CALCIUM FORMATE

IUPAC name: Calcium diformate
CAS Registry: 544-17-2
EC Number: 208-863-7
Chemical formula: Ca(HCO2)2
Molar mass: 130.113 g/mol

Calcium formate is a compound of calcium salt and formic acid.
Calcium formate is also known as E238.
Calcium formate is formed by the reaction of carbon monoxide and calcium hydroxide or formaldehyde with calcium compound contained in an aqueous solution.
Calcium formate is used, among other things, as an aggregate for cementitious building materials, as an additive for processing oil emulsions or as an additive for animal feed.
Under this E number Calcium formate is used as an animal feed preservative within EU, but not in foods intended for people.

Calcium formate is stable at room temperature, is inflammable and forms orthorhombic crystals.
The mineral form is very rare and called formicaite, and is known from a few boron deposits.

Uses of Calcium formate:
-Raw material in the chemical industry
-Textile and leather industry
-Production of glues and adhesives
-Industrial raw material
-Construction industry
-Concrete admixture
-Building material
-Wastewater treatment

Calcium formate is used within EU as an animal feed preservative.
Calcium formate acidifies the feed thus preventing microbe growth and increasing shelf life.
About 15 g of calcium formate addition per kg of feed lowers its pH by one.
15 g/kg is the maximum recommended feed concentration within EU – this level is thought to be safe for pigs, chickens, fish and ruminants.

The compound is not environmentally harmful in feed use at these levels.
Calcium formate prevents the growth bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae in growth mediums.
Calcium formate also prevents the growth of fungi like Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. 
However, the relevance of these experimental observations to feed preservation is not known.

Calcium formate is used as a masking agent in the chrome tanning of leather. 
Calcium formate in tannage formulation promotes faster, more efficient leather penetration of the chrome.
Calcium formate can also be used as a replacement for formic acid in the pickling operation.

As a grout and cement additive, calcium formate imparts a number of desirable properties in the final product, e.g. increased hardness and decreased setting time.
Calcium formates addition is desirable for work at low temperature and for inhibition of corrosion of metal substrates within cement/grout.
Calcium formate is also effective in the prevention of efflorescence.
In drywall (gypsum board), calcium formate can function as a fire retardant.
Calcium formate and urea mixtures are effective deicers, and tend to cause less corrosion of steel and cement surfaces relative to some other deicers.

Research about Calcium formate:
Calcium formate seems to be safe as a calcium supplement for people with one time doses of 3.9 g (1200 of calcium) per day.
Increases in blood formate concentration have been observed with such doses, but in healthy subjects the formate does not accumulate, and is quickly metabolized.
Calcium formate is shown to be more readily absorbed form of calcium than calcium carbonate and calcium citrate.
No optic nerve damage has been observed with calcium formate supplementation – alongside with formaldehyde, formate is a major metabolic product of methanol, which can cause blindness upon ingestion.

Calcium formate could be used to remove environmentally harmful (see acid rain) sulfur oxides (SOX) from fossil fuel exhausts of e.g. power plants. 
Calcium formate is added to wet calcium carbonate to promote the formation of gypsum when exhaust is run through it.

This process is called wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGS).
Gypsum binds sulfur oxides thus reducing their release to the environment via exhaust.
Calcium formate seems to be more effective than or almost equally as effective as some other industrially used WFGS agents.

Production of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate is formed as a co-product during trimethylolpropane production.
Hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) is used as the source of calcium.

Butyraldehyde and formaldehyde react in a water solution in the presence of a basic catalyst, forming an unstable intermediate product, dimethylol butyraldehyde (DIMBA).
DIMBA reacts further with formaldehyde to give trimethylolpropane and calcium formate.
Calcium formate is separated from the solution, heat treated to remove formaldehyde and then dried.

Calcium formate can also be made from calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide at high pressure and temperature – e.g., at 180 °C and 35 atm.
Calcium formate may also be made from calcium chloride and formic acid.

Usage areas of Calcium formate:
- Pharma
- Lubricants
- Water Treatment
- Oil & Gas
- Cleaning
- Coatings & Construction
- Food and Nutrition
- Cosmetics
- Polymers
- Rubber

Applications of Calcium formate:
-Raw material in the chemical industry
-Textile and leather industry
-Production of glues and adhesives
-Industrial raw material
-Construction industry
-Concrete admixture
-Building material
-Wastewater treatment

Properties of Calcium formate:
Appearance: white-to-yellow crystals or crystalline powder
Odor: smells slightly like acetic acid
Density: 2.02 g/cm3
Melting point: decomposes at 300 °C
Solubility in water: 16.1 g/100 g (0 °C), 18.4 g/100 g (100 °C)
Solubility: insoluble in ethanol
methanol: 0.27 g/100 g (15 °C), 0.23 g/100 g (66 °C)
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 4
Rotatable Bond Count: 0
Exact Mass: 129.9578994

Monoisotopic Mass: 129.9578994
Topological Polar Surface Area: 80.3 Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 7
Complexity: 7.5
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 3
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes
LogP: -2.47
Auto-ignition temperature: 475°C

About Calcium formate Helpful information:
Calcium formate is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 10 000 to < 100 000 tonnes per annum.
Calcium formate is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses of Calcium formatex:
Calcium formate is used in the following products: adhesives and sealants, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay and fertilisers.
Other release to the environment of Calcium formate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).

Service life of Calcium formate:
Other release to the environment of Calcium formate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment) and outdoor use.
Calcium formate can be found in products with material based on: stone, plaster, cement, glass or ceramic (e.g. dishes, pots/pans, food storage containers, construction and isolation material).

Widespread uses by professional workers of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, adhesives and sealants, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, fertilisers and laboratory chemicals.
Calcium formate is used in the following areas: health services and agriculture, forestry and fishing.
Other release to the environment of Calcium formate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use and outdoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. tyres, treated wooden products, treated textile and fabric, brake pads in trucks or cars, sanding of buildings (bridges, facades) or vehicles (ships)).

Formulation or re-packing of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate is used in the following products: pH regulators and water treatment products, laboratory chemicals and polymers.
Release to the environment of Calcium formate can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and formulation in materials.

Uses of Calcium formate at industrial sites:
Calcium formate is used in the following products: leather treatment products, pH regulators and water treatment products and fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay.

Calcium formate is used in the following areas: building & construction work and printing and recorded media reproduction.
Calcium formate is used for the manufacture of: mineral products (e.g. plasters, cement) and textile, leather or fur.
Release to the environment of Calcium formate can occur from industrial use: in the production of articles, in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and manufacturing of the substance.

Manufacture:
Release to the environment of Calcium formate can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance and as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates).

Uses of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate is used within EU as an animal feed preservative. 
Calcium formate acidifies the feed thus preventing microbe growth and increasing shelf life. 
About 15 g of calcium formate addition per kg of feed lowers its pH by one. 

15 g/kg is the maximum recommended feed concentration within EU – this level is thought to be safe for pigs, chickens, fish and ruminants.
The compound is not environmentally harmful in feed use at these levels. 
Calcium formate prevents the growth bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae in growth mediums. 
Calcium formate also prevents the growth of fungi like Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. 

However, the relevance of these experimental observations to feed preservation is not known.
Calcium formate is used as a masking agent in the chrome tanning of leather. 
Calcium formate in tannage formulation promotes faster, more efficient leather penetration of the chrome. 

Calcium formate can also be used as a replacement for formic acid in the pickling operation.
As a grout and cement additive, calcium formate imparts a number of desirable properties in the final product, e.g. increased hardness and decreased setting time. 
Calcium formates addition is desirable for work at low temperature and for inhibition of corrosion of metal substrates within cement/grout. 

Calcium formate is also effective in the prevention of efflorescence. 
In drywall (gypsum board), calcium formate can function as a fire retardant.
Calcium formate and urea mixtures are effective deicers, and tend to cause less corrosion of steel and cement surfaces relative to some other deicers.

Uses of Calcium formate:
Leather Tanning:
Calcium formate is used extensively in the leather industry as a masking agent in the chrome-tanning process.
The addition of calcium formate to the tannage formulation promotes faster, more efficient penetration of thechrome in the leather.
Calcium formate can also be used as a replacement for formic acid in the pickling operation.

Cement Additive:
As an additive to grouts and cement, calcium formate imparts a number of properties desirable in the finalproduct, e.g. increased hardness and decreased setting time in comparison to ordinary cements. 
The addition ofcalcium formate is desirable for work at low temperature and for inhibition of corrosion of metal substrates.
Calcium formate is also effective in the prevention of efflorescence.
When used in gypsum board, calcium formate functions as a fireretardant.

Silage Treatment:
Calcium formate is commonly used as a component of an ensiling agent for silage treatment. 
The use of calciumformate in the silage suppresses the formation of side reaction products such as propionic acid, while promotingthe formation of desirable lactic acid in anaerobic fermentation.

Gas Generation:
A mixture of calcium formate with ammonium nitrate or with chlorate, perchlorate, peroxide, superoxide orpermanganate of an alkali metal will rapidly evolve large volumes of gas when ignited. 
Because the releasedgases are cool, non-poisonous and non-irritating, they could be used for the inflation of automobile passengerrestraint bags or other similar applications.

Flue-gas Desulfurization:
SOx is abated in the flue-gases from the burning of high-sulfur fuel oil if the oil has been emulsified with asolution containing calcium formate before burning. 
As much as 95% of the SOx is removed.

Safety Explosives:
Calcium formate can be used as the fuel component in explosives designed to have improved deflagrationbehaviour.
Such explosives are suitable for use in hazardous atmospheres often encountered in coalmines.

De-icing agent:
Mixtures of calcium formate with urea are excellent agents for the melting of ice. 
Less corrosion of steel andcement surfaces is observed than with other de-icers.

Calcium formate is used as a masking agent in chrome tanning of leather. 
The calcium formate in the tanning formulation allows the chromium to penetrate the leather faster and more efficiently. 
Calcium formate can be used instead of formic acid in pickling.

Calcium formate is one of the soluble salts of formic acid. 
Calcium formate has many similarities (properties and hazards) to other formates. 
This record contains the available information specific for calcium formate, supplemented with general information on formate salts which is applicable to calcium formate. 

Other uses of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate can be used as an additive to improve solution stability of various resins, as a corrosion inhibitor in moulding and wire-drawing operations, or as a catalyst in place of calcium acetate.
Calcium formate is an organic salt suitable for use in pig and poultry diets.
Calcium formate acts as a feedstock preservative and has an acidifying effect on the gastro-intestinal tract, which promotes good gut-health.
The efficiency of pig and poultry feedstock digestion is dependent on the indigenous micro-organism concentration in the gastro-intestinal tract.

With the approaching ban on the use of prophylactic antibiotics in animal feed as a means to control disease and promote growth, alternatives are needed to limit the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the gut which can impair feedstock digestion as well as cause enteric diseases such as E. Coli and Salmonella.
Acidifiers such as calcium formate preserve the feedstock before consumption and lower the pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, creating unfavourable conditions for these bacteria to grow
Calcium formate is an organic substance with the molecular formula C2H2O4Ca, used as a feed additive for all kinds of animals, with acidification, anti-mold, anti-bacterial and other effects, also used in industry for concrete, mortar additives, leather tanning or used as a preservative.
As a new feed additive, calcium formate is used as feed additive for piglets, which can promote appetite and reduce diarrhea rate of piglets. 

Adding 1% to 1.5% calcium formate to piglet diet can significantly improve the production performance of weaned piglets.
Calcium Formate is an additive which is designed to improve the performance and quality of construction chemicals and compounds. 
When Calcium formate is used construction industry, it increases the open time, accelerates setting and improves adhesion.
Calcium formate increases water stability which means that especially tile adhesive products can be more durable in moisture conditions such as pools, bathrooms, etc

Chemical Reactions of Calcium formate:
Calcium formate can be used to prepare solutions of other water-soluble formate salts.
For example, the additionof nickel (II) sulfate to a solution of calcium formate results in the precipitation of insoluble calcium sulfate,leaving nickel (II) formate in solution:
Ca(OOCH)2 + NiSO1 → CaSO4 + Ni(OOCH)2

In a similar reaction, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium formate to provide low-cost solutions of formic acid:
Ca(OOCH)2 + H2 SO4 → CaSO4 + 2HCOOH

When heated, calcium formate decomposes to calcium carbonate and formaldehyde:
Ca(OOCH)2 → CaCO3 + HCHO

Continued heating at higher temperatures results in the breakdown of these decomposition products:
HCHO → CO + H2
CaCO3 → CaO + CO22

Calcium formate can be used as a low-cost reducing agent in the conversion of carboxylic acids to aldehydes.
Calcium formate seems to be more effective than or almost equally as effective as some other industrially used WFGS agents.
Calcium formate is formed as a co-product during trimethylolpropane production. 
Calcium formate is used as the source of calcium. 
Calcium formates react in a water solution in the presence of a basic catalyst, forming an unstable intermediate product, dimethylol butyraldehyde (DIMBA). 

Calcium formate reacts further with formaldehyde to give trimethylolpropane and calcium formate. 
Calcium formate is separated from the solution, heat treated to remove formaldehyde and then dried.
Calcium formate can also be made from calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide at high pressure and temperature – e.g., at 180 °C and 35 atm. 
Calcium formate may also be made from calcium chloride and formic acid.

Calcium formate is an organic molecular entity.
Calcium Formate is one of numerous organo-metallic compounds sold under the trade name for uses requiring non-aqueous solubility such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. 

This process is an effective substitute for the troublesome Rosenmund reduction.
(RCOO)2Ca + (HCOO)2CA → 2RCH + 2CaCO3

Calcium Formate is an additive designed to significantly improve the qualities and properties of tile adhesives.
As an additive it prolongs open time, improves adhesions and is a highly efficient strength accelerator which is of importance for tile mortars where you need acceleration and low skin formation.
Even improves water stability, pliability and homogeneity.
Calcium Formate also used in concrete - acceleration and improves water stability and leather tanning.

Calcium formate is primarily used in the construction industry to dry mixed building materials in order to increase their early strength.
Calcium formate is also used as an additive designed to significantly improve the qualities and properties of tile adhesives and in the leather tanning industry.

Calcium chloride, an accelerator of both the setting and hardening of Portland cement concrete, tends to promote corrosion of the reinforcement, unless suitable precautions are taken.
Thus, there is an ongoing attempt to find an alternative to calcium chloride that is equally effective and economical, but without its limitations.

This article reports on a study of the effect of calcium formate (CF) as an accelerator on the properties of pozzolanic cement pastes.
The study included three types of cement: ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and pozzolanic cements containing 80 mass-percent OPC and 20 mass-percent silica fume (SF) or 20 mass-percent ground clay bricks (GCB).
The study investigated compressive strength, total porosity, and hydration kinetics such as free lime and combined water contents.

Results showed that addition of CF shortens the initial and final setting times and increases the compressive strength and combined water content as well as gel/space ratio at all ages of hydration.
However, the addition of CF decreases the total porosity. 
The free lime content of pozzolanic cement in the presence of CF increases up to 7 days, then decreases at the later ages of hydration.

Calcium Formate is an odorless, free-flowing white crystalline solid.
Calcium formate is a convenient source of calcium and formate ions for aqueous solutions.

As an additive to grouts and cement, calcium formate imparts a number of properties desirable in the final product, e.g. increased hardness and decreased setting time in comparison to ordinary cement.
The addition of calcium formate is desirable for work at low temperatures and for the inhibition of corrosion of metal substrates.
Calcium formate is also effective in the prevention of efflorescence. 
When used in gypsum board, calcium formate functions as a flame retardant.

Calcium formate, (HCOO)2Ca, is soluble in cold water, from which it crystallizes by slow evaporation. 
Groth gives the following data concerning the crystals of this substance :

Specific gravity (mean value) 2.019.
Orthorhombic bipyramidal ; a : b : c = 0.7599 : 1 : 0.4681.

The molecular weight is 130.1. 
No definite cleavage has been observed, nor does twinning occur.
There seems to have been some difference of opinion regarding the degree of symmetry.

Calcium formate is an organic substance with the molecular formula C2H2O4Ca, used as a feed additive for all kinds of animals, with acidification, anti-mold, anti-bacterial and other effects, also used in industry for concrete, mortar additives, leather tanning or used as a preservative.
Calcium formate may be produced synthetically by reacting calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide with formic acid.
Calcium formate is white solid, solubility at 0 °C 13.90 g, at 40 °C 14.56 g, at 80 °C 15.22 g of anhydrous salt per 100 g saturated solution, formed by reaction of calcium carbonate or hydroxide and formic acid. 

Calcium formate, when heated with a calcium salt of a carboxylic acid higher in the series, yields an aldehyde.
Calcium Formate is Hydrophobic additives for construction materials.
Calcium formate is used as a potential energy source in the preparation of fuel cells. 

Also used in chemical synthesis of various anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents.
Preservative for food, silage; as binder for fine-ore briquets; in drilling fluids and lubricants.
Calcium formate is an organic salt suitable for use in pig and poultry diets. 

Synonyms:
544-17-2
Calcium diformate
Formic acid, calcium salt
Calcoform
calcium;diformate
Calciumformate
Mravencan vapenaty
UNII-NP3JD65NPY
Mravencan vapenaty [Czech]
Calcium formate (Ca(HCO2)2)
Formic acid calcium salt
HSDB 5019
NP3JD65NPY
EINECS 208-863-7
Formic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
calcium bis(formira)
AC1L1WEK
AC1MC2CZ
EC 208-863-7
SCHEMBL39519
64-18-6 
Calcium formate, 98%, pure
DTXSID0027193
CHEBI:81851
AKOS015901918
FT-0689236
C18586
Q22112

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