CANDELILLA WAX

Candelilla wax = E 902  

CAS Number: 8006-44-8 
EC Number: 232-347-0
E number: E902 (glazing agents, ...)


Candelilla wax is a wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, Euphorbia cerifera and Euphorbia antisyphilitica, from the family Euphorbiaceae. 
Candelilla wax is yellowish-brown, hard, brittle, aromatic, and opaque to translucent.
Candelilla wax is a plant based wax and a suitable vegan alternative to beeswax. 

Although Candelilla wax makes an excellent DIY skincare ingredient in Candelilla waxs own right.
Like beeswax, this unique wax has quite a high melting point, and acts as a stabiliser and emulsifier in balms, creams, salves and lotions. 
Candelilla wax is skin conditioning, easily absorbed, odourless, and rich in nutrients. 
Candelilla wax also provides a wonderful gloss and lubricity to lip balms.

Candelilla Wax is one of the ingredients used by Frank Wrap to make the vegan version of the food wrap. 
Candelilla, known as Euphorbia cerifera botanical, replaces the use of the beeswax in the formulation prepared by Frank Wrap. 
Candelilla wax binds oils and waxes, and gives body to a formulation. 
Candelilla wax is also used as a film former. 
Candelilla wax is obtained from candelilla plants and is similar to carnauba wax. 
In Europe, Candelilla Wax is authorised for use on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.  

Candelilla wax is a bit denser than beeswax, so you will have to adjust your DIY skincare recipes if you are substituting Candelilla wax for beeswax. 
Candelilla wax is recommended that you use half the amount of candelilla wax as beeswax since Candelilla wax has twice the stiffening powers. 
So if a recipe calls for 1 cup of beeswax, use 1/2 cup of candelilla wax instead.
Our candelilla wax (beads) is derived from the leaves of the small candelilla shrub native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. 
Candelilla wax is 100% natural and refined (filtered twice), and packaged in a reusable glass jar with steel screw top lid.

Uses
Candelilla wax is mostly used mixed with other waxes to harden them without raising their melting point. 
As a food additive, candelilla wax has the E number E 902 and is used as a glazing agent. 
Candelilla wax also finds use in cosmetic industry, as a component of lip balms and lotion bars. 
One of Candelilla waxs major uses is as a binder for chewing gums.
Candelilla wax can be used as a substitute for carnauba wax and beeswax. 
Candelilla wax is also used for making varnish.

CANDELILLA WAX VS. BEESWAX
The many similarities that Candelilla and Beeswax share, namely their beneficial properties, scents, and melting points, to name a few, make these two interchangeable waxes natural alternatives to each other. 
The main difference is that Candelilla is a vegan wax, whereas Beeswax is considered to be an animal byproduct.

CANDELILLA WAX PROPERTIES
Candelilla Wax functions as a thickening and hardening agent, a plasticizer, a viscosity modifier, an emollient, and a skin-protective barrier agent that helps prevent the skin from losing moisture. 
Candelilla wax contributes shine and functions as a stabilizer, an emulsifier, a fast-absorbing lubricant, and a nourishing skin conditioner. 
Candelilla Wax is reputed to help reduce the appearance of stretch marks as well as the signs of aging, such as wrinkles and age spots. 
Furthermore, Candelilla wax is said to hydrate parched and scaly skin for enhanced smoothness.

Candelilla Wax is known to be an effective binding agent that easily fuses ingredients. 
This quality makes Candelilla wax easy to incorporate Candelilla wax into most other waxes as well as resins, both natural and synthetic. 
This emulsifying property mainly helps water and oil constituents to bind together with a smooth uniformity, a necessary effect for products like moisturizers, such as lotion bars, creams, and balms, to which Candelilla Wax is known to offer hydrating properties and easy spread over the skin’s surface.
Candelilla waxs firming effect means that Candelilla wax can be used to set and solidify formulas for various types of makeup, such as stick foundations, eye shadow, or lip products, to which it provides an ideal “slip” without causing the products to become too hard. 
This firming property is also beneficial for candle formulations, as Candelilla Wax contributes hardness and smoothness to the final product.

Candelilla wax is probably the most frequently used wax when formulators look for a beeswax substitute. 
Candelilla wax is derived from the leaves of the Mexican shrub Euphorbia antisyphilitica. 
The unrefined wax has a deep yellow colour and a very decent scent. 
Candelilla wax is available in bleached variations with lighter colour as well.

Candelilla wax has a high oil binding capacity and is less sticky than beeswax. 
Candelilla wax is used to adjust viscosity in water-in-oil emulsions. 
Candelilla wax imparts gloss and hardness in cosmetic products such as hair wax and lipstick. 
Candelilla contains up to 45% hydrocarbons and only some 20-30% fatty esters.

APPLICATIONS FOR CANDELILLA WAX
Candelilla Wax is insoluble in water but is highly soluble in oils and alcohols. 
To add Candelilla Wax to product formulations, begin by melting it before incorporating Candelilla wax into the chosen recipe. 
When adding Candelilla wax to formulas that require emulsification, incorporate Candelilla wax into their oil phases.

Candelilla wax is a natural vegetable wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla plant grown in the semi-arid regions of northern Mexico and the southwestern part of the United States. 
Known as a family to a species of flowering plants, Candelilla wax is sometimes called Euphorbia antisyphilitica. 
Sometimes labeled as Euphorbia Cerifera wax or Euphorbia Cerifera, this wax is detectable by its yellowish-brown color, brittle shell, aromatic nature and opaque, translucent appearance.
Candelilla waxs name translates to “little candle,” an ode to Candelilla waxs first use as wax for making candles.
Plant waxes like Candelilla are often included in the development of beauty and personal care products – think haircare, lip care, sun care, lotion bars, skincare, candles, and food products – because they help keep emulsions intact. 
Acting as a binder to prevent oils and liquids from separating in your favorite creamy products, Candelilla enriches creamy products like cream foundations, rich lip balms, conditioners for curly hair and smoothing wax pomades.

Composition and production
With a melting point of 68.5–72.5 °C, candelilla wax consists of mainly hydrocarbons (about 50%, chains with 29–33 carbons), esters of higher molecular weight (20–29%), free acids (7–9%), and resins (12–14%, mainly triterpenoid esters).
The high hydrocarbon content distinguishes this wax from carnauba wax.
Candelilla wax is insoluble in water, but soluble in many organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, benzene, and turpentine.
The wax is obtained by boiling the leaves and stems with dilute sulfuric acid, and the resulting "cerote" is skimmed from the surface and further processed. 
In this way, about 900 tons are produced annually.

Candelilla Wax functions as a(n):
-Skin Protectant
-Fast-Absorbing Moisturizer
-Nourishing Conditioner
-Hardening Agent
-Thickening Agent
-Plasticizer
-Viscosity Modifier
-Stabilizer
-Emulsifier
-Lubricant
-Substitute for Beeswax

Candelilla is a popular wax among vegans, as beeswax is secreted by honey bees. 
In addition, Candelilla is an ideal wax to use if you have an allergy to bees, pollen or honey. 
But that’s not the only way beeswax and Candelilla wax vary from one another.

Both waxes are suitable for DIY skincare and emollients in your favorite products and have a high melting point (with Candelilla wax having a denser consistency). 
The two of these natural raw wax ingredients are a staple in developing clean beauty products and consumer packaged goods (CPG), but Candelilla wax is scentless. 
Beeswax and other waxes typically jave a superior humectant quality (retains more moisture). 
However, natural or synthetic fragrance oil can be mixed with candelilla wax to evoke a pleasant aroma.

Candelilla has many benefits, including serving as a thickening and hardening agent, a synthetics-free emollient and nourishing skin conditioner. 
Not only effective in binding ingredients, but the unique quality of Candelilla wax also makes it safe for skin. also been found to soothe and soften the skin.
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and The Candelilla Institute, “In the cosmetics industry, due to Candelilla waxs protective properties, Candelilla wax is indispensable in an important range of formulas used in the production of lipsticks, body lotions, and hair preparations.”
Candelilla wax also has been found to improve the appearance of stretch marks, diminish the signs of aging (i.e.wrinkles and age spot) and relieve dehydrated skin. 

Studies also indicate that Candelilla can serve as an alternative to developing trans-free products for the food industry.
Considered a treasure for our hair derived “from our own backyard,” the natural complexity of Candelilla Wax makes Candelilla wax a viscosity enhancer, natural skin protector, soothing astringent and odorless skin conditioning agent that can be easily absorbed by the skin. 
Like Jojoba oil, Candelilla wax is rich in nutrients and can dramatically repair the loss of moisture to the hair and scalp.
Candelilla wax is reported that “Candelilla wax adds lubricity and gloss to hair.
Creamy consistency of Candelilla vegetable wax makes Candelilla wax an ideal ingredient for smooth applications in depilatories and in several hair care products including hair conditioners and scalp treatments.”

Versatile and effective, Candelilla Wax provides various uses across the personal care, food, and beauty industries. 
Used in balms and lotions, Candelilla wax binds ingredients like water and oil to offer suburb hydration and the ability to spread along the body’s surface.
Market research supports that, “Candelilla Wax functions as a barrier agent which avoids the loss of moisture, due to which Candelilla wax’s usually used in the cosmetics and personal care industry, in the products such as lip balms, lotions, moisturizers, etc. 
Inclination towards vegan products gives candelilla wax an advantage over the animal-based waxes.”

Description: Natural vegetable wax extracted from the candelilla plant (Euphorbia antisyphilitica, pedilanthus pavonis) from Northeastern Mexico. 
Yellow prills, odorless. 
Saponification value 43-65. 
Melting point 69-73°C/156-163°F. 
Soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water.
CAS: 8006-44-8
INCI Name: Euphorbia Cerifera (candelilla) wax

One of the most exciting things about candelilla wax is that Candelilla wax's a vegan substitute for beeswax. 
Candelilla wax's often used to replace other waxes to add texture or help make barrier products, such as lip balms. 
Candelilla may also be found in moisturizers and massage bars, and is supremely softening and protective.

Benefits:
Non-gelling thickener, viscosity enhancer and plasticizer
Compatible with most natural and synthetic waxes and resins
Extraordinary film-forming properties
Effective emollient
Adds nice gloss to lipsticks
Use: Warm to melt before use. 
Add to fat phase in formulas requiring emulsification. 
Typical use level 2-30%. For external use only.

Candelilla wax is a plant wax. 
Candelilla wax comes from the leaves of small candelilla shrubs, which are native to northern Mexico and the southwestern U.S.. 
The wax is harvested from the shrub leaves by immersing the whole plant in acidified boiling water. 
The wax releases from the leaves, floats to the top of the boiling water and is collected.

Candelilla wax is a natural wax from the leaves of the plant called Candelilla, Euphorbia cerifera, Euphorbiaceae. 
The plant grows on sandy soil in places like Mexico and Texas.
The wax can be found in many different types of cosmetics because of its many different functions from being able to add structure to give gloss, waxy and smoothness to creamy emulsions.

Candelilla wax has unique properties. 
Candelilla waxs color ranges from yellow to brown and from opaque to translucent. 
Candelilla wax is also hard and brittle when solid. Candelilla wax has a high melting point and is odorless.
Candelilla wax has many uses. 
Candelilla wax is often mixed with other waxes to harden the blend without raising the melting point. 

Candelilla wax is commonly used in chewing gum as a binder to hold all the ingredients together. 
Candelilla wax is used in the cosmetics industry for lip balms, too.
Candelilla wax can be used as a vegan substitute. 
Since candelilla wax and beeswax share similar properties, the waxes can be used interchangeably in some cases. 
For those looking for a vegan alternative to beeswax, use candelilla wax.

Melting point: 68.5–72.5 °C (155.3–162.5 °F; 341.6–345.6 K)
Boiling point: > 240 °C (464 °F)[1]
Solubility in water: Insoluble

Applications: Creams, salves, ointments, protective creams, balms, pomades, lipsticks, mascaras, lip gloss.
Country of Origin: USA
Raw material source: Derived from the leaves of the Candelilla shrub native to Mexico and the USA
Manufacture: The wax is extracted by adding the mature plant to boiling water. 
After a while the wax floats to the surface for recovery. 
The crude wax is then melted in the presence of carbon and clay, pressed through a filter press, bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and filtered again. 
The bleach is completely neutralized

Candelilla Wax (Latin: Euphorbia Antisyphillitica), obtained from the plant of the same name, is a shrub growing wild in the Chihuahua desert, a semi-arid area of more than 100,000 square kilometers located between the two spines of the Sierra Madres in northeastern Mexico.
The common name of the Candelilla plant appears to have been derived from the particular shape of the plant stalks – long, straight, erect and wax-covered – giving the appearance of little candles. 
Wax is exuded in the form of grey-green scales on slender shoots or simple branched limbs of the reed-like plant offering protection from moisture loss.
Attractive and desired properties of Candelilla Wax include a moderate melting range, good gloss, durable film and a low coefficient of contraction. 
Candelilla Wax is valued in a variety of industries including cosmetics, pharmaceutical, confection and ink & coatings applications.
Candelilla’s exceptional molding qualities capable of reproducing fine detail make Candelilla wax a superior precision casting wax. 
Properties, such as chemical stability, water repellency, high melting point, and good electrical resistance, make Candelilla useful in electronic and electrical products, liquid and paste polishes and waterproofing compounds.

Candelilla wax helps to:
-Contribute shine/gloss, especially to lip products
-Provide smoothness and hardness to products that require a high melting point and a stiff consistency
-Add texture and structure
-Give solid and stick products their structures by enhancing the viscosity of their oil parts
-Contribute a level of firmness to particular textures, such as that of eyeshadows, without causing them to harden
-Emulsify immiscible liquids in to prevent them from separating in formulations with creamy consistencies
-Provide excellent glide/slip to cosmetics formulations for easy spreadability as well as easy removability
-Enhance rate of absorption into skin
-Contribute a faint sweet scent that is reminiscent of Beeswax
-Form a protective film on the skin’s surface to help repel water
-Create barrier products, such as balms
-Blend natural powder/mineral colorants into a formula
-Complement other waxes, such as Beeswax

Candelilla Wax – pronounced can-deh-LEE-ya – is a “vegetable” wax that is obtained from the Euphorbia cerifera botanical, better known as the small, wild Candelilla shrub. 
Candelilla waxs name, which means “little candle,” is a tribute to its history of being first used in candle making. 
Candelilla wax may also be a reference to the upright growth of the plant’s stems, which resemble pencils or, more fittingly, candles – even more so because of their waxy outer layer; in nature, Candelilla wax forms the thick coating of its source plant’s leaves and stems and functions as the plant’s defense mechanism against the severe weather conditions of the desert. 
As a water-proofing agent, Candelilla wax protects the plant against heat and dryness, thereby preventing moisture loss.

Candelilla Wax is collected by boiling the full-grown plant in a solution of water and Sulfuric Acid. 
The latter is meant to prevent the wax and water from forming an emulsion, which the rolling water could potentially facilitate. 
When the crude wax finally rises to the surface of the water and appears as a creamy, opaque, light-brown or yellow foam – called “cerote” – Candelilla wax is skimmed off. 
Next, the wax is melted again then filtered through Activated Carbon as well as Fuller’s Earth Clay. 
After this, Candelilla wax enters a filter press, is bleached with Hydrogen Peroxide, which later becomes neutralized, and is filtered once more. 
The final product is a hard, light-yellow wax that can be easily shattered due to its brittleness. 
After the wax has been further processed into blocks, lumps, pastilles, pellets, flakes, granules, or powder, Candelilla wax is ready to be used.

Candelilla Wax (CW) is a wax obtained from the leaves of a small shrub native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, Euphorbia cerifera and Euphorbia antisyphilitica, from the family Euphorbiaceae. 
CW is a globally recognized food additive approved by the FDA, used mainly as a glazing agent and binder for chewing gums. 
Candelilla wax is also used in the manufacture of lip balms and lotion bars, and in the paint industry to make varnishes. 
Additionally, CW can be used as a substitute for carnauba wax and beeswax in different food systems. 

CAS Number: 8006-44-8  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.029.404  
EC Number: 232-347-0
E number: E902 (glazing agents, ...)
UNII: WL0328HX19  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID90894617

A typical composition of a micronized high purity CW used as additive by the food industry shows hentriacontane as the main component. 
Since CW has as its major component hentriacontane and as minor components other n-alkanes with odd number of carbons, this creates the possibility of using CW to develop edible organogels using vegetable oils as the liquid apolar phase. 
This chapter discusses the information generated mainly in the laboratory of the authors of the chapter, associated with the development of CW organogels using vegetable oils as the liquid apolar phase. 
Candelilla wax also discusses the thermal, rheological, and structural characteristics of CW organogels and organogels formed by mixtures of Tripalmitin (TP) and CW developed under static conditions or with the application of a controlled shear rate at particular stages during cooling. 
The chapter reviews the results associated to the few investigations regarding the use of CW as coating barrier in food products, either as crystal-line dispersion in water or dispersed in a bio-polymer matrix.

The composition of unhydrolyzed candelilla wax varies with the season when the plant was harvested, age of plant, region, and climate. 
The average candelilla wax constituents by weight are hydrocarbons (42%), wax, resin, and sitosteroyl esters (39%), lactones (6%), free wax and resin acids (8%), and free wax and resin alcohols (5%).

Candelilla wax is hard and brittle. 
Candelilla wax is insoluble in water, but soluble in many organic solvents. 
The chemical and physical properties vary with composition. 
Generally melting points range from 68.5°C to 72.5°C, relative density at 15°C is 0.950–0.990, acid number is 12–22 mg KOH/g, and saponification number is 43–65 mg KOH/g.

What is Candelilla wax?
A hard plant-based wax from the leaves of the Candelilla (Euphorbia Cerifera) shrub.

Candelilla wax Appearance
Small, brittle yellow flakes.

Candelilla Wax is an all-natural vegetable wax found on leaves of the wild Candelilla plant growing in semi-arid desert regions around the world.
Candelilla Wax has many uses; Candelilla wax serves as a great vegan substitute for beeswax. 
Also, this wax is used in a multitude of products ranging from cosmetics in lipsticks, balms and ointments, to polishes for furniture, leather and automobiles, in precision and electroplating casting, as well as in finishes for leather and textiles.
This 100% natural wax varies in color from light brown to pale yellow. 

Candelilla wax is a hard brittle with a distinctive odor.
Slightly harder than beeswax, but softer than Carnauba wax, Candelilla wax makes for the perfect vegan substitute. 
Candelilla wax doesn't reach optiwax hardness for several day after cooling.
Very often, this wax is used together with other waxes to harden them without increasing melting point. 
The All-natural vegetable wax extracted from the Candelilla plant is a natural thickener with advanced protective properties and is used across multiple industries including cosmetic personal care, food, pharmaceutical, and industrial.

Texture
Hard and firm flaky bits.

Scent
A distinctive, mild, sort of sweet smell.

Candelilla Wax is 100% pure and cosmetic grade. 
Candelilla wax is a very hard wax with superior quality. 
Mixes well into most formulas containing animal, vegetable and mineral oils. 
Non-animal based wax. 
Great for lip balm, cuticle cream, lotions bars and wax tarts. 
Candelilla wax is quick absorbing and also very emollient, making it great to soothe chapped lips.

Why People Use This Product:
Base product for lip and lotion bar formulations.

Popular Products That Use This Ingredient:
Lip Products. Lotions.

Interesting Facts:
Candelilla Wax is a natural non-animal based wax. 
Plants producing candelilla wax grows in Mexico, in the North Central Plains, and the Chihuahua Desert. 
Candelilla wax is a very hard wax with superior quality. 
Candelilla wax mixes well into most formulas containing animal, vegetable and mineral ingredients as well as a large variety of natural and synthetic resins. 
Our Candelilla Wax is 100% pure and cosmetic grade. 
All Natural.

Physical Form: Yellow Pastilles
Solubility: Insoluble in Water
Country of Origin: Mexico (Refined in the United States)

Storage: Room temperature. Air tight container.
Best Used By: One year from date of purchase.
Shelf Life Once Used in Manufacturing: One year from manufacturing date.

Absorbency Speed
The wax itself won’t absorb into your skin on Candelilla waxs own, but salves made with it tend to absorb faster than salves made with beeswax.

Certainly, Candelilla wax offers a wide diversity of applications and Candelilla wax is currently being used in more than 20 distinct industries worldwide – principally in the U.S., the E.U. and Japan. 
Candelilla waxs distinctive properties make Candelilla wax an essential raw material in the production of cosmetics, dyes, adhesives, coatings, shines and polishes, among others.

Candelilla wax is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a safe natural substance – GRAS, Generally Recognized As Safe – for applications in the food industry. 
For this reason, Candelilla wax is widely used in a diversity of sectors in this industry.

Approximate Melting Point
70°C/158°F

INCI-NAME:
candelilla cera

DESCRIPTION:
CosVivet Candelilla waxis a hard vegetable wax obtained from the Euphorbia Cerifera shrub indigenous to Mexico. 
Only the stalks of the plants are harvested. 
Candelilla wax is extracted from the plant and purified. 
The wax has a pleasant sweet odour and is supplied in flake form.

APPLICATION:
Candelilla wax has an extremely good oil binding capacity. 
Candelilla wax is mainly used in stick formulations and W/O formulations. 
In sticks Candelilla wax provides firmness and provides excellent surface gloss. 
Candelilla wax also facilitates mould release. 
Candelilla wax can be used in combination with other waxes to increase their melting point, improve the skin feel of the final formulation and to improve the long-lasting effect of decorative cosmetics.

Solubility
Oil

Why do we use Candelilla wax in formulations?
To harden/thicken;

Cosmetics Formulated with Candelilla Wax
-Lipsticks.
-Lip Glosses/Creams.
-Body Creams.
-Hair Preparations.
-Eyelash Masques.
-Body Lotion.

For its plastic properties, Candelilla wax is used in the production of chewing gum. 
Additionally, its properties of oils retention helps Candelilla wax to better conserve flavors, for which this wax has demonstrated Candelilla waxs advantages over the majority of synthetic waxes used in this particular application.
A specialty application can be found in the precision foundry and mold industry where, because of the extraordinary molding properties of Candelilla wax, it permits the precise reproduction of every detail required in these strict manufacturing processes.
Candelilla waxs chemical stability, high melting point, impermeability and low electrical resistance make Candelilla wax highly useful in the manufacture of a diversity of products for the electrical and electronic industries.
Candelilla wax is also used to improve the hardness of other softer waxes, as well as a complement to beeswax and carnauba wax.
There are many other applications where Candelilla wax is currently being used, including cardboard coating, crayon manufacture, paints, dyes, candles, lubricants, adhesives, paper, waterproofing, anti-corrosives and fireworks.

Do you need Candelilla wax?
Candelilla wax’s a really useful additional wax, and Candelilla wax pairs well with beeswax in lots of recipes.

Refined or unrefined?
You won’t really have a choice; refined.

Candelilla wax is an all natural wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub. 
The Candelilla shrub is native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. 
This wax can be said to be naturally organic due to how Candelilla wax is grown and harvested. 
Candelilla wax has a lovely characteristic yellow color. 
Because of its hard and brittle nature, Candelilla wax is able to act as a hardener to skin and hair care products. 
Candelilla wax is also used in the food industry and has a high temperature ranging from 155.3–162.5 °F. 
This makes Candelilla wax a great stabilizer in creams, salves, ointments, pomades, lotions and several other beauty products.  
Candelilla waxs mild aromatic, opaque and translucent presentation ensures that Candelilla wax does not significantly interfere with the end products that Candelilla wax is added to. 
Vegans love this plant based alternative to beeswax as Candelilla wax is able to emulsify almost as well as the good old bee by product which is a major player in the beauty industry.

Strengths
Candelilla wax’s a strong, glossy thickener and works well in small amounts.

Weaknesses
Candelilla wax’s so glossy that salves and balms made with Candelilla wax don’t have great staying power since they tend to be quite slippery.

Alternatives & Substitutions
Carnauba wax works pretty well.
While there are many artificial waxes that are used in the beauty industry, Candelilla wax’s not uncommon to have natural products that can produce better results. 
Candelilla wax is one of such unique natural products. 
Plant waxes like Candelilla are often included in the development of beauty products because they help keep emulsions intact. 
Acting as a binder to prevent oils and liquids from separating in your favorite creamy products, Candelilla wax can be used to enrich creamy products like cream foundations, conditioners for curly hair and smoothing hair pomades.

Candelilla wax: skin and hair care benefits:
Candelilla has many benefits, including serving as a thickening and hardening agent, a synthetics-free emollient and nourishing skin conditioner. 
Candelilla wax is not only effective in binding ingredients, but the unique quality of Candelilla wax also makes Candelilla wax safe for skin. 
Candelilla wax has also been found to soothe and soften the skin. 
Candelilla wax possesses unique skin protective properties that make Candelilla wax an important ingredient in the manufacturing of hair care products, cosmetics, lotions and more.

Candelilla wax for skin care
This amazing wax is used in the culinary industry and may be a safe alternative to trans products. 
Because of Candelilla waxs moisturizing qualities, candelilla wax can provide relief to dry and aging skin, diminishing the appearance of stretch marks, wrinkles and age spots. 
Candelilla wax deals with scaly skin and the appearance of stretch marks because Candelilla wax supports collagen production. 
Candelilla wax functions in a way similar to jojoba oil which is considered a liquid wax by guarding against loss of moisture to the skin. 
Candelilla wax naturally enhances the viscosity of the oils and butters that Candelilla wax is mixed with and as such, Candelilla wax is an excellent ingredient in skin moisturizing products. 
Candelilla wax has anti-inflammatory properties that calms your scaly skin.

Candelilla wax for hair care
Candelilla wax helps to ensure moisturized hair. 
Ever moved your fingers through your hair and felt worried? 
Chances are, you pulled some of your hair out or Candelilla wax was as dry as the desert. 
The natural oils in the candelilla wax facilitate detangling due to Candelilla waxs film forming capabilities. 
This wax also acts as an excellent sealant. 
Candelilla wax fills up your follicles which means less hair falling off. 

People usually focus a lot of energy on their hair but your scalp is also affected by low moisture. 
Candelilla wax replaces this lost moisture and lost natural oils when added as an ingredient in hair conditioning products. 
Candelilla wax also gives a glossy finish to hair and can act as a great scalp treatment
Unlike many chemical based ingredients used in the beauty industry, there are no known side effects of using candelilla wax. 
That is why this wax plant is regarded as the darling of the cosmetic industry. 
Candelilla wax can blend into any potion, lotion, cream, oil or other liquids. 
Candelilla wax is extensively used in the beauty industry because Candelilla wax is considered very safe and non-toxic to hair or skin. 
In addition, Candelilla wax is also an odorless non-irritant ingredient that works wonders for both hair and skin.

Candelilla wax vs Beeswax
These two waxes are undoubtedly close contenders in the beauty industry. 
Over the years, the increased demand for plant based ingredients in the beauty industry has led to the proliferation of candelilla wax. 
An important distinguishing factor between the two waxes is the fact that candelilla wax is plant-based while beeswax secreted by honey bees is an animal by product. 
Candelilla wax is also naturally harder and more brittle than beeswax. 
Candelilla wax has a higher melting point and also melts relatively slower than beeswax. 
Individuals with pollen or honey allergies can also safely use candelilla wax because they are both highly suitable for skin and hair care product formulations.

Candelilla wax has been produced since the start of the 20th Centuary and mainly takes place in Mexico and South Western USA.
The plants are placed in a mix of water and sulphuric acid to extract the wax. 
Heat is applied and the wax comes to the surface where is collected and known as the "paila"
Using seperation tanks, the wax is then cleaned from the top "the cerote" and left to cool and solidify at room temperature.
This raw wax is then melted and filtered through Fullers earth and activated Charcoal to refine any impurities.
The wax is characterised by high levels of hydrocarbons and contains many of the components found in other plant oils

Candelilla wax and beeswax are both excellent emollients but candelilla wax has been found to be more dense in consistency than beeswax. 
High quality beeswax has a slight honey aroma while candelilla wax is mostly odorless, making Candelilla wax more flexible in terms of taking on the scent you decide to incorporate into it. 
Beeswax is also a natural humectant (attracts moisture) while candelilla wax is not. 
Nonetheless, both waxes are suitable particularly for DIY hair and skincare. 
They are both natural products that can provide stability and stiffness to an end product. 
They are both key players in the natural and clean beauty industry.

Simple vegan lip balm recipe using candelilla wax
Candelilla wax is important to remember that candelilla wax is harder than beeswax so while its a good substitute, they are not exactly equivalent. 
Candelilla wax takes longer to melt and longer to set after melting. 
Candelilla wax makes an excellent balm because of its anti-inflammatory and moisturizing capabilities.

How to Work with Candelilla wax
Use Candelilla wax to thicken and harden concoctions; learn about how strong Candelilla wax is with this experiment.

Candelilla wax Storage & Shelf Life
Stored somewhere cool, dark, and dry, candelilla wax should have an indefinite shelf life.

Tips, Tricks, and Quirks
You can try using Candelilla wax instead of beeswax at about 80%, but the consistency differences will impact the feel of the final product.

The most important substances used as glazing agents are natural or synthetic waxes, such as beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax, hydrogenated poly-1-decene, microcrystalline wax, montan acid esters, oxidized polyethylene wax, and shellac. 
All these additives are used for surface treatments of some entire fresh fruits. 
Beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and shellac are also used in chewing gum; chocolate products; coffee; confections; potato-, cereal-, flour-, or starch-based snacks; fine bakery wares coated with chocolate; and processed nuts. 
Microcrystalline wax and hydrogenated poly-1-decene are used in chewing gum and confections. 
Glazing agents, with the exception of carnauba wax and hydrogenated poly-1-decene, are used in food at levels in accordance with GMP (about 4000 mg kg− 1). 
Carnauba wax is used at levels varying between 200 and 1200 mg kg− 1. 
The maxiwax use level for hydrogenated poly-1-decene is 2000 mg kg− 1.

Beeswax
Beeswax is an excellent DIY skincare ingredient for many reasons. 
Candelilla wax is rich in vitamin A, which promotes cell regeneration and improves hydration, and also acts as an astringent, emulsifier, and stabiliser.
Candelilla wax is often found in DIY skincare recipes that include oils that are liquid at room temperature, or have a low melting point, like coconut oil. 
Beeswax helps to thicken and emulsify DIY skincare recipes because it is solid at room temperature, and has a relatively high melting point.
Beeswax acts as a fantastic humectant, meaning Candelilla wax attracts moisture to your skin. 

Candelilla wax also creates a barrier on the skin, sealing moisture in (making Candelilla wax particularly beneficial in lip balms). 
Unlike petroleum jelly though, Candelilla wax does not suffocate the skin, but rather allows Candelilla wax to breath. 
This barrier also helps to protect the skin from environmental toxins and irritants.
Our beeswax (beads) is pure, twice filtered and has not been bleached. 
Candelilla wax is packaged in a reusable glass jar with a steel screw top lid.

If you make organic cosmetic formulations, then sometimes you might use waxes in your products. 
Beeswax is probably one of the oldest and most natural ingredients used in cosmetics and is often the first wax that most formulators go to when making balms. 
However, if you want to avoid beeswax then you might look for vegan waxes instead. 

FORMS AVAILABLE:
Crude lump
Refined lumps
Flakes, powder and granules

Candelilla (double refined) is a vegetable wax found in great quantities in Mexico  North Central Plateau and Southeastern Texas. 
Candelilla is extracted from the shrub, Euphorbia Cerifera, by boiling and skimming off the resultant layer of wax. 
The raw material  is then twice bleached and filtered to a yellow color.

Applications: Sunscreens, Lipsticks, Lip Gloss, Emulsions, and  Lubricants.

Advantages:
Candelilla produces excellent gloss and structure, and is ideal for finished products where firm consistency and high melt point are important. 
Candelilla also has water repellent and film forming properties.

Where to find Candelilla?
The Chihuahuan Desert is the most biologically diverse desert in the Western Hemisphere and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States and one of the most diverse in the world, the desert is home to more than 1,000 species of plants and animals. 
The largest desert area in North America, extends over more than 450,000 km2 with approximate dimensions of 1,280 km by 400 km.
The Chihuahuan Desert is one of the richest desert areas in the world in terms of biological diversity. 
Candelilla waxs particular humidity, soil composition and temperature conditions favor the growth of nearly a quarter of the 1,500 known species of cactus, as well as diverse floral species that can only flourish in this particular part of the world. 
Such is the case of the Candelilla plant.
According to the Candelilla Institute, the gathering of the Candelilla plant for the production of natural wax has been one of the most important economic activities of the Chihuahuan Desert in five Mexican states. 
Candelilla wax is estimated that there are currently 3,500 small producers of Candelilla wax on 230 farms in 33 municipalities in the rural northeastern part of Mexico.

Candelilla Wax (Latin: Euphorbia Antisyphillitica), obtained from the plant of the same name, is a shrub growing wild in the Chihuahua desert, a semi-arid area of more than 100,000 square kilometers located between the two spines of the Sierra Madres in northeastern Mexico.
The common name of the Candelilla plant appears to have been derived from the particular shape of the plant stalks – long, straight, erect and wax-covered – giving the appearance of little candles. 
Wax is exuded in the form of grey-green scales on slender shoots or simple branched limbs of the reed-like plant offering protection from moisture loss.
Our Manufacturer is the world's largest refiner of crude Candelilla Wax and produces a wax which conforms to the established USP/NF Monograph Grade. 
Candelilla wax is collected from sustainable sources.
Vegan Compliant and has a higher melting point than beeswax, Please refer to the chart below.
Candelilla Wax is commonly found in lotion bars, lipsticks, balms, mascaras, pomades and also used as thickener for anhydrous systems.

INCI name: Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax

APPLICATIONS INCLUDE:
Cosmetics, Polishes,Pharmaceuticals, Precisions Casting, Lubricants, Adhesives, Paper Coating and Sizing, Chewing Gum Base, Electric Insulators, Candle Compositions

COMPATIBILITY:
Candelilla Wax is compatible with most vegetable and mineral waxes and a large variety of natural and synthetic resins.

In this blog post we’re going to introduce you to 6 vegan waxes and look at how they compare.
Beeswax has been used for thousands of years in balms and potions. 
There is even a cosmetic myth about it being used for natural emulsification but as we saw in one of our recent blog posts, beeswax is not an emulsifier. 
Beeswax imparts a lovely colour to the product and although its skin feel is not always lovely, Candelilla wax is possible to prepare light and silky cosmetic formulations with it.

Natural waxes belong to the bigger group of lipids. 
They are a blend of hydrocarbons and fatty esters (an ester of a fatty alcohol and a fatty acid). 
These vegan waxes are derived from leaves, peels and fruits of different plants or are separated from plant oils by de-waxing. 
This process involves physical separation and no chemical reactions are involved.
After separation,vegan waxes are usually purified, deodorized (these are still physical procedures with no chemical reactions involved) and sometimes bleached (this might be a chemical reaction). 
Waxes are usually available in different grades according to their colour, melting point range, physical form. 

What is Candelilla Plant?
The Candelilla plant is found nearly exclusively in a semi-desert region of Mexico, situated in the geographic zone known as “The Chihuahuan Desert”.  
Candelilla Wax – pronounced can-deh-LEE-ya – is a “vegetable” wax that is obtained from the Euphorbia cerifera botanical, better known as the small, wild Candelilla shrub. 
The common name of the “Candelilla” plant appears to have derived from the particular shape of the plant stalks – long, straight, erect and wax-covered – giving the appearance of little candles. 

Other sources indicate that the Candelilla plant was burned directly for illumination, serving the purpose of a candle.
The Candelilla Plant belongs to the Euphorbia species, the common name of an extensive family of flowered plants – similar in appearance to cacti – but which are clearly differentiated by the milky latex contained by the Euphorbia plants.
During the rainy season the Candelilla plant becomes covered with small pink-colored flowers. 
Candelilla formations are most abundant at elevations of around 800 m (2600 ft) and are commonly associated with growths of such plants as lechuguilla or prickly lettuce, sotol palm, Chinese grass, ocotillo and diverse cactus plants. 
The Candelilla plant is very resistant to plagues and diseases and is only limitedly consumed by some species of wildlife that exist in the region.

Because of the  unique properties of Candelilla wax, Candelilla wax's very useful in a wide variety of formulations from lip balm products, specialty cosmetics, lotion bars and natural, do it yourself furniture polish. 
Candelilla wax not only adds hardness and strength to waxes, Candelilla wax also adds lubricity and "slip" to products as well. 
Candelilla wax is easy to use, and works well with other waxes, and emulsifies with other carrier oils and butters. 
Candelilla wax also has extraordinary film forming, and protection properties. 
Candelilla wax is also used by soap makers to quicken trace.

Candelilla wax is obtained from a shrub named Euphorbia Cerifera, indigenous to northern Mexico. 
The wax protects the plant against the environment and prevents excessive evaporation. 
Candelilla wax consists of hydrocarbons (ca. 50 %, C29-C33, mainly C31), esters, phytosterols, free fatty acids, free fatty alcohols and resins. 
This hard vegetable wax is mainly used for cosmetic and pharmaceutical stick products. 
Candelilla wax is also suitable for W/O emulsions.

They are also often available in different purities for different applications, such as industrial, food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical applications.
Because these ingredients are derived or extracted from a plant or a plant oil, they are true waxes. 
Their INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients) name leaves no doubt about it. 
Cera or wax is a part of the INCI name – examples include Oryza Sativa Cera and Oryza Sativa Bran Wax, which are the INCI names for rice bran wax.
In this blog post we’re going to introduce to these real waxes. 
But first Candelilla wax’s important to understand what isn’t a real wax. 

Applications
Lipsticks, Lipbalms, decorative cosmetics, emulsions, food.

Advantages
Candelilla wax has extraordinary oil binding properties, improving the stability and texture of cosmetic products. 
Sticks: provides good mould release, firmness, surface gloss and improves softening point. 
Often used in combination with carnauba wax, beeswax and other waxes to improve skin feel, adhesion and pay-off properties.

Candelilla is known as the "weed" to those who work with wax in west Texas, while the Mexican laborers simply call it "yerba." 
The botanist J.G. Zuccarini first described the plant for the scientific world in 1829 and assigned it the name Euphorbia antisyphilitica. 
Candelilla wax is curious that he did not discuss the plant's wax but did mention juice from the plant being used by the indigenous peoples as a remedy against venereal disease. 
Some Mexican herb shops still carry candelilla as a medicinal tea.

In 1909, G. Alcocer presented a new description of candelilla, named it Euphorbia cerifera, and discussed the fine wax produced by the plant. 
Alcocer's species is considered synonymous with Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc. and is the primary species of the plant utilized in wax production. 
Other minor species also occur in the Chihuahuan Desert. 
The common name candelilla probably was applied to the plant because of Candelilla waxs small, erect, wax-coated stems, which resemble little candles.

Candelilla is a perennial and is found in locally abundant stands in Mexico in northern Zacatecas, western Nuevo Leon, eastern Durango, and scattered throughout Coahuila and Chihuahua, and in Texas in El Paso, Hudspeth, Presidio, Jeff Davis, Brewster, Terrell, and western Val Verde counties. 
Small, isolated populations have been reported in southern Texas and the Mexican states of Guanajuato and Hidalgo.

The plant commonly grows on well-drained limestone slopes but is occasionally found associated with igneous rocks, and Candelilla wax does not seem to grow well in bottomlands and clayey soils. 
The root system is small but each plant supports numerous erect stems, which are mostly simple but occasionally are branched. 
A plant of moderate size may produce as many as 100 stems and be, in aggregate, from 1 to 2.5 feet in diameter. 
The stems range from about 1 to 2 feet in length and 1/16 to 1/3 of an inch in diameter and are grayish green in color. 
In the wax camps we have occasionally observed an unusually large plant with stems at least 3 feet in length.

Where candelilla has a chance to grow normally, the plant clusters get larger and larger until they may be as much as 61/2 feet in diameter. 
When they get that large they begin to die down in the center and leave a doughnut-shaped ring of candelilla. 
Near McKinney Springs in 1980 we found plant clusters of this shape that had rabbit nests in the center of the ring. 
Detailed botanical descriptions of the plant can be found in Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Southwest by Robert Vines and in Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas by D.S. Correll and M.C. Johnston.

Candelilla Wax is derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub, a plant native to the Chihuahua desert in northeastern Mexico. 
The wax is yellowish-brown, hard, brittle and opaque to translucent.

Properties
Candelilla wax’s moderate melting range, good gloss, durable film and a low coefficient of contraction make Candelilla wax a highly valued wax in a wide range of industries including cosmetics, pharmaceutical, confection and ink & coatings applications.

The candelilla plant has been observed flowering from April through August, apparently coinciding with spring and summer rains. 
Stands of the plant seem to be most abundant at elevations around 2,500 feet and are commonly associated with lechuguilla, sotol, chinograss, ocotillo, and various cacti. 
Severe freezes at higher elevations are said to kill the plants back to their roots. 
Candelilla is generally a very hardy species and not particularly susceptible to diseases or pests. 
Candelilla wax does serve as occasional forage for goats and rabbits. 
Texas A&M palynologist Vaughn Bryant says candelilla produces small amounts of pollen, which is sticky and tends to fall directly to the ground. 
Candelilla pollen is unlikely to be widespread or abundant and probably is rare in the archeological record.

The wax of the candelilla is an epidermal secretion on the stems that helps conserve internal moisture of the plants during severe hot and dry periods. 
The wax, which forms a scurfy coating on the stems, is much heavier in the dry season of the year and during periods of drought. 
Since average annual rainfall in the desert where candelilla flourishes ranges from about 4 to 20 inches, drought is not an uncommon condition. 
The moisture-protecting mechanism of the plant is apparently effective for, as Big Bend writer Virginia Madison has said, "You seldom see a dead candelilla plant."

The summer of 1980 was unusually hot and dry and many desert plant species such as lechuguilla and Spanish dagger suffered from desiccation, while candelilla seemed to suffer very little damage. 
Plants can be dug up and kept for long periods of time, and, even after the stems have become longitudinally wrinkled, the plant will recover when replanted in the soil. 
When cut or broken, the stems "bleed" a white, milky substance, and, if the plants are harvested by cutting, the root systems will die.

According to a 1953 study by botanists W.H. Hodge and H.H. Sineath, candelilla is the second most important vegetable wax after carnauba, which is extracted from a Brazilian palm. 
About ten tons of the plant can be harvested per acre where it grows abundantly, far less in most harvest areas. 
Since primitive wax-extraction methods produce a yield of only about 2 percent of plant weight, the refiner who marketed one million pounds of wax in a good year was representing exploitation of about 50 million pounds of wild plants from 2,500 to 5,000 acres of desert. 
Five or ten times that much wax may be imported annually from Mexico, representing denuding of perhaps as much as 50,000 acres of desert of candelilla growth. 
Can any desert species survive this magnitude of exploitation? 
Apparently candelilla has done fairly well, because wax production continues after seventy years.

Candelilla produces excellent gloss and structure and is ideal for use where firm consistency and high melt point are important. 
This material complies with the NF monograph and is suitable for food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. 
Candelilla has water repellent and film forming properties. 
Candelilla wax can be mixed with other waxes to add hardness to them without increasing melt point. 
Formulators can use NF Candelilla as a glazing agent in food, confections and pharmaceuticals. 
Candelilla is also a vegan alternative for gelling oils in nutraceutical applications.

What is Candelilla wax?
Candelilla wax is harvested from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub native to Mexico and the southwestern part of the U.S. 
Candelilla wax is a yellow-brown wax, which is hard, brittle, aromatic, and opaque to translucent. 
Candelilla wax may be mixed with other waxes to harden them, and in the pharmaceutical industry Candelilla wax is used as a glazing agent and a binder. 
Binders are added to tablet formulations to add cohesiveness to powders and provide the necessary bonding to form a compact tablet mass. 
In other words, binders are essential to achieve the “hardness” of the tablet. 
Candelilla wax has been used in lip balms and lotions, too.
Candelilla wax is on the FDA Generally Regarded as Safe List (GRAS). 
There is no evidence in the available information on candelilla wax that demonstrates or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that follow current good manufacturing practice conditions of use.

The plants need from two to five years of growth before they produce significant wax. 
When we asked many informants familiar with wax making and marketing how long it took for candelilla growth to return in an area that has been intensively harvested, the estimates ranged from five years to fifty years. 
All of these estimates may be accurate for different areas and conditions. 
Wax refiner David Adams was more specific and said that after a first harvesting the candelilla will return in some abundance in two years; after a second harvesting it takes about five years for candelilla to come back; and after a third harvesting it might take ten years for there to be enough plants for economical harvesting. 
He said in some areas of northern Mexico they have depleted the candelilla through overexploitation and are now using pickaxes to pull out lechuguilla and greasewood in order to get the small amount of candelilla growing around those plants. 
In normal harvesting they would pull out the candelilla that is easy to recover and leave plants in and around lechuguilla to help the stand grow back.

In recent years the hearty plant has been transported widely as an ornamental, and Candelilla wax is reported to grow more robustly than in the native habitat but to produce little or no wax under protected conditions. 
Cultivation of candelilla for wax production has been attempted in Haiti, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic but these efforts have failed. 
A local informant said he was involved in an expensive experiment to grow candelilla near Laredo, Texas. 
The land was prepared and the candelilla was planted and "grew like weeds," but when the enthusiastic entrepreneurs began harvesting, they found the plants produced almost no wax. 
Other attempts at cultivation and mechanical harvesting of candelilla in the Presidio area were equally unsuccessful. 
Harvesting native stands of the plant and processing the wax under primitive conditions remains the best and perhaps only method of extracting candelilla wax.

Candelilla Wax is extracted from the leaves and stems of the Candelilla shrub Euphorbia antisyphilitica which are boiled in an acidic solution before going through an additional process to remove the final wax product. 
The finished beads are Brown Yellow to Golden Yellow in colour.

Despite the failure of cultivation efforts and continued exploitation of the wild plant, candelilla probably will not be threatened with extinction. 
Some plants will grow back from remnant root fragments, and others grow in inaccessible niches where gathering is impractical. 
However, some scientists fear that, after harvesting, candelilla may never return to its original abundance and balance in the vegetation community. 
The impact of the weed harvesting on the desert environment in general and on associated sensitive plant communities in particular is a matter of concern to biologists in the Chihuahuan Desert.

Harvesting the Plant
Various attempts to harvest candelilla with mowing machines and bulldozers have failed. 
Candelilla wax seems that two strong hands, a bent back, and a burro are still the best way to gather the plant economically. 
The gatherers (arrieros) arise in the wax camps at dawn, and after a breakfast of coffee and tortillas, each man rounds up his hobbled burros and prepares from four to six animals for the day's work. 
Each burro gets a small wooden packsaddle (called a fuste, or occasionally aparejo), and, if the man is careful with his animals, a saddle blanket (corona) of burlap.

One informant said he had seen burros with large galled spots on their backs from carrying burdens without proper padding under the saddles. 
The man will ride on a favorite burro, behind the packsaddle, and carry a bag of tortillas with frijoles and chiles, and a plastic bleach bottle of river water. 
He may travel from a few hundred yards to as much as five miles, depending on how long the camp has been active, in order to find good candelilla growth. 
When a slope with good growth is located, he hobbles the burros and begins the hard, solitary work of "pulling weed."

The plants are usually pulled up by hand, but a sharpened stick may be used as a primitive spading fork. 
After dirt and rocks are shaken from the roots, the plants are thrown into wind-rows until a large quantity has been gathered. 
Then a rope 10 to 12 feet long (called a mecate) made in a local fabrica from lechuguilla fiber is laid out on the ground, and the plants are carefully stacked on it with root ends alternating with tips. 
About 50 to 80 pounds of plants are tied in a bundle with each rope, using a honda to facilitate cinching and quick release of the load. 
Later in the day the burros are rounded up, and four bundles of weed are tied on the packsaddle of each animal.

candelilla cera
candelilla wax
candelilla wax - powder
euphorbia cerifera cera

When asked how much candelilla can be carried by each burro, one candelillero (wax worker, or cerero) responded: "That depends entirely on the conscience of the man—one man may put 250 or even 300 pounds on a burro, while another man will never put over 150 pounds on his animals." 
So six burros and one man may bring in 1,200 pounds of weed which, when processed, will yield about 24 pounds of wax. 
The weed is stacked in orderly piles in the camp and may be stockpiled for days or weeks until Candelilla wax is time for Candelilla wax to be boiled for removal of the wax.

The wax gatherers pull all of the accessible plants they can find in an area before they move on to another stand of plants, so a broad band around each wax camp is denuded of plants before the camp is moved to another location along the river. 
In the past, the gatherers commonly forded the river and gathered weed indiscriminately in Texas and Mexico, taking no particular note of ranch or park boundaries unless forced to do so.

Over the years, the National Park Service has increased efforts to control illegal harvesting of candelilla in Big Bend National Park. 
In May 1980 a park official said they had caught a large burro train loaded with candelilla on Mesa de Anguila. 
The cereros (or candelilleros) were carrying candelilla down a treacherous trail and across the river to a wax camp about two miles up a tributary toward San Carlos. 
The burros were confiscated and the men turned over to Mexican authorities. 
These cereros were double smugglers—carrying weed out of the park and across the river to their camp and then bringing the extracted wax back across the river to a buyer.

The Park Service planned other raids on wax operations during the 1980s study. 
A camp on the Mexican side of the river in Boquillas Canyon was sending burro trains up a tributary canyon on the U.S. side to gather weed in the park. 
The Park Service planned to have enforcement personnel go down the river, seal off the trail, and trap the gatherers in the park with heavy loads of candelilla. 
Increased poaching of candelilla in the park is another indication that the weed is being overexploited in Mexico.

INCI NAME:
EU INCI:
CAS NUMBER
Candelilla Wax is FDA approved for end use under regulations 21CFR, 175.105, 175.320, 176.180, 184.1976 and is CTFA listed.
Candelilla Wax is GRAS listed
Candelilla wax is controlled under CITES

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