CALCIUM CARBONATE

Calcium Carbonate = CaCO3 = Aragonite = PCC = GCC

CAS Number: 471-34-1  
EC Number: 207-439-9
E number: E170 (colours)
Linear Formula: CaCO3
Molecular Weight: 100.09

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. 
Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of eggshells, snail shells, seashells and pearls. 
Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale. 
Calcium carbonate has medical use as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous and cause hypercalcemia and digestive issues.
Calcium carbonate, as Calcium carbonate is used for industrial purposes, is extracted by mining or quarrying.  
Pure calcium carbonate can be produced from marble, or Calcium carbonate can be prepared by passing carbon dioxide into a solution of calcium hydroxide.  
In the later case calcium carbonate is derived from the mixture, forming a grade of product called "precipitated calcium carbonate,” or PCC. 

PCC has a very fine and controlled particle size, on the order of 2 microns in diameter, particularly useful in production of paper.  
The other primary type of industrial product is "ground calcium carbonate,” or GCC. 
GCC, as the name implies, involves crushing and processing limestone to create a powdery-like form graded by size and other properties for many different industrial and pharmaceutical applications.
Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. 
Calcium carbonate is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. 
Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. 
An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects. 
Calcium carbonate may also be used as a nutritional supplement or to treat hypocalcemia.

Uses of Calcium carbonate:
Calcium carbonate is used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. 
Calcium carbonate is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.
Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used Calcium carbonate before. 
The manufacturer of Calcium carbonate may have changed the ingredients. 
Calcium carbonate, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. 

Paper, Plastics, Paints, and Coatings: Calcium carbonate is the most widely used mineral in the paper, plastics, paints and coatings industries both as a filler – and due to its special white color - as a coating pigment.  
In the paper industry Calcium carbonate is valued worldwide for Calcium carbonates high brightness and light scattering characteristics, and is used as an inexpensive filler to make bright opaque paper.  
Filler is used at the wet-end of paper making machines, and calcium carbonate filler allows for the paper to be bright and smooth.  
As an extender, calcium carbonate can represent as much as 30% by weight in paints.  
Calcium carbonate also is used widely as a filler in adhesives, and sealants.

Personal Health and Food Production: Calcium carbonate is used widely as an effective dietary calcium supplement, antacid, phosphate binder, or base material for medicinal tablets.  
Calcium carbonate also is found on many grocery store shelves in products such as baking powder, toothpaste, dry-mix dessert mixes, dough, and wine.  
Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is used in animal feed.  
Calcium carbonate also benefits the environment through water and waste treatment.

Building Materials and Construction: Calcium carbonate is critical to the construction industry, both as a building material in its own right (e.g. marble), and as an ingredient of cement.  
Calcium carbonate contributes to the making of mortar used in bonding bricks, concrete blocks, stones, roofing shingles, rubber compounds, and tiles.  
Calcium carbonate decomposes to form carbon dioxide and lime, an important material in making steel, glass, and paper.  
Because of Calcium carbonates antacid properties, calcium carbonate is used in industrial settings to neutralize acidic conditions in both soil and water.

Calcium carbonate crystals are referred to as calcite.  
The calcite crystal generally is considered a rhombohedron because of its cleavage properties.  
Cleavage is what causes crystals to angle where the bonding forces are weak and are apt to break into planes.  
Calcite is unique in that its cleavage takes three distinct directions.  
There are more than 300 forms of calcite crystals.  
Calcite crystals also come in many different colors, but usually are white or transparent.  
Another important property of the calcite crystal is its property of double refraction.  
Double refraction occurs when a ray of light travels through a medium and is split into two different beams, one traveling slowly, one traveling fast.  
The two different beams are bent at two different angles of refraction.  
As a result of this property a person looking through calcite sees two images.  
This property of double refraction is a feature valuable to a number of optical applications.

Calcium carbonate is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth and accounts for about 4% of the Earth’s crust. 
Calcium carbonate can be found in nature in three principal rock types: chalk, limestone and marble.  

Today, Calcium carbonate powders, precipitated products and dolomite, are among the most important and versatile materials used by industry. 
Calcium carbonate is used as a filler and functional additive in an incredible variety of industrial applications ranging adhesives & sealants, building products, glass, paints & inks, paper, plastic & rubber to animal feeds, flue-gas desulphurisation, fertilizers, food, personal care, pharmaceuticals and water treatment.

Calcium carbonate is normally found as a white mineral (calcite) which occurs naturally in chalks, limestones and marbles. 
Some of these rocks were formed by inorganic processes, but many are of organic origin being composed of the remains of countless sea organisms. 
Most are limestones, a general term used for a rock possessing varying proportions of calcite and dolomite with small amounts of iron-bearing carbonates. 
Dolomite is a double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, with the formula CaMg(CO3)2. 
Limestones are usually clear or white. 
However, with impurities, they can take on a variety of colours, commonly white, tan or grey.

The most common crystal arrangement for naturally-occurring calcium carbonates is the hexagonal form of calcite. 
Less common is aragonite, which has a discrete or clustered needle, orthorhombic crystal structure. 
Aragonite is formed in a narrow range of physio-chemical conditions, typically in thermal springs although mollusc shells and pearls are made of aragonite.

Commercial calcium carbonate is produced in 2 ways: through the extraction and processing of natural ores or synthetically through chemical precipitation. 
Ground calcium carbonate is commonly referred to as GCC. 
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) is produced through a recarbonisation process or as a by-product of some bulk chemical processes (e.g. the Solvay method or caustic soda production).

Most calcium carbonate deposits are made up of the remains of marine organisms that have sedimented to the bottom of a shallow sea. 
These organisms, such as crustaceans, algae and coral, absorb calcium carbonate from the water and use Calcium carbonate to form their skeletons and shells. 
When they die, their remains form sedimentary deposits on sea-beds which build up over time to form rock. 
Chalk, a soft rock, is the result of poorly compacted sedimentary calcium carbonate rock, whose diagenesis is incomplete. 
Once the sedimentation process is complete, this results in the formation of limestone.
Marble, the hardest form of calcium carbonate, is a metamorphic rock, which is the result of the recrystallization process of limestone, under conditions of high pressure and temperature.

Calcium carbonate can also be produced synthetically in the form of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC). 
PCC is created through the conversion of limestone into CaO and CO2 and the subsequent reaction of both purified components in a chemical reactor. 
The final product has the same chemical composition as GCC, but is higher purity and has different properties in terms of particle size distribution and particle shape. 
The high whiteness and opacity of carbonates lend themselves to a great many applications, from building materials to paper and paint, to construction and foodstuffs.

WHAT IS CALCIUM CARBONATE AND HOW DOES IT WORK?
Calcium Carbonate is a medication used to prevent or treat low blood calcium levels in people who do not get enough calcium from their diets. 
Calcium carbonate may be used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels such as bone loss (osteoporosis), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). 
Calcium carbonate may also be used in certain patients to make sure that they are getting enough calcium (women who are pregnant, nursing or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone).

Calcium plays a very important role in the body. 
Calcium carbonate is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. 
If there is not enough calcium in the blood, then the body will take calcium from bones, thereby weakening bones. 
Having the right amount of calcium is important for building and keeping strong bones.

Calcium Carbonate is available under the following different brand names: 
Tums, Tums Chewy Delights, Tums Extra, Tums Freshers, Tums Kids, Tums Regular, Tums Smoothies, and Tums Ultra or Children's Pepto.

Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is one of the most common compounds on Earth, making up about 7% of Earth's crust. 
Calcium carbonate occurs in a wide variety of mineral forms, including limestone, marble, travertine, and chalk. 
Calcium carbonate also occurs combined with magnesium as the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. 
Stalactites and stalagmites in caves are made of calcium carbonate. 
A variety of animal products are also made primarily of calcium carbonate, notably coral, sea shells, egg shells, and pearls.

Why is Calcium carbonate prescribed?
Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not enough. 
Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart.
Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. 
Calcium carbonate is available with or without a prescription.

Calcium carbonate Chemistry
Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. 
Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide (technically speaking, carbonic acid, but that disintegrates quickly to CO2 and H2O):
CaCO3(s) + 2 H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O
releases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination (to above 840 °C in the case of CaCO3), to form calcium oxide, commonly called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ/mol:
CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Calcium carbonate reacts with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate.
CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) → Ca(HCO3)2(aq)
This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, and leads to hard water in many regions.
An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O. 
Ikaite is stable only below 8 °C.

Calcium carbonate Preparation
The vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by mining or quarrying. 
Pure calcium carbonate (such as for food or pharmaceutical use), can be produced from a pure quarried source (usually marble).
Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. 
Water is added to give calcium hydroxide then carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC):
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O

Synonyms: Calcium carbonate
Linear Formula: CaCO3
CAS Number: 471-34-1
Molecular Weight: 100.09

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the most widely used filler in polymer formulations. 
As a filler, calcium carbonate allows cost reduction and improved mechanical properties. 
Calcium carbonate is found in sedimentary rocks (chalk, limestone), marbles and minerals (dolomite).
Some typical properties are: density 2.7-2.9 g/cm3; pH of water suspension 9; particle size 0.2-30 μm; oil absorption 13–21 g/100 g; specific surface area 5–24 m2/g. 
Depending on their origin and history of formation, and their impurities, the calcium carbonates have different properties. 
Three major technological processes are used in the production of calcium carbonate fillers: milling, precipitation, and coating. 
However, most calcium carbonate fillers are processed by milling using a dry or wet method. 
Dry milling provides ultra-fine calcium carbonate grades (particle size about 0.6 μm). 
Natural milled calcium carbonates are added to decrease cost in rubber base adhesives.

Calcium carbonate Structure
The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3(the mineral calcite).
Other forms can be prepared, the denser (2.83 g/cm3) orthorhombic λ-CaCO3 (the mineral aragonite) and hexagonal μ-CaCO3, occurring as the mineral vaterite.
The aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C, the vaterite form can be prepared by precipitation at 60 °C.
Calcite contains calcium atoms coordinated by six oxygen atoms, in aragonite they are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms.
The vaterite structure is not fully understood.
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) has the calcite structure, whereas strontium carbonate and barium carbonate (SrCO3 and BaCO3) adopt the aragonite structure, reflecting their larger ionic radii.

Calcium carbonate Occurrence
Calcite is the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. 
Calcium carbonate is transparent to opaque. 
A transparent variety called Iceland spar (shown here) was used to create polarized light in the 19th century.

Geological sources
Calcite, aragonite and vaterite are pure calcium carbonate minerals. 
Industrially important source rocks which are predominantly calcium carbonate include limestone, chalk, marble and travertine.

IUPAC name
Calcium carbonate

Other names
calcite; aragonite; chalk; Lime (material); Limestone; marble; oyster; pearl;

Biological sources
Calcium carbonate chunks from clamshell
Eggshells, snail shells and most seashells are predominantly calcium carbonate and can be used as industrial sources of that chemical.
Oyster shells have enjoyed recent recognition as a source of dietary calcium, but are also a practical industrial source.
Dark green vegetables such as broccoli and kale contain dietarily significant amounts of calcium carbonate, but they are not practical as an industrial source.

Extraterrestrial
Beyond Earth, strong evidence suggests the presence of calcium carbonate on Mars. 
Signs of calcium carbonate have been detected at more than one location (notably at Gusev and Huygens craters). 
This provides some evidence for the past presence of liquid water.

Geology
Carbonate is found frequently in geologic settings and constitutes an enormous carbon reservoir. 
Calcium carbonate occurs as aragonite, calcite and dolomite as significant constituents of the calcium cycle. 
The carbonate minerals form the rock types: limestone, chalk, marble, travertine, tufa, and others.
In warm, clear tropical waters corals are more abundant than towards the poles where the waters are cold. 
Calcium carbonate contributors, including plankton (such as coccoliths and planktic foraminifera), coralline algae, sponges, brachiopods, echinoderms, bryozoa and mollusks, are typically found in shallow water environments where sunlight and filterable food are more abundant. 
Cold-water carbonates do exist at higher latitudes but have a very slow growth rate. 
The calcification processes are changed by ocean acidification.
Where the oceanic crust is subducted under a continental plate sediments will be carried down to warmer zones in the asthenosphere and lithosphere. 
Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.

Carbonate compensation depth
The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is the point in the ocean where the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate is balanced by the rate of dissolution due to the conditions present. 
Deep in the ocean, the temperature drops and pressure increases. 
Calcium carbonate is unusual in that its solubility increases with decreasing temperature.
Increasing pressure also increases the solubility of calcium carbonate. 
The carbonate compensation depth can range from 4,000 to 6,000 meters below sea level.

Calcium carbonate Role in taphonomy
Calcium carbonate can preserve fossils through permineralization. 
Most of the vertebrate fossils of the Two Medicine Formation—a geologic formation known for Calcium carbonates duck-billed dinosaur eggs—are preserved by CaCO3 permineralization.
This type of preservation conserves high levels of detail, even down to the microscopic level. 
However, Calcium carbonate also leaves specimens vulnerable to weathering when exposed to the surface.
Trilobite populations were once thought to have composed the majority of aquatic life during the Cambrian, due to the fact that their calcium carbonate-rich shells were more easily preserved than those of other species, which had purely chitinous shells.

Uses
Construction
The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material, or limestone aggregate for road building, as an ingredient of cement, or as the starting material for the preparation of builders' lime by burning in a kiln. 
However, because of weathering mainly caused by acid rain, calcium carbonate (in limestone form) is no longer used for building purposes on Calcium carbonates own, but only as a raw primary substance for building materials.
Calcium carbonate is also used in the purification of iron from iron ore in a blast furnace. 
The carbonate is calcined in situ to give calcium oxide, which forms a slag with various impurities present, and separates from the purified iron.
In the oil industry, calcium carbonate is added to drilling fluids as a formation-bridging and filtercake-sealing agent; it is also a weighting material which increases the density of drilling fluids to control the downhole pressure. 
Calcium carbonate is added to swimming pools, as a pH corrector for maintaining alkalinity and offsetting the acidic properties of the disinfectant agent.
Calcium carbonate is also used as a raw material in the refining of sugar from sugar beet; Calcium carbonate is calcined in a kiln with anthracite to produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. 
This burnt lime is then slaked in fresh water to produce a calcium hydroxide suspension for the precipitation of impurities in raw juice during carbonatation.
Calcium carbonate in the form of chalk has traditionally been a major component of blackboard chalk. 
However, modern manufactured chalk is mostly gypsum, hydrated calcium sulfate CaSO4·2H2O. 

CAS Number: 471-34-1  
ChEBI: CHEBI:3311  
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1200539  
ChemSpider: 9708  
DrugBank: DB06724
ECHA InfoCard: 100.006.765  
EC Number: 207-439-9
E number: E170 (colours)
KEGG: D00932  
PubChem CID: 10112
RTECS number: FF9335000
UNII: H0G9379FGK  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID3036238

Calcium carbonate is naturally found in rock and mineral formations. 
Calcium carbonate is slightly water soluble, and is thereby leached into natural water systems, resulting in “hard” water. 
Limestone and chalk are comprised of calcium carbonate– as are coral reefs. 
The mineral is typically procured via mining and quarrying. 
Calcium carbonate exists as limestone, chalk, and dolomite, and typically includes impurities like clay.
Lauded among many industries for Calcium carbonates use, calcium carbonate is a keyplayer in the following industries:
-Healthcare
-Oil
-Plastic/Rubber
-Cement
-Glass
-Steel
-Paper
-Construction

-Calcium Carbonate in the Garden
The foremost ingredient in garden lime (commonly referred to as agricultural lime) that is responsible for sedating harmful soil acidity is calcium carbonate. 
The compound also improves the quality of the soil for surrounding plant life. 
Calcium carbonate (as you may have guessed) bestows plants with a healthy source of calcium, pH balancing properties, increases water retention ability within acidic soils, and (4) encourages absorption of crucial nutrients including nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus despite being rooted in acidic soils.

-Calcium Carbonate’s Role in Construction & Cement Making
Did you know you walk on calcium carbonate every day? 
Calcium carbonate is a keystone building material in the construction industry, largely leveraged in cement production. 
Calcium carbonate is typically utilized in its limestone state for these purposes. 
In addition to cement constructs, calcium carbonate is relied upon heavily in laying the foundation for road construction. 
Calcium carbonate is frequently used to help soil firm up, allowing for the erection of bridges, homes, and towering edifices.
Large clusters of calcium carbonate are typically used to satisfy a need for considerable aggregates; reacting with soil, lime helps clay to cement (almost literally) and create tighter compounds. 
Additionally, the firming effect of calcium carbonate allows large construction vehicles to more easily traverse construction worksites.
Expanding upon calcium carbonate’s inclusion in cement production, the principal form utilized in cement preparation is limestone. 
Cement at Calcium carbonates essence is comprised of calcium silicates and calcium sulfate. 

-Use Calcium Carbonate to Combat Acid Rain in Water Systems
Studies show calcium carbonate helps allay the damaging effects of acid rain throughout the entire within river water ecosystems. 
The United States currently treats acidic waterways with a sprinkling of finely powdered calcium carbonate to neutralize noxious acids.
Scandinavia and Scotland also leverage calcium carbonate in this manner. 
Limestone deposits are used in the treatment of unplanted areas surrounding affected lakes and water bodies. 
Think of the limestone as a barrier, neutralizing the acidity which may have leached into surrounding soil beds.

-Living Organisms Need Calcium Carbonate for Bone & Teeth Formation
And you’re one of them! Did you know your teeth and bones are made from a healthy dose of calcium carbonate? 
Likewise, plants and animals use the mineral to construct their skeletons and shells. 
Animals most notable for this include snails, coral, pearls, turtles, and other shelled creatures. 
Calcium carbonate is again redeposited into the soil upon the death of plants and animals hosting the substance.

Calcium carbonate is a main source for growing biorock. 
Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), pre-dispersed in slurry form, is a common filler material for latex gloves with the aim of achieving maximum saving in material and production costs.
Fine ground calcium carbonate (GCC) is an essential ingredient in the microporous film used in diapers and some building films, as the pores are nucleated around the calcium carbonate particles during the manufacture of the film by biaxial stretching. 
GCC and PCC are used as a filler in paper because they are cheaper than wood fiber. 
In terms of market volume, GCC are the most important types of fillers currently used.
Printing and writing paper can contain 10–20% calcium carbonate. 
In North America, calcium carbonate has begun to replace kaolin in the production of glossy paper. 
Europe has been practicing this as alkaline papermaking or acid-free papermaking for some decades. 
PCC used for paper filling and paper coatings is precipitated and prepared in a variety of shapes and sizes having characteristic narrow particle size distributions and equivalent spherical diameters of 0.4 to 3 micrometers.
Calcium carbonate is widely used as an extender in paints, in particular matte emulsion paint where typically 30% by weight of the paint is either chalk or marble. 

Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement for gastric antacid (such as Tums). 
Calcium carbonate may be used as a phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (primarily in patients with chronic kidney failure). 
Calcium carbonate is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an inert filler for tablets and other pharmaceuticals.
Calcium carbonate is used in the production of calcium oxide as well as toothpaste and has seen a resurgence as a food preservative and color retainer, when used in or with products such as organic apples.

Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as phosphate binder in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. 
Calcium carbonate is the most common form of phosphate binder prescribed, particularly in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease. 
Calcium carbonate is the most commonly used phosphate binder, but clinicians are increasingly prescribing the more expensive, non-calcium-based phosphate binders, particularly sevelamer.

Excess calcium from supplements, fortified food, and high-calcium diets can cause milk-alkali syndrome, which has serious toxicity and can be fatal. 
In 1915, Bertram Sippy introduced the "Sippy regimen" of hourly ingestion of milk and cream, and the gradual addition of eggs and cooked cereal, for 10 days, combined with alkaline powders, which provided symptomatic relief for peptic ulcer disease. 
Over the next several decades, the Sippy regimen resulted in kidney failure, alkalosis, and hypercalcaemia, mostly in men with peptic ulcer disease. 
These adverse effects were reversed when the regimen stopped, but Calcium carbonate was fatal in some patients with protracted vomiting. 
Milk-alkali syndrome declined in men after effective treatments for peptic ulcer disease arose. 
Since the 1990s Calcium carbonate has been most frequently reported in women taking calcium supplements above the recommended range of 1.2 to 1.5 grams daily, for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and is exacerbated by dehydration. 
Calcium has been added to over-the-counter products, which contributes to inadvertent excessive intake. 
Excessive calcium intake can lead to hypercalcemia, complications of which include vomiting, abdominal pain and altered mental status.

As a food additive Calcium carbonate is designated E170, and Calcium carbonate has an INS number of 170. 
Used as an acidity regulator, anticaking agent, stabilizer or color Calcium carbonate is approved for usage in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand.
Calcium carbonate is "added by law to all UK milled bread flour except wholemeal".
Calcium carbonate is used in some soy milk and almond milk products as a source of dietary calcium; at least one study suggests that calcium carbonate might be as bioavailable as the calcium in cow's milk.
Calcium carbonate is also used as a firming agent in many canned and bottled vegetable products.

Several calcium supplement formulations have been documented to contain the chemical element lead, posing a public health concern.
Lead is commonly found in natural sources of calcium.

Chemical formula: CaCO3
Molar mas: 100.0869 g/mol
Appearance: Fine white powder; chalky taste
Odor: odorless
Density: 
2.711 g/cm3 (calcite)
2.83 g/cm3 (aragonite)
Melting point: 
1,339 °C (2,442 °F; 
1,612 K) (calcite)
825 °C (1,517 °F; 
1,098 K) (aragonite) 
Boiling point: decomposes
Solubility in water: 0.013 g/L (25 °C) 
Solubility product (Ksp): 3.3×10−9 
Solubility in dilute acids: soluble
Acidity (pKa): 9.0
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −3.82×10−5 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.59

Calcium carbonate has two major crystalline formstwo different geometric arrangements of the calcium ions and carbonate ions that make up the compound. 
These two forms are called aragonite and calcite. 
All calcium carbonate minerals are conglomerations of various-sized crystals of these two forms, packed together in different ways and containing various impurities. 
The large, transparent crystals known as Iceland spar, however, are pure calcite.
In Calcium carbonates pure form, calcium carbonate is a white powder with a specific gravity of 2.71 in the calcite form or 2.93 in the aragonite form. 
When heated, Calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). 
Calcium carbonate also reacts vigorously with acids to release a froth of carbon dioxide bubbles. 
Calcium carbonate is said that Cleopatra, to show her extravagance, dissolved pearls in vinegar (acetic acid).

Crystal structure: Trigonal
Space group: 32/m

Calcium carbonate is also a popular filler in plastics. 
Some typical examples include around 15 to 20% loading of chalk in unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) drainpipes, 5% to 15% loading of stearate-coated chalk or marble in uPVC window profile. 
PVC cables can use calcium carbonate at loadings of up to 70 phr (parts per hundred parts of resin) to improve mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) and electrical properties (volume resistivity).
Polypropylene compounds are often filled with calcium carbonate to increase rigidity, a requirement that becomes important at high usage temperatures.
Here the percentage is often 20–40%.
Calcium carbonate also routinely used as a filler in thermosetting resins (sheet and bulk molding compounds)and has also been mixed with ABS, and other ingredients, to form some types of compression molded "clay" poker chips.
Precipitated calcium carbonate, made by dropping calcium oxide into water, is used by itself or with additives as a white paint, known as whitewashing.
Calcium carbonate is added to a wide range of trade and do Calcium carbonate yourself adhesives, sealants, and decorating fillers.
Ceramic tile adhesives typically contain 70% to 80% limestone. 
Decorating crack fillers contain similar levels of marble or dolomite. 
Calcium carbonate is also mixed with putty in setting stained glass windows, and as a resist to prevent glass from sticking to kiln shelves when firing glazes and paints at high temperature.

In ceramic glaze applications, calcium carbonate is known as whiting, and is a common ingredient for many glazes in Calcium carbonates white powdered form. 
When a glaze containing this material is fired in a kiln, the whiting acts as a flux material in the glaze. 
Ground calcium carbonate is an abrasive (both as scouring powder and as an ingredient of household scouring creams), in particular in Calcium carbonates calcite form, which has the relatively low hardness level of 3 on the Mohs scale, and will therefore not scratch glass and most other ceramics, enamel, bronze, iron, and steel, and have a moderate effect on softer metals like aluminium and copper.
A paste made from calcium carbonate and deionized water can be used to clean tarnish on silver.

Calcium carbonate BENEFITS
Better cost performing flotation reagents
Improved recovery and grade
Better flotation selectivity and strength
Process improvement and flowsheet optimization

Calcium carbonate APPLICATIONS
Reverse Flotation (of impurities away from calcium carbonate)

Calcium carbonate Agriculture and aquaculture
Agricultural lime, powdered chalk or limestone, Calcium carbonate is used as a cheap method for neutralising acidic soil, making it suitable for planting, also used in aquaculture industry for pH regulation of pond soil before initiating culture.

Calcium carbonate Household cleaning
Calcium carbonate is a key ingredient in many household cleaning powders like Comet and is used as a scrubbing agent.

What is calcium carbonate?
Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. 
Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
There are many brands and forms of calcium carbonate available. 
Not all brands are listed on this leaflet.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Pollution mitigation
In 1989, a researcher, Ken Simmons, introduced CaCO3 into the Whetstone Brook in Massachusetts.
His hope was that the calcium carbonate would counter the acid in the stream from acid rain and save the trout that had ceased to spawn. 
Although his experiment was a success, Calcium carbonate did increase the amount of aluminium ions in the area of the brook that was not treated with the limestone. 
This shows that CaCO3 can be added to neutralize the effects of acid rain in river ecosystems.
Currently calcium carbonate is used to neutralize acidic conditions in both soil and water.
Since the 1970s, such liming has been practiced on a large scale in Sweden to mitigate acidification and several thousand lakes and streams are limed repeatedly.
Calcium carbonate is also used in flue gas desulfurisation applications eliminating harmful SO2 and NO2 emissions from coal and other fossil fuels burnt in large fossil fuel power stations.

Calcium carbonate Calcination equilibrium
Calcination of limestone using charcoal fires to produce quicklime has been practiced since antiquity by cultures all over the world. 
The temperature at which limestone yields calcium oxide is usually given as 825 °C, but stating an absolute threshold is misleading. 
Calcium carbonate exists in equilibrium with calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at any temperature. 
At each temperature there is a partial pressure of carbon dioxide that is in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. 
At room temperature the equilibrium overwhelmingly favors calcium carbonate, because the equilibrium CO2 pressure is only a tiny fraction of the partial CO2 pressure in air, which is about 0.035 kPa.
At temperatures above 550 °C the equilibrium CO2 pressure begins to exceed the CO2 pressure in air. 
So above 550 °C, calcium carbonate begins to outgas CO2 into air. 
However, in a charcoal fired kiln, the concentration of CO2 will be much higher than Calcium carbonate is in air. 
Indeed, if all the oxygen in the kiln is consumed in the fire, then the partial pressure of CO2 in the kiln can be as high as 20 kPa.
The table shows that this partial pressure is not achieved until the temperature is nearly 800 °C. 
For the outgassing of CO2 from calcium carbonate to happen at an economically useful rate, the equilibrium pressure must significantly exceed the ambient pressure of CO2. 
And for it to happen rapidly, the equilibrium pressure must exceed total atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, which happens at 898 °C.

Calcium carbonate Calcination equilibrium
Calcination of limestone using charcoal fires to produce quicklime has been practiced since antiquity by cultures all over the world. 
The temperature at which limestone yields calcium oxide is usually given as 825 °C, but stating an absolute threshold is misleading. 
Calcium carbonate exists in equilibrium with calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at any temperature. 
At each temperature there is a partial pressure of carbon dioxide that is in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. 
At room temperature the equilibrium overwhelmingly favors calcium carbonate, because the equilibrium CO2 pressure is only a tiny fraction of the partial CO2 pressure in air, which is about 0.035 kPa.

Calcium carbonate is also referred to as chalk, this dense, white powdery mineral is a common addition to the madder dye bath to deepen shades and is one of the principle minerals that create hard water. 
Calcium carbonate may also be used with weld extract to bring out the bright, rich yellow shades.
250g is enough for many dye baths and when used as a post-bath for aluminum acetate mordanting.
The recommended amount of chalk is 5% of the weight of fiber, or 1 rounded teaspoon for 100 grams of fiber.

At temperatures above 550 °C the equilibrium CO2 pressure begins to exceed the CO2 pressure in air. 
So above 550 °C, calcium carbonate begins to outgas CO2 into air. 
However, in a charcoal fired kiln, the concentration of CO2 will be much higher than Calcium carbonate is in air. 
Indeed, if all the oxygen in the kiln is consumed in the fire, then the partial pressure of CO2 in the kiln can be as high as 20 kPa.

The table shows that this partial pressure is not achieved until the temperature is nearly 800 °C. 
For the outgassing of CO2 from calcium carbonate to happen at an economically useful rate, the equilibrium pressure must significantly exceed the ambient pressure of CO2. 
And for Calcium carbonate to happen rapidly, the equilibrium pressure must exceed total atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, which happens at 898 °C.

How should Calcium carbonate be used?
Calcium carbonate comes as a tablet, chewable tablet, capsule, and liquid to take by mouth. 
Calcium carbonate is usually taken three or four times a day. 
Follow the directions on your prescription or package label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take calcium carbonate exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Calcium carbonate or take Calcium carbonate more often than prescribed by your doctor. 
When using this medicine as a dietary supplement, take it with food or following meals.
Chewable tablets should be chewed thoroughly before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. 
Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. 
Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.

Before taking calcium carbonate,
-tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs.
-tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially digoxin (Lanoxin), etidronate (Didronel), phenytoin (Dilantin), tetracycline (Sumycin), and vitamins. 
-Do not take calcium carbonate within 1-2 hours of taking other medicines. 
-Calcium may decrease the effectiveness of the other medicine.
-tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.
-tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. 
-If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

Aragonite
CALCIUM CARBONATE
471-34-1
Calcite
Chalk
Carbonic acid calcium salt (1:1)
Calcium carbonate (1:1)
Calofort U
Precipitated calcium carbonate
calciumcarbonate
1317-65-3
CaCO3

Formula: CaCO3
Molecular mass: 100.1
Decomposes at 825°C
Density: 2.8 g/cm³
Solubility in water, mg/l at 25°C: 14 (very poor) 
Formulae: 
CCaO3
CO3.Ca
Net Charge: 0
Average Mass: 100.087
Monoisotopic Mass: 99.94733
InChI: InChI=1S/CH2O3.Ca/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+2/p-2
InChIKey: VTYYLEPIZMXCLO-UHFFFAOYSA-L
SMILES: [Ca+2].C(=O)([O-])[O-]

The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). 
Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis.

Calciumcarbonat
Kalziumkarbonat
Calcite (Ca(Co3))
Calcium carbonate slurry
kohlensaurer Kalk
UNII-H0G9379FGK
carbonato de calcio
Chalk, Precipitated
carbonate de calcium
calcium trioxidocarbonate
Calcium carbonate [USP]
Carbonate (calcium)

Calcium carbonate causes a unique reaction with acids.  
Upon contact with an acid - no matter the strength - Calcium carbonate produces carbon dioxide.  
This provides geologists with a reliable test to identify calcium carbonate.  
This same phenomenon is important to the formation of caves.  
Acidic rain water runs off and goes underground where it dissolves the calcium carbonate limestone. 
The calcium carbonate water runs down and eventually reaches an air-filled cavity underground where the carbon dioxide can be released.  
When Calcium carbonate is released, the calcium carbonate crystallizes again.  
Stalactite and stalagmite formations are created when water containing calcium carbonate drips, leaving some mineral at the source of the drip at the roof of the cave and some where it falls.  
This is an extremely long process, and often takes place over many thousands of years.

Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Kalkspar
CHEBI:3311
H0G9379FGK
13397-26-7
Aeromatt
MFCD00010906
Akadama
Albacar
Albafil
Albaglos
Atomite
Calcicoll
Calibrite
Calmote
Calseeds
Calwhite

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals secreted by marine organisms are abundant in the ocean. 
These particles settle and the majority dissolves in deeper waters or at the seafloor. 
Dissolution of carbonates buffers the ocean, but the vertical and regional distribution and magnitude of dissolution are unclear. 
Here we use seawater chemistry and age data to derive pelagic CaCO3 dissolution rates in major oceanic regions and provide the first data-based, regional profiles of CaCO3 settling fluxes. 
We find that global CaCO3 export at 300 m depth is 76 ± 12 Tmol yr−1, of which 36 ± 8 Tmol (47%) dissolves in the water column. 
Dissolution occurs in two distinct depth zones. 
In shallow waters, metabolic CO2 release and high-magnesium calcites dominate dissolution while increased CaCO3 solubility governs dissolution in deeper waters. 
Based on reconstructed sinking fluxes, our data indicate a higher CaCO3 transfer efficiency from the surface to the seafloor in high-productivity, upwelling areas than in oligotrophic systems. 
These results have implications for assessments of future ocean acidification as well as palaeorecord interpretations, as they demonstrate that surface ecosystems, not only interior ocean chemistry, are key to controlling the dissolution of settling CaCO3 particles.

Carbium
Chemcarb
Clefnon
Duramite
Hydrocarb
Kotamite
Microcarb
Micromya
Neoanticid
Atomit
Calmos
Caltec
Dacote
Marfil
Levigated chalk
Allied whiting

What is the most important information I should know about calcium carbonate?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is calcium carbonate?
Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. 
Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
There are many brands and forms of calcium carbonate available. 
Not all brands are listed on this leaflet.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in Calcium carbonate guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking calcium carbonate?
Ask a doctor or pharmacist if Calcium carbonate is safe for you to take Calcium carbonate if you have ever had:
kidney disease;
kidney stones;
cancer;
a parathyroid gland disorder; or
high levels of calcium in your blood.
Ask a doctor before using calcium carbonate if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. 
Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are nursing.

CAS #: 471-34-1
Formula: CaCO₃

Synonyms: calcium salt of carbonic acid; limestone (naturally occuring [1317-65-3]); marble

How should I take calcium carbonate?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Check the label of your calcium carbonate product to see if Calcium carbonate should be taken with or without food.
Swallow the calcium carbonate regular tablet with a full glass of water.
The chewable tablet should be chewed before you swallow Calcium carbonate.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. 
Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. 
If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Use the calcium carbonate powder as directed. 
Allow the powder to dissolve completely, then consume the mixture.
Calcium carbonate may be only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes dietary changes. 
Learn about the foods that contain calcium.
Your calcium carbonate dose may need to be adjusted as you make changes to your diet. 
Follow your doctor's instructions very closely.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. 
Do not freeze.

What happens if I miss a dose of Calcium carbonate?
Take the missed dose of Calcium carbonate as soon as you remember. 
Skip the missed dose if Calcium carbonate is almost time for your next scheduled dose. 
Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking calcium carbonate?
Ask a doctor or pharmacist before taking any multivitamins, mineral supplements, or antacids while you are taking calcium carbonate.

Tums
Marble white
Calcium carbonate (USP)
Camel-carb
Camel-wite
Camel-tex
Calcium carbonate-13C
Britomya M
Britomya S
Calofort S
Calofort T
Calopake F
Calopake H
Hakuenka O
Multiflex MM
Multiflex SC
Albaglos SF
Calopake FS
Calopake PC
Carusis P
Garolite SA

Calcium carbonate accounts for more than 4% of the earth's crust. 
As a result, the three minerals – calcite, aragonite and vaterite – are among the most important rock-forming minerals. 
Rocks are not the only deposits in nature – almost all stretches of water and countless plants and animals contain huge amounts of calcium carbonate as well. 
These natural resources are linked by the calcium carbonate cycle.
Plants and animals absorb calcium carbonate in water, where it usually exists dissolved in the form of calcium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HCO3)2, and use it to build up their skeletons and shells. 
After their death, mussels, coccoliths, algae and corals form sedimentary deposits on sea beds and the rock-forming process is set in motion.
The first stage is the sedimentation process, from which chalk and limestone originate. 
Chalk is a poorly compacted sedimentary calcium carbonate rock whose diagenesis is incomplete.
A completed sedimentation process results in the formation of limestone. 
If the sedimentation process takes place in water containing magnesium, dolomitization may occur. 
Part of the calcium ions in the crystal lattice are replaced by magnesium ions, leading to the formation of dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2).
Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from the recrystallization of limestone under high pressure and temperature. 
Whether chalk, limestone, dolomite or marble, all carbonate rocks are subject to erosion. 
These dissolve under the influence of wind, temperature and water, and the cycle is ready to start anew.

Gilder's whiting
Hakuenka CC
Hakuenka DD
Hakuenka PX
Hakuenka PZ
Homocal D
Multifex MM
Neolite F
Calcene CO
Calcene NC
Calcene TM
Carbium MM
Hakuenka CCR
Neolite SP
Crystic prefil S
Neolite TPS
Calcilit 8
Carborex 2
Cal-Sup
Microwhite 25
R Jutan
Calcium Carbonate Nanopowder

Most people know that calcium is needed for strong bones, but Calcium carbonate's also needed to help blood vessels and muscles contract and expand, to send messages through the nervous system, and to secrete hormones and enzymes. 
Calcium carbonate is the most abundant mineral in your body and makes up 1%-2% of adult human body weight. 
Over 99% of Calcium carbonate is stored in bones and teeth with the rest stored in blood, muscle, and other tissues.
Bone is a living tissue that constantly breaks down and builds back up.
Up until around the age of 30, consuming an adequate amount of calcium with enough physical activity ensures that your body builds more bone than Calcium carbonate breaks down. 
The majority of adult bone mass is acquired by age 18 in girls and 20 in boys. 
After that, breakdown typically exceeds the amount of bone being built. 
For this reason, Calcium carbonate's essential to maximize bone stores when Calcium carbonate's still possible. 
The amount that you lose after age 30 will be impacted by genetics, ethnicity, physical activity level, sex hormone levels, diet, and gender. 
You can replace what you lose with the foods you eat and your activity level, but you can't increase how much you store. 
When bone mass drops and there is a deterioration of bone tissue, osteoporosis can occur. 
Osteoporosis causes bones to be susceptible to fractures. 
Depending on the severity of the damage, bones can break from a minor fall, or in severe cases, from sneezing.

Hakuenka T-DD
Brilliant 15
Filtex White Base
Hydrocarb 60
Hydrocarb 65
Marblewhite 325
Cal-Light SA
Calcidar 40
Carbital 90
Durcal 2NH
Non-Fer-Al
CCC G-white
Kredafil RM 5
Brilliant BR 15
Calofil A 4
Calofil B 1
Calofil E 2
C.I. Pigment White 18
Calcilit 100
Hakuenka R 06
Micromic CR 16
Calcium monocarbonate

MSDS Name: Calcium carbonate
Synonyms: Precipitated chalk; Aragonite; Agricultural limestone; Agstone; Bell mine pulverized limestone; Calcite; Dolomite; Franklin; Boiling chips.

Durcal 10
Durcal 40
Monocalcium carbonate
Brilliant 1500
Calofor U 50
Calopake high opacity
CCC No.AA oolitic
Eskalon 100
Eskalon 200
Eskalon 400
Eskalon 800
Finncarb 6002
C 50 (carbonate)
Kredafil 150 Extra
Albacar 5970
Caswell No. 139
Eskalon 1500

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. 
Get medical aid.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists.
Ingestion: Get medical aid. 
Do NOT induce vomiting. 
If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration. 
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. 
Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.

MSK-PO
MSK-C
MSK-G
MSK-K
MSK-P
MSK-V
NCC-P
Slaker rejects
Mylanta soothing lozenges
Natural calcium carbonate
Oyster shell
MC-T
Calcium carbonate, 99%, extra pure
Calcium, Reference Standard Solution
calcium;carbonate
Durcal C 640305
P-Lite 500
P-Lite 700
Di-Gel Tablets

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) forms important minerals on Earth and is a model system for understanding crystal nucleation. 
Three different structures of CaCO3 are known, along with two structures that are hydrated.
found a third hydrated CaCO3 structure formed from amorphous CaCO3 in the presence of magnesium ions. 
The discovery illustrates the importance of amorphous precursors for producing new materials.

Virtually all calcium carbonate deposits in the oceans are formed by organisms. 
In shallow water environments the calcareous organisms are primarily corals, mollusks, and algae. 
In the open ocean the primary calcareous organisms are foraminifera (microscopic animals) and coccoliths (algae). 
Both forams and coccoliths are floating or planktonic organisms. 
This means that they live at or near the surface of the ocean, and they cannot swim but move wherever the currents carry them. 
When the planktonic organisms die their calcareous shells fall to the ocean bottom. 
If they accumulate in a high concentration (greater then 30 % of the sediment), an ooze is formed. 
These calcium carbonate shells, however, do not accumulate everywhere on the ocean floor. 
In general, calcareous sediments or oozes are not found where the sea floor is deeper than 4500 meters. 
The obvious explanation is that the shells falling through the longer water column are dissolved before they reach bottom, while the shells falling less than 4500 meters to the bottom are not to be dissolved

What causes the shells to be absent in the deepest part of the ocean? 
The answer cannot be that the organisms do not live there. 
Although true, the organisms do not live in the deep ocean, the organisms do not live anywhere in deep water even where the water is less than 4500 meters. 
The calcareous forams and coccoliths live at the surface of the ocean, not at the bottom. 
Furthermore, these organisms live virtually everywhere in the surface waters from the equator to the poles, so the answer to their preservation in deep water is not their distribution in surface waters.

The answer is that the shells dissolve due to the higher carbon dioxide content in the deeper waters of the oceans.
Carbon dioxide is produced by animals during respiration. 
This process occurs everywhere in the ocean but in surface waters the excess carbon dioxide escapes to the atmosphere. 
Carbon dioxide produced in deep waters cannot escape and, furthermore, it increases with depth. 
That is, deeper waters have more carbon dioxide than shallow waters.

The significance of this excess carbon dioxide is that it dissolves calcium carbonate. 
The deeper the water, the higher the carbon dioxide content and the more likely that calcium carbonate will be dissolved.

Calcium carbonate, 97%, pure, chunks
Carbonic Acid Calcium Salt
Precipitated chalk
Calcium carbonate, 99+%, ACS reagent
EGRI M 5
Pigment white 18
KULU 40
Calcium carbonate, 99+%, for biochemistry
Calcium carbonate, precipitated
BRT 30
CCRIS 1333
HSDB 927
NCC 45

Samples collected for this compound are first analyzed gravimetrically. 
If the gravimetric result of a sample yields a concentration below the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the SLTC will report the calculated air concentration for the requested compound solely from the gravimetric result, qualified as less than or equal to the gravimetric result; no further work on the sample will be performed.
If the gravimetric result indicates an air concentration greater than the PEL, the sample will proceed for elemental analysis. 
Results will be reported from the elemental analysis for the element only; the stated identity of the actual sample contents is based on the assumption that the material sampled is as identified by the compliance officer using available documentation of materials and processes.
An elemental result provided may be converted to the desired compound by multiplying the result by the appropriate stoichiometric factor. 
A 91B report specific to the compound (including the stoichiometric conversion) may by be provided upon request by contacting the laboratory. 
The stoichiometric factor for calcium carbonate from calcium is 2.497.

Samples collected for this compound are first analyzed gravimetrically. 
If the gravimetric result of a sample yields a concentration below the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the SLTC will report the calculated air concentration for the requested compound solely from the gravimetric result, qualified as less than or equal to the gravimetric result; no further work on the sample will be performed.
If the gravimetric result indicates an air concentration greater than the PEL, the sample will proceed for elemental analysis. 
Results will be reported from the elemental analysis for the element only; the stated identity of the actual sample contents is based on the assumption that the material sampled is as identified by the compliance officer using available documentation of materials and processes.
An elemental result provided may be converted to the desired compound by multiplying the result by the appropriate stoichiometric factor. 
A 91B report specific to the compound (including the stoichiometric conversion) may by be provided upon request by contacting the laboratory. 
The stoichiometric factor for calcium carbonate from calcium is 2.497. 
The standard applies to the Respirable Fraction.

Calcium carbonate, 98%, pure, light powder
Tylenol Headache Plus
Calcium carbonate, 98+%, pure, heavy powder
BS 32
Vaterite (Ca(CO3)
BRT 1500
Calcium carbonate, 99%, for analysis, precipitated
Calcium carbonate, 99.999%, (trace metal basis)
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard
Carbonic acid, calcium salt (1:1)
EINECS 207-439-9
AX 363
BF 200
KS 500
NS 100
NS 200
NS 400
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 073502
KS 1300
KS 1500
KS 1800
KS 2100
NS 2500
CI 77220

Types of Calcium Supplements
The two main forms of calcium supplements are carbonate and citrate.
Calcium carbonate is the least expensive and, therefore, is a practical option. 
Calcium supplements contain several different kinds of calcium salts. 
Each salt contains varying amounts of elemental calcium. 
The most common calcium supplements are labeled as calcium carbonate (40% elemental calcium); calcium citrate (21% elemental calcium); calcium lactate (13% elemental calcium); and calcium gluconate (9% elemental calcium).
In addition, some calcium supplements are combined with vitamin D or magnesium. 
Product labels should be read carefully and the supplement ingredients checked to see which form and amount of calcium are present in the product. 
This information is important if a person has any health or dietary concerns.

How to use Calcium Carbonate Tablet
Take this product by mouth as directed. 
For the chewable form, chew the medication well before swallowing. 
For the liquid form, shake the bottle well before each dose. 
Follow all directions on the product package. 
Do not take more than the maximum recommended dose stated on the product package. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. 
Do not take the maximum dose of the medication for more than 2 weeks unless directed by your doctor. 
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

N 34
N 43
Caltan
Kalk
Chalk Powder
Coral Calcium
Marble Chips
carbonate calcium
C.I. 77220
K 250
Chalk, pure

Calcium Sources
Calcium supports the development and preservation of bone mass to prevent fractures associated with osteoporosis and must be taken from natural sources or supplementation. 
Calcium is found in dairy products and in a variety of nondairy products, including dark green leafy vegetables, grains, figs, fish with soft bones, and calcium-fortified foods. 
Even with healthy eating and a balanced diet, one may not get enough calcium daily.
Some other natural sources of calcium are coral calcium and oyster shell calcium. 
Coral calcium is a form of calcium carbonate that comes from fossilized coral sources. 
The human body undergoes a natural process known as chelating, in which it combines calcium with another material (e.g., an amino acid) that the body can metabolize. 
Coral calcium is also used in maxillofacial surgery and bone grafting.

Calcium and Vitamin D: A major role of vitamin D is to help the body absorb calcium and maintain bone density. 
For this reason, some calcium supplements are combined with vitamin D. 
This vitamin is available in two forms, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). 
The D2 form of the vitamin has a shorter shelf life compared to the D3 form.

A few foods are known to have small amounts of vitamin D, such as canned salmon with bones and egg yolks. 
Vitamin D can also be acquired from fortified foods and produced naturally through sun exposure. 
The RDA for vitamin D is 600 IU a day for persons aged <70 years and for pregnant or breastfeeding women, and 800 IU for those aged >71 years.
Calcitriol (Rocaltrol) is the biologically active form of vitamin D that is used to treat and prevent low levels of calcium in the blood of patients whose kidneys or parathyroid glands are not functioning normally.

Calcium and Vitamin K2: Vitamin K2 has several isoforms or analogues called MK-4 to MK-10. 
This vitamin provides major protection from osteoporosis and pathologic calcification of the arteries and soft tissues—a major known consequence of aging.
Vitamin K2 is found in animals and bacteria, including beneficial probiotic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract. 
Antibiotics interfere with normal growth of healthy bacteria and impact vitamin K2 production.

Although vitamin D3 has been known as the bone vitamin because Calcium carbonate puts the osteocalcin gene into action and acts swiftly on bones, the slower-acting vitamin K2 has been recognized as being just as important for bone maintenance. 
The human skeleton is fully replaced every 8 to 10 years with good, dense bone, and these two vitamins play a large role in the process. 
The oral osteoporosis treatment dose of vitamin K2 is 45 mg a day.

calcium carb onate
Copper Nickel Foil
Marble, CP
T 130-2500
Cal-sup (TN)
CCaO3
calcium(II) carbonate
Calcium carbonate, CP
Calcium Carbonate,(S)
Acid controller complete

Nutritional Considerations
The following factors must be considered in selecting a calcium supplement.

Elemental Calcium: Elemental calcium is what the body absorbs for bone growth and other health benefits; therefore, the actual amount of calcium in the supplement is very important. 
The label on calcium supplements is helpful in determining how much calcium is contained in one serving (number of tablets). 
For example, 1,250 mg of calcium carbonate contains 500 mg of elemental calcium (40%).
Supplement Choice: Some people cannot tolerate certain calcium supplements owing to side effects such as gas, constipation, and bloating. 
One may need to try a few different brands or types of calcium supplement to find the one that he or she can tolerate best. 
In general, calcium carbonate is the most constipating supplement, but Calcium carbonate contains the highest amount of calcium and is the least expensive. 
Calcium phosphate does not cause gas or constipation, but Calcium carbonate is more expensive than calcium carbonate. 
Calcium citrate is the most easily absorbed and does not require stomach acid for absorption, but Calcium carbonate is expensive and does not contain much elemental calcium. 
Women should meet their calcium needs through both their diet and supplements.

Calcium supplements are available in a variety of dosage forms, including chewable tablets, capsules, liquids, and powders. 
Individuals who have trouble swallowing tablets can use chewable or liquid calcium supplements.
Drug Interactions: Calcium supplements may interact with many different prescription medications, including blood pressure medications (calcium channel blockers), synthetic thyroid hormones, bisphosphonates, and antibiotics. 
Pharmacists are the best professionals to consult about possible drug interactions and for calcium supplement recommendations.
Bioavailability: The human body must be able to absorb calcium so that Calcium carbonate is bioavailable and effective. 
Calcium supplements should be taken in small doses (500 mg at a time) and preferably at mealtime to increase absorption. 
Calcium citrate is absorbed equally with or without food and is a form recommended for individuals with inflammatory bowel disease or people who have low stomach acid (individuals aged >50 years or those who are taking antacids or proton pump inhibitors).
Cost and Quality: The Federal Trade Commission holds supplement manufacturers responsible for ensuring that their supplements are safe and their claims are truthful. 
Many companies may have their products independently tested based on the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) standards. 
Supplements that bear the USP abbreviation meet standards for quality assurance.

Calcium Supplementation and Cardiovascular Effects
Some concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effects of high calcium intake on cardiovascular health among the elderly due to calcification of the arteries and veins. 
There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, which include effects on vascular calcification, function of vascular cells, and blood coagulation. 
However, newer studies have found no increased risk of heart attack or stroke among women taking calcium supplements during 24 years of follow-up.
Some scientists believe that because calcium supplements produce small reductions in fracture risk and a small increase in cardiovascular risk, there may be no net benefits from their use. 
They claim that since food sources of calcium appear to produce similar benefits on bone density and have not been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, they may be preferable to supplements. 
More studies are required to prospectively analyze the effect of calcium or calcium plus vitamin D supplementation beyond bone health. 
The medical community is still uncertain as to the effects of calcium supplements in women.

Scoring Coronary Artery Calcium Levels
Calcium deposits can be found in many parts of the body at higher ages. 
A coronary calcium scan is typically done to check for the buildup of calcium in plaque on the walls of the arteries of the heart.
Coronary calcium scan scores range from 0 to more than 400. 
A calcium score of zero means no identifiable plaque, while a score of above 400 indicates extensive atherosclerotic plaque and significant coronary narrowing.

Calcification of the artery walls is common at age >65 years. 
Calcification of the breast is often seen in women above the age of 50 years. 
Calcium deposits are easily detected by x-ray images because calcification is composed of calcium phosphate, similar to that in bone.

Coronary calcium is part of the development of atherosclerosis; Calcium carbonate occurs exclusively in atherosclerotic arteries and is absent in normal vessel walls. 
The amount of calcium in the walls of the coronary arteries, assessed by a calcium score, appears to be a better cardiovascular disease risk predictor than standard factors.

Calcium carbonate Achieving Balance
Risks of Low Calcium Intake: As mentioned above, calcium is important for healthy bones and teeth, as well as for normal muscle and nerve function. 
There are health problems associated with low calcium levels: Children may not reach their full potential adult height, and adults may have low bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis and hip fracture. 
Normal blood calcium levels are maintained through the actions of parathyroid hormone, the kidneys, and the intestines. 
The normal adult value for serum calcium is 4.5 to 5.5 mEq/L. 

Approximately 40% of serum calcium is ionized (free), while the other 60% is complexed, primarily to albumin. 
Only ionized calcium is transported into cells and metabolically active. 
Decreases in the ionized (free) fraction of calcium cause various symptoms. 
Hypocalcemia, or low-level calcium, most commonly occurs with low calcium absorption, vitamin D or K2 deficiency, chronic renal failure, and hypoparathyroidism.10

Risks of High Calcium Intake: Many factors can increase blood calcium levels. 
Although the body has a built-in regulatory process for calcium absorption and maintenance, underlying diseases, medication interactions, or overuse of supplements can cause high calcium levels.

An abnormally high calcium concentration can cause damaging health problems and requires medical treatment. 
Although dietary calcium is generally safe, excessive calcium does not provide extra bone protection. 
In fact, if calcium from diet and supplements exceeds the tolerable upper limit, Calcium carbonate could cause kidney stones, prostate cancer, constipation, calcium buildup in blood vessels, and impaired absorption of iron and zinc.
Taking calcium supplements and eating calcium-fortified foods may increase calcium above normal levels. 
As a result, Calcium carbonate is very important to stick to the RDA and not exceed the recommended dosage.

Conclusion
The best way to treat calcium deficiency is to prevent its occurrence. 
Modification of risk factors is imperative, and pharmacists can play a large role in this area. 
Calcium carbonate can recommend appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplements. 
Individuals, particularly women, at risk of low calcium should take foods and drinks rich in calcium and vitamin D, quit smoking, and increase weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercise. 
Monitoring one’s body mass index at higher ages is also critical to reducing bone fractures.

The transformation of CO2 into a precipitated mineral carbonate through an ex situ mineral carbonation route is considered a promising option for carbon capture and storage (CCS) since (i) the captured CO2 can be stored permanently and (ii) industrial wastes (i.e., coal fly ash, steel and stainless-steel slags, and cement and lime kiln dusts) can be recycled and converted into value-added carbonate materials by controlling polymorphs and properties of the mineral carbonates. 
The final products produced by the ex situ mineral carbonation route can be divided into two categories—low-end high-volume and high-end low-volume mineral carbonates—in terms of their market needs as well as their properties (i.e., purity).
Therefore, Calcium carbonate is expected that this can partially offset the total cost of the CCS processes. 
Polymorphs and physicochemical properties of CaCO3 strongly rely on the synthesis variables such as temperature, pH of the solution, reaction time, ion concentration and ratio, stirring, and the concentration of additives. 
Various efforts to control and fabricate polymorphs of CaCO3 have been made to date. 
In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge and recent investigations entailing mechanistic studies on the formation of the precipitated CaCO3 and the influences of the synthesis factors on the polymorphs.

ACMC-1ADFV
Calcium Carbonate (AS)
Calcium carbonate, powder
EC 207-439-9
SCHEMBL326
Calcium Carbonate Dispersion
Calcium carbonate, technical
Precpitated calcium carbonate
Calcium Carbonate Granular DC
Calcium Carbonate Precipitated
Ca (C O3)
Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles
Calcium Carbonate Microparticles
CHEMBL1200539
DTXSID3036238
INS NO.170(I)
NDI 443
Calcium carbonate, ReagentPlus(R)
Calcium carbonate,puratronic powder

How Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made?
Almost all PCC is made by direct carbonation of hydrated lime, known as the milk of lime process. 
The milk of lime process is simple in concept:
Mine high purity calcium carbonate rock.
Crush the rocks to the particle size needed for processing – small stones or powder.
Separate some of the impurities from the crushed rock.
Calcine (heat) in a kiln to 1850° F, which takes the calcium carbonate apart, forming lime (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). 
The carbon dioxide can be captured for reuse. CaCO3 + Heat →  CaO + CO2 ↑    
Add the lime to water to form calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime or slake).
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2       
Separate out additional impurities from the slaked lime.
Combine the captured carbon dioxide with the slaked lime. 
Calcium carbonate reforms, and since Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water, precipitates out.
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 ↓ + H2O 
Separate additional impurities and grit from the PCC slurry. 
If the PCC is to be used in a paper mill or shipped to a latex paint plant, the lower solids slurry may be used as is, or processed to bring up the solids level, then tested before transfer or shipment.
If the PCC is to be used as a dry product, the slurry is dewatered, dried, milled, packaged and tested.
While the process is simple on a laboratory scale, making precipitated calcium carbonates commercially on a large scale requires a great deal of process control and process technology to assure  the right size, uniformity, shape, surface area and surface chemistry. 
This body of PCC technology developed by Specialty Minerals Research, is what makes SMI PCCs outstanding in quality and consistency.

INS-170(I)
Calcium carbonate, AR, >=98.5%
Calcium carbonate, LR, >=98.5%
AKOS015903256
Calcium carbonate, precipitated (JAN)
Calcium carbonate, chelometric standard
Children's mylanta upset stomach relief
DB06724
Precipitated calcium carbonate (JP17)
Calcium carbonate, BioXtra, >=99.0%
Calcium carbonate, Monocalcium carbonate

Liquid-crystalline CaCO3 has been prepared for the first time. 
The nanorods of CaCO3 calcite are obtained by bio-inspired crystallization through aqueous colloidal precursors of amorphous CaCO3 stabilized by poly(acrylic acid). 
The synthesized calcite nanocrystals have well-tuned morphologies that are preferable for formation of liquid-crystalline phases in concentrated aqueous colloidal solution. 
The one-dimensional alignment of calcite crystals is achieved by mechanical shearing of the aqueous colloidal solution showing liquid-crystalline phases. 
These CaCO3-based liquid crystals formed by a self-organization process in mild conditions may have great potential for use as environmentally friendly materials.

13701-58-1
Calcium carbonate, powder A.C.S. reagent
E-170(I)
E170
S266
Calcium carbonate, puriss. p.a., >=99%
Calcium carbonate, USP, 98.0-100.5%
Calcium carbonate, NIST(R) SRM(R) 915b
E 170
FT-0623383
C08129
Calcium carbonate, SAJ first grade, >=98.0%
Calcium carbonate, tested according to Ph.Eur.
D00932
Q23767

What Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made From?
PCC is generally made from a high purity calcium carbonate rock called limestone. 
Specialty Minerals Inc, (SMI) uses high quality limestone sources for Calcium carbonates PCC products, including some from the SMI limestone mine in Adams, Massachusetts, which has been in operation for more than 150 years.
This limestone deposit is the result of a very thick layer of prehistoric sea animal shells and skeletons being laid down on the ocean floor. 
These shells and skeletons were largely composed of calcium carbonate. 
Over a period of five hundred million years this deposit was under high temperature and high pressure, and the deposit changed to a coarsely crystallized limestone. 
All of the organic matter that was in the deposit was removed by oxidation, a process called diagenesis.
If this kind of geological process continues a very long time, the crystals become very small, forming marble, an extremely hard form of calcium carbonate. 
If the time, temperature and/or pressures are not great, the seabed only partially metamorphoses, and the result is very soft chalk, such as that forming the White Cliffs of Dover in England. 
In chalks, remnants of animal shells and skeletons are often still seen.

Why Is All That Processing Done?
Two reasons. First, there are several points in the PCC process where the calcium carbonate can be purified, removing much of the rock from the deposit that is not calcium carbonate—there are always some impurities in any limestone deposit. 
These include feldspar and other silicaceous minerals, as well as heavy metals.
Second, the PCC process allows SMI to grow crystals of different shapes. 
The particle formed is dictated by the control of reaction time, temperature, agitation, pressure, rate of carbon dioxide addition, and post-crystallization processing. 
These shapes—clustered needles, cubes, prisms, rhombohedrons—have different physical properties such as powder density, surface area and oil absorption, which give them outstanding performance in many applications where ground calcium carbonate does not perform as well. 
Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of some of the these shapes are shown on this page. 
The precipitation process also allows the growing of very fine particles, down to nanometers or hundredths of a micron—much finer than can be obtained by just grinding the limestone rock. 
These ultrafine nano PCCs have special applications where high performance is required. 

Calcium carbonate, 99.999% trace metals basis
Calcium carbonate, JIS special grade, >=99.5%
Calcium carbonate, p.a., 99.0%, ACS reagent
Calcium carbonate, >=99.995% trace metals basis
Calcium carbonate, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, >=99.0%, powder
Calcium carbonate, BioUltra, precipitated, >=99.0% (KT)
Calcium carbonate, powder, <=30 mum particle size, 98%
Calcium carbonate, primary reference standard, 99.95-100.05%
NBS 18 (carbon isotopes in carbonatite), NIST(R) RM 8543

What Is Unique About A Precipitated Calcium Carbonate?
The different shapes allow PCC to act as a functional additive in sealants, adhesives, plastics, rubber, inks, paper, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and many other demanding applications. 
A formulator can choose a shape, and the physical properties that result from that shape, that gives the best performance in the end use.
In the PCC process, products can be made with very small sizes, with high surface areas, high oil absorptions, and/or with different powder bulk densities— from ultra-low  to super-high powder densities.

Why Are Some PCCs Coated?
PCCs are often coated with a low percentage (1-3 percent) of a fatty acid, such as stearic acid, or other organic material, for use in non-aqueous systems. 
These coatings increase the dispersibility of the PCC in the polymer or solvent as well as Calcium carbonates compatibility with the polymer or solvent, which in turn maximizes the performance and efficiency of the PCC.
The choice of coating depends on the type of polymer the PCC will be used in and the performance desired. 
As polymers vary widely in polarity and solubility constants, different organics are chosen to give the best compatibility and/or the best balance of properties.

How Does Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Differ From Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)?
In chemical composition, they are the same. 
PCC is purer than the limestone from which Calcium carbonate is made, and is lower in silica and lead.
PCC’s shape and size are different from that of  ground calcium carbonate (GCC). 
Under high magnification, GCC is seen to be irregularly rhombohedral in shape. 
The PCC crystal shape depends on the product, and the particles are more uniform and regular.
The distribution of particle sizes in a GCC is much broader than for a PCC of the same size—that is, there are many more large particles and many more small particles than in a PCC, and the size of the largest of the particles (the "top size") is much greater for a GCC than for a PCC. 
The lower top size of a PCC gives better impact resistance in plastics than with a GCC. 
The narrower particle size distribution allows the generation of high oil absorptions, useful in certain applications.
These differences can be quickly seen in  these photos of a PCC and a GCC of the same median particle size, 0.7 microns.

Calcium Carbonate, Trace metals grade 99.99% trace metals basis
Calcium Carbonate (AS), United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Calcium carbonate, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, >=99.0%
Calcium, Ion chromatography standard solution, Specpure?, Ca2+ 1000?g/ml
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99%
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ReagentPlus(R), >=99%
Calcium carbonate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Calcium carbonate, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, according to ISO 17025, >=99.5%
Calcium carbonate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E170, precipitated, 98.5-100.5% (based on anhydrous substance)

What should I do if I forget a dose?
If you are taking calcium carbonate on a regular schedule, take the missed dose as soon you remember it. 
However, if Calcium carbonate is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

What should I know about storage and disposal of Calcium carbonate?
Keep Calcium carbonate in the container Calcium carbonate came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. 
Store Calcium carbonate at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. 
However, you should not flush Calcium carbonate down the toilet. 
Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication, Calcium carbonate, is through a medicine take-back program. 
Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community.

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