (DP) in the range 20–50. 
However, the synthesis of a linear crystalline unsubstituted oligobenzyl can be achieved5 from the condensation of 4,4′-bis(chloromethyl)diphenylmethane and diphenylmethane (1:15 mole ratio) in chloroethane catayzed by AlCl3 at 10 °C. The product has a melting point around 135 °C and a molecular weight of 610.
In contrast to most conventional Friedel–Crafts catalysts, which require low temperature polymerization conditions, polybenzyls may also be prepared by relatively high temperature polycondensation of benzyl chloride using group IIA metal oxides,10 group VIB metal carbonyls,13 arenetricarbonylchromium12 and group VIIB metal carbonyl halides.
These reaction systems are carried out at temperatures above 100 °C and often in bulk. 

The relatively activity of group IIA metal oxides, MgO > CaO > BaO, follows that of their Lewis acidity and ability to accept electrons by interacting with the chloride part of the monomer.
The relatively high temperature catalytic properties of group VIB metal carbonyls, arenetricarbonylchromium and VIIB metal carbonyl halides for the polymerization of benzyl chloride have recently come under investigation. 
Complexing the metal with carbonyl and arene ligands allows the catalyst to dissolve in the reaction medium, which remains homogeneous throughout. 
As the temperature of the reaction mixture rises, the organic substituent usually dissociates partially from the metal, exposing the vacant metal d orbitals. 
This allows the benzyl chloride to interact with these vacant sites and polymerization occurs. 

For example, arenechromiumtricarbonyls catalyze the self-polycondensation of benzyl chloride when they are thermally activated, and their activity may be controlled by the nature of the arene attached to the metal. For group VIB metal hexacarbonyls relative activities are MO ≫ W > Cr, but phosphine ligands attached to the metal do not easily dissociate, and thus poison its catalytic properties.
Group VIIB rhenium and manganese carbonyl halides also induce the thermal polymerization of benzyl chloride, with rhenium having higher activity than its manganese counterpart.
Even though the group IIA, VIB and VIIB metal-based homogeneous catalysts are milder than the conventional Friedel–Crafts metal halides, it still appears impossible to polycondense benzyl chloride to a linear p-substituted, high molecular weight polymer.

Sources and Potential Exposure
Sources of benzyl chloride emissions into the air include emissions or venting with other gases in industrial settings.  
Emissions of benzyl chloride from floor tile plasticized by butyl benzyl phthalate have been reported. 
Benzyl chloride has also been detected in emissions from the burning of polyvinyl chloride, neoprene and rigid urethane foam compounds. 
Individuals may be exposed to benzyl chloride through breathing contaminated air or from exposure to water or soil that has been contaminated with benzyl chloride. 

Assessing Personal Exposure
There are tests currently available to determine personal exposure to benzyl chloride through the monitoring of complete blood count and liver and renal function. 

Health Hazard Information
Acute Effects:
Benzyl chloride is intensely irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans. 
The acute effects of benzyl chloride from inhalation consist of severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract and lung damage along with pulmonary edema in humans. 
Exposure of humans to high concentrations of benzyl chloride causes effects on the central nervous system
Exposure of humans to high concentrations of benzyl chloride causes effects on the central nervous system including dizziness, headaches, weakness, and rapid fatigue. 

Permanent eye damage may result from contact with the liquid or the vapor forms of benzyl chloride. 
Ingestion of benzyl chloride by humans may cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract resulting in nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea. 
Tests involving acute exposure of animals have shown benzyl chloride to have moderate acute toxicity from oral exposure and high acute toxicity from inhalation exposure. 

Chronic Effects (Noncancer):
The chronic (long-term) effects of exposure to benzyl chloride in humans have not been studied.
Animal studies suggest that the stomach and heart are targets of toxic effects from oral exposure to benzyl chloride. 
EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) for benzyl chloride.
EPA has determined that the health effects data are inadequate for establishing a Reference Concentration (RfC) for benzyl chloride.

Reproductive/Developmental Effects:
No studies were located regarding developmental or reproductive effects in humans from benzyl chloride exposure. 
One animal study showed an increase in embryonal mortality, along with retarded development of the offspring in rats given benzyl chloride orally. 

Cancer Risk:
Human data are considered inadequate in providing evidence of cancer by exposure to benzyl chloride because the studies involved a small numbers of cancer deaths and were based on exposure to mixtures of chlorinated compounds.
Animal studies indicate that the long-term exposure to benzyl chloride by gavage (placing it experimentally in the stomachs of mice) increased the incidence of benign and malignant tumors at multiple sites and resulted in a significant increase in thyroid tumors in female rats. 
EPA considers benzyl chloride to be a probable human carcinogen and has ranked it in EPA's Group B2. 
EPA uses mathematical models, based on animal studies, to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from ingesting water containing a specified concentration of a chemical. 

Physical Properties
Benzyl chloride is a colorless liquid with a very pungent odor. 
Benzyl chloride has an odor threshold of 0.044 parts per million (ppm). 
Benzyl chloride is insoluble in water. 
The chemical formula for benzyl chloride is C7H7 Cl, and it has a molecular weight of 126.59 g/mol

(Chlormethyl)benzol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(Chloromethyl)benzene [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(Chlorométhyl)benzène [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
100-44-7 [RN]
246-698-2 [EINECS]
261-790-2 [EINECS]
Benzene, (chloromethyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
BENZENE, CHLOROMETHYL-
Benzyl chloride [Wiki]
Chloromethylbenzene [Wiki]
toluene, α-chloro-
α-CHLOROTOLUENE
120-51-4 [RN]
2,2-bis(4-methylphenyl)-1-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid
2,6-dichloro-5-fluoropyridine-3-carboxylic acid
33712-34-4 [RN]
4-05-00-00809 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) [Beilstein]
68661-11-0 [RN]
82671-06-5 [RN]
9CL
Benzile (cloruro di)
Benzile(cloruro di)
Benzyl benzoate [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
BENZYL CHLORIDE-(RING-13C6)
Benzyl-2,3,4,5,6-d5 Chloride
Benzylchlorid
benzylchloride [Wiki]
benzyl-chloride
Benzyl-d5 Chloride
Benzyl-d7 Chloride
Benzyle (chlorure de)
Benzyle(chlorure de)
Benzyl-α,α-d2 chloride
C6H5CH2Cl
Chlorophenylmethane
Chlorure de benzyle
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:615597
Phenylmethyl Chloride
Toluene, ar-chloro-
Toluene, α-chloro-
TOLUENE,α-CHLORO
WLN: G1R
α-Chlorotoluene
α-Chlorotoluene
α-Chlorotoluene (Benzylchloride)
α-Chlortoluol
α-Chlortoluol
ω-Chlorotoluene
ω-Chlorotoluene
氯化苄 [Chinese]

Key Points
 colourless liquid with a sharp irritating odour
 benzyl chloride is an industrial chemical used to produce dyes, pharmaceuticals and perfumes
 benzyl chloride may be released into the environment from industries that produce or use it or from the incineration of products that contain it
 exposure may occur by breathing in contaminated air or drinking water contaminated with benzyl chloride
 breathing in vapours of benzyl chloride can cause irritation the eyes, nose and throat
 ingestion of benzyl chloride can cause burns to the mouth and stomach upset
 skin or eye contact with benzyl chloride can cause irritation
 exposure is more likely to take place in the workplace

What is benzyl chloride?
Benzyl chloride is a colourless liquid with a sharp irritating odour.

What is benzyl chloride used for?
Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the production of dyes, perfumes,photographic chemicals and pharmaceutical products.

How does benzyl chloride get into the environment?
Benzyl chloride may be released in to the environment during its production and use and from the incineration of products that contain it.

How might I be exposed to benzyl chloride?
The general public may be exposed to very low levels of 1,2-dibromoethane as a contaminant in air or water.
Exposure to benzyl chloride is most likely to occur in an occupational setting.

If I am exposed to benzyl chloride how might it affect my health?
The presence of benzyl chloride in the environment does not always lead to exposure. 
In order for it to cause any adverse health effects you must come into contact with it. 
You may be exposed to benzyl chloride by breathing or drinking it, or by skin or eye contact. 
Following exposure to any chemical, the adverse health effects you may encounter depend on several factors, including the amount to which you are exposed (dose), the way you are exposed,the duration of exposure, the form of the chemical and if you were exposed to any other chemicals.
Breathing in benzyl chloride vapours can cause irritation of the eyes and nose, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, headache, high temperature and confusion. 
In severe cases lung damage, accumulation of fluid and swelling of the lungs (known as pulmonary oedema), can occur.
Ingestion of benzyl chloride may cause mouth burns and corrosive damage to the digestive tract, stomach upset, stomach cramps and diarrhoea.
Skin exposure to benzyl chloride can cause pain, blistering, ulceration and burns. 
Eye contact with benzyl chloride can cause pain, tearing, inflammation and in severe cases burns.


Can benzyl chloride cause cancer?
Studies show that benzyl chloride alone causes cancer in experimental animals, but there is insufficient evidence in humans.  
However, studies in workers have shown that combined exposures to chlorinated toluenes (such as benzyl chloride) and another chemical called benzoyl chloride may cause cancer in humans. 
This mixture of chemicals is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as probably having the ability to cause cancer in humans. 

Exposure to these chemicals is most likely to occur in the workplace.

Does benzyl chloride affect pregnancy or the unborn child?
Due to lack of data it is not possible to assess the reproductive and developmental effects of benzyl chloride. 
It is unlikely that exposure to low concentrations of benzyl chloride which do not affect the mother would result in harm to the unborn child.

How might benzyl chloride affect children?
There is little information on the effects of benzyl chloride on children. 
It is likely that children exposed to benzyl chloride would experience similar symptoms to those seen in exposed adults.

What should I do if I am exposed to benzyl chloride?
It is very unlikely that the general population will be exposed to a level of benzyl chloride high enough to cause adverse health effects. 
However, if you have any health concerns regarding exposure to benzyl chloride seek guidance from your GP or contact NHS 111.

A-CHLOROTOLUENE
ALPHA-CHLOROTOLUENE
BENZENE,(CHLOROMETHYL)-
BENZYL CHLORIDE
(CHLOROMETHYL)BENZENE
CHLOROMETHYLBENZENE
CHLOROPHENYLMETHANE
NCI-C06360
NCI-CO6360
OMEGA-CHLOROTOLUENE
PHENYLMETHYL CHLORIDE
TOLUENE, ALPHA-CHLORO-
TOLYL CHLORIDE

Chemical Properties
Benzyl chloride is a colorless to s lightly yellow liquid with a strong, unpleasant, irritating odor. The Odor Threshold is 0.05 ppm.The stabilized form of benzyl chloride contains a fixed amount of a sodium carbonate solution or propylene oxide.

Physical properties
Colorless to pale yellowish-brown liquid with a pungent, aromatic, irritating odor. Odor threshold concentration is 47 ppbv (Leonardos et al., 1969). Katz and Talbert (1930) reported an experimental detection odor threshold concentration of 210 μg/m3 (41 ppbv).

Uses

Benzyl chloride is used in the manufacture ofdyes, artificial resins, tanning agents, phar maceuticals, plasticizers, perfumes, lubri cants, and miscellaneous benyl compounds.
Uses
An intermediate in the preparation of phenylacetic acid (precursor to phamaceuticals). Also a precursor molecule to benzyl esters which are used as plasticizer, flavorants, and perfumes.

Uses
Benzyl chloride is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of benzyl Compounds, perfumes, pharmaceutical products, dyes, plasticizers, synthetic tannins, artificial resins, and quaternary ammonium compounds.

Definition
ChEBI: A member of the class of benzyl chlorides that is toluene substituted on the alpha-carbon with chlorine.

Preparation
2g benzyl alcohol and 6g concentrated hydrochloric acid were mixed and slowly heated. at 60°C the mixture separated into two layers. the yield of benzyl chloride was 70% of the theoretical. When the alcohol and a large excess of the acid were mixed, the reaction took place at the room temperature after a few minutes, and a theoretical yield of the chloride separated. Benzyl alcohol dissolves sparingly in hydrochloric acid of the specific gravity 1.12. when the solution is warmed, benzyl chloride is formed. Benzyl bromide and benzyl iodide were prepared in the same way from the corresponding acids.
benzyl chloride is a lachrymator, and a powerful one at that. In the presence of water, it hydrolyzes to benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid, so it's clear why it burns your water saturated eye so bad.
Production Methods
Benzyl chloride can be synthesized by chloromethylation of benzene in the presence of a catalyst (ZnCl2) or by treatment of benzyl alcohol with SO2Cl2. Commercially it is produced by chlorination of boiling toluene in the presence of light. Benzyl chloride can be oxidized to benzoic acid or benzaldehyde, or substituted to give the halogenated, sulfonated or nitrated product.With NH3 it yields mono-, di- or tribenzyl amine. With alcohols in base the benzylalkyl ether is formed. With phenols either the phenolic or nuclear hydrogens can react to give benzylaryl ether or benzylated phenols. Reaction with NaCN gives benzyl cyanide (phenylacetonitrile); with aliphatic primary amines the product is the N-alkylbenzylamine, and with aromatic primary amines N-benzylaniline is formed. Benzyl chloride is converted to butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer and other chemicals.
Synthesis Reference(s)
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 29, p. 3692, 1964 DOI: 10.1021/jo01035a504
Synthetic Communications, 16, p. 1173, 1986 DOI: 10.1080/00397918608056363
Tetrahedron Letters, 29, p. 5783, 1988 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)82191-7

General Description
A colorless liquid with an irritating odor. Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Flash point 153°F. Slightly soluble in water. Corrosive to metals and tissue. A lachrymator. Density 9.2 lb /gal.

Air & Water Reactions
A lachrymator. Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile
Halogenated aliphatic compounds, such as Benzyl chloride, are moderately or very reactive. Reactivity generally decreases with increased degree of substitution of halogen for hydrogen atoms. Materials in this group are incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also, they are incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides.

Hazard
Highly toxic, intense eye and skin irritant. A lachrymator. Upper respiratory tract irritant. Prob- able carcinogen.
Health Hazard
Benzyl chloride is a corrosive liquid. Con tact with the eyes can cause corneal injury.
Exposure to its vapors can produce intenseirritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. 
Highconcentrations may cause lung edema anddepression of the central nervous system.
Flury and Zernik (1931) stated that exposureto 16 ppm for 1 minute was intolerable tohumans. 
The LC50 values for a 2-hour expo sure in mice and rats are 80 and 150 ppm,respectively. 
The subcutaneous LD50 valuein rats is 1000 mg/kg (NIOSH 1986).
Benzyl chloride tested positive to thehistidine reversion–Ames test for mutagenic ity. 
Subcutaneous administration of this com pound in laboratory animals caused tumors atthe site of application.

Fire Hazard
Benzyl chloride burns but does not ignite readily. Benzyl chloride may ignite combustibles. 
When heated to decomposition, Benzyl chloride emits toxic and corrosive fumes. Some organic chlorides decompose to yield phosgene. 
Incompatible with active metals such as copper, aluminum, magnesium, iron, zinc, and tin and keep from strong oxidizing agents. Avoid contact with acids or acid fumes. Keep separate from oxidizing materials. May become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures; may react with water resulting in some nonviolent release of energy. Polymerizes with evolution of heat and hydrogen chloride when in contact with all common metals except nickel and lead.

Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water Undergoes slow hydrolysis, liberating hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid); Reactivity with Common Materials: Decomposes rapidly in the presence of all common metals (with the exception of nickel and lead), liberating heat and hydrogen chloride; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Rinse with sodium bicarbonate or lime solution; Polymerization: Polymerizes with evolution of heat and hydrogen chloride when in contact with all common metals except nickel and lead; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Triethylamine, propylene oxide or sodium carbonate.

Potential Exposure
Used as an intermediate and as an irritant gas in chemical warfare. In contrast to phenyl halides, benzyl halides are very reactive. 
Benzyl chloride is used in production of benzal chloride, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde. 
Industrial usage includes the manufacture of benzyl compounds, cosmetics, dyes, plastics, synthetic tannins, perfumes and resins. 
It is used in the manufacture of many pharmaceuticals. 
Suggested uses of benzyl chloride include: the vulcanization of fluororubbers and the benzylation of phenol and its derivatives for the production of possible disinfectants.

Carcinogenicity
Benzyl chloride caused genetic mutations and chromosome-damaging effects in a wide variety of in vitro assays; it was not mutagenic in vivo in the mouse micronucleus assay

Source
As of October 1996, benzyl chloride was listed for regulation but no MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed (U.S. EPA, 1996).
Reported as an impurity (≤ 0.05 wt %) in 98.5 wt % benzyl mercpatan (Chevron Phillips, April 2005).

Environmental Fate
Biological. 
When incubated with raw sewage and raw sewage acclimated with hydrocarbons, benzyl chloride degraded forming nonchlorinated products (Jacobson and Alexander, 1981).

Chemical/Physical. 
Anticipated products from the reaction of benzyl chloride with ozone or OH radicals in the atmosphere are chloromethyl phenols, benzaldehyde and chlorine radicals (Cupitt, 1980).
Slowly hydrolyzes in water forming HCl and benzyl alcohol. The estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25 °C and pH 7 is 15 h (Mabey and Mill, 1978). 
The hydrolysis rate constant for benzyl chloride at pH 7 and 59.2 °C was determined to be 0.0204/min, resulting in a half-life of 34 min (Ellington et al., 1986).
May polymerize in contact with metals except nickel and lead (NIOSH, 1997).
When heated to decomposition, hydrogen chloride gas may be released (CHRIS, 1984).

Shipping
UN1738 Benzyl chloride, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1—Poisonous materials, 8—Corrosive material.

Purification Methods
Dry it with MgSO4 or CaSO4, or reflux it with fresh Ca turnings, then fractionally distil it under reduced pressure, collecting the middle fraction and storing it over CaH2 or P2O5. 
It has also been purified by passage through a column of alumina. 
Alternatively it is dried over MgSO4 and distilled in a vacuum. 
The middle fraction is degassed by several freeze-thaw cycles and then fractionated in an 'isolated fractionating column' (which has been evacuated and sealed off at ~10-6 mm) over a steam bath. 
The middle fraction is retained. The final samples are distilled in a vacuum from this sample and again retaining the middle fraction. 
The purity is >99.9% (no other peaks are visible by GLC, and the NMR spectrum is consistent with the structure. 


Incompatibilities
May form explosive mixture with air. Contact with water forms hydrogen chloride fumes. 
Strong oxidizers may cause fire and explosions. Unstabilized benzyl chloride undergoes polymerization with copper, aluminum, iron, zinc, magnesium, tin, and other common metals except lead and nickel, with the liberation of heat and hydrogen chloride gas. 
May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. 
Attacks some plastics and rubber. 
Thermal decomposition and polymerization reactions are inhibited, to a limited extent, by addition of triethylamine, propylene oxide, or sodium carbonate.

Waste Disposal
Incineration @ 816 C for 0.5 second minimum for primary combustion and 1204 C for 12.0 second for secondary combustion. 
Elemental chlorine formation may be alleviated by injection of steam or methane into the combustion process.

Benzyl chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Zinc chloride 2,6-DICHLOROTOLUENE

a-Chlorotoluene
o-Chlorotoluene
1-Chloro-2-methyl benzene
(Chloromethyl) benzene
Chloromethylbenzene
Tolyl chloride

Description: Colorless liquid, unpleasant, irritating, pungent odor, lachrymator.
Uses: Manufacture benzyl compounds, perfumes, pharmaceutical products, dyes, synthetic tannins, & artificial resins.


Synonyms
Benzylchloride
BYL
Chlorobenzyl
Chloromethylbenzene
alpha-Chlorotoluene
Phenylmethylchloride

Chemical
Benzyl chloride will hydrolyze in water or basic conditions to benzyl alcohol, though its hydrolysis in liquid phase is slow.

In organic synthesis, benzyl chloride is used for the introduction of the benzyl protecting group in reaction with alcohols, yielding the corresponding benzyl ether, carboxylic acids, and benzyl ester.

Benzyl chloride also reacts readily with metallic magnesium in water-free conditions, to produce a Grignard reagent, extremely useful for the synthesis of various compounds containing an aromatic ring.


Physical
Benzyl chloride is a colorless to slight yellowish liquid, immiscible with water, but miscible with many organic solvents.


Benzyl chloride is sold by chemical suppliers, though it's difficult to acquire.

Benzyl chloride is classified as List II drug precursor chemical in most countries, in the US being classified as DEA List II chemical. 
The sale of this compound is restricted or monitored, due to its use in the synthesis of amphetamine-class drugs.


Preparation
There are several routes to benzyl chloride:

The most common route involves refluxing benzyl alcohol with an excess of fuming conc. hydrochloric acid.
 After the reaction has completed, let the product cool to room temperature. 
Benzyl chloride will appear as a layer on the top of the solution. Use a separatory funnel to remove the aqueous layer. 
Add a solution of sodium bicarbonate to the benzyl chloride layer in the funnel to neutralize any acid left. 
Shake the funnel to properly neutralize the acid from the layer. 
Remove the lower layer which now contains the benzyl chloride and then pour it back in a funnel, and wash it again, this time with a supersaturated solution of sodium chloride. 
Pour the benzyl chloride layer in another flask and dry it using a drying agent like calcium chloride or magnesium sulfate. 
To purify the compound, you will have to fractionally distill the crude product. 
The distilled benzyl chloride contains some water, which can be removed by using molecular sieves or some other drying agent.

Benzyl chloride can also be produced through the Blanc reaction, where benzene reacts with formaldehyde in conc. hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride, in the presence of zinc chloride.

One SM user made benzyl chloride by dissolving chlorine gas in toluene, then added a small amount of lithium bromide. 
The lithium bromide acted as a precatalyst for bromine, which would form bromine monochloride in a solution containing large amounts of dissolved chlorine. 
Light is needed to initiate the reaction, but once it starts, there's no need to further expose the flask to strong light, unless your goal is to continue the reaction.

Peroxide-catalyzed chlorination of toluene will also yield benzyl chloride.

An interesting, but not verified, synthesis of benzyl chloride involves adding calcium hypochlorite to toluene and heating the mixture at 105 °C. 
If equal amounts of reagents are used, the yield of the reaction is good, however if more bleaching powder is used, side products like benzal chloride and benzotrichloride are also formed. 
If confirmed, this route would be very attractive due to the fact that both reagents are readily available. 
However, store-grade calcium hypochlorite is extremely impure, and you will have to determine first how much hypochlorite is present in the bleaching powder before using it.

Safety
Benzyl chloride is corrosive and a lachrymator. 
It is also a suspected carcinogen.

Benzyl chloride will polymerize in contact with most metals, except nickel and lead. The process releases heat and HCl.

Storage
Benzyl chloride must be stored in all-glass containers, or amber bottles with a teflon seal, never in metals and away from moisture and or air. 
Propylene oxide is sometimes added as inhibitor, at concentrations between 0.25-1%.

Disposal
Benzyl chloride can be safely neutralized by reacting it with a base, in a large volume of water. 
Alternatively, an alcoholic solution of NaOH or KOH can be used.

Chemical Intermediate
Since benzyl chloride is used as a precursor in the production of various other chemicals, it has an extensive reach into a wide variety of industries. 
Among the chemicals for which benzyl chloride is a precursor are benzyl esters. 
These small, lightweight molecules carry the pleasant aromas that make up some of our favorite scents, similar to those from roses, strawberries, and bananas.

Following nature’s example, benzyl esters are used commercially in both the fragrance and flavoring industries.

While our noses and tongues might tell us that individual perfumes and flavorings taste very different from one another, specific esters like benzyl acetate provide the basic odors used in many different perfumes and cosmetics, and help make it possible for us to have a bevy of different tastes and smells at our fingertips.

Another primary use of benzyl chloride is in the production of benzyl alcohol, an organic compound with an impressive array of applications.

From effective and environmentally friendly paint solvents, to its use as a bacteriostatic preservative, benzyl alcohol can be considered a miricale chemical that is even FDA-approved for lice treatment. 

 

DEA Classification
Benzyl chloride is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals.

Due to the fact that the chemical process when manufacturing legal drugs is similar to that used to illegally synthesize substances like amphetamines, benzyl chloride is classified as a List II chemical by the DEA.

Their efforts to prevent industrial benzyl chloride from making its way into the world of illicit drug manufacturing mean that legitimate suppliers must follow specific regulations regarding distribution.

 

Potential Hazards
Despite its positive applications, Benzyl Chloride is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the US.

When exposed to water, benzyl chloride hydrolyzes into benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid.  
Due to this reaction, benzyl chloride is considered a lachrymator agent or a chemical that causes eye, respiratory, and skin irritation.  


The acute effects of benzyl chloride inhalation include severe irritation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, and can even result in lung damage. 
The central nervous system can be damaged as a result of exposure to high concentrations of this chemical, and its classification as extremely hazardous means that facilities where it’s being produced or used are held to specific standards of storage and use.

For manufacturers who regularly use benzyl chloride, it’s important to choose a trusted supplier that’s experienced in proper handling and shipping methods.

CAS Registry Number 100-44-7

What is it?
Benzene, chloromethyl-, also known as benzyl chloride, is an industrial chemical.

How is it used?
Benzyl chloride is mainly used to make other chemicals used for the synthesis of a quaternary ammonium compound, known as benzalkonium chloride. 
Quaternary ammonium compounds are used primarily as hard surface sanitizers, corrosion inhibitors, fungicides in industrial cleaners, and as bactericides or surfactant in household and personal care products.
Benzyl chloride is also used to produce benzyl alcohol which is used in a wide spectrum of applications, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetic formulations, flavour products, solvents and textile dye.
It is also used to produce benzyl butyl phthalate used mainly as a plasticizer in vinyl flooring and other flexible polyvinyl chloride uses, such as food packaging.
For all of the above products, benzyl chloride may be present at very low (trace) levels, leftover from the manufacturing process.


azb
بنزیل کولورید
az
Benzilxlorid
cs
Benzylchlorid
de
Benzylchlorid
en
Benzyl chloride
eo
Benzila klorido
es
Cloruro de bencilo
et
Bensüülkloriid
eu
Bentzil kloruro
fa
بنزیل کلرید
fi
Bentsyylikloridi
fr
Chlorure de benzyle
hi
बेन्जाइल क्लोराइड
hu
Benzil-klorid
ja
塩化ベンジル
ka
ბენზილქლორიდი
nl
Benzylchloride
pl
Chlorek benzylu
pt
Cloreto de benzila
ro
Clorură de benzil
ru
Бензилхлорид
sh
Benzil hlorid
sl
Benzil klorid
sr
Benzil hlorid
sv
Bensylklorid
ta
பென்சைல் குளோரைடு
tr
Benzil klorür
uz
Benzil xlorid
vi
Benzyl chloride
zh
氯化苄


Synonyms:
     benzene, (chloromethyl)-
     chloromethylbenzene
     chlorophenylmethane
alpha-    chlorotoluene
alpha-    chlortoluol
     toluene, alpha-chloro-
     toluene, alpha-chloro-
     tolyl chloride


Benzyl Chloride Market size is projected to grow over the forecasted timeframe owing to its application in pharmaceutical product, solvent, flavors, perfumes, personal care and as epoxy resin diluent. 
The market is likely to grow with its usage in plasticizer, surfactants and sanitizing agents.
 

The product is an organochlorine compound formed from benzo trichloride using either benzoic acid or water. 
The product exhibits an irritating odor and is colorless, fuming liquid. 
Its downstream products are formed when products react with alcohols to produce corresponding esters.  
 

Benzyl chloride market size is likely to grow owing to its application in benzyl peroxide production which is used for treatment of moderate to mild acne owing to its antibacterial properties.  
Benzyl peroxide is available as generic medication over the counter and is in list of essential medicines by World Health Organization, thereby driving industry growth. 
This chemical may be mixed with antibiotics including clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfur and salicylic acid to produce skin care products. 
It is also used in bleach flour, textile hair and teeth whitening purpose. 
Personal care ingredients market size is projected to surpass USD 20 billion by 2027 which may boost benzyl chloride market in the estimated timeframe.
 

These products are also used for preparation of benzyl phthalate which is a plasticizing agent with multiple applications including PVC, vinyl foam, traffic cones, conveyor belts, artificial leather. 
It is a clear oily liquid which also finds application in personal care industry with use in nail polish and enamel. 
These factors may propel benzyl chloride market size in projected timeframe.
 

The product is extensively used in plastic industry owing to its property to reduce brittleness and cracking by softening the polymers. 
Plastics market size is likely to surpass USD 700 billion by 2025, which may drive product demand.
 

Benzyl esters are product derivatives which are used in scents including strawberry rose and banana owing to its property to carry pleasant aroma in light weight molecules. 
Growing awareness regarding beauty care products combined with lifestyle change is likely to drive global perfume and fragrance market size, which in turn will drive benzyl chloride market size.
 

Benzyl alcohol is produced from hydrolysis of product with sodium hydroxide in a salt elimination reaction. 
It is used as a solvent epoxy resin coatings, inks, waxes and paints owing to its superior property of viscosity enhancer which allows mixtures to cling on paint surfaces. 
Global paint and coating markets is likely to grow over USD 165 million by 2022 owing to rising demand from growing infrastructure and automobile industry. 
These factors could positively influence benzyl chloride market size with growing demand from paint and coatings industry.
 

Downstream application of the product find application in bacteriostatic preservation of cosmetics, medications and tropical drugs. 
The product is also used for treatment of lice infestation and is thereby added to shampoo & lotions. 
The application of product is approved by FDA and the treatment is effective in adults and children older than six months. 
The haircare market is likely to surpass USD 210 billion by 2025 and would drive up benzyl chloride market size in the predicted timeline.
 

Quaternary ammonium compounds derived from the product finds application in the field of water treatment, antiseptics, hospital cleaning and sanitation operations owing to their virucidal, fungicidal and bactericidal properties. 
They are alcohol and water soluble, yellowish in appearance, non-irritating and deodorant which are compatible with amphoteric, nonionic and cationic surfactant. 
The global surface disinfectant market growth is likely to cross over USD 1.75 billion by 2024 which would boost benzyl chloride market size.
 

U.S. government has classified the product as extremely hazardous substance and have regulation norms pertaining to its production storage and usage. 
Precautionary measures are required to observe when handling the product as it may cause irritation to eyes, breathing problems and throat infections. 
It is also known to release phosgene gas which is poisonous in nature. These factors may culminate to adversely affect benzyl chloride market size.
 

North America led by market led by Mexico, Canada and the U.S. benzyl chloride market size is likely to experience growth over the estimated timeframe. 
Perfume and fragrance industry are on the rise owing to lifestyle changes and integration of healthcare with fragrance industry. 
Rising demand for perfumes and fragrance sector would boost regional product demand in forecast timeframe.
 

Europe led by led by Spain, France, Germany and U.K. benzyl chloride market size might experience significant growth owing to product application in disinfectant market. 
Mentorship from International Federation of Infection Control (IFIC), World Health Organization (WHO), and Centre for Disease Control and Production (CDCP) to prevent spread of infectious disease positively influences the disinfectant market. 
The Europe surface disinfectant market is projected to surpass USD 270 million by 2024 thereby driving market size.
 

Asia Pacific led by Japan, India and China benzyl chloride market size is likely to experience significant growth over the estimated timeframe. 
Rising demand for chemical and pharmaceutical products may favor industry growth. 
Growing paints and coating industry owing to government spending on infrastructure will further boost market size.
     

Global benzyl chloride market share is consolidated as market consist of limited players. 


 

 By Application, 2014-2025 (Tons) (USD Million)

Polymer reagent
Plasticizing agent
Anti – Bacterial
Disinfectant
Fragrant
Others
By End-Use, 2014-2025 (Tons) (USD Million)

Personal care
Perfumes
Hair care
Shampoos
Pharmaceutical
Paint & Coatings
Others


Sources
 Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical, perfume and flavor products. 
It is also used as a photographic developer.
 Benzyl chloride can be used in the manufacture of synthetic tannins and as a gum inhibitor in petrol.
 Benzyl chloride has been used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare.
 Benzyl chloride has also been detected in emissions from the burning of polyvinyl chloride, neoprene and rigid urethane foam compounds.
 Individuals may be exposed to benzyl chloride through breathing contaminated air or from exposure to water or soil that has been contaminated with benzyl chloride.

Chemical name:    Benzyl Chloride
CAS Number:
100-44-7
Category:    aromatics,pharmaceutical standards,intermediates,fine chemicals
Synonyms:    6-(Chloromethyl)benzene; α-Chlorotoluene; 1-Chloromethylbenzene; Benzyl Chloride; Chlorophenylmethane; NSC 8043; Phenylmethyl Chloride; Tolyl Chloride; ω-Chlorotoluene;
Molecular form:    C7H7Cl
Appearance:    Clear Colourless Oil
Mol. Weight:    126.58
Storage:    2-8°C Refrigerator, Under Inert Atmosphere
Shipping Conditions:    Ambient
Applications:    
BTM:    NA


Benzyl chloride, also known as α-chlorotoluene, is an organic chemical with a strong, unpleasant odor. 
It is a colorless liquid at room temperature. 
Benzyl chloride is majorly used as an intermediate, i.e., as a substrate to produce various chemicals varying from benzyl alcohol, flavor products, dyes, and pharmaceutical products. 
It is also used as a photographic developer and in the production of quaternary ammonium compounds, phthalates, and benzyl cyanide (which is used as a precursor for penicillin G).


By Application

Production of Benzyl Alcohol: This segment held the largest share of the market, above 50%, in 2019. Benzyl alcohol is produced by the hydrolysis of benzyl alcohol. 
It is used in a wide range of applications such as solvents, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, natural health products, flavor products, and textile dyes.
Production of Benzyl Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: The benzyl quaternary ammonium compounds segment held the second-largest share of the global market in 2019. 
Benzyl quaternary ammonium products are used as active ingredients in pest control products, surfactant in numerous products such as hard surface sanitizers, industrial and institutional cleaners, corrosion inhibitors, and household and personal care products.
Production of Benzyl Cyanide: The production of benzyl cyanide is a significant application segment, which held around 14% of the market in 2019. 
Benzyl cyanide is majorly used in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical-market-749'>agrochemical industries.
Others: The other segment includes the production of phthalates, benzyl esters, benzyl magnesium compounds, benzyl lithium compounds, and biocides.
By End-Use Industry

Paints & Coatings: The paints & coatings segment accounted for the largest share of over 40% in 2019, owing to the surging demand for benzyl alcohol as a solvent for paints, inks, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. 
Moreover, it is used in paint strippers in industrial paint stripping and architectural stripping applications. 
The growth of the construction industry in the emerging economies of Asia-Pacific and the Middle East & Africa is expected to favor the growth of the segment in the coming years.
Pharmaceutical: The pharmaceutical industry is the other major consumer of products produced using benzyl chloride, such as benzyl alcohol and benzyl cyanide.
Personal Care: Widely used in the manufacturing of chemicals used to produce hand sanitizers, industrial and institutional cleaners, and household and personal care products.
Agrochemicals: Mainly used to produce germicides, herbicides, and other agrochemicals.
Others: The others segment includes the food, textile, and oil & gas industries.

 

 

 

a-chlorotoluene
alpha-Chlorotoluene
alpha-Chlortoluol
Benzene, (chloromethyl)-
Benzile (cloruro di)
BENZYL CHLORIDE
Benzyl chloride
benzyl chloride
Benzylchlorid
Benzyle (chlorure de)
Chlorophenylmethane
Chlorure de benzyle
Toluene, alpha-chloro-
Tolyl chloride
α-chlorotoluene
α-Chlorotolueneα-chlorotoluene
α-chlorotoluene; benzyl chloride

Translated names
(chlorometylo)benzen (pl)
(chlórmetyl)benzén (sk)
alfa-chlortoluenas (lt)
Bensüülkloriid (et)
Bentsyylikloridi (fi)
benzil klorid (sl)
benzil-klorid (hr)
benzil-klorid (hu)
benzilchloridas (lt)
benzilhlorīds (lv)
benzylchlorid (cs)
benzylchlorid (da)
Benzylchlorid (de)
benzylchlorid (sk)
benzylchloride (nl)
benzylklorid (no)
benzylklorid (sv)
chlorek benzylu (pl)
chloro(fenylo)metan (pl)
chlorure de benzyle (fr)
cloreto de benzilo (pt)
clorura de benzil (ro)
cloruro de bencilo (es)
cloruro di benzile (it)
α -klorotolueen (et)
α-chlorotoluen (pl)
α-chlorotoluène;chlorure de benzyle (fr)
α-chlortoluen (cs)
α-chlortoluen (da)
α-Chlortoluol (de)
α-clorotoluene (it)
α-clorotolueno (es)
α-clorotolueno (pt)
α-clortoluen (ro)
α-hlortoluols (lv)
α-Klooritolueeni (fi)
α-klorotoluen (hr)
α-klortoluen (no)
α-klórtoluol (hu)
α-χλωροτολουόλιο βενζυλοχλωρίδιο (el)
α-хлоротолуен (bg)
бензил хлорид (bg)

CAS names
Benzene, (chloromethyl)-


IUPAC names
(chloromethyl)benzene
.alpha.-Chlorotoluene
??-chlorotoluene
a-Chlortoluol
alpha-Chlorotoluene
Benzene, (chloromethyl)-
Benzyl chloride
benzyl chloride

Benzyl chloride
benzyl chloride
Benzyl Chloride (stabilized with epsilon-Caprolactam)
Benzylchlorid

Chloromethyl benzene
chloromethylbenzene
chlorophenylmethane
α-chlorotoluene
α-chlorotoluene

Trade names
alpha-Chlorotoluene
alpha-Chlortoluol
alpha-Tolylchlorid
Benzyl chloride
Benzylchlorid
Chlorbenzyl
Chlormethylbenzol
Chloromethylbenzene
Chlorphenylmethan
Phenylmethylchlorid


 

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.