BETAINE

CAS Number: 6915-17-9
Chemical Formula: C5H12NO2
Molecular Weight: 118.1543

Betaine (betaine anhydrous) is a (chemical/substance/molecule) found naturally in microorganisms, plants, and animals like wheat, spinach, beets, and shellfish. 
The name actually comes from Betaines origin in sugar beets. 
Betaine's also found naturally in our bodies, though not quite to the same level. 
Betaine’s ammonium compound trimethylglycine can also be called lysine or oxyneurine. 
A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group, such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) that bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group that may not be adjacent to the cationic site.
Betaine is a modified amino acid consisting of glycine with three methyl groups serving as methyl donor for various metabolic pathways.
Historically, the term was reserved for trimethylglycine (TMG) which is involved in methylation reactions and detoxification of homocysteine.
The pronunciation of the compound reflects Betaines origin and first isolation from sugar beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), and does not derive from the Greek letter beta (β). 
Betaine is commonly pronounced beta-INE or BEE-tayn.

In biological systems, many naturally occurring betaines serve as organic osmolytes.
These are substances synthesized or taken up from the environment by cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought, high salinity, or high temperature. 
Intracellular accumulation of betaines permits water retention in cells, thus protecting from the effects of dehydration.
This accumulation is non-perturbing to enzyme function, protein structure, and membrane integrity. 
Betaine is also a methyl donor of increasingly recognised significance in biology.

Betaine is a zwitterionic quaternary ammonium compound and is mainly present in animals, microorganisms and plants. 
Betaine is one of the main constituent of several food items like wheat, shellfish, spinach and sugar beets. 
Betaine is also termed as trimethylglycine, lycine, glycine betaine and oxyneurine. 
Betaine is a methyl derivative of glycine. 
Betaine has a molecular mass of 117.2.

Uses of Betaine:
Biochemistry
Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction. 
The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves the amplification of DNA by reducing the formation of secondary structure in GC-rich regions. 
The addition of betaine may enhance the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by eliminating the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS of Betaine:
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for:
-Anemia.
-Asthma.
-Diarrhea.
-Food allergies.
-Gallstones.
-Hay fever.
-"Hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis).
-Increasing stomach acid..
-Inner ear infection...
-Low potassium.
-Protecting the liver.
-Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
-Thyroid disorders.
-Yeast infection.
-Other conditions.

Betaine is a by product in the production of sugar, that is extracted from the molasses of the beet root (Beta Vulgaris). 
Betaine is a secondary plant material that occurs in many wild harvested plants but also occurs in shellfish and seafood, such as crayfish and mussels. 
Betaines are a group of substances, however, Betaine is not identical to the cocamidopropyl betaine that is often found in cosmetic products.
Betain is used in skin care to condition, lessen irritations and protect the skin against dryness. 
In surfactant products, Betaine stabilized the foam, and when included in shampoos and hair care products, Betaine increases the hair's strength and body.

Betaine (BET) is an amino acid that has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss. 
This is thought mostly to be due to its ability to promote protein synthesis in the body.
Never heard of betaine before? 
Also known as trimethylglycine, Betaine is becoming more popular in supplements recently but is actually not a newly discovered nutrient.
While Betaine’s been studied for Betaines positive impacts on preventing heart disease for quite some time, only recently has betaine been included more often in exercise-focused and energy supplements, protein powders and other products geared at improving exercise performance and body composition.
Betaine has carbon and hydrogen molecules that are called methyl groups when combined . 
When this group of molecules is passed around the body Betaine's called methylation a super important part of many bodily processes like protein synthesis. 

What Is Betaine?
Betaine is a trimethylglycine and derivative of the nutrient choline. 
In other words, choline is a “precursor” to betaine and must be present for betaine to be synthesized in the body.
Betaine’s created by choline in combination with the amino acid glycine.
Just like some B vitamins, including folate and vitamin B12, betaine is considered to be a “methyl donor.” 
This means Betaine aids in liver function, detoxification and cellular functioning within the body.

Betaines most crucial role is to help the body process fats.
What is betaine used for in supplement form? 
Probably the most extensively researched benefit of betaine is supporting conversion of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood to methionine.
Although amino acids are critical compounds needed for many body functions, studies show that high levels of homocysteine can be harmful to blood vessels, potentially leading to the development of plaque buildup and the condition called atherosclerosis (clogged arteries).

Betaine is often talked about as a pair with Betaines more mainstream sidekick choline, an essential nutrient often included with B-complex vitamins. 
Famous for redeeming the reputation of egg yolks, which contain high amounts of choline, Betaine is crucial for cognitive health and liver function. 
Perhaps more importantly, though, Betaine is the precursor of betaine, which means, in the body, choline is transformed into betaine. 
Many of the health benefits credited to choline are actually due to Betaines role in betaine production.   

Betaine Anhydrous is a compound that the body uses to break down harmful substances. 
Betaine has been used to promote liver health and improve athletic performance. 
Betaine Anhydrous can be taken as a pill or powder. 
Betaine has also been used to improve oral health and can be used as a mouthwash or toothpaste.

Betaine is approved for medical treatments for people with high homocysteine levels (which is associated with weak bones, heart disease, and eye sight problems). 
Betaine also has a wide range of other medical uses such as treating liver disease, depression, and congestive heart failure, as well as preventing non-cancerous colon tumors and obesity. 

Health Benefits
1. Supports Heart Health 
Betaine is best known for helping reduce plasma homocysteine levels, which is directly related to lowering the risk for heart disease. 
A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but studies suggest that this condition can be reduced through regular betaine supplementation.
High plasma levels of homocysteine greater than 15 μmol/L are present in an estimated 5 percent of the adult population and in as many as 50 percent of those with cardiovascular disease and stroke.
According to a 2013 study, “supplementation with at least 4 grams/day of betaine for a minimum of 6 weeks can lower plasma homocysteine.”
By helping fight hardening and blocking of arteries due to elevated homocysteine, betaine may be beneficial in reducing the risk for heart attacks, stroke, and other forms of cardiac arrest and heart disease.

2. Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects
New research indicates that betaine has anti-inflammatory functions, offering protection against numerous diseases — including obesity, diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
Betaines protective effects are in part due to its role in sulfur amino acid metabolism, which defends against oxidative stress, inhibits inflammatory responses, regulates energy metabolism and mitigates apoptosis.

3. May Help Improve Muscle Mass 
Though research from clinical trials is mixed and somewhat limited in humans, ongoing betaine supplementation has been shown to reduce fat (adipose) mass and increase muscle mass in animal studies and selective human studies.
To date, several studies have been done to research whether betaine benefits exist for building strength and muscle mass. 
Different studies have showed varying results.
A 2010 study reported increased muscle power output and muscle force production after betaine supplementation. 
Another 2009 study found that two weeks of betaine supplementation in active college males appeared to improve muscle endurance during squat exercises and increased the quality of repetitions that could be performed.
A 2013 study revealed that six weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size and bench press work capacity; attenuated the rise in urinary homocysteine thiolactone; and tended to improve power but not strength.
To draw a conclusion, in 2013, a study was done by the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 
Participants were tested to see whether six weeks of betaine supplementation would have impacts on body composition, strength, endurance and fat loss.
After six weeks of betaine supplementation, participants showed improved body composition, gains in the size of arm muscles, and higher capacity to do bench press weightlifting and squat exercises.
On the other hand, a 2017 systematic review found that among seven studies, only two reported increases in strength or power after supplementation with BET. 
The remaining five studies showed no change in any strength or power outcome measures with supplementation.

4. May Help with Fat Loss 
According to certain studies, betaine supplementation may be beneficial in altering how the body processes and partitions nutrients, resulting in quicker fat burning abilities and fat loss, without breaking down muscle tissue or losing muscle mass.
A 2018 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial found evidence that betaine supplementation may enhance reductions in fat mass among female college athletes.  
The study found that 2.5 grams of supplementary betaine per day with nine weeks exercise training in 11 young women decreased body fat more than a placebo.
A separate 2019 systematic review that included six studies with 195 participants concluded that:
Betaine supplementation significantly reduced the total body fat mass and body fat percentage. 
No changes were observed regarding body weight and body mass index. 
The results suggested that dietary betaine supplementation might be an effective approach for reducing body fat.
The review also pointed out that favorable effects of betaine on reducing body fat have been shown in studies using animals, such as rodents, pigs and fowls.

5. Helps with Liver Function and Detoxification 
Another positive effect of betaine seems to be supporting liver health by assisting in detoxification and the process of the liver digesting fats (lipids).
Fat can accumulate to dangerous levels in the liver from certain conditions — such as alcohol abuse, obesity, diabetes and other causes — but betaine is able to assist in liver-cleansing functions of breaking down and removing fats.
Betaine also seems to help the liver to dispose of toxins and chemicals, preventing against damage to the digestive tract and other bodily damage that can result from toxin exposure.
It has also been found to protect the liver against hepatotoxins, such as ethanol and carbon tetrachloride, which are toxic chemical substances that can enter the body through some medications, drugs and pesticides.

6. Can Aid in Digestion 
Betaine is sometimes used to create betaine hydrochloride (HCl) supplements. 
Betaine HCI is thought to increase the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which is the acid that must be present in order to break down foods and use nutrients.
In certain groups of people who have low stomach acid, they can experience a range of digestive problems that betaine may be able to help relieve.
Certain people find Betaine beneficial to take betaine HCl extract prior to meals to help enable the stomach to dissolve and process foods. 
Positive results have been found in people who suffer from indigestion due to medications or other digestive problems.
Taking betaine HCl before meals may be able to help promote a healthy digestive response and gut health. 
This is also important because the immune system heavily relies on the health of the gut flora to boost immunity.

7. Helps Relieve Aches and Pains 
Studies have shown that betaine may positively benefit those with muscle aches and pains. 
In one study conducted on horses, levels of lactate acid (associated with muscular fatigue) were lower after exercise when horses received betaine supplementation.
This may be beneficial for people when performing rigorous exercise or for those who suffer from painful symptoms related to muscle and joint tissue damage.

8. Helps Repair Bodily Damage from Alcoholism 
Betaine is used to treat alcoholic liver damage that results in the accumulation of fat in the liver. 
Betaine has lipotropic (fat-reducing) effects, so it has been shown to produce significant improvements in treating fatty liver disease by helping the liver process and remove fats.

9. Can Support Skin Health
What is betaine in skin care products beneficial for? 
Betaine’s thought to have certain anti-aging effects, such as helping prevent wrinkles.
Betaine can also keep skin moisturized by acting as a natural hydrator due to the way Betaine keeps moisture locked into the skin. 
This means Betaine helps protect skin’s texture, while potentially soothing irritated and dry skin.

Signs of Deficiency
A betaine deficiency is not thought to be common in Western nations, mostly because dietary intake is adequate. 
One reason is because betaine is present in high amounts in wheat products, which are a staple in most people’s diets.
What happens when you skip out on betaine-rich foods? 
Although Betaine’s not directly due to low betaine intake, low dietary intake may contribute to high homocysteine in the blood.
High homocysteine levels in the blood may be elevated for many reasons, including environmental factors, diet and genetics.
The biggest threat to consuming low betaine levels is experiencing symptoms related to high homocysteine in the blood. 
This is seen most often in either older populations above 50, those who have suffered from alcoholism or in children who have genetic conditions that lead to high homocysteine.
Although this condition is rare, severely elevated levels of homocysteine can cause developmental issues, osteoporosis (thin bones), visual abnormalities, formation of blood clots, and narrowing and hardening of blood vessels.

Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. 
In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of Betaines stability were required.

Top Food Sources
Which foods contain betaine? Here are 12 of the best food sources of betaine:

Wheat Bran — 1/4 cup uncooked (about 15 grams): 200 mg
Quinoa — About 1 cup cooked or 1/4 cup uncooked: 178 mg
Beets — 1 cup raw: 175 mg
Spinach — 1 cup cooked: 160 mg
Amaranth Grain — About 1 cup cooked or 1/2 cup uncooked : 130 mg
Rye Grain — About 1 cup cooked or 1/2 cup uncooked: 123 mg
Kamut Wheat Grain — About 1 cup cooked or 1/2 cup uncooked: 105 mg
Bulgar Grain — About 1 cup cooked or 1/2 cup uncooked: 76 mg
Sweet Potato — 1 medium potato: 39 mg
Turkey Breast — 1 breast cooked: 30 mg
Veal — 3 ounces: 29 mg
Beef — 3 ounces cooked: 28 mg

Food additive
In 2017, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that betaine was safe "as a novel food to be used at a maximum intake level of 6 mg/kg body weight per day in addition to the intake from the background diet."

Approved drug
A prescription drug (Cystadane) containing betaine has limited use for oral treatment of genetic homocystinuria to lower levels of homocysteine in circulating blood.

Dietary supplement
Trimethylglycine, a betaine, is used as a dietary supplement, although there is no evidence that supplement doses are effective or safe.
Common side effects of taking oral betaine include nausea and stomach upset.

Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body. 
Betaine can also be found in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, seafood, and wine.

How does Betaine work ?
Betaine anhydrous helps in the metabolism of a chemical called homocysteine. 
Homocysteine is involved in the normal function of many different parts of the body, including blood, bones, eyes, heart, muscles, nerves, and the brain. 
Betaine anhydrous prevents the buildup of homocysteine in the blood. 
Levels of homocysteine are very high in some people who have problems with its metabolism.

Betaine hydrochloride has several purported uses. 
One is to improve athletic performance; however, the data are mixed about whether Betaine is effective at improving muscle strength and endurance.
Betaine also is used to relieve symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and “functional dyspepsia,” a nonspecific term encompassing several types of stomach upset.

Why is this medication prescribed?
Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria (an inherited condition in which the body cannot break down a certain protein, causing build-up of homocysteine in the blood). 
Increased amounts of homocysteine in the body can cause symptoms such as extreme tiredness, seizures, dislocation of the lens of the eye, abnormal bone structure, osteoporosis (weak bones), blood clots, or decreased weight or rate of weight gain and slowed development in children. 
Betaine is in a class of medications called nutrients. 
Betaine works by decreasing the amount of homocysteine in the blood.

How should Betaine be used?
Betaine comes as a powder to be mixed with food or drink and taken by mouth. 
Betaine is usually taken twice a day. 
Take betaine at around the same times every day. 
Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take betaine exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Betaine or take Betaine more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of betaine and gradually increase your dose based on your body's response to the medication.
Your doctor may tell you to take other medications such as vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), and folic acid together with betaine.
Betaine controls homocystinuria but does not cure Betaine. 
Continue to take betaine even if you feel well. 
Do not stop taking betaine without talking to your doctor.

Betaine, while also present in other plants, animals, and seafood, is exceptionally high in sugar beets.  
Through a process of filtration and diffusion, betaine can be extracted from sugar beets.  
Betaine is a well-known multifunctional nutrient that exerts a number of important physiological functions at the gastrointestinal and metabolic level.
Betaine is sold in bulk, delivered in tanker trucks (approximately 25 tons) or tanker railcars (approximately 90 tons).

USES of Betaine:
Betaine has long been an important ingredient in pig and avian nutrition. 
Betaine liquid can be used as an animal feed supplement which increases the feed absorption efficiency in the animals' digestion system.  
This helps to optimize nutrient digestibility and reduce their excretion. 
Furthermore, the addition of betaine supplementation has resulted in improvement in bodyweight, breast meat yield, feed conversion, and decreased abdominal fat pad weights.  
Betaine has also been shown to assist birds under heat stress conditions; the impact of severe heat stress can partially be overcome by adding betaine to the diet.
Please consult your nutritionist for uses specific to your animals.

betaine
107-43-7
glycine betaine
oxyneurine
lycine
Trimethylglycine
Abromine
Trimethylglycocoll
Glycocoll betaine
Glycylbetaine
Rubrine C
acidin-pepsin
alpha-Earleine

Betaine is used to treat a lack of or defect in certain enzymes that causes too much homocysteine in the blood and urine. 
Betaine removes the extra homocysteine from the body.
Betaine is available only with your doctor's prescription.
Betaine is available in the following dosage forms:
-Powder for Solution
-Tablet

Betaine, a methyl group donor, that affects lipid partitioning, but its metabolism is also associated with various metabolites, including choline, homocysteine, and methionine, which has an important place in the health of humans and other mammals. 
Also, Betaine has protective effects on different types of liver cells.

Cystadane
Jortaine
N,N,N-trimethylglycine
Trimethylaminoacetic acid
Loramine AMB 13
2-(trimethylazaniumyl)acetate
BETAINE, ANHYDROUS
trimethylammonioacetate
2-(Trimethylammonio)Acetate
Glycine, trimethylbetaine
(Trimethylammonio)acetate
Trimethylaminoacetate
Betafin
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt

Betaine monohydrate has been used:
-in the preparation of KLA buffer to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
-to study the Betaines effects on Km and Vmax of human aldose reductase
-to study Betaines effects on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo

Biochem/physiol Actions
End-product of oxidative metabolism of choline, betaine is a general methyl donor, in particular in a minor pathway of methionine biosynthesis. 
Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria, which is a defect in the major pathway of methionine biosynthesis.
Betaine, as an osmolyte helps to guard the cells, proteins and enzymes from environmental stress. 
Betaine also acts as a methyl donor to involve in the methionine cycle.

To use betaine powder, follow these steps:
Shake the bottle gently before removing the cap.
Using the measuring scoop provided, measure the number of scoops your doctor has prescribed. 
One level scoop of powder is equal to 1 gram of betaine.
Mix the measured amount of powder with 4 to 6 ounces (120 to 180 milliliters) of water, juice, milk, or formula until the powder is completely dissolved. 
Betaine powder may also be mixed with food.
Drink or eat the mixture immediately.
Replace the cap tightly on the bottle after using.
Other uses for this medicine
Betaine may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking betaine,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaine or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. 
Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had any medical condition.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking betaine, call your doctor.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Be sure to follow all dietary recommendations made by your doctor or dietitian.

Glykokollbetain [German]
Acidol
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt
MFCD00012123
Aminocoat
Greenstim
FinnStim
Betafin BP
AI3-24187
AI3-52598
Betafin BCR
UNII-3SCV180C9W
N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate
Loramine AMB-13
BRN 3537113

Betaine (CAS: 107-43-7), also known as N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after Betaines discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in the 19th century. 
Betaine is a small N-trimethylated amino acid, existing in zwitterionic form at neutral pH. 
Betaine is now often called glycine betaine to distinguish Betaine from other betaines that are widely distributed in microorganisms, plants, and animals. 
Many naturally occurring betaines serve as organic osmolytes, substances synthesized or taken up from the environment by cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought, high salinity, or high temperature. 
Intracellular accumulation of betaines permits water retention in cells, thus protecting from the effects of dehydration. 

Betaine functions as a methyl donor in that Betaine carries and donates methyl functional groups to facilitate necessary chemical processes. 
In particular, Betaine methylates homocysteine to methionine, also producing N,N-dimethylglycine. 
The donation of methyl groups is important to proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification reactions. 
Betaine also plays a role in the manufacture of carnitine and serves to protect the kidneys from damage. 
Betaine comes from either the diet or by the oxidation of choline. 
Betaine insufficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome, lipid disorders, and diabetes, and may have a role in vascular and other diseases. 

Betaine is important in development, from the pre-implantation embryo to infancy. 
Betaine is also widely regarded as an anti-oxidant. 
Betaine has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on NO release in activated microglial cells and may be an effective therapeutic component to control neurological disorders. 
As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. 
Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances.

GLYCINEBETAINE
CHEBI:17750
(Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide, inner salt
2-(Trimethylammonio)ethanoic acid, hydroxide, inner salt
2-trimethylammonioacetate
(Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt
2-(trimethylamino)acetic acid
(Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium inner salt
3SCV180C9W
1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium hydroxide, inner salt
2-N,N,N-trimethylammonio acetate
1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt

What should I do if I forget a dose of Betaine?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember Betaine. 
However, if Betaine is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

Health Benefits of Betaine
Betaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed as a supplement that can be taken for a slew of conditions, but little research exists on Betaines purported health benefits.
Some doctors may recommend betaine HCL as a source of hydrochloric acid for people who do not produce enough of Betaine due to a health condition called hypochlorhydria. 
Otherwise, despite many claims from promoters and alternative medicine practitioners, there is insufficient evidence that betaine HCL can be taken for any of the following reasons:
-Promote healthy stomach pH
-Enhance protein and vitamin absorption 
-Reduce symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
-Reduce symptoms of food allergies 
-Reduce symptoms of gallstones 
-Support heart health
-Fortify joints 
-Reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
-Improve asthma symptoms 
-Protect the liver 
-Fight yeast infections
-Improve digestion of fats, especially in those post-cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal surgery)

Betaine (trimethylglycine) functions very closely with choline,folic acid, vitamin B12, and a form of the amino acid methionine known as S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe).
All of these compounds function as "methyl donors." 
They carry and donate methyl molecules to facilitate necessary chemical processes. 
The donation of methyl groups by betaine is very important to proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification reactions. 
Betaine also plays a role in the manufacture of carnitine and serves to protect the kidneys from damage.
Betaine is closely related to choline. 
The difference is that choline (tetramethylglycine) has four methyl groups attached to Betaine. 
When choline donates one of these groups to another molecule, Betaine becomes betaine (trimethylglycine). 
If betaine donates one of Betaines methyl groups, then Betaine becomes dimethylglycine.

Trimethylglycine (TMG) is a molecule which, structurally, is the amino acid Glycine with three methyl groups attached to it. 
Betaine is known as a 'betaine' molecule ('betaine' being a category of molecules), but because Betaine was the first dietary betaine discovered (from beetroot) and it is the most popular molecule referred to as a betaine, the terms ‘trimethylglycine’ and ‘betaine’ are used interchangeably.

Novobetaine
.alpha.-Earleine
Hepastyl
DSSTox_CID_2666
DSSTox_RID_76680
DSSTox_GSID_22666
Glykokollbetain
Betaine, 98%, for analysis, anhydrous
CAS-107-43-7
HSDB 7467
NSC-166511
NCGC00015150-03
EINECS 203-490-6

Betaine hydrochloride is a chemical substance made in a laboratory. 
Betaine is used as medicine.

Betaine hydrochloride has an interesting history. 
Betaine hydrochloride used to be included in over-the-counter (OTC) products as a "stomach acidifier and digestive aid." 
But a federal law that went into effect in 1993 banned betaine hydrochloride from use in OTC products because there wasn't enough evidence to classify Betaine "generally recognized as safe and effective." 
Betaine hydrochloride is now available only as a dietary supplement whose purity and strength can vary.

Betaine hydrochloride is also used to treat abnormally low levels of potassium (hypokalemia), high levels of the compound homocysteine in the blood, hay fever, "tired blood" (anemia), asthma, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), yeast infections, diarrhea, food allergies, gallstones, inner ear infections, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and thyroid disorders. 
Betaine is also used to protect the liver.

Don't confuse betaine hydrochloride with betaine anhydrous. 
Use only the FDA-approved betaine anhydrous product for the treatment of high levels of homocysteine in the urine (homocystinuria). 
This is a symptom of some rare genetic diseases.

How does Betaine work?
In the stomach, betaine hydrochloride separates into betaine and hydrochloric acid. 
The hydrochloric acid increases stomach acid.

Chemical Formula: C5H12NO2
Average Molecular Weight: 118.1543
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 118.086803633
IUPAC Name: (carboxymethyl)trimethylazanium
Traditional Name: trimethyl glycine
CAS Registry Number: 6915-17-9
SMILES: C[N+](C)(C)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier    
InChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-6(2,3)4-5(7)8/h4H2,1-3H3/p+1
InChI Key: KWIUHFFTVRNATP-UHFFFAOYSA-O

Betaine supplementation has been shown to improve body composition and some metrics of muscular performance in young men; but, whether betaine enhances body composition or performance in female subjects is currently unknown. 
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between resistance training adaptation and chronic betaine supplementation in females.
Betaine is a multifunctional nutrient supporting important metabolic functions. 
Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is a zwitterionic (neutral molecule with bipolar structure) quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula (CH3) 3N + CH2COO-. 
First discovered in the juice of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), betaine occurs in many other plants (spinach, wheat, broccoli), animals (shrimps, shellfish, crabs) and microorganisms. 
Betaine is a methyl group donor that functions in the normal metabolic cycle of methionine and reduces homocystinuria in patients with inborn errors of methionine metabolism. 
Many reports have shown that betaine's therapeutic effectiveness is limited, and does not lower tHcy levels or prevent clinical symptoms 

trimethylglycocoll anhydride
NSC 166511
Glycine-Betaine
a-Earleine
.beta.ine
3mam
3ppp
Cystadane (TN)
Betaine,(S)
Betaine (JAN)
Betaine (8CI)
Aquadew AN 100
trimethylbetaine Glycine
3l6h

BETAINE (BEE ta een) is a nutrient. 
Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria. 
Betaine helps regulate homocysteine levels and can improve how you feel. 
Betaine is not a cure.
Betaine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

Safety concern
Betaine is an irritant of eyes and skin.

The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in the nineteenth century.
Betaine is a small N-trimethylated amino acid. 
Betaine is a zwitterion, which cannot isomerize because there is no labile hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom. 
This substance may be called glycine betaine to distinguish Betaine from other betaines.

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. 
If irritation develops, get medical aid.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid if irritation or symptoms occur.
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.

NCGC00178605-02
NCGC00178605-03
NCGC00178605-08
NCGC00255057-01
Abromine; Lycine; Trimethylglycine (TMG)
AK161874
AS-12941
SY011295
B0455
FT-0622917
N1709
ST51046970
WLN: QV1K1 & 1 & 1 & Q
C00719
D07523

Betaine or trimethyl glycine is a very simple, common molecule found in nature. 
Betaines name is derived from the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). 
Betaines commercial form is obtained from the process of making sugar out of sugar beets by chromatography of the molasses. 
Betaine can be labelled as “natural” and is available in large quantities at a very affordable price. 
Betaine is a small trimethylated aminoacid existing in a zwitterionic form at neutral pH. 
Because of Betaines structure, betaine can easily form hydrogen bonds with water and other molecules conferring Betaine very unsual properties and in particular helping solubilise some other molecules. 
Betaine is non-toxic (LD50 is 11.2 g/Kg) and is used in food supplements; Betaine is highly soluble in water (up to 55%) and chemically stable. 
Betaine has been shown to be secreted in marine microorganisms to help them resist osmotic stress.
In their article published in 2000, Rigano et al. showed some of the applications in cosmetics.
These include Betaines biocompatibility, its ability to reduce the irritation effect of surfactants, Betaines solvent capacity as well as its special skin feel.

Betaine is known as trimethylglycine and is widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. 
Betaine is known to function physiologically as an important osmoprotectant and methyl group donor. 
Accumulating evidence has shown that betaine has anti-inflammatory functions in numerous diseases. 
Mechanistically, betaine ameliorates sulfur amino acid metabolism against oxidative stress, inhibits nuclear factor-κB activity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, regulates energy metabolism, and mitigates endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. 
Consequently, betaine has beneficial actions in several human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called homocystinuria, in which the amino acid builds up in the body. 
Betaine is not a cure for homocysteinuria.
Betaine hydrochloride (also known as betaine HCI or betaine HCL) is a chemical compound produced in laboratories. 
Betaine is believed to increase stomach acid.

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Betaine (trimethylglycine, glycine betaine, lycine, oxyneurine), a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from sugar beets, has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss because of its abilities to promote protein synthesis in the body.

Betaine -- also called betaine anhydrous, or trimethylglycine (TMG) - is a substance that's made in the body. 
Betaine's involved in liver function, cellular reproduction, and helping make carnitine. 
Betaine also helps the body metabolize an amino acid called homocysteine. 
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved betaine to treat a genetic condition where too much homocysteine builds up in the body.

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AB00053634_03
1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-Methanaminium hydroxide
methanaminium, carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt
Methanaminium,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt
Q-200708
Q10860583
Z2756787719
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt (9CI)
Ammonium compounds, substituted, (carboxymethyl)trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt (7CI)
 

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