CARMELLOSE SODIUM

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an anionic cellulose ether in which some of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule have been replaced with a carboxy group.
Carmellose sodium is a thickening agent that is made by reacting cellulose (wood pulp, cotton lint) with a derivative of acetic acid (the acid in vinegar).
Carmellose sodium is a water dispersible sodium salt of carboxy-methyl ether of cellulose that forms a clear colloidal solution.

CAS Number: 9004-32-4
EC Number: 618-378-6
Molecular Formula: [C6H7O2(OH)x(OCH2COONa)]

Carmellose sodium or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Carmellose sodium is often used as its sodium salt, Carmellose sodium.
Carmellose sodium used to be marketed under the name Tylose, a registered trademark of SE Tylose.

Carmellose sodium is an anionic water-soluble polymer derived from cellulose by etherification, substituting the hydroxyl groups with carboxymethyl groups on the cellulose chain.

Carmellose sodium is a water dispersible sodium salt of carboxy-methyl ether of cellulose that forms a clear colloidal solution.
Carmellose sodium is a hygroscopic material that has the ability to absorb more than 50% of water at high humidity.
Carmellose sodium is also a natural polymeric derivative that can be used in detergents, food and textile industries.

Carmellose sodium, the most widely used water-based biopolymer binder in the laboratory at present, is a linear derivative of cellulose substituted by β–linked glucopyranose residues and carboxymethyl groups.

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an anionic cellulose ether in which some of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule have been replaced with a carboxy group.
Carmellose sodium, also referred to as cellulose gum, is an efficient thickener and binder for water based applications including adhesives, coatings, inks, gel packs, drilling mud and battery electrodes.

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of cellulose arboxymethyl and frequently used as viscous agent, paste and barrier agent.

Carmellose sodium is a cellulose derivative that consists of the cellulose backbone made up of glucopyranose monomers and their hydroxyl groups bound to carboxymethyl groups.
Carmellose sodium is added in food products as a viscosity modifier or thickener and emulsifier.
Carmellose sodium is also one of the most common viscous polymers used in artificial tears, and has shown to be effective in the treatment of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye symptoms and ocular surface staining.

The viscous and mucoadhesive properties as well as Carmellose sodium anionic charge allow prolonged retention time in the ocular surface.
Carmellose sodium is the most commonly used salt.

Carmellose sodium is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others.
Carmellose sodium addition possibly increases the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation features of Magnesium.

Carmellose sodium is a thickening agent that is made by reacting cellulose (wood pulp, cotton lint) with a derivative of acetic acid (the acid in vinegar).
Carmellose sodium is also called cellulose gum.

Carmellose sodium has long been considered safe, but a 2015 study funded by the National Institutes of Health raised some doubts.
Carmellose sodium found that both Carmellose sodium and another emulsifier (polysorbate 80) affected gut bacteria and triggered inflam­matory bowel disease symptoms and other changes in the gut, as well as obesity and a set of obesity-related disease risk factors known as metabolic syndrome.

In mice that were predisposed to colitis, the emulsifiers promoted the disease.
Carmellose sodium is possible that polysorbates, Carmellose sodium, and other emulsifiers act like detergents to disrupt the mucous layer that lines the gut, and that the results of the study may apply to other emulsifiers as well.
Research is needed to determine long-term effects of these and other emulsifiers at levels that people consume.

Carmellose sodium is not absorbed or digested, so the FDA allows Carmellose sodium to be included with “dietary fiber” on food labels.
Carmellose sodium isn’t as healthful as fiber that comes from natural foods.

Carmellose sodium is an anionic water-soluble polymer based on renewable cellulosic raw material.
Carmellose sodium functions as a rheology modifier, binder, dispersant, and an excellent film former.
These attributes make Carmellose sodium a preferred choice as a bio-based hydrocolloid in multiple applications.

Carmellose sodium or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Carmellose sodium, Sodium Salt is the most often used form of cellulose gum.

Carmellose sodium is used in a variety of industries as a thickener and/or to prepare stable emulsions in both food and non-food products.
Insoluble microgranular Carmellose sodium is used as a cation-exchange resin in ion-exchange chromatography for purification of proteins.
Carmellose sodium has also been used extensively to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases (part of the cellulase complex).

Carmellose sodium can be used to stabilize palladized iron nanoparticles, which can further be utilized in the dichlorination of contaminated subsurfaces.
Carmellose sodium may also be used as a polymeric matrix to form a composite with a crystalline nanofibril for the development of sustainable bio-based polymers.
Carmellose sodium can also bind with a hard carbon electrode for the fabrication of sodium ion-batteries.

Carmellose sodium is a water dispersible sodium salt of carboxy-methyl ether of cellulose that forms a clear colloidal solution.
Carmellose sodium is a hygroscopic material that has the ability to absorb more than 50% of water at high humidity.
Carmellose sodium is also a natural polymeric derivative that can be used in detergents, food and textile industries.

Carmellose sodium is an anionic polymer with a clarified solution dissolved in cold or hot water.
Carmellose sodium functions as a thickening rheology modifier, moisture retention agent, texture/body building agent, suspension agent, and binding agent in personal products and toothpaste.

Adding Carmellose sodium into toothpaste has obvious effects in binding and body structure.
Due to Carmellose sodium's good uniform substitution ability, excellent salt tolerance and acid resistance, the toothpaste can be easily extruded and show better appearance, and impart a smooth and comfortable toothfeel.

Carmellose sodium, sodium appears as white, fibrous, free-flowing powder, and is used commonly as an FDA-approved disintegrant in pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Disintegrants facilitate the breakup of a tablet in the intestinal tract after oral administration.
Without a disintegrant, tablets may not dissolve appropriately and may effect the amount of active ingredient absorbed, thereby decreasing effectiveness.

According to the FDA Select Committee on GRAS food Substances, Carmellose sodium is virtually unabsorbed.
Carmellose sodium is generally regarded as safe when used in normal quantities.

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of a carboxymethyl ether of cellulose obtained from plant material.
In essence, Carmellose sodium is a chemically modified cellulose that has a carboxymethyl ether group (-O-CH2-COO-) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.

Carmellose sodium is available in different degrees of substitution, generally in the range 0.6 – 0.95 derivatives per monomer unit, and molecular weights.
Commercial grades of Carmellose sodium are supplied as white to almost white, odourless, tasteless, granular powders.

Carmellose sodium is a derivative of cellulose, in which part of the hydroxyl is linked to a carboxymethyl group (–CH2–COOH) as ether.
Carmellose sodiums are not soluble in water in an acidic form, but they dissolve well in basic solvents.

They are used, e.g., to monitor filtration or to increase the viscosity of drilling fluids.
Carmellose sodium is available in different viscosity grades and purity levels.

Carmellose sodium is able to form solid gels.
Carmellose sodium also strengthens the effect of emulsifiers and prevents undesirable substantive lumps.

As Carmellose sodium forms robust, smooth films, Carmellose sodium is also used as a coating agent.
Carmellose sodium is the only cellulose derivative that can also form and stabilize foams.

Carmellose sodium is derived from natural cellulose, or plant fibre.
In Carmellose sodium dry form, it’s an odourless and flavourless white, grey or yellow powder that dissolves in water.
When used in cosmetics, Carmellose sodium stops lotions and creams from separating and controls the thickness and texture of liquids, creams and gels.

Carmellose sodium (technically, Carboxymethylcelluloses) is a family of chemically modified cellulose derivatives containing the carboxymethyl ether group (-O-CH2-COO-) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
When Carmellose sodium is recovered and presented as the Sodium salt, the resulting polymer is what is known as Carmellose sodium, and has the general chemical formula, [C6H7O2(OH)x(OCH2COONa)y]n.

Carmellose sodium was discovered shortly after Word War 1 and has been produced commercially since the early 1930s.
Carmellose sodium is produced by treating cellulose with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution followed by monochloroacetic acid or Carmellose sodium sodium salt.

In a parallel reaction two by-products, sodium chloride and sodium glycolate, are produced.
Once these by-products are removed, high purity Carmellose sodium is obtained.

As a general rule, the obtained material has a slight excess of sodium hydroxide and has to be neutralised.
The neutralisation endpoint can affect the properties of Carmellose sodium.
In the final step, Carmellose sodium is dried, milled to the desired particle size, and packaged.

Food and pharmaceutical grade Carmellose sodium is required by law to contain not less than 99.5% pure Carmellose sodium and a maximum of 0.5% of residual salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate).
The degree of substitution (DS) can vary between 0.2-1.5, although Carmellose sodium is generally in the range of 0.6-0.95.

The DS determines the behaviour of Carmellose sodium in water: Grades with DS >0.6 form colloidal solutions in water that are transparent and clear, i.e the higher the content of carboxymethyl groups, the higher the solubility and smoother the solutions obtained.
Carmellose sodium with a DS below 0.6 tends to be only partially soluble.

Carmellose sodium is available as a white to almost white, odourless, tasteless, granular powder.

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of a carboxymethyl ether of 13 cellulose.
Carmellose sodium contains not less than 6.0 percent and not more than 12.0 percent of 14 sodium (Na) on the dried basis, corresponding to 0.53 -1.45 degree of 15 substitution.

Applications of Carmellose sodium:
Carmellose sodium (CMC, methyl cellulose, Methylcellulose) is a modified cellulose gum (Thickener is E461).
Carmellose sodium tends to give clear, slightly gummy, solutions.

They are generally soluble in cold water and insoluble in hot.
Carmellose sodium is used to thicken dry mix beverage, syrups, ripples and ice cream, and also to stabilise ice cream, batters and sour milk.
Carmellose sodium gives moisture retention to cake mixes and water binding and thickening to icings.

Carmellose sodium can be used as a binder in the preparation of graphene nano-platelet based inks for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).
Carmellose sodium can also be used as a viscosity enhancer in the development of tyrosinase based inks for the formation of electrodes for biosensor applications.
Carmellose sodium is used as a support material for a variety of cathodes and anodes for microbial fuel cells.

Carmellose sodium is used as a highly effective additive to improve Carmellose sodium and processing properties in various fields of application - from foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals to products for the paper and textile industries.

Building material additives, printing inks, coatings, pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, paper or textiles – there’s a long and growing list of applications.
Special-purpose cellulose derivatives produced by Wolff Cellulosics provide invisible yet indispensable benefits in countless everyday products.

Fields of Application:
Our cellulosic products perform all kinds of different functions in the various fields of application. 

Their capabilities include:
Water retention
Gelling
Emulsifying
Suspending
Absorbing
Stabilising
Bonding
Forming films

Carmellose sodium is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an anionic cellulose ether in which some of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule have been replaced with a carboxy group.

KEYWORDS:
9004-32-4, 618-378-6, Celluvisc (TN), Cellulose gum, CMC powder, C8H15NaO8, CHEMBL242021, C.M.C. (TN), CHEBI:31357, E466

Carmellose sodium is also used in numerous medical applications.

Some examples include:
Device for epistaxis (nose bleeding).
A poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) balloon is covered by Carmellose sodium knitted fabric reinforced by nylon.

The device is soaked in water to form a gel, which is inserted into the nose of the balloon and inflated.
The combination of the inflated balloon and the therapeutic effect of the Carmellose sodium stops the bleeding.

Fabric used as a dressing following ear nose and throat surgical procedures.

Water is added to form a gel, and this gel is inserted into the sinus cavity following surgery.
In ophthalmology, Carmellose sodium is used as a lubricating agent in artificial tears solutions for the treatment of dry eyes.

In veterinary medicine, Carmellose sodium is used in abdominal surgeries in large animals, particularly horses, to prevent the formation of bowel adhesions.

Research applications:
Insoluble Carmellose sodium (water-insoluble) can be used in the purification of proteins, particularly in the form of charged filtration membranes or as granules in cation-exchange resins for ion-exchange chromatography.
Carmellose sodium low solubility is a result of a lower DS value (the number of carboxymethyl groups per anhydroglucose unit in the cellulose chain) compared to soluble Carmellose sodium.

Insoluble Carmellose sodium offers physical properties similar to insoluble cellulose, while the negatively charged carboxylate groups allow Carmellose sodium to bind to positively charged proteins.
Insoluble Carmellose sodium can also be chemically cross-linked to enhance the mechanical strength of Carmellose sodium.

Moreover, Carmellose sodium has been used extensively to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases (part of the cellulase complex); Carmellose sodium is a highly specific substrate for endo-acting cellulases, as Carmellose sodium structure has been engineered to decrystallize cellulose and create amorphous sites that are ideal for endoglucanase action.
Carmellose sodium is desirable because the catalysis product (glucose) is easily measured using a reducing sugar assay, such as 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid.

Using Carmellose sodium in enzyme assays is especially important in screening for cellulase enzymes that are needed for more efficient cellulosic ethanol conversion.
Carmellose sodium was misused in early work with cellulase enzymes, as many had associated whole cellulase activity with Carmellose sodium hydrolysis.
As the mechanism of cellulose depolymerization became better understood, Carmellose sodium became clear that exo-cellulases are dominant in the degradation of crystalline (e.g. Avicel) and not soluble (e.g. Carmellose sodium) cellulose.

In food applications:
Carmellose sodium is used as a stabiliser, thickener, film former, suspending agent and extender.
Applications include ice cream, dressings, pies, sauces, and puddings.
Carmellose sodium is available in various viscosities depending on the function Carmellose sodium is to serve.

In non food applications:
Carmellose sodium is sold under a variety of trade names and is used as a thickener and emulsifier in various cosmetic products, and also as a treatment of constipation.
Like cellulose, Carmellose sodium is not digestible, not toxic, and not allergenic.
Some practitioners are using this for weight loss.

Treatment of constipation:
When eaten, methylcellulose is not absorbed by the intestines but passes through the digestive tract undisturbed.
Carmellose sodium attracts large amounts of water into the colon, producing a softer and bulkier stool.

Carmellose sodium is used to treat constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids and irritable bowel syndrome.
Carmellose sodium should be taken with sufficient amounts of fluid to prevent dehydration.
Because Carmellose sodium absorbs water and potentially toxic materials and increases viscosity, Carmellose sodium can also be used to treat diarrhea.

Lubricant:
Methylcellulose is used as a variable viscosity personal lubricant; Carmellose sodium is the main ingredient in K-Y Jelly.

Artificial tears and saliva:
Solutions containing methylcellulose or similar cellulose derivatives are used as substitute for tears or saliva if the natural production of these fluids is disturbed.

Paper and textile sizing:
Methylcellulose is used as sizing in the production of papers and textiles.
Carmellose sodium protects the fibers from absorbing water or oil.

Special effects:
The slimy, gooey appearance of an appropriate preparation of methylcellulose with water, in addition to Carmellose sodium non-toxic, non-allergenic, and edible properties, makes Carmellose sodium popular for use in special effects for motion pictures and television wherever vile slimes must be simulated. 
In the film Ghostbusters, for example, the gooey substance that supernatural entities used to “slime” the Ghostbusters was mostly a thick water solution of methylcellulose.

Carmellose sodium is also often used in the pornographic industry to simulate semen in large quantity, in order to shoot movies related to bukkake fetish.
Carmellose sodium is preferable to food-based fake semen (e.g., condensed milk) because this last solution can often cause problems, especially when the ingredient used contains sugar.
Sugar is thought to encourage yeast infection when Carmellose sodium is injected in the vagina.

Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulations or Technology:
Carmellose sodium (technically, Carboxymethylcelluloses) is a family of chemically modified cellulose derivatives containing the carboxymethyl ether group (-O-CH2-COO-) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
When Carmellose sodium is recovered and presented as the Sodium salt, the resulting polymer is what is known as Carmellose sodium, and has the general chemical formula, [C6H7O2(OH)x(OCH2COONa)y]n.

Carmellose sodium was discovered shortly after Word War 1 and has been produced commercially since the early 1930s.
Carmellose sodium is produced by treating cellulose with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution followed by monochloroacetic acid or Carmellose sodium sodium salt.

In a parallel reaction two by-products, sodium chloride and sodium glycolate, are produced.
Once these by-products are removed, high purity Sodium Carmellose sodium is obtained.

As a general rule, the obtained material has a slight excess of sodium hydroxide and has to be neutralised.
The neutralisation endpoint can affect the properties of Carmellose sodium.
In the final step, Carmellose sodium is dried, milled to the desired particle size, and packaged.

Food and pharmaceutical grade Carmellose sodium is required by law to contain not less than 99.5% pure Carmellose sodium and a maximum of 0.5% of residual salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate).
The degree of substitution (DS) can vary between 0.2-1.5, although Carmellose sodium is generally in the range of 0.6-0.95.

The DS determines the behaviour of Carmellose sodium in water: Grades with DS >0.6 form colloidal solutions in water that are transparent and clear, i.e the higher the content of carboxymethyl groups, the higher the solubility and smoother the solutions obtained.
Carmellose sodium with a DS below 0.6 tends to be only partially soluble.

Carmellose sodium is available as a white to almost white, odourless, tasteless, granular powder.

Uses of Carmellose sodium:
Carmellose sodium is used in drilling muds, detergents, resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, and textile sizes.
Carmellose sodium is also used as a protective colloid, a stabilizer for foods, and a pharmaceutical additive.

Carmellose sodium is used as a bulk laxative, emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and stabilizer for reagents.
Carmellose sodium is formerly registered in the US for use as an insecticide for ornamental and flowering plants.

Carmellose sodium is permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products.
Carmellose sodium is used as an anticaking agent, drying agent, emulsifier, formulation aid, humectant, stabilizer or thickener, and texturizer in foods.

Introduction:
Carmellose sodium is used in a variety of applications ranging from food production to medical treatments.
Carmellose sodium is commonly used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products, both food and non-food.

Carmellose sodium is used primarily because Carmellose sodium has high viscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic, as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.
Non-food products include products such as toothpaste, laxatives, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, textile sizing, reusable heat packs, various paper products, filtration materials, synthetic membranes, wound healing applications, and also in leather crafting to help burnish edges.

Food science:
Carmellose sodium is used in food under the E number E466 or E469 (when Carmellose sodium is enzymatically hydrolyzed), as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products, including ice cream.
Carmellose sodium is also used extensively in gluten-free and reduced-fat food products.

Carmellose sodium is used to achieve tartrate or cold stability in wine, an innovation that may save megawatts of electricity used to chill wine in warm climates.
Carmellose sodium is more stable than metatartaric acid and is very effective in inhibiting tartrate precipitation.
Carmellose sodium is reported that KHT crystals, in presence of Carmellose sodium, grow slower and change their morphology.

Their shape becomes flatter because they lose 2 of the 7 faces, changing their dimensions.
Carmellose sodium molecules, negatively charged at wine pH, interact with the electropositive surface of the crystals, where potassium ions are accumulated.
The slower growth of the crystals and the modification of their shape are caused by the competition between Carmellose sodium molecules and bitartrate ions for binding to the KHT crystals.

Specific culinary uses:
Carmellose sodium powder is widely used in the ice cream industry, to make ice creams without churning or extremely low temperatures, thereby eliminating the need for conventional churners or salt ice mixes.
Carmellose sodium is used in baking breads and cakes.
The use of Carmellose sodium gives the loaf an improved quality at a reduced cost, by reducing the need of fat.

Carmellose sodium is also used as an emulsifier in biscuits.
By dispersing fat uniformly in the dough, Carmellose sodium improves the release of the dough from the moulds and cutters, achieving well-shaped biscuits without any distorted edges.
Carmellose sodium can also help to reduce the amount of egg yolk or fat used in making the biscuits.

Use of Carmellose sodium in candy preparation ensures smooth dispersion in flavor oils, and improves texture and quality.
Carmellose sodium is used in chewing gums, margarines and peanut butter as an emulsifier.

Other uses:
In laundry detergents, Carmellose sodium is used as a soil suspension polymer designed to deposit onto cotton and other cellulosic fabrics, creating a negatively charged barrier to soils in the wash solution.
Carmellose sodium is also used as a thickening agent, for example, in the oil-drilling industry as an ingredient of drilling mud, where Carmellose sodiumacts as a viscosity modifier and water retention agent.

Carmellose sodium is sometimes used as an electrode binder in advanced battery applications (i.e. lithium ion batteries), especially with graphite anodes.
Carmellose sodium's water solubility allows for less toxic and costly processing than with non-water-soluble binders, like the traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which requires toxic n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) for processing.
Carmellose sodium is often used in conjunction with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) for electrodes requiring extra flexibility, e.g. for use with silicon-containing anodes.

Carmellose sodium is also used in ice packs to form a eutectic mixture resulting in a lower freezing point, and therefore more cooling capacity than ice.

Aqueous solutions of Carmellose sodium have also been used to disperse carbon nanotubes, where the long Carmellose sodium molecules are thought to wrap around the nanotubes, allowing them to be dispersed in water.

In conservation-restoration, Carmellose sodiumis used as an adhesive or fixative (commercial name Walocel, Klucel).

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:
Petroleum Production and Refining
Textiles (Fiber & Fabric Manufacturing)
Painting (Pigments, Binders, and Biocides)
Working with Glues and Adhesives
Farming (Pesticides)

Adverse reactions of Carmellose sodium:
Effects on inflammation, microbiota-related metabolic syndrome, and colitis are a subject of research.
Carmellose sodium is suggested as a possible cause of inflammation of the gut, through alteration of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and has been suggested as a triggering factor in inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

While thought to be uncommon, case reports of severe reactions to Carmellose sodium exist.
Skin testing is believed to be a useful diagnostic tool for this purpose.
Carmellose sodium was the active ingredient in an eye drop brand Ezricare Artificial Tears which was recalled due to potential bacterial contamination.

Preparation of Carmellose sodium:
Carmellose sodium is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.
The polar (organic acid) carboxyl groups render the cellulose soluble and chemically reactive.
Fabrics made of cellulose—e.g. cotton or viscose rayon—may also be converted into Carmellose sodium.

Following the initial reaction, the resultant mixture produces approximately 60% Carmellose sodium and 40% salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate).
Carmellose sodium is the so-called technical Carmellose sodium, which is used in detergents.

An additional purification process is used to remove salts to produce pure Carmellose sodium, which is used for alimentary and pharmaceutical applications.
An intermediate "semi-purified" grade is also produced, typically used in paper applications such as the restoration of archival documents.

Structure and properties of Carmellose sodium:
The functional properties of Carmellose sodium depend on the degree of substitution of the cellulose structure [i.e., how many of the hydroxyl groups have been converted to carboxymethylene(oxy) groups in the substitution reaction], as well as the chain length of the cellulose backbone structure and the degree of clustering of the carboxymethyl substituents.

Structure:
Carmellose sodium is typical ionic-type cellulose ether and the frequently used product is Carmellose sodium sodium salt, as well as ammonium and aluminum salts.
Sometimes, Carmellose sodium acids can be produced.

When degree of substitution (that is, the average value of hydroxyl groups reacted with the substitution of each anhydrous glucose monomer) is 1, Carmellose sodium molecular formula is [C6H7O2 (OH) 2OCH2COONa] n.
With drying at the temperature of 105℃ and constant weight, the content of sodium is 6.98-8.5%.

Appearance and Solubility:
The pure Carmellose sodium is white or milk white fibrous powder or particles, odorless and tasteless.
Carmellose sodiumis insoluble in organic solvents such as methanol, alcohol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform and benzene but soluble in water.
Degree of substitution is an important factor influencing water solubility and the viscosity of Carmellose sodium also has a great effect on the water solubility.

In general when the viscosity is within 25-50Pa•s and the degree of substitution is about 0.3, Carmellose sodiumshows alkaline solubility and while the degree of substitution is over 0.4, Carmellose sodiumshows water solubility.
With the rise of DS, the transparency of solution improves accordingly.
In addition, the replacement homogeneity also has an great effect on the solubility.

Hygroscopicity:
Carmellose sodium equilibrium water content will increase with the rise of air humidity but decrease with the rise of temperature.
At room temperature and average humidity of 80-85%, the equilibrium water content is more than 26% but moisture content in Carmellose sodiums is lower than 10%, lower than the former.
As far as Carmellose sodium shape is concerned, even if the water content is about 15%, there seems no difference in appearance.

However, when the moisture content reaches above 20%, inter-particle mutual adhesion can be perceived and the higher the viscosity is, the more evident Carmellose sodiumwill become.
For these polarized high-molecular compounds like Carmellose sodium, the hygroscopic degree is not only affected by the relative humidity but also by the number of polarity.

The higher the degree os substitution is, that is, the larger the number of polarity, the stronger the hygroscopicity will be.
Moreover, crystallinity also affects Carmellose sodiumand the higher the crystallinity is, the smaller the hygroscopic will be.

Compatibility:
Carmellose sodium has good compatibility with other kinds of water-soluble glues, softeners and resin.
For example, Carmellose sodiumis compatible with animal glues, dimethoxy dimethylurea gel, Arabic gum, pectin, tragacanth gum, ethylene glycol, sorbitol, glycerol, invert sugar, soluble starch and sodium alginate.

Carmellose sodiumis also compatible with casein, Carmellose sodium of melamine- formaldehyde resin and ethylene glycol, urea formaldehyde ethylene glycol resin, methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), phosphate nitrilotriacetic acid, and sodium silicate but the degree is slightly poorer.
1% Carmellose sodium solution is compatible with most inorganic salts.

Dissociation Constant:
In the giant polymer matrix of Carmellose sodium, there are plenty of electrolyzing groups (carboxymethyl groups).
The acidity is similar to that of acetic acid and the dissociation constant is 5×10-5.
The dissociation strength has an considerable effect on the electrical properties of Carmellose sodium.

Biochemical Properties:
Although Carmellose sodium solution is difficult to get rotten than natural gums, under certain conditions, some microbes enable Carmellose sodiumto get rotten, especially with cellulose and taka-amylase reactions, leading to the decrease of solution viscosity.
The higher the DS of Carmellose sodium is, the less Carmellose sodiumwill be affected by enzymes and this is because the side chain linked with glucose residues prevents enzymolysis.

Since the enzyme action leads to the breakage of Carmellose sodium main chain and generates reducing sugar, in this way the degree of polymerization will decrease and the solution viscosity will accordingly decrease.
The digestive enzymes within human body can have no decomposition on Carmellose sodium and Carmellose sodium has no decomposition in acid or alkaline digestive juice.

Handling and storage of Carmellose sodium:

Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:

Storage conditions:
Tightly closed.
Dry.

Stability and reactivity of Carmellose sodium:

Reactivity:
The following applies in general to flammable organic substances and mixtures: in correspondingly fine distribution, when whirled up a dust explosion potential may generally be assumed.

Chemical stability:
Carmellose sodium is chemically stable under standard ambient conditions (room temperature).

Possibility of hazardous reactions:

Violent reactions possible with:
strong oxidising agents

Conditions to avoid:
no information available

Incompatible materials:
No data available

First aid measures of Carmellose sodium:

If inhaled:

After inhalation:
Fresh air.

In case of skin contact:
Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
Rinse skin with water/ shower.

In case of eye contact:

After eye contact:
Rinse out with plenty of water.
Remove contact lenses.

If swallowed:

After swallowing:
Make victim drink water (two glasses at most).
Consult doctor if feeling unwell.

Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed:
No data available

Firefighting measures of Carmellose sodium:

Suitable extinguishing media:
Water Foam Carbon dioxide (CO2) Dry powder

Unsuitable extinguishing media:
For Carmellose sodium no limitations of extinguishing agents are given.

Special hazards arising from Carmellose sodium or mixture:
Nature of decomposition products not known.
Combustible.
Development of hazardous combustion gases or vapours possible in the event of fire.

Advice for firefighters:
In the event of fire, wear self-contained breathing apparatus.

Further information:
Prevent fire extinguishing water from contaminating surface water or the ground water system.

Accidental release measures of Carmellose sodium:

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures:

Advice for non-emergency personnel:
Avoid inhalation of dusts.
Evacuate the danger area, observe emergency procedures, consult an expert.

Environmental precautions:
Do not let product enter drains.

Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up:
Cover drains.
Collect, bind, and pump off spills.

Observe possible material restrictions.
Take up dry.

Dispose of properly.
Clean up affected area.
Avoid generation of dusts.

Identifiers of Carmellose sodium:
CAS Number: 9004-32-4
ChEBI: CHEBI:85146
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1909054
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard: 100.120.377
E number: E466 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 05JZI7B19X
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7040441

EC / List no.: 618-378-6
CAS no.: 9004-32-4

Synonym(s): Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt
CAS Number: 9004-32-4
MDL number: MFCD00081472
NACRES: NA.23

ChEBI: CHEBI:85146
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1909054
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard: 100.120.377
E number: E466 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 05JZI7B19X
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7040441 
Chemical formula: C8H15NaO8
Molar mass: variable
SMILES: CC(=O)[O-].C(C(C(C(C(C=O)O)O)O)O)O.[Na+]
InChI Key: QMGYPNKICQJHLN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI: InChI=1S/C6H12O6.C2H4O2.Na/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8;1-2(3)4;/h1,3-6,8-12H,2H2;1H3,(H,3,4);/q;;+1/p-1

Product Number: C0603
Molecular Formula / Molecular Weight: [C6H7O2(OH)x(OCH2COONa)y]__n
Physical State (20 deg.C): Solid
Store Under Inert Gas: Store under inert gas
Condition to Avoid: Hygroscopic
CAS RN: 9004-32-4
Merck Index (14): 1829
MDL Number: MFCD00081472

Physical state at 20 °C: Solid: 
Colour: Almost white powder: 
Odour: Odorless
pH value: 6.5 - 8.5
Density [g/cm3]: 1.59: 
Solubility in water [% weight]: Soluble in water

Physical State: Solid
Solubility: Soluble in water (20 mg/ml).
Storage: Store at room temperature

Properties of Carmellose sodium:
form: powder
Quality Level: 200
autoignition temp.: 698 °F
mol wt: average Mw ~700,000
extent of labeling: 0.9 carboxymethyl groups per anhydroglucose unit
mp: 270 °C (dec.)
InChI: 1S/C6H12O6.C2H4O2.Na/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8;1-2(3)4;/h1,3-6,8-12H,2H2;1H3,(H,3,4);
InChI key: DPXJVFZANSGRMM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

logP: -3.6: 
pKa (Strongest Acidic): 11.8
pKa (Strongest Basic): -3
Physiological Charge: 0
Hydrogen Acceptor Count: 6
Hydrogen Donor Count: 5
Polar Surface Area: 118.22 Ų
Rotatable Bond Count: 5
Refractivity: 37.35 m³·mol⁻¹
Polarizability: 16.07 ų
Number of Rings: 0
Bioavailability: Yes
Rule of Five: Yes
Ghose Filter: No
Veber's Rule: No
MDDR-like Rule: No

Appearance: Off white to cream colored powder
Assay (as Na; HClO4 titration, on anhydrous basis): 6.5 - 9.5%
Identity: Passes test
pH (1% solution): 6.5 - 8.0
Viscosity (1% solution; 20°C on dried basis): 250 - 350 cps
Appearance of solution: Passes test
Insoluble matter in water: Passes test
Loss on drying (at 105°C): Max 10%
Sulphated Ash (as SO4; on dried basis): 20 - 29.3%
Chloride (Cl): Max 0.25%
Sodium glycolate: Max 0.4%
Heavy metal (as Pb): Max 0.002%
Arsenic (As): Max 0.0003%
Iron (Fe): Max 0.02%

Condition to Avoid: Hygroscopic
Content(Na,Drying substance): 6.0 to 8.5 %
Drying loss: max. 10.0 %
Etherification value( as Drying substance): 0.5 to 0.8
Merck Index (14): 1829
Physical State (20 deg.C): Solid
PubChem Substance ID: 87565248
RTECS#: FJ5950000
Store Under Inert Gas: Store under inert gas
Viscosity: 500.0 to 900.0 mPa-s(2 %, H2O, 25 deg-C)

Molecular Weight: 262.19 g/mol
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 5
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 8
Rotatable Bond Count: 5
Exact Mass: 262.06646171 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass: 262.06646171 g/mol
Topological Polar Surface Area: 158Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 17
Complexity: 173
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 4
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 3
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Specifications of Carmellose sodium:
Appearance: White to Light yellow to Light orange powder to crystal
Content(Na,Drying substance): 6.0 to 8.5 %
Etherification value( as Drying substance): 0.5 to 0.8
Drying loss: max. 10.0 %
Viscosity: 900 to 1400 mPa-s(1 %, H2O, 25 deg-C)
FooDB Name: Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt

Names of Carmellose sodium:

Regulatory process name:
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt

IUPAC names:
2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal acetic acid sodium hydride
acetic acid; 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal; sodium
Carboximethilcelullose
Carboxymethyl cellulose
Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sodium
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
Carboxymethylcellulose
carboxymethylcellulose
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt
Cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
Cellulose Gum
Cellulose gum
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt
Na carboxymethyl cellulose
sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose
SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
sodium cellulose carboxymethyl ether

Trade name:
Carboximetilcelulosa

Other names:
Carboxy methyl cellulose sodium
Carboxymethyl cellulose
carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt
carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salts
Carboxymethyl ether cellulose sodium salt
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Salt
Carboxymethylcellulose, sodium salt
cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
Cellulose, Carboxymethyl ether, Sodiu
SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose
Carboxymethylcellulose
carmellose
E466

Other identifier:
9004-32-4

Synonyms of Carmellose sodium:
cellulose gum
CMC
Na CMC
Sodium cellulose glycolate
Sodium CMC
Cellulose Glycolic Acid Sodium Salt
Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose
Sodium Cellulose Glycolate
Sodium Tylose
Tylose Sodium
C.M.C.
C.m.c.
C.m.c. (TN): 
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (usp)
Carmellose sodium: 
Carmellose sodium (JP15)
Celluvisc
Celluvisc (TN): 
Sodium 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal acetic acid
9004-32-4
SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
Cellulose gum
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
sodium;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;acetate
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (USP)
Carboxymethylcellulose cellulose carboxymethyl ether
CMC powder
Celluvisc (TN)
C8H15NaO8
Carmellose sodium (JP17)
CHEMBL242021
C.M.C. (TN)
CHEBI:31357
E466
K625
D01544
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium - Viscosity 100 - 300 mPa.s
Cellulose Glycolic Acid Sodium Salt (n=approx. 500)
Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (n=approx. 500)Sodium Cellulose Glycolate (n=approx. 500)
Sodium Tylose (n=approx. 500)
Tylose Sodium (n=approx. 500)
12M31Xp
1400Lc
2000Mh
30000A
7H3Sf
7H3Sx
7H4Xf
7L2C
7Mxf
9H4F-Cmc
9H4Xf
9M31X
9M31Xf
AG
Ac-Of-Sol
Antizol
Aoih
Aquacel
Aquaplast
Blanose
CMC
CMC-Na
Cellcosan
Cellofas
Cellogen
Cellpro
Cellugel
Cepol
Cmc-Clt
Cmc-Lvt
Cmcna
Collowel
Covagel
Dehydazol
Diko
Dissolvo
Dte-Nv
Ethoxose
F-Sl
Finnfix
Hpc-Mfp
KMTs
Kiccolate
Lovosa
Lucel
Marpolose
Micell
Natrium-Carboxymethyl-Cellulose
Nymcel
Orabase
PATs-V
Pac-R
Relatin
Scmc
Serogel
Sichozell
Sunrose
T.P.T
VinoStab
Yo-Eh
Yo-L
Yo-M
Substituents:: 
Hexose monosaccharide
Medium-chain aldehyde
Beta-hydroxy aldehyde
Acetate salt
Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde
Carboxylic acid salt
Secondary alcohol
Carboxylic acid derivative
Carboxylic acid
Organic alkali metal salt
Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
Polyol
Organic sodium salt
Aldehyde
Hydrocarbon derivative
Alcohol
Organic oxide
Carbonyl group
Primary alcohol
Organic salt
Organic zwitterion
Aliphatic acyclic compound
Carboxymethyl cellulose
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether
7H3SF
AC-Di-sol. NF
AKU-W 515
Aquaplast
Avicel RC/CL
B 10
B 10 (Polysaccharide)
Blanose BS 190
Blanose BWM
CM-Cellulose sodium salt
CMC
CMC 2
CMC 3M5T
CMC 41A
CMC 4H1
CMC 4M6
CMC 7H
CMC 7H3SF
CMC 7L1
CMC 7M
CMC 7MT
CMC sodium salt
Carbose 1M
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium, low-substituted
Carmellose sodium, low-substituted
Carmethose
Cellofas
Cellofas B
Cellofas B5
Cellofas B50
Cellofas B6
Cellofas C
Cellogel C
Cellogen 3H
Cellogen PR
Cellogen WS-C
Cellpro
Cellufix FF 100
Cellufresh
Cellugel
Cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
Cellulose glycolic acid, sodium salt
Cellulose gum
Cellulose sodium glycolate
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt, low-substituted
Celluvisc
Collowel
Copagel PB 25
Courlose A 590
Courlose A 610
Courlose A 650
Courlose F 1000G
Courlose F 20
Courlose F 370
Courlose F 4
Courlose F 8
Daicel 1150
Daicel 1180
Edifas B
Ethoxose
Fine Gum HES
Glikocel TA
KMTs 212
KMTs 300
KMTs 500
KMTs 600
Lovosa
Lovosa 20alk.
Lovosa TN
Lucel (polysaccharide)
Majol PLX
Modocoll 1200
NaCm-cellulose salt
Nymcel S
Nymcel ZSB 10
Nymcel ZSB 16
Nymcel slc-T
Polyfibron 120
Refresh Plus, Cellufresh Formula
S 75M
Sanlose SN 20A
Sarcell TEL
Sodium CM-cellulose
Sodium CMC
Sodium carboxmethylcellulose
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
Sodium cellulose glycolate
Sodium glycolate cellulose
Sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose
Tylose 666; Tylose C
Tylose C 1000P
Tylose C 30
Tylose C 300
Tylose C 600
Tylose CB 200
Tylose CB series
Tylose CBR 400
Tylose CBR series
Tylose CBS 30
Tylose CBS 70
Tylose CR
Tylose CR 50
Tylose DKL
Unisol RH
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt
Orabase
Cellulose carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt
Cethylose
Cel-O-Brandt
Glykocellon
Carbose D
Xylo-Mucine
Tylose MGA
Cellolax
Polycell
SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
9004-32-4
sodium;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;acetate
UNII-NTZ4DNW8J6
UNII-6QM647NAYU
UNII-WR51BRI81M
UNII-7F32ERV10S
Carboxymethylcelulose, sodium salt
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (USP)
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium [USP]
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; (Dowex 11)
CMC powder
Celluvisc (TN)
Carmellose sodium (JP17)
CHEMBL242021
C.M.C. (TN)
CHEBI:31357
E466
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (MW 250000)
D01544
Acétate de sodium - hexose (1:1:1) [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Natriumacetat -hexose (1:1:1) [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sodium acetate - hexose (1:1:1) [ACD/IUPAC Name]
[9004-32-4] [RN]
9004-32-4 [RN]
C.M.C. [Trade name]
CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE, SODIUM SALT
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium [USP]
Carmellose sodium [JP15]
Celluvisc [Trade name]
cmc
MFCD00081472
 

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