CASTOR OIL

CASTOR OIL = RICINOLEIC ACID    
Ricinus oil    
CAS #: 8001-79-4    
EC Number: 232-293-8

EC / List no.: 232-293-8
CAS no.: 8001-79-4

Applications
There are many uses for castor oil and its derivatives. Some of these include:

Plastics
Textiles and textile finishing materials
Paints and varnishes
Cosmetics and hair oils
Inks
Adhesives.
Synthetic resins
Fibres
Drying oils
Plasticisers
Fungistatic (fungus-growth-inhibiting) compounds
Embalming fluid
Soaps
Lubricants, greases and hydraulic fluids
Dyeing aids

In the food industry, castor oil is used in food additives and flavoring. In the cosmetics industry it is used in creams, moisturisers and also to enhance hair conditioners.

Synonyms: Ricinus communis, Seed oil, Tocopherol
INCI: Castor Oil
Chemical Formula: C57H104O9
CAS Number: 8001-79-4


Castor oil is a triglyceride, which chemically is a glycerol molecule with each of its three hydroxyl group esterifies with a long-chain fatty acid. 
Its major fatty acid is the unsaturated, hydroxylated 12-hydroxy, 9-octadecenoic acid, known as ricinoleic acid

Castor oil is a natural, viscous, pale yellow, nonvolatile and nondrying oil, with a bland taste, obtained from trees. 
It usually is thick with varying colors. 
India is the most significant producer of castor oil followed by China and Brazil, and these are responsible for 92% of the worldwide production. 
Castor plant grows in countries with tropical and subtropical climates with average temperatures about 20–26°C and low air humidity. 
The oil is obtained by extracting or expressing the seed of the Ricinus communis plant, which belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family.

Among various biopolymeric materials from renewable resources, castor oils represent an ideal alternative to chemical feedstock. 
Castor oil like all other plant oils is a vegetable triglyceride. 
The molecule is, characteristically, formed by hydroxyl groups and applied as a polyol in the synthesis of cross-linked polyurethane

Castor Oil is used as a raw material in a variety of areas of application such as lubricants, paints, polyamide 11, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry

Castor Oil is classified under CAS No.8001-79-4.

Castor Oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the Castor plant (Ricinus communis).

Castor Oil is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste.

Castor Oil is one of the most ancient oils, known for its powerful therapeutic properties. It is derived from the beans of the  castor  plant, grown in the tropical regions.

Castor Oil has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, for which it is being used for centuries. The benefits of  the Castor  Oil are also derived from its high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids.

Castor Oil & its derivatives are useful for skin, health & beauty and thus is used in various cosmetics, soaps,textiles,  massage oils,  medicines and also can be used in the manufacturing of  lubricants, hydraulic   and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold,  resistant plastics, waxes, polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals  and perfumes.

Due to its well known anti-inflammatory properties, Castor Oil  used as an effective remedy for arthritis. It acts as excellent  massage oil for joint pain, nerve inflammation and sore muscles.Ringworm is one of the most common and stubborn  skin problems,  which occurs commonly across all age groups.

Castor Oil contains active compounds called undecylenic acid which is very effective for treating the fungal infection.

Castor Oil has better low temperature viscosity properties and high temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it  useful as a lubricant.The lubricants company Castrol took its name from castor oil.

Hydrogenation and saponification of Castor Oil yields 12-hydroxystearic acid which is then  reacted with lithium hydroxide or lithium  carbonate to give high performance lubricant grease.

Castor Oil is the raw material for the production of a number of chemicals, notably sebacic acid, undecylenic acid, zinc undecylenate, undecylenic monoethanolamide, alcoholc11 undecylenic, methyl undecylenate, calcium undeylenate, calcium  ricinoleate, calcium undecylenate,heptaldehyde, heptyl alcohol, undecanoic acid, zinc ricinoleate, cetyl  ricinoleate, glyceryl mono ricinoleate, glyceryl mono undecylenate, heptyl undecylenate, methyl ricinoleate, pentaerythritol mono ricinoleate, polyricinoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, methyl acetyl ricinoleate, and nylon-11.


Castor oil has numerous applications in transportation, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and manufacturing industries. It is used in the manufacture of adhesives, brake fluids, caulks, dyes, electrical liquid dielectrics, humectants, hydraulic fluids, inks, lacquers, leather treatments, lubricating greases, machining oils, paints, pigments, polyurethane adhesives, refrigeration lubricants, sealants, textiles, washing powders, and waxes.

Castor oil, like currently less expensive vegetable oils, can be used as feedstock in the production of biodiesel. The resulting fuel is superior for cold winters.

Castor oil has a wide variety of uses. The seeds contain between 40 percent and 60 percent oil that is rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. The seed contains ricin, a toxin that is also present in lower concentrations throughout the plant. Ricin is a highly toxic, naturally occurring protein that is one of the world’s most lethal poisons. A dose as small as a few grains of salt can kill an adult human.

In addition to its therapeutic applications, castor oil has numerous commercial uses in transportation, cosmetics, and manufacturing industries for making adhesives, brake fluids, caulks, dyes, lubricants, and many other products that play integral roles in everyday life.


The hydroxyl groups in castor oil account for a unique combination of physical properties:
•Relatively high viscosity and specific gravity
•Solubility in alcohols in any proportion
•Limited solubility in aliphatic petroleum solvents
The uniformity and reliability of its physical properties are demonstrated by the long-term use of castor oil as an absolute standard for viscosity.
Because of its higher polar hydroxyl groups, castor oil is not only compatible with but will plasticize a wide variety of natural and synthetic resins, waxes, polymers and elastomers. 
Castor Oil also has excellent emollient and lubricating properties as well as a marked ability to wet and disperse dyes, pigments and fillers. 
In the form of its chemical derivatives, castor oil's application versatility is further enhanced.

Castor oil is increasingly becoming an important bio-based raw material for industrial applications. 
Castor oil is non-edible and can be extracted from castor seeds from the castor plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. 
Castor oil is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid esters linked to a glycerol. 
The presence of hydroxyl group, a double bond, carboxylic group and a long chain hydrocarbon in ricinoleic acid (a major component of the oil), offer several possibilities of transforming it into variety of materials. 
Castor oil is thus a potential alternative to petroleum-based starting chemicals for the production of materials with variety of properties. 
Despite this huge potential, very little has recently been reviewed on the use of castor oil as a bio-resource in the production of functional materials. 


Castor oil is a mix of triglycerides consisting of mainly ricinolein, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, dihydroxystearic acid, and traces of other fatty acids. 
The main pharmacodynamic effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. 
It was believed that ricinoleic acid acts as an anionic surfactant that reduces net absorption of fluid and electrolytes, and stimulates intestinal peristalsis. 
However, a recent study suggests that ricinoleic acid interacts with EP3 prostanoid receptors expressed on intestinal and uterine smooth muscles. 
Via activating EP3 prostanoid receptors on intestinal and uterine smooth muscle cells, ricinoleic acid promotes laxation and uterus contraction, respectively . 
EP3 receptor act as the major prostanoid receptor in the intestine mediating propulsive effects on gut motility, and activation of EP3 receptors has been demonstrated to evoke contraction of uterine smooth muscle 

Castor Oil Plant
Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Ricinus Communis (Castor) Oil
Castor oil is the oil extracted from the seeds of the "Miracle Tree", the wild shrub from the family Euphorbiaceae found West Asia and East Africa. 
This oil was used in cosmetics as well as lamp oil in ancient Egypt. 
Today, its main areas of growth are found in India, China and Brazil, as well as Thailand and the Philippines.
Castor oil has excellent solvent properties and has good adhesion to the skin, which makes it particularly interesting as an ingredient for cosmetic products. 
In addition, it has the ability to penetrate deep into the horny layer of the skin and spreads out in the intercellular space between the corneocytes.
In hair care, it has a strong toning, moisturizing effect. 
It is very adhesive and water resistant and therefore great for the skin and hair, protecting it from external influences. 
Dandruff is gently softened and dissolved, and scar tissue remains elastic. 
As an ingredient in lipsticks, castor oil promotes their durability, makes the lips soft and supple and gives them a delicate glow. 
In other decorative cosmetic products such as eyeshadow, it promotes the adhesion and pigment wetting.

Cosmetic properties:

promotes adhesion and pigment wetting in decorative cosmetics
penetrates deep into the horny layer, ideal for the care of scar tissue
moisturizing, water resistant & protects
ideal for hair and scalp care
gently removes dandruff

Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) mainly cultivated in India, South America, Africa, and China. 
Castor oil is a rich source of Ricinoleic acid, which represents up to 90% of the total castor oil content. 
It also consists up to 4% linoleic, 3% oleic, 1% stearic, and less than 1% linolenic fatty acids. 
Ricinoleic acid has a hydroxyl group that provides a functional group location for various chemical reactions, making it a favourable substance in industrial applications.
Castor oil does not contain ricin, which is a natural poison found in the castor oil plant; the toxic lectin remains in the bean pulp following oil isolation. 
Due to its renewability and high versatility in addition to being the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid, castor oil has been used as a vital raw material for the chemical industry.
Castor oil was mainly used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings 1. It is an FDA-approved food additive directly added to food products for human consumption. 
It can also be found in hard candies as a release agent and anti-sticking agent, or supplementary vitamins and mineral oral tablets as an ingredient for protective coatings. 
Castor oil is found in over-the-counter oral liquids as a stimulant laxative, and is also added in commercial cosmetic, hair, and skincare products.


Castor oil is an inedible vegetable oil (VO) that has been employed extensively as a bioresource material for the synthesis of biodegradable polymers, cosmetics, lubricants, biofuels, coatings and adhesives. 
It is used in medicine, pharmaceuticals and biorefineries, due to its versatile chemistry. 
However, there has been less focus on Castor oil as an alternative to toxic and expensive solvents, and capping/stabilizing agents routinely used in nanoparticle syntheses. 
It provides a richer chemistry than edible VOs as a solvent for green syntheses of nanoparticles. 
Castor oil, being the only rich source of ricinoleic acid (RA), has been used as a solvent, co-solvent, stabilizing agent and polyol for the formation of polymer–nanoparticle composites. 
ricinoleic acid is a suitable alternative to oleic acid used as a capping and/or stabilizing agent. 
Unlike oleic acid, it provides a facile route to the functionalization of surfaces of nanoparticles and the coating of nanoparticles with polymers. 
For applications requiring more polar organic solvents, ricinoleic acid is more preferred than oleic acid

Castor oil is a vegetable oil pressed from castor beans.
Castor oil is a colourless to very pale yellow liquid with a distinct taste and odor. 
Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 0.961 g/cm3.
It includes a mixture of triglycerides in which approximately 90 percent of fatty acid chains are ricinoleates. Oleate and linoleates are the other significant components.

Castor oil, also called Ricinus Oil, nonvolatile fatty oil obtained from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis, of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). 
It is used in the production of synthetic resins, plastics, fibres, paints, varnishes, and various chemicals including drying oils and plasticizers. 
Castor oil is viscous, has a clear and colourless to amber or greenish appearance, a faint characteristic odour, and a bland but slightly acrid taste, with a usually nauseating aftertaste.


Applications of castor oil
Castor oil has received much attention as a valuable commercial feedstock for production of a variety of products in a wide range of industries spanning pharmaceuticals to lubricants. 


Biomedicine and pharmaceuticals
Historically, CO has been known as a medicinal oil and primarily used as a purgative or laxative to ease constipation. 
As far back as 500 BC, the Egyptians used Castor oil for purging purposes. 
According to Anjani, an ancient Egyptian treatise, Ebers Papyrus, in 1552 BC later described CO as a purgative. 
Castor oil is also a known cathartic agent used to induce labour in females. 
Tunaru et al.found that Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction as the ricinoleic acid released from the Castor oil by intestinal lipases activates the prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

Additionally, eye drops containing approximately 1.25% of homogenized Castor oil are reported for the treatment of lipid-deficiency dry eye (i.e. meibomian gland dysfunction). 
The role of CO in treating dry eye is that it serves as a hydrophilic lipid that spreads over the human tear aqueous layer to correct the deficiency.

Katzer et al.have also reported that ricinoleic acid has some potential anti-inflammatory properties.
 Undecylenic acid (a chemical derived from Castor oil) is also reported to be an antifungal and antiviral and has been used as a chemical building block for vital compounds that possess mosquito repellent, cytotoxic and antibiotic activity [38].

 Polymer synthesis
The use of CO as a raw material in the synthesis of polymeric materials is very well established. 
The hydroxyl functionality is more suitable for isocyanate reactions, yielding polyurethane, while the double bond is dehydrated to obtain dehydrated CO, which is applied in producing paints, enamels, lacquers and varnishes [80]. Polymers of CO are applied in various fields such as wound dressing, drug delivery, bone tissue engineering and membranes for fuel cell fabrication. Yari et al. [81] reported on a novel antibacterial and cytocompatible polyurethane membrane based on CO for wound dressing. The synthesis of this polymer employed the hydroxyl functional groups on the CO molecule as the anchoring groups to hold the antibacterial agent. The ricinoleic acid-based polyanhydrides are also reported to possess the desired physico-chemical and mechanical properties for use as drug carriers, and in vitro studies showed that these biopolymers degrade rapidly via hydrolysis after 10 days, releasing ricinoleic acid and its counterparts [82]. Table 5 shows the role of CO in different applications or products.


Cosmetics, perfumery, surfactants and biofuels
Very important industrial chemicals such as γ-decalactone, sophorolipids, undecylenic acid, linoleic acid, sebacic acid, capryl alcohol, heptaldehyde, zinc ricinoleate, glyceryl ricinoleate and lithium 12-hydroxystearate are produced from Castor oil. 
These chemicals have important roles in cosmetics, perfumery and surfactants, and even in polymer synthesis. 

Interestingly, Compton et al. [71] synthesized a novel sunscreen active ingredient, methoxycinnamic oil (MCO), using CO as the hydroxy oil. 
Castor oil was reacted with 4-methoxycinnamic acid to yield MCO, which possessed broad UV absorbance from 250 to 345 nm, with the maximum at 305 nm. 
Another area where CO is massively used is in the production of biofuels. In 4000 BC, CO was being used as a fuel in wick lamps for lighting in ancient Egyptian tombs. 
Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of CO [67].

Syntheses and surface functionalization of nanoparticles
Green syntheses of nanoparticles are strongly advocated worldwide because of the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and chemicals, especially the effects on human health and the environment. Green chemistry principles embody the (i) design of less hazardous chemical syntheses, (ii) use of safer chemicals and solvents, (iii) use of renewable feedstocks and (iv) design of degradation [83]. Thus, renewable bioresource materials are currently the choice of raw materials for most nanochemistry researchers. VOs and FAs are used in green nanochemistry syntheses because they are:

(i) environmentally benign and inexpensive;

(ii) suitable alternatives to some toxic and expensive solvents or ligands traditionally used in nanoparticle syntheses;

(iii) renewable source of raw material;

(iv) biodegradable and provide versatile chemistry-based opportunities;

(v) a source of carboxylic acids suitable as ligands/capping agents or for synthesizing safe chemical precursors for metal oxide and sulfide nanoparticle syntheses; and

(vi) biocompatible, ensuring dispersion of nanoparticles in non-polar solvents.

For biomedical applications (e.g. staining of proteins), nanoparticles should be: (i) biocompatible, (ii) water soluble and (iii) easily functionalized or chemically modified at the surface to tailor the interaction of the nanoparticles with target biomolecules [30,83,84]. Fundamentally, ligands used for nanoparticle surface functionalization must: (i) have minimal cytotoxicity and (ii) be specific to the targeted biomolecule. VOs and FAs meet these requirements perfectly [30]. Thus, CO, olive oil, sunflower oil, almond oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, palm oil and coconut oil have all been applied for syntheses of metal, metal chalcogenide and up-conversion of nanoparticles as well as biodegradable nanocomposites (table 6). Oleic acid and stearic acid have traditionally been massively employed in nanoparticle syntheses as both capping agents and solvents. ricinoleic acid has also recently received attention as a suitable alternative to oleic acid. CO together with ricinoleic acid has extra advantages that are not common to the advantages reported for edible oils:
(i) CO is inedible and obviates possible Castor Oilmpetition as raw material for the food industry;

(ii) CO is a natural source of polyol and presents a simple avenue for versatile chemical reactions;

(iii) CO is the only rich source of ricinoleic acid that has been used as a building block for synthesis of several biochemicals;

(iv) ricinoleic acid due to the presence of the hydroxyl functional group on its hydrocarbon chain provides a facile route for chemical functionalization and manipulation of nanoparticle surfaces to tailor it to a specific application;

(v) CO and ricinoleic acid are more suitable for applications requiring highly polar organic solvents; and

CO and ricinoleic acid possess antimicrobial properties.


Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others

Castor oil and its derivatives are used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil that is used for a wide range of cosmetic and medical purposes

Castor oil comes from seeds of the ricinus communis plant, which is native to tropical areas of Africa and Asia.
It is typically applied directly to the skin using a cotton ball.
Castor oil is relatively safe to use, but some people have reported side effects after applying it to their skin.
Castor oil is thought to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, moisturizing, and some other useful properties.

Castor oil is a translucent liquid with a yellow tint. It is an active ingredient in a wide variety of household items, from cleaning products to paints.

It has also been used to treat a range of medical conditions, most notably digestive issues.

Castor oil is broken down into ricinoleic acid in the small intestine. 
This speeds up the process of digestion.
Although the evidence is less conclusive, castor oil has also demonstrated some potential benefits for the face and skin.

Castor oil and ricinoleic acid are thought to increase absorption in the skin and are sometimes used in the treatment of various skin conditions, including dermatosis, psoriasis, and acne. 
There are also anecdotal reports of castor oil promoting hair growth, including eyelashes, though no scientific literature that supports this.

By serving as a source of ricinoleic acid and several other fatty acids, castor oil has some properties that make it a useful skincare product, particularly for the face.


Benefits
Castor oil is said to provide the following benefits for the face and skin:

Face
Acne: The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of castor oil make it useful in reducing acne. Ricinoleic acid can inhibit growth in the bacteria that cause acne.
Texture: Castor oil is also rich in other fatty acids. 
These can enhance smoothness and softness when applied to facial skin.
Complexion: The fatty acids in castor oil can also promote the growth of healthy skin tissue, making it helpful in restoring uneven skin tones.
Sensitive skin: Castor oil has a low comedogenic score. 
This means it is unlikely to clog pores in the skin and reduces the risk of developing blackheads, making it appropriate for use on sensitive skin.
Inexpensive: Skincare products, and in particular facial creams and oils, can be very expensive. 
Castor oil is relatively low-cost and shares many similar properties, such as promoting a healthful complexion or moisture in the skin.

Skin
Anti-inflammatory: Both castor oil and ricinoleic acid have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. 
This makes them useful for treating irritated skin.
Antimicrobial: It may also protect the skinTrusted Source from bacterial infections by keeping out microbes that can cause disease.
Moisturizing: Castor oil contains triglycerides. These can help maintain moistureTrusted Source in the skin, making it a useful treatment for dry skin.
Hydration: Castor oil may have humectant properties, which means that it can draw moisture from the air into the skin, keeping the skin hydrated.
Cleansing: The triglycerides found in castor oil are also helpful in removing dirt from the skin.
While castor oil contains many chemicals linked to improved skin health, there has been limited research into the dermatological benefits of castor oil. 
It might be more effectively put to use alongside other treatments.

Use
It can take time for the skin to fully absorb castor oil, but diluting the oil can promote absorption into the skin.

People can dilute castor oil with other oils, such as olive or peanut oil. The recommended ratio is 1:1 – the quantity of castor oil should be the same as the oil with which it is mixed

Etymology
The name probably comes from a confusion between the Ricinus plant that produces it and another plant, the Vitex agnus-castus.
However, an alternative etymology suggests that it was used as a replacement for castoreum.

Composition

Structure of the major component of castor oil: triester of glycerol and ricinoleic acid
Castor oil is well known as a source of ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated, 18-carbon fatty acid. 
Among fatty acids, ricinoleic acid is unusual in that it has a hydroxyl functional group on the 12th carbon. 
This functional group causes ricinoleic acid (and castor oil) to be more polar than most fats. 
The chemical reactivity of the alcohol group also allows chemical derivatization that is not possible with most other seed oils. 
Because of its ricinoleic acid content, castor oil is a valuable chemical in feedstocks, commanding a higher price than other seed oils. 

Average composition of castor seed oil / fatty acid chains
Acid name    Average Percentage Range
Ricinoleic acid    85–95
Oleic acid    2–6
Linoleic acid    1–5
α-Linolenic acid    0.5–1
Stearic acid    0.5–1
Palmitic acid    0.5–1
Dihydroxystearic acid    0.3–0.5
Others    0.2–0.5

Food and preservative
In the food industry, food grade castor oil is used in food additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., polyglycerol polyricinoleate or PGPR in chocolate),[8] as a mold inhibitor, and in packaging. Polyoxyethylated castor oil (e.g., Kolliphor EL)[9] is also used in the food industries.[10]

In India, Pakistan and Nepal food grains are preserved by the application of castor oil. 
It stops rice, wheat, and pulses from rotting. 
For example, the legume pigeon pea is commonly available coated in oil for extended storage.


Traditional medicine

Advertisement of castor oil as a medicine by Scott & Bowne Company, 19th century
Use of castor oil as a laxative is attested to in the circa 1550 BCE Ebers Papyrus,vand was in use several centuries earlier.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as "generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative with its major site of action the small intestine, where it is digested into ricinoleic acid.[13]

Although used in traditional medicine to induce labor in pregnant women, there is insufficient evidence that castor oil is effective in dilating the cervix or induce labor.

Castor oil, or a castor oil derivative such as Kolliphor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil, a nonionic surfactant), is an excipient added to prescription drugs, including:


Skin and hair care
Castor oil has been used in cosmetic products included in creams and as a moisturizer. Small amounts of castor oil are frequently used in cold process soap to increase lathering in the finished bar. It also has been used to enhance hair conditioning in other products and for supposed anti-dandruff properties.[26]

Coatings
Castor oil is used as a bio-based polyol in the polyurethane industry. 
The average functionality (number of hydroxyl groups per triglyceride molecule) of castor oil is 2.7, so it is widely used as a rigid polyol and in coatings.
One particular use is in a polyurethane concrete where a castor-oil emulsion is reacted with an isocyanate (usually polymeric MDI methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and a cement and construction aggregate. This is applied fairly thickly as a slurry which is self-levelling. 
This base is usually further coated with other systems to build a resilient floor.

It is not a drying oil, meaning that it has a low reactivity with air compared to oils such as linseed oil and tung oil. 
Dehydration of castor oil yields linoleic acids, which do have drying properties.
In this process, the OH group on the ricinoleic acid along with a hydrogen from the next carbon atom are removed yielding a double bond which then has oxidative cross-linking properties yielding the drying oil.

Precursor to industrial chemicals
Castor oil can be broken down into other chemical compounds that have numerous applications
Transesterification followed by steam cracking gives undecylenic acid, a precursor to specialized polymer nylon 11, and heptanal, a component in fragrances.
Breakdown of castor oil in strong base gives 2-octanol, both a fragrance component and a specialized solvent, and the dicarboxylic acid sebacic acid. 
Hydrogenation of castor oil saturates the alkenes, giving a waxy lubricant.
Castor oil may be epoxidized by reacting the OH groups with epichlorohydrin to make the triglycidyl ether of castor oil which is useful in epoxy technology.

This is available commercially as Heloxy.

The production of lithium grease consumes a significant amount of castor oil. Hydrogenation and saponification of castor oil yields 12-hydroxystearic acid which is then reacted with lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate to give high performance lubricant grease.[34]

Since it has a relatively high dielectric constant (4.7), highly refined and dried castor oil is sometimes used as a dielectric fluid within high performance high voltage capacitors.

Lubrication
Vegetable oils like castor oil are typically unattractive alternatives to petroleum-derived lubricants because of their poor oxidative stability.
Castor oil has better low-temperature viscosity properties and high-temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant in jet, diesel, and racing engines.
The viscosity of castor oil at 10 °C is 2,420 centipoise.
However, castor oil tends to form gums in a short time, and therefore its usefulness is limited to engines that are regularly rebuilt, such as racing engines. 
The lubricant company Castrol took its name from castor oil.

Castor oil has been suggested as a lubricant for bicycle pumps because it does not degrade natural rubber seals.

Early aviation and aeromodelling

World War I aviation rotary engines used castor oil as a primary lubricant, mixed with the fuel
Castor oil was the preferred lubricant for rotary engines, such as the Gnome engine after that engine's widespread adoption for aviation in Europe in 1909. 
It was used almost universally in rotary engined Allied aircraft in World War I. Germany had to make do with inferior ersatz oil for its rotary engines, which resulted in poor reliability.

The methanol-fueled two-cycle glow plug engines used for aeromodelling, since their adoption by model airplane hobbyists in the 1940s, have used varying percentages of castor oil as a lubricant. 
It is highly resistant to degradation when the engine has its fuel-air mixture leaned for maximum engine speed. 
Gummy residues can still be a problem for aeromodelling powerplants lubricated with castor oil, however, usually requiring eventual replacement of ball bearings when the residue accumulates within the engine's bearing races.
 One British manufacturer of sleeve valved four-cycle model engines has stated the "varnish" created by using castor oil in small percentages can improve the pneumatic seal of the sleeve valve, improving such an engine's performance over time.

Turkey red oil
Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is made by adding sulfuric acid to vegetable oils, most notably castor oil.
It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap. It is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.

Biodiesel
Castor oil, like currently less expensive vegetable oils, can be used as feedstock in the production of biodiesel. The resulting fuel is superior for cold winters, because of its exceptionally low cloud point and pour point

Initiatives to grow more castor for energy production, in preference to other oil crops, are motivated by social considerations. Tropical subsistence farmers would gain a cash crop.[45]

Castor oil is a multi-purpose vegetable oil that people have used for thousands of years.

It’s made by extracting oil from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant.

These seeds, which are known as castor beans, contain a toxic enzyme called ricin. However, the heating process that castor oil undergoes deactivates it, allowing the oil to be used safely.

Castor oil has a number of medicinal, industrial and pharmaceutical uses.

It’s commonly used as an additive in foods, medications and skin care products, as well as an industrial lubricant and biodiesel fuel component.

In ancient Egypt, castor oil was burned as fuel in lamps, used as a natural remedy to treat ailments like eye irritation and even given to pregnant women to stimulate labor (1Trusted Source).

Today, castor oil remains a popular natural treatment for common conditions like constipation and skin ailments and is commonly used in natural beauty products.

Here are 7 benefits and uses of castor oil.

1. A Powerful Laxative
Perhaps one of the best-known medicinal uses for castor oil is as a natural laxative.

It’s classified as a stimulant laxative, meaning that it increases the movement of the muscles that push material through the intestines, helping clear the bowels.

Stimulant laxatives act rapidly and are commonly used to relieve temporary constipation.

When consumed by mouth, castor oil is broken down in the small intestine, releasing ricinoleic acid, the main fatty acid in castor oil. The ricinoleic acid is then absorbed by the intestine, stimulating a strong laxative effect.

In fact, several studies have shown that castor oil can relieve constipation.

For example, one study found that when elderly people took castor oil, they experienced decreased symptoms of constipation, including less straining during defecation and lower reported feelings of incomplete bowel movements.

While castor oil is considered safe in small doses, larger amounts can cause abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (4Trusted Source).

Although it can be used to relieve occasional constipation, castor oil is not recommended as a treatment for long-term issues.

Summary Castor oil can be used as a natural remedy for occasional constipation. However, it can cause side effects like cramping and diarrhea and should not be used to treat chronic constipation.

2. A Natural Moisturizer
Castor oil is rich in ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid.

These types of fats act as humectants and can be used to moisturize the skin.

Humectants retain moisture by preventing water loss through the outer layer of the skin.

Castor oil is often used in cosmetics to promote hydration and often added to products like lotions, makeup and cleansers.

You can also use this rich oil on its own as a natural alternative to store-bought moisturizers and lotions.

Many popular moisturizing products found in stores contain potentially harmful ingredients like preservatives, perfumes and dyes, which could irritate the skin and harm overall health (5Trusted Source).

Swapping out these products for castor oil can help reduce your exposure to these additives.

Plus, castor oil is inexpensive and can be used on the face and body.

Castor oil is thick, so it’s frequently mixed with other skin-friendly oils like almond, olive and coconut oil to make an ultra-hydrating moisturizer.

Though applying castor oil to the skin is considered safe for most, it can cause an allergic reaction in some people.

Summary Castor oil can help lock moisture in the skin. 
Though this natural alternative to store-bought products is considered safe for most, it can cause allergic reactions in some.

3. Promotes Wound Healing
Applying castor oil to wounds creates a moist environment that promotes healing and prevents sores from drying out.

Venelex, a popular ointment used in clinical settings to treat wounds, contains a mixture of castor oil and Peru balsam, a balm derived from the Myroxylon tree.
Castor oil stimulates tissue growth so that a barrier can be formed between the wound and the environment, decreasing the risk of infection.

It also reduces dryness and cornification, the buildup of dead skin cells that can delay wound healing.

Studies have found that ointments containing castor oil may be especially helpful in healing pressure ulcers, a type wound that develops from prolonged pressure on the skin.

One study looked at the wound-healing effects of an ointment containing castor oil in 861 nursing home residents with pressure ulcers.

Those whose wounds were treated with castor oil experienced higher healing rates and shorter healing times than those treated with other methods (9Trusted Source).

Summary Castor oil helps heal wounds by stimulating the growth of new tissue, reducing dryness and preventing the buildup of dead skin cells.

4. Impressive Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Ricinoleic acid, the main fatty acid found in castor oil, has impressive anti-inflammatory properties.

Studies have shown that when castor oil is applied topically, it reduces inflammation and relieves pain.

The pain-reducing and anti-inflammatory qualities of castor oil may be particularly helpful to those with an inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis.

Animal and test-tube studies have found that ricinoleic acid reduces pain and swelling.

One study demonstrated that treatment with a gel containing ricinoleic acid led to a significant reduction in pain and inflammation when applied to the skin, compared to other treatment methods (11Trusted Source).

A test-tube component of the same study showed that ricinoleic acid helped reduce inflammation caused by human rheumatoid arthritis cells more than another treatment.

Aside from castor oil’s potential to reduce inflammation, it may help relieve dry, irritated skin in those with psoriasis, thanks to its moisturizing properties.

Although these results are promising, more human studies are needed to determine the effects of castor oil on inflammatory conditions.

Summary Castor oil is high in ricinoleic acid, a fatty acid that has been shown to help reduce pain and inflammation in test-tube and animal studies.

5. Reduces Acne
Acne is a skin condition that can cause blackheads, pus-filled pimples and large, painful bumps on the face and body.

It’s most common in teens and young adults and can negatively impact self-esteem.

Castor oil has several qualities that may help reduce acne symptoms.

Inflammation is thought to be a factor in the development and severity of acne, so applying castor oil to the skin may help reduce inflammation-related symptoms (12Trusted Source).

Acne is also associated with an imbalance of certain types of bacteria normally found on the skin, including Staphylococcus aureus (13Trusted Source).

Castor oil has antimicrobial properties that may help fight bacterial overgrowth when applied to the skin.

One test-tube study found that castor oil extract showed considerable antibacterial power, inhibiting the growth of several bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (14Trusted Source).

Castor oil is also a natural moisturizer, so it may help soothe the inflamed and irritated skin typical in those with acne.

Summary Castor oil helps fight inflammation, reduce bacteria and soothe irritated skin, all of which can be helpful for those looking for a natural acne remedy.


6. Fights Fungus
Candida albicans is a type of fungus that commonly causes dental issues like plaque overgrowth, gum infections and root canal infections (15Trusted Source).

Castor oil has antifungal properties and may help fight off Candida, keeping the mouth healthy.

One test-tube study found that castor oil eliminated Candida albicans from contaminated human tooth roots (16Trusted Source).

Castor oil may also help treat denture-related stomatitis, a painful condition thought to be caused by Candida overgrowth. This is a common issue in elderly people who wear dentures.

A study in 30 elderly people with denture-related stomatitis showed that treatment with castor oil led to improvements in the clinical signs of stomatitis, including inflammation (17Trusted Source).

Another study found that brushing with and soaking dentures in a solution containing castor oil led to significant reductions in Candida in elderly people who wore dentures (18Trusted Source).

Summary Several studies have shown that castor oil may help fight fungal infections in the mouth caused by Candida albicans.

7. Keeps Your Hair and Scalp Healthy
Many people use castor oil as a natural hair conditioner.

Dry or damaged hair can especially benefit from an intense moisturizer like castor oil.

Applying fats like castor oil to the hair on a regular basis helps lubricate the hair shaft, increasing flexibility and decreasing the chance of breakage .

Castor oil may benefit those who experience dandruff, a common scalp condition characterized by dry, flaky skin on the head.

Though there are many different causes of dandruff, it has been linked to seborrhoeic dermatitis, an inflammatory skin condition that causes red, scaly patches on the scalp (20Trusted Source).

Due to castor oil’s ability to reduce inflammation, it may be an effective treatment for dandruff that is caused by seborrhoeic dermatitis.

Plus, applying castor oil to the scalp will help moisturize dry, irritated skin and may help reduce flaking.

Summary The moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties of castor oil make it an excellent option to keep hair soft and hydrated and help reduce dandruff symptoms.


While castor oil has a range of promising properties, it is important to note that the scientific evidence supporting many of these claims is not conclusive, and much of the evidence tends to be anecdotal rather than scientific.

This means that most studies are about one particular instance in which treatment with castor oil was successful, rather than providing wide-ranging and accurate data.

These are often reports that relate to allergic reactions, such as:

skin rashes
swelling
itching
Anyone who experiences an allergic reaction to castor oil should seek medical attention immediately.

Skin irritation and the development of rashes are the most commonly reported side effects.

Castor oil has long been used commercially as a highly renewable resource for the chemical industry.
It is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) that is mainly cultivated in Africa, South America, and India.
Major castor oil-producing countries include Brazil, China, and India. This oil is known to have been domesticated in Eastern Africa and was introduced to China from India approximately 1,400 years ago.
India is a net exporter of castor oil, accounting for over 90% of castor oil exports, while the United States, European Union, and China are the major importers, accounting for 84% of imported castor oil.5,6

India is known as the world leader in castor seed and oil production and leads the international castor oil trade. 
Castor oil production in this country usually fluctuates between 250,000 and 350,000 tons per year. 
Approximately 86% of castor seed production in India is concentrated in Gujarat, followed by Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. 
Specifically, the regions of Mehsana, Banaskantha, and Saurashtra/Kutch in Gujarat and the districts of Nalgonda and Mahboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh are the major areas of castor oil production in India.
The economic success of castor crops in Gujarat in the 1980s and thereafter can be attributed to a combination of a good breeding program, a good extension model, coupled with access to well-developed national and international markets.8

Castor is one of the oldest cultivated crops; however, it contributes to only 0.15% of the vegetable oil produced in the world. 
The oil produced from this crop is considered to be of importance to the global specialty chemical industry because it is the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid.
Even though castor oil accounts for only 0.15% of the world production of vegetable oils, worldwide consumption of this commodity has increased more than 50% during the past 25 years, rising from approximately 400,000 tons in 1985 to 610,000 tons in 2010.
On average, worldwide consumption of castor oil increased at a rate of 7.32 thousand tons per year. 
In general, the current rate of castor oil production is not considered sufficient to meet the anticipated increase in demand.

There are various challenges that make castor crop cultivation difficult to pursue. 
Climate adaptability is one of the challenges restricting castor plantation in the U.S. 
The plant also contains a toxic protein known as ricin, providing a challenge from being produced in the U.S. 
It also requires a labor-intensive harvesting process, which makes it almost impossible for the U.S. and other developed countries to pursue castor plantation.

Castor plant grows optimally in tropical summer rainfall areas. 
It grows well from the wet tropics to the subtropical dry regions with an optimum temperature of 20°C–25°C. 
The high content of the oil in the seeds can be attributed to the warm climate conditions, but temperatures over 38°C can lead to poor seed setting. 
Additionally, temperatures low enough to induce the formation of frost is known to kill the plant.

As of 2008, three countries (India, China, and Brazil) produced 93% of the world’s supply of castor oil. 
Because production is concentrated mainly in these three countries, total castor production varies widely from year to year due to fluctuations in rainfall and the size of the areas utilized for planting. 
As a consequence, this concentration has led to cyclic castor production. 
Thus, diversification of castor production regions and production under irrigation would hopefully reduce the climatic impact on castor supplies.

In the United States, the hazardous chemical products found in the castor plant, especially ricin has been a major concern.
The body of scientific literature related to castor plants, especially on the detailed processing parameters involved in commercial production, has been relatively small over the past century.
Over the years, there has been considerable interest and research done on the uses and properties of castor but not on a commercial scale. 
Castor oil studies have shown increasing growth with the number of manuscripts increasing sixfold since the 1980s 
While alternative breeding programs and marketing can lead to economic growth of castor oil production, at the commercial level, various projects fail due to the lack of knowledge about novel processing methods and parameters used in castor oil production. 
This manuscript discusses those processing parameters in detail. 
Although the castor bean processing method can typically be considered a simple process, it can also be complicated if the operators are unaware of its exact processing parameters and operating procedures. 
Specifically, process parameters for castor oil production should be optimized to achieve high oil extraction efficiency through a solvent extraction method.
No scientific literature currently exists discussing in detail the commercial castor processing parameters. 


Applications of castor oil and its derivatives
Fuel and biodiesel
Castor is considered to be one of the most promising nonedible oil crops, due to its high annual seed production and yield, and since it can be grown on marginal land and in semiarid climate. 
Few studies have been done regarding castor fuel-related properties in pure form or as a blend with diesel fuel, primarily due to the extremely high content of RA. 
In a study by Berman et al, it was found that methyl esters of castor oil can be used as a biodiesel alternative feedstock when blended with diesel fuel. 
However, the maximum blending level is limited to 10% due to the high levels of RA present in the oil, which directly affects biodiesel’s kinematic viscosity and distillation temperature. 
Another study by Shojaeefard et al26 examined the effects of castor oil biodiesel blends on diesel engine performance and emissions. 
They found that a 15% blend of castor oil–biodiesel was an optimized blend of biodiesel–diesel proportions. 
The results indicated that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. 
Similar to the study by Shojaeefard et al,Panwar et al prepared the castor methyl ester by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. 
They then tested this methyl ester by using it in a four-stroke, single cylinder variable compression ratio type diesel engine. 
It was concluded that the lower blends of biodiesel increased the break thermal efficiency and reduced the fuel consumption. 
Further, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increasing biodiesel concentration. 
Results of their study proved that the use of biodiesel from castor seed oil in a compression ignition engine is a viable alternative to diesel. 
The transesterification reactions of castor oil with ethanol and methanol as transesterification agents were also studied in the presence of several classical catalytic systems. 
Results of their study show that biodiesel can be obtained by transesterification of castor oil using either ethanol or methanol as the transesterification agents.
Although these studies have shown promising results for the use of castor oil as a technically feasible biodiesel fuel, a major obstacle still exists in its use as a biodiesel in some countries such as Brazil. 
In Brazil, government policies promoted castor as a biodiesel feedstock in an attempt to bring social benefits to small farmers in the semiarid region of the country.
However, seven years after the Brazilian biodiesel program was launched, negligible amounts of castor oil have been used for biodiesel production. 
It was found that the castor oil produced in this program was not primarily used for biodiesel but sold for higher prices to the chemical industry.
Another major constraint in the use of castor oil as a feedstock for biodiesel has been the high price paid for the oil as industrial oil rather than its physical and chemical properties.
Castor oil is in high demand by the chemical industry for the manufacture of very high value products. 
For this reason, it is not economical to use this oil as a replacement for diesel.
Finally, although castor oil can be used directly to replace normal diesel fuel, the high viscosity of this oil limits its application.

Polymer materials
Castor oil and its derivatives can be used in the synthesis of renewable monomers and polymers.
In one study, castor oil was polymerized and cross-linked with sulfur or diisocyanates to form the vulcanized and urethane derivatives, respectively.
In another study, full-interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared from epoxy and castor oil-based polyurethane (PU), by the sequential mode of synthesis.
Similar to the aforementioned study, a series of two-component IPN of modified castor oil-based PU and polystyrene (PS) were prepared by the sequential method.
IPN can be elaborated as a special class of polymers in which there is a combination of two polymers in which one is synthesized or polymerized in the presence of another.
Thus, IPN formulation can be considered a useful method to develop a product with excellent physicomechanical properties than the normal polyblends. 
IPN is also known as polymer alloys and is considered to be one of the fastest growing research areas in the field of polymer blends in the last two decades.

Castor oil polymer (COP) has also been shown to have a sealing ability as a root-end filling material. 
A root-end filling material simply refers to root-end preparations filled with experimental materials. 
The main objective of this type of material is to provide an apical seal preventing the movements of bacteria and the diffusion of bacterial products from the root canal system into the periapical tissues.
In a study conducted by de Martins et al, the sealing ability of COP, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and glass ionomer cement (GIC) as root-end filling materials were evaluated. 
MTA is primarily composed of tricalcic silicate, tricalcic alluminate, and bismuth oxide and is a particular endodontic cement.
GICs, on the other hand, are mainstream restorative materials that are bioactive and have a wide range of uses such as lining, bonding, sealing, luting, or restoring a tooth.
Results of their study show that the COP had a greater sealing ability when used as a root-end filling material than MTA and GIC.

Biodegradable polyesters are one of the most common applications using castor oil.
Polyesters are the first synthetic condensation polymers prepared by Carothers during the 1930s.
They are known to be biodegradable and environmental friendly, with a wide array of applications in the biomedical field, as well in the preparation of elastomers and packaging materials.

Fatty acid scaffolds are desirable biodegradable polymers, though they are restricted by their monofunctional property. 
That is, most fatty acids have a single carboxylic acid group. 
RA, however, is known to be one of the few naturally available bifunctional fatty acids with an additional 12-hydroxy group along with the terminal carboxylic acid. 
The presence of this hydroxyl group provides additional functionality for the preparation of polyesters or polyester-anhydrides. 
The dangling chains of the RA impart hydrophobicity to the resulting polyesters, thereby influencing the mechanical and physical property of the polymers. 
These chains act as plasticizers by reducing the glass transition temperatures of the polyesters.
Castor oil can be combined with other monomers to produce an array of copolymers. 
Fine-tuning these copolymers can provide materials with different properties that find use in products ranging from solid implants to in situ injectable hydrophobic gel.

Soaps, waxes, and greases
Castor oil has been used to produce soaps in some studies.
Some studies also utilize castor oil in waxes.
One study by Dwivedi and Sapre54 utilized castor oil in total vegetable oil greases. 
Total vegetable oil greases are those in which both the lubricant and gellant are formed from vegetable oil. 
Their study utilized a simultaneous reaction scheme to form sodium and lithium greases using castor oil.

Lubricants, hydraulic, and brake fluids
Castor oil is an environment-friendly lubricant with good biodegradability and renewable behavior. 
However, castor oil as a green lubricant has a few shortcomings, such as a low viscosity index and low oxidative stability due to the presence of unsaturated bonds.
Castor oil has also been used for developing low pour point lubricant base stocks through the synthesis of acyloxy castor polyol esters.
The low pour point property helps to provide full lubrication when the equipment is started and is easier to handle in cold weather.
An interesting study by Singh showed the excellent potential of castor oil-based lubricant as a smoke pollution reducer. 
In his research, a biodegradable two-stroke (2T) oil, a popular variety of lubricating oil used on two-stroke engines in scooters and motorcycles, was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives, but no miscibility solvent. 
Their performance evaluations showed that it reduced smoke by 50%–70% at a 1% oil–fuel ratio, and it was on par with standard product specification.
In addition to the possible use as a car engine lubricant, a modified version of castor oil lubricant comprising 100 parts of castor oil and 20–110 parts of a chemically and thermally stable, low viscosity blending fluid, soluble in castor oil showed its potential as a lubricant for refrigerator systems.
Although castor oil has been used as a DOT 2 rating brake fluid, it is considered an outdated type of brake fluid that should not be used in any modern vehicles.

Fertilizers
Production of castor oil generates two main byproducts: husks and meal. 
For each ton of castor oil, 1.31 tons of husks and 1.1 tons of meal are generated. 
A study by Lima et al62 showed that blends of castor meal and castor husks used as fertilizer promoted substantial plant growth up to the dose of 4.5% (in volume) of meal. 
However, doses exceeding 4.5% caused reduction in plant growth and even plant death. 
Their study showed that castor meal may be used as a good organic fertilizer due to its high nitrogen and phosphorus content, but blending with castor husks is not necessary.

Coatings
Coatings and paints are also another application of castor oil. 
Castor oil can be effectively dehydrated by nonconjugated oil–maleic anhydride adducts to give useful paint or furniture oil applications.
Trevino and Trumbo64 studied the utilization of castor oil as a coating application by converting the hydroxyl functionalities of castor oil to β-ketoesters using t-butyl acetoacetate. 
The reaction is known to be relatively rapid and proceeded to high yield under mild conditions. 
Results showed that the 60° glosses of the films and film flexibilities were good. 
In a separate study by Thakur and Karak,65 advanced surface coating materials were synthesized from castor oil-based hyperbranched polyurethanes (HBPUs), a highly branched macromolecule. 
The HBPs exhibited excellent performance as surface coating materials with the monoglyceride-based HBPU, exhibiting higher tensile strength than direct oil-based coatings. 
Both the HBPUs have acceptable dielectric properties with greater than 250°C thermal stability for both the polymers. 
Ceramer coatings are also another coating application of castor oil. de Luca et al66 synthesized ceramer coatings from castor oil or epoxidized castor oil and tetraethoxysilane. 
Most recently, high-performance hybrid coatings were synthesized by Allauddin et al using a methodology that included introducing hydrolyzable –Si-OCH3 groups onto castor oil that have been used for the development of PU/urea–silica hybrid coatings.

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Pharmacological and medicinal use
While castor oil is well known as a powerful laxative, the medicinal use of the oil is relatively minor (<1%). 
Beyond this infamous application of castor oil, it is considered to be an important feedstock utilized by the chemical industry, particularly in producing a wide array of materials, many of which are superior to equivalent products derived from petroleum. 
The high percent composition of RA in proximity to the double bond makes this oil poised for various physical, chemical, and even physiological activities, as described in the aforementioned paragraphs.5

Owing to the activity of RA in the intestine, castor oil has been widely used in various bioassays involving antidiarrhea activity on laboratory animals.
Castor oil is often administered orally to induce diarrhea in rats.
This assay has led to a fast and efficient method of preliminary screening of various phytochemicals for potential drug-like candidates from natural products.

In modern-day medicine, castor oil is also used as a drug delivery vehicle. 
An example is Kolliphor EL or formerly known as Cremophor EL, which is a registered product of BASF Corp. 
The product is a polyexthoxylated castor oil, a mixture (CAS No. 61791-12-6) that is prepared when 35 moles of ethylene oxide is made to react with one mole of castor oil. 
This product is often used as an excipient or additive in drugs and is also used to form stable emulsions of nonpolar materials in various aqueous systems. 
It is also often used as a drug delivery vehicle for very nonpolar drugs such as the anticancer drugs paclitaxel and docetaxel.


Castor Oil Extraction
Castor oil seed contains about 30%–50% oil (m/m).
Castor oil can be extracted from castor beans by either mechanical pressing, solvent extraction, or a combination of pressing and extraction.
After harvesting, the seeds are allowed to dry so that the seed hull will split open, releasing the seed inside. 

The extraction process begins with the removal of the hull from the seeds. 
This can be accomplished mechanically with the aid of a castor bean dehuller or manually with the hands. 
When economically feasible, the use of a machine to aid in the dehulling process is more preferable.

After the hull is removed from the seed, the seeds are then cleaned to remove any foreign materials such as sticks, stems, leaves, sand, or dirt.
These materials can usually be removed using a series of revolving screens or reels. 
Magnets used above the conveyer belts can remove iron. 
The seeds can then be heated to harden the interior of the seeds for extraction. 
In this process, the seeds are warmed in a steam-jacketed press to remove moisture, and this hardening process will aid in extraction. 
The cooked seeds are then dried before the extraction process begins. 
A continuous screw or hydraulic press is used to crush the castor oil seeds to facilitate removal of the oil. 
The first part of this extraction phase is called prepressing. 
Prepressing usually involves using a screw press called an oil expeller. 
The oil expeller is a high-pressure continuous screw press to extract the oil.

Although this process can be done at a low temperature, mechanical pressing leads to only about 45% recovery of oil from the castor beans.
Higher temperatures can increase the efficiency of the extraction. 
Yields of up to 80% of the available oil can be obtained by using high-temperature hydraulic pressing in the extraction process.
The extraction temperature can be controlled by circulating cold water through a pressing machine responsible for cold pressing of the seeds. 
Cold-pressed castor oil has lower acid and iodine content and is lighter in color than solvent-extracted castor oil.

Following extraction, the oil is collected and filtered and the filtered material is combined back with new, fresh seeds for repeat extraction. 
In this way, the bulk filtered material keeps getting collected and runs through several extraction cycles combining with new bulk material as the process gets repeated. 
This material is finally ejected from the press and is known as castor cake. 
The castor cake from the press contains up to approximately 10% castor oil content.
After crushing and extracting oil from the bulk of the castor oil seeds, further extraction of oil from the leftover castor cake material can be accomplished by crushing the castor cake and by using solvent extraction methods. 
A Soxhlet or commercial solvent extractor is used for extracting oil from the castor cake. 
Use of organic solvents such as hexane, heptane, or a petroleum ether as a solvent in the extraction process then results in removal of most of the residual oil still inaccessible in the remaining seed bulk.

Castor oil filtration/purification
Following extraction of the oil through the use of a press, there still remain impurities in the extracted oil. 
To aid in the removal of the remaining impurities, filtration systems are usually employed. 
The filtration systems are able to remove large and small size particulates, any dissolved gases, acids, and even water from the oil.
The filtration system equipment normally used for this task is the filter press. 
Crude castor seed oil is pale yellow or straw colored but can be made colorless or near colorless following refining and bleaching. 
The crude oil also has a distinct odor but can also be deodorized during the refining process.

Castor oil refining
After filtration, the crude or unrefined oil is sent to a refinery for processing. 
During the refining process, impurities such as colloidal matter, phospholipids, excess free fatty acids (FFAs), and coloring agents are removed from the oil. 
Removal of these impurities facilitates the oil not to deteriorate during extended storage. 
The refining process steps include degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization.
The oil is degummed by adding hot water to the oil, allowing the mixture to sit, and finally the aqueous layer is removed. 
This process can be repeated. Following the degumming step, a strong base such as sodium hydroxide is added for neutralization. 
The base is then removed using hot water and separation between the aqueous layer and oil allows for removal of the water layer. 
Neutralization is followed by bleaching to remove color, remaining phospholipids, and any leftover oxidation products. 
The castor oil is then deodorized to remove any odor from the oil. The refined castor oil typically has a long shelf life about 12 months as long as it is not subjected to excessive heat. 
The steps involved in crude castor oil refining are further discussed in the next section.


Crude Castor Oil Refining
While the previous section briefly discussed the general overview involved in a castor oil refining step, this section thoroughly explains each of the processes involved in it. 
Unrefined castor oil leads to rapid degradation due to the presence of impurities as mentioned in “Castor oil refining” section, making it less suitable for most applications.
Hence, a refining process has to be conducted prior to the derivatization of the oil. 
The order of the steps performed in the refining process, which includes degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, and sometimes winterization, should be taken into consideration for efficient oil refining and are described extensively and specifically in a castor oil industry setting in “Degumming”, “Neutralization”, “Bleaching”, “Deodorization”, and “Winterization” sections.
Degumming
The first step in the castor oil refining process, called degumming, is used to reduce the phosphatides and the metal content of the crude oil. 
The phosphatides present in crude castor oil can be found in the form of lecithin, cephalin, and phosphatidic acids.
These phosphatides can be classified into two different types: hydratable and nonhydratable, and accordingly, a suitable degumming procedure (water degumming, acid degumming, and enzymatic degumming) has to be performed for efficient removal of these phosphatides. 
In general, crude vegetable oil contains about 10% of nonhydratable phosphatides.
However, the amount may vary significantly depending on various factors such as the type of seed, quality of seed, and conditions applied during the milling operation. 
While hydratable phosphatides can be removed in most part by water degumming, nonhydratable phosphatides can only be removed by means of acid or enzymatic degumming procedures.
Water degumming
Water degumming is a relatively simple, inexpensive process to remove as much gums as possible in the initial stages of oil refining. 
In this process, the crude oil is heated to approximately 60°C–70°C. 
Water is then added to the crude oil and the resulting mixture is stirred well and allowed to stand for 30 minutes during which time, the phosphatides present in the crude oil become hydrated and thereby become oil-insoluble.
The hydrated phosphatides can be removed either by decantation or centrifugation. 
Water degumming allows the removal of even small amounts of nonhydratable phosphatides along with the hydratable phosphatides. 
The extracted gums can be processed into lecithin for food, feed, or technical purposes.


Acid degumming
In general, the acid degumming process can be considered as the best alternative to the water degumming process if the crude oil possesses a significant amount of nonhydratable phosphatides.
In the acid degumming process, the crude castor oil is treated with an acid (phosphoric acid, malic acid, or citric acid) in the presence of water.
Acid degumming is usually carried out at elevated temperature, typically around 90°C. 
The precipitated gums are then separated by centrifugation followed by vacuum drying of the degummed oil.


Enzymatic degumming
The conversion of nonhydratable phosphatides to hydratable phosphatides can also be attained using enzymes.
Here, the enzyme solution, which is a mixture of an aqueous solution of citric acid, caustic soda, and enzymes, is dispersed into the filtered oil at mild temperatures normally between 45°C and 65°C. 
A high-speed rotating mixer is used for effective mixing of oil and enzyme. 
The oil is then separated from the hydrated gum by mechanical separation and is subjected to vacuum drying.
A variety of these so-called “microbial enzymes” exist. The first of these were the phospholipases A1 (Lecitase® Novo and Ultra) and, more recently, a phospholipase C (Purifine®). 
A lipid acyl transferase (LysoMax®) with PLA2 activity has also become available in commercial quantities. 
These enzymes have specific functions and specificities. For example, the Lecitases® and the LysoMax® enzymes are capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of all common phosphatides. 
The Purifine® enzyme, on the other hand, is specific for phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.81


Neutralization
Good quality castor seeds stored under controlled conditions produce only low FFA content of approximately 0.3%.
Occasionally, oil seeds that are old or stored for more than 12 months with high moisture content produce a high FFA content of about 5% level.
This excess FFA present in the castor oil does not provide the same functionality as the neutral oil and has the ability to alter its reactivity with different substances. 
Hence, it is highly essential to remove the high FFA content so as to produce a high-quality castor oil. This process of removal of FFA from the degummed oil is referred to as neutralization.82


In general, the refining process can be divided into two methods: chemical and physical refining. 
Physical refining is usually done by maintaining a high temperature above 200°C with a low vacuum pressure. 
Under these processing conditions, the low boiling point FFA is vacuum distilled from the high boiling point triglycerides. 
However, physical refining is not recommended in the case of castor oil, due to its sensitivity to heat as it normally starts disintegrating above 150°C, which can result in the hydrolysis of the hydroxyl groups. 
On the other hand, chemical refining is based on the solubility principle of triglycerides and soaps of fatty acids.
FFAs (acid) react with alkali (strong base) to form soaps of fatty acids. 
The formed soap is generally insoluble in the oil and, hence, can be easily separated from the oil based on the difference in specific gravity between the soap and triglycerides. 
The specific gravity of soap is higher than that of triglycerides and therefore tends to settle at the bottom of the reactor. 
Most of the modern refineries use high-speed centrifuges to separate soap and oil mixture.


Alkali neutralization or chemical refining reduces the content of the following components: FFAs, oxidation products of FFAs, residual proteins, phosphatides, carbohydrates, traces of metals, and a part of the pigments. The degummed castor oil is first treated with an alkali solution (2% caustic soda) between 85°C and 95°C with constant stirring for approximately 45–60 minutes.84 At this stage, the alkali reacts with FFAs and converts them into soap stock. The obtained soap has a higher specific gravity than the neutral oil and tends to settle at the bottom. The oil can be separated from the soap either by gravity separation or by using commercial centrifuges. Small-scale refiners use gravity separation route, whereas large capacity plants utilizes commercial vertical stack bowl centrifuges. The separated oil is then washed with hot water to remove soap, alkali solution, and other impurities.85 Typically, batch neutralization of castor oil requires about four to six hot water washes so as to bring down the soap level to below 100 ppm.84 The oil, thus obtained, is vacuum dried and is transferred to the next process, bleaching.

Castor oil neutralization is a high loss-refining step. This loss is presumably due to the small difference in specific gravity of the generated soap and neutral viscous castor oil.83

Bleaching
Castor oil is used for many applications where the final product’s appearance is extremely important. 
For instance, cosmetics formulations, lubricant additives, and biomaterial manufacturing all demand the final product’s color to be within a certain limit. Although castor oil obtained after degumming and neutralization processes yield a clear liquid by appearance, it may still contain colored bodies, natural pigments, and antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols), which were extracted along with the crude oil from the castor beans.86 The color pigments are extremely small ranging from 10 to 50 nm, which cannot be removed from the oil by any unit operation.82 However, an adsorption process called “bleaching” can be used to remove such colored pigments and remaining phospholipids, using activated earths under moderate vacuum conditions between 50 and 100 mmHg. The reduction in the oil color can be measured using an analytical instrument, called a tintometer.

Activated earths are clay ores that contain minerals, namely, bentonite and montmorillonite. 
These types of clay are generally found on every continent generated through unique geographical movements millions of years ago.87 The efficiency of bleaching earth, also called the bleachability, depends on the ability to adsorb color pigments and other impurities on its surface. Normally, unprocessed clay has lower bleachability than acid-activated or processed clays. The unprocessed clays when activated by concentrated acid followed by washing and drying acquire more adsorptive power to adsorb color pigments from the oil.88

Bleaching of castor oil can be done under vacuum at around 100°C while constantly stirring the oil with an appropriate amount of activated earths and carbon.
The bleaching process requires around 2% bleaching earth and carbon to produce a desirable light colored oil. 
Under these processing conditions, colored bodies, soap, and phosphatides adsorb onto the activated earth and carbon. 
The activated earth and carbon are removed by using a commercial filter. The spent earth-carbon, thus obtained, retains around 20%–25% oil content. 
Bleaching castor oil containing higher phosphatide and soap content often leads to high retention of oil due to the large amount of activated earth used and thus causes filtration issues. 
Although this retained oil on the spent earth can be recovered by boiling the spent earth in water or by a solvent extraction method, the recovered oil from the spent earth is highly colored with high FFA and high peroxide content, normally greater than 10 mg KOH/g and 20 meq/kg, respectively.88

Deodorization
Deodorization is simply a vacuum steam distillation process that removes the relatively volatile components that give rise to undesirable flavors, colors, and odors in fats and oils. Unlike other vegetable oils, castor oil requires limited or no deodorization, as it is a nonedible oil where slight pungent odor is not an issue for most of its applications, with the only exception being pharmaceutical grade castor oil.89,90 Deodorization is usually done under high vacuum and at high temperature above 250°C to remove undesirable odors caused by ketones, aldehydes, sterols, triterpene alcohols, and short-chain fatty acids.85 Pharmaceutical grade castor oil is deodorized at low temperatures, approximately 150°C–170°C under high vacuum for 8–10 hours to avoid hydrolysis of hydroxy group of RA.86

Winterization
The majority of vegetable oils contain high concentrations of waxes, fatty acids, and lipids. 
Hence, it is subjected to the process of winterization before its final use. 
Winterization of oil is a process, whereby waxes are crystallized and removed by a filtering process to avoid clouding of the liquid fraction at cooler temperatures. 
Kieselguhr is the generally used filter aid and the filter cake obtained at the end can be recycled to a feed ingredient. 
In certain cases, a similar process called “dewaxing” can also be utilized as a means to clarify oil when the amount of cloudiness persists.


Castor oil is a promising commodity that has a variety of applications in the coming years, particularly as a renewable energy source.

Essential to the production and marketing of castor oil is the scientific investigation of the processing parameters needed to improve oil yield. 
In the recent years, machine learning predictive modeling algorithms and calculations were performed and implemented in the prediction and optimization of any process parameters in castor oil production. 
Utilization of an artificial neural network (ANN) coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) and central composite design (CCD) experiments were able to develop a statistical model for optimization of multiple variables predicting the best performance conditions with minimum number of experiments and high castor oil production.
In a separate study by Mbah et al,17 a multilevel factorial design using Minitab software was used to determine the conditions, leading to the optimum yield of castor oil extraction through a solvent extraction method. 

This study found that optimum conditions that included leaching time of two hours, leaching temperature of 50°C, and solute:solvent ratio of 2 g:40 mL garnered optimum yield of castor oil extraction. 
Such mathematical experimental design and methodology can prove to be useful in the analysis of the effects and interactions of many experimental factors involved in castor oil production.

With the advent of biotechnological innovations, genetic engineering has the potential of improving both the quality and quantity of castor oil. 
Genetic engineering can be categorized into two parts: one approach is to increase certain fatty acids, while the second approach is to engineer biosynthetic pathways of industrially high-valued oils.
For the latter, biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for fatty acid production can be mined for such purpose. 
In one particular study by Lu et al,95 Arabidopsis thaliana expressing castor fatty acid hydroxylase 12 (FAH12) was used to mine genes that can improve the hydoxy fatty acid accumulation among developed transgenic seeds. 
The aforementioned study was able to identify certain proteins that can improve the hydroxy fatty acid content of castor seeds. 
These proteins include oleosins (a small protein involved in the formation of lipid bodies) and phosphatidylethanolamine (a protein involved in fatty acid modification and is channeled to triacylglycerol).hrough understanding the genetics behind oil production, better yield can be achieved.

With the dawn of the –omics era, genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics can be key players in understanding the genetics of improving the quality and quantity of oil production. 
Advances in genomics have drafted the genome sequence of the castor bean, which has led to insights about its genetic diversity.
A future direction would include a tandem genomics and transcriptomics that can help reveal differences in gene expression levels across a spatiotemporal parameter affecting oil quality and quantity. 
Further, proteomics can be used to understand proteins and enzymes that are expressed by the castor bean plant.
Being a nonmodel organism, homology-driven protein identification techniques are possibly to be employed to understand the cellular and biological nature of oil production, leading to improved oil qualities and quantities.

As a source of biodiesel, recent studies showed that the biodiesel synthesis from castor oil is limited by a number of factors that include having the proper reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and the quantity of catalyst. 
A study using response surface methodology as a model has been used to optimize the reaction factor for biodiesel synthesis from castor oil.
In another similar study, parameters affecting castor oil transesterification reaction were investigated. 
Using Taguchi method consisting of four parameters (reaction temperature, mixing intensity, alcohol/oil ratio, and catalyst concentration), the best experimental conditions were determined. 
It was determined that the reaction temperature and mixing intensity can be optimized. 
Using the optimum results, the authors proposed a kinetic model that resulted in establishing an equation for the beginning rate of transesterification reaction.
Besides the Taguchi method, a full factorial design of experiment is also another approach that was investigated to optimize biodiesel production from castor oil. 
Second-order polynomial model was obtained to predict biodiesel yield as a function of these variables. 
The experimental results for the process garnered an average yield of biodiesel of more than 90%.
 The use of models and simulations can, indeed, greatly facilitate the efficiency of biodiesel production from castor oil. 
To add further, a simple model using a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism has been proposed, which summarizes an efficient method of noncatalytic transesterification of castor oil in supercritical methanol and ethanol.
It is an enzymatic reaction model that involves two substrates and two products (referred to as bi-bi system). 
An enzyme reacts first with one substrate to form a product and a modified enzyme. 
The modified enzyme would then react with a second substrate to form a final product and would regenerate the original enzyme. 
In this model, an enzyme is perceived as a ping-pong ball that bounces from one state to another.

Biodiesel production from castor oil is, indeed, a promising enterprise. 
Advances in models and simulations have facilitated optimization of key processing parameters necessary to obtain good yields of such biodiesel.

Synonyms
Agaliya oil
Bimayou
Castor oil
Castorbean oil
Cataputia major oil
Cataputia minor oil
Croton spinosus oil
Lama palagi oil
Maskerekur oil
Oleum ricini
Ricinus africanus oil
Ricinus angulatus oil
Ricinus armatus oil
Ricinus atropurpureus oil
Ricinus badius oil
Ricinus borboniensis oil
Ricinus cambodgensis oil
Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil
Ricinus communis castor seed oil
Ricinus communis fibre oil
Ricinus communis oil
Ricinus communis seed oil
Ricinus compactus oil
Ricinus digitatus oil
Ricinus europaeus oil
Ricinus gibsonii oil
Ricinus giganteus oil
Ricinus glaucus oil
Ricinus hybridus oil
Ricinus inermis oil
Ricinus japonicus oil
Ricinus krappa oil
Ricinus laevis oil
Ricinus lividus oil
Ricinus macrocarpus oil
Ricinus macrophyllus oil
Ricinus medicus oil
Ricinus medius oil
Ricinus messeniacus oil
Ricinus metallicus oil
Ricinus microcarpus oil
Ricinus minor oil
Ricinus nanus oil
Ricinus obermannii oil
Ricinus oil
Ricinus peltatus oil
Ricinus perennis oil
Ricinus persicus oil
Ricinus purpurascens oil
Ricinus ruber oil
Ricinus rugosus oil
Ricinus rutilans oil
Ricinus sanguineus oil
Ricinus scaber oil
Ricinus speciosus oil
Ricinus spectabilis oil
Ricinus tunisensis oil
Ricinus undulatus oil
Ricinus urens oil
Ricinus viridis oil
Ricinus vulgaris oil
Ricinus zanzibarensis oil
Ricinus zanzibarinus
Toto ni vavalagi oil
Uluchula skoki oil


Castor oil         Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Properties    pale yellow viscous liquid
Chemical Properties    Dehydrated castor oil is a castor oil from which approximately 5% of the chemically combined water has been removed. Therefore it has drying properties similar to those of Tung oil. Dehydration is carried out by heating the oil in the presence of catalysts such as sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, clays and metal oxides. Dehydrated castor oil is a yellow oily liquid with characteristic odour.


Chemical Properties: Castor oil is a clear, almost colorless or pale yellow-colored viscous oil. It has a slight odor and a taste that is initially bland but afterwards slightly acrid.
Chemical Properties: Castor oil is obtained by cold expression of kernels, which contain 45 to 50% oil. It has a faint, mild odor and a bland characteristic taste.
Chemical Properties: Castor tree is a common annual ornamental whose native habitat is in the West Indies. The tree grows up to 5 m high. The leaves are large, alternate, peltate, palmately 5- to 12-lobed; the petiolate has conspicuous glands. The seeds are ovoid with a large caruncle; the endosperm is fleshy and oily. The plant thrives in rich, well-drained, sandy or clay loam; it is grown in India and the United States. Castor beans have been cultivated from the earliest times for the oil of the seeds, the only part used. Commercially, the oils and cakes are obtained by cold expression or are steam treated to denature the toxin.
Physical properties: The oil is a pale-yellowish or almost colorless, transparent viscid liquid. It is soluble in alcohol, and is miscible with absolute alcohol, glacial acetic acid, chloroform and ether.
Occurrence: Castor is a perennial found in India and Africa.
Uses: Dehydrated castor oil is an unique drying oil, which imparts good flexibility, fine gloss, toughness, adhesion, chemical and water resistance to the dry paint film with non-yellowing properties. DCO is a very suitable and even better substitute for Linseed oil. Paints with DCO are super white and offer superior finish.
Dehydrated castor oil is used as a primary binder for house paints, enamels, caulks, sealants and inks. In “cooked” varnishes it is combined with all the basic resins, rosins, rosin-esters, hydrocarbons and phenolics to produce clear varnishes and vehicles for pigmented coatings. DCO is also used in the manufacturing of lithographic inks, linoleum, putty and phenolic resins.
DCO is used with phenolics to obtain fast drying coatings with maximum alkali resistance as required in sanitary can lining, corrosion resistant coatings, traffic paints, varnishes, ink vehicles, wire enamels, aluminium paint appliance finishes and marine finishes.
DCO is also used to obtain fast kettling rate which gives lighter colour and lower acid varnishes.

Uses: Castor Oil is a release and antisticking agent used in hard candy pro- duction. its concentration is not to exceed 500 ppm. it is used in vitamin and mineral tablets, and as a component of protective coatings.

Uses: castor oil is a highly emollient carrier oil that penetrates the skin easily, leaving it soft and supple. It also serves to bind the different ingredients of a cosmetic formulation together. Castor oil is high in glycerin esters of ricinoleic acid (an unsaturated fatty acid). It is rarely, if ever, associated with irritation of the skin or allergic reactions. It is obtained through cold-pressing from seeds or beans of the Ricinus communis (castor oil) plant. Impure castor oil may cause irritation, as the seeds contain a toxic substance that is eliminated during processing. Its unpleasant odor makes it difficult to use in cosmetics.
Uses: PEG-30 castor oil, -30 castor oil (hydrogenated), -40 castor oil, -40 castor oil (hydrogenated) are emollients, detergents, emulsifiers, and oil-in-water solubilizers recommended for fragrance oils, and for other oils that may be difficult to solubilize. The -40 castor oil version is a powerful solubilizer for solubilizing essential oils and perfumes in oil-in-water creams and lotions. It is similar to Peg-30 castor oil but denser, being a soft paste rather than a liquid. The hydrogenated version is particularly used as a nonionic emulsifier for essential oils and perfumes.
        
CASTOR OIL

8001-79-4

Ricinus oil

Cosmetol

Neoloid

Phorbyol

Ricinol

Ricini oleum

Ricirus oil

Tangantangan oil

Gold bond

Oleum Ricini

Olio di ricino

Viscotrol C

Crystal O

Palma christi oil

Aromatic castor oil

Castor oil aromatic

DB Oil

Ricinus communis oil

Castor oil [JAN]

LAVCO

Castor oil, aromatic

Oil of Palma christi

VEGETABLE OIL

Caswell No. 165B

Olio di ricino [Italian]

Castor oil, aromatic [JAN]

Venelex

Xenaderm

Castor oil, specified according to the requirements of Ph.Eur.

Optase

Trypsin complex

UNII-D5340Y2I9G

FEMA No. 2263

CCRIS 4596

HSDB 1933

Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.)

NCI-C55163

EINECS 232-293-8

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 031608

Castor oil [USP:JAN]

Castor oil [Oil, edible]

SCHEMBL12939325

2,3-bis[[(Z)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoyl]oxy]propyl (Z)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoate

D5340Y2I9G

1-O,2-O,3-O-Tris[(Z)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoyl]glycerol

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR CASTOR OIL
INDUSTRIES
 Pharma
 Lubricants
 Water Treatment
 Oil & Gas
 Cleaning
 Coatings & Construction
 Food and Nutrition
 Cosmetics
 Solvents
 Polymers
 Rubber


The diversity of chemicals and products produced from castor oil has proven that castor is an important and potential non-edible oilseed crop. 
The great utilitarian value in industry, agriculture, cosmetics and pharmaceutical sectors is a direct proof that castor oil is a potential bio-based starting material. 
The presence of a hydroxyl group, carboxylate and double bonds in the ricinoleic acid, imparts unique properties for the derivatization of castor oil into vital industrial raw materials. 
It has been shown how castor oil can be used as a renewable bio-based raw material for the production a multitude of functional materials.

Ricinoleic Acid
Ricinoleic Acid, also called castor oil acid, belong to a family of the unsaturated fatty acid. It is a viscous yellow liquid, melting at 5.5 C and boiling at 245 C. It is insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents. It is prepared by the hydrolysis of Castor Oil. It is used in textile finishing, in coating, inks and in making soaps.
Applications:
Soaps: Ricinoleic acid can be reacted with different bases eg. Caustic, ammonia, ethanolamines etc to prepare soaps. Some of the applications of these materials are in Cutting oils, Industrial lubricants, Emulsifiers & Metal-working compounds. These compounds impart lubricity & rust-proofing characteristics. Transparent bar soaps & high solids liquid soaps are made possible by using Ricinoleic acid. Ricinoleic acid soaps also enable the solubilization of phenolic & cresylic bodies in industrial germicides, disinfectants & heavy duty detergents.
Surface Coating: Ricinoleic acids are efficient pigments & dye dispersants which find uses in inks, coatings, plastics, cosmetics, etc.
Rubber: The sodium & potassim soaps of Ricinoleic acid are emulsifiers & foam stabilizers.
Food: Ricinoleic acid is used to manufacture Poly Glyceryl Poly Ricinoleate (PGPR) a key ingredient in chocolate products.
Vinyl polymers: The sodium soap is useful as emulsifier, stabilizer & defoamer for emulsion polumerization of resins such as PVC & PVAC.
Leather Chemicals: Ricinoleic Acid is used for the treatment of leather. It provides good wetting, flexibility and softening property to leather.

Application

It is used as anti-mould agent in food products. It is also preferred as antifouling for many cereals.

It is also frequently used in medical fields. It is also used as bacteria and fungi preventer. Aids and cancer medicines contain castor oil.

It is also used in poliol production in polyurethane industry. It is also raw material fro epoxy, lithium soap.

Castor oil’s chemical properties are suitable for lube oils. Compared to other herbal oils, it disintigrates in lesser amounts and it preserves its viscosity in low temperatures. This makes it ideal for usage in biodiesel.

It is also used in ‘Turkey red oil’ production.


Within the chemical industry oleo-chemicals from Castor beans carry a strong and potential pattern. 
With some of the old important processes and products are replaced by the new in its constant changes. 
Some products over the years in contrast that were decline have been revived in accordance with the introduction of new technology and applications. 
New market demands have mounted heavy pressure on castor chemistry and have responded with great vigor. 
Castor oil is used in wide variety of applications and is the starting material for many other derivatives of castor oil. 
In pharmaceuticals and cosmetics it is used as an ingredient in formulations. 
It combines well with styrene and diisocyanates for film forming as well varnish. 
It is substantially insoluble infusible polymer and is used as lubricant component of coatings for vitamin and mineral tablets. 
It is also important ingredient for petroleum oil and de emulsification. 
Ricinoleic acid is also known as castor oil acid and belongs to a family of the unsaturated fatty acid. 
The Principal Castor Reactions are as follows; pyrolysis, polyamide11, hydrogenation, dehydration, caustic fusion, sebacic acid, undecylenic acid, heptaldehyde, sulfation/sulfonation, alkoxylation, oxidation/polymerization, esterification, dimerization, quaternaries, and engineering resin (interpenetrating networks). 
Keywords: Castor Oil; 12-hydroxy Stearic acid; Ricinoleic Acid; Reactions; HCO; DCO

Introduction Oleo-chemicals from Castor experience a meaningful pattern within the chemical industry. 
Its constant changes, with some of the old important processes and products are replaced by the new. 
Some products over the years in contrast that were decline have been revived in accordance with the Introduction of new technology and applications. 
New market demands have mounted heavy pressure on castor chemistry and have responded with great vigor. 
Among all the vegetable oils Castor oil is a most unusual product being more versatile. 
The concentration of most oils is either one or two applications, such as for edible purposes (cotton seeds, soya, corn, peanut, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, coconut and palm). 
According to economic factors many of these are interchangeable. 
Some of these find other uses, such as in coatings, inks lubricants, detergents and soaps. With a wide diversity of commercial applications castor has considerably more uses directly related to the unique hydroxyl fatty acid structure [1]. 
castor oil is used in wide variety of applications and is the starting material for many other derivatives of castor oil. 
In pharmaceuticals and cosmetics it is used as an ingredient in formulations. It combines well with styrene and diisocyanates for film forming varnish. 
It is substantially insoluble infusible polymer and is used as lubricant component of coatings for vitamin and mineral tablets. 
It is also important ingredient for petroleum oil and de emulsification. 
It also impregnates capacitor as a sonar transducer fluid and as a dielectric material for electrical condensers.
Polyurethane casting resins, fluid for automobiles, trucks and machinery are the other applications of castor oil. 
tion up to 2wt%. The specific gravity of product was increased at lowest concentration at 0.5wt%. Specific gravity was higher due to probably of lower catalyst concentration of 0.5wt % conversions were very low. Therefore with referring to above data, 1wt% catalyst concentration may be optimum in the range of operating condition studied. The viscosity decreased with initially up to 1wt. % catalyst concentration and then increased up to 2wt% of


Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed) that has an unusual structure and many uses.[1] It is obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae). Sometimes called castor bean oil, this plant is not a member of the bean family).

Castor oil is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste. Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 961 kg/m3. It is a triglyceride in which approximately 90 percent of fatty acid chains are ricinoleate. Oleate and linoleates are the other significant components.
Industry uses yearly 600-800 million pounds of castor oil and its derivatives have applications in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.
 

Food and preservative
In the food industry, castor oil (food grade) is used in food additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., Polyglycerol polyricinoleate or PGPR in chocolate), as a mold inhibitor, and in packaging. Polyoxyethylated castor oil (e.g., Kolliphor EL) is also used in the food industries.

 

In India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, food grains are preserved by applying castor oil. It stops rice, wheat, and pulses from rotting. For example the legume Toor dal is commonly available coated in oil for extended storage.

 

Medicine
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as "generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative with its major site of action the small intestine where it is digested into Ricinoleic acid. It is not a preferred treatment, because it can produce painful cramps, fecal incontinence and explosive diarrhea. The effects can linger for as much as two days.

 

Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure chemical state, so most active ingredients are combined with excipients or additives. Castor oil, or a castor oil derivative such as Kolliphor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil, a nonionic surfactant), is added to many modern drugs, including:

Miconazole, an antifungal agent
Paclitaxel, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy
Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP), an immunosuppressant drug widely used in connection with organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system
Nelfinavir mesylate, an HIV protease inhibitor
Saperconazole, a triazole antifungal agent (contains Emulphor EL-719P, a castor oil derivative)
Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive drug (contains HCO-60, polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil)
Xenaderm ointment, a topical treatment for skin ulcers, is a combination of Peru balsam, castor oil, and trypsin
Aci-Jel (composed of ricinoleic acid from castor oil, with acetic acid and oxyquinoline) is used to maintain the acidity of the vagina.
 
Traditional or holistic medicines
The use of cold pressed castor oil in folk medicine predates government medical regulations. It is tasteless and odorless when pure. Its uses include skin disorders, burns, sunburns, cuts, and abrasions. It has been used to draw out styes in the eye by pouring a small amount into the eye and allowing it to circulate around the inside of the eyelid. Note that most bottles of castor oil indicate it is to be kept away from the eyes. The oil is also used as a rub or pack for various ailments, including abdominal complaints, headaches, muscle pains, inflammatory conditions, skin eruptions, lesions, and sinusitis. A castor oil pack is made by soaking a piece of flannel in castor oil, then putting it on the area of complaint and placing a heat source, such as a hot water bottle, on top of it. This remedy was often suggested by the American psychic Edgar Cayce, given in many healing readings in the early mid-1900s.

 

The use of castor oil to induce labor is controversial. One study showed that women who receive castor oil have an increased likelihood of initiation of labor within 24 hours compared to women who receive no treatment, (following administration of castor oil, 30 of 52 women [57.7%] began active labor compared to 2 of 48 [4.2%] receiving no treatment).[27] However, another study showed that castor oil had no effect on the time to birth in women whose pregnancy exceeds 40 weeks.

 

Castor oil, when ingested, triggers cramping in the bowel, making it an effective laxative. Thus, it is intended that such cramping extend to the uterus. In an overdue pregnancy in which the mother's cervix is already effacing and partially dilated, this cramping can lead to labor contractions.[citation needed] The irregular, painful contractions of castor oil-induced labor can be stressful on the mother and fetus.[citation needed] It also leaves the laboring woman quite dehydrated as a result of the vomiting and diarrhea which result when the recommended dose of castor oil for labor induction is taken—2 oz, or about 4 tbsp.[citation needed] This leaves her without access to the energy she could otherwise derive from food or drink throughout her labor process. Using castor oil for induction is not recommended without consulting a medical practitioner and is not recommended in a complex pregnancy.

 

Ricinus communis var minor, administered orally once to each of 12 women volunteers at a dose of 2.5-2.7 g per 8 months, protected against pregnancy over a period of 7–8 months of study.

 

In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to enhance memory.[30] In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to treat "Pitta Dosha" by using "Virechana therapy". Castor oil has also been claimed to promote eyelash growth; there is, however, no supporting scientific data.

 

Polyurethane
Castor oil can be used as bio-based polyol in the polyurethane industry. The average functionality of castor oil is 2.7[clarification needed], so it is widely used as rigid polyol.

 

Industry
Castor oil has numerous applications in transportation, cosmetics and pharmaceutical, and manufacturing industries, for example: adhesives, brake fluids, caulks, dyes, electrical liquid dielectrics, humectants, Nylon 11 plastics, hydraulic fluids, inks, lacquers, leather treatments, lubricating greases, machining oils, paints, pigments, polyurethane adhesives, refrigeration lubricants, rubbers, sealants, textiles, washing powders, and waxes.

 

Since it has a relatively high dielectric constant (4.7), highly refined and dried castor oil is sometimes used as a dielectric fluid within high performance high voltage capacitors.

 

Lubrication
Vegetable oils, due to their good lubricity and biodegradability are attractive alternatives to petroleum-derived lubricants, but oxidative stability and low temperature performance limit their widespread use.[35] Castor oil has better low temperature viscosity properties and high temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant in jet, diesel, and race car engines.[36] The viscosity of castor oil at 10°C is 2,420 centipoise.[37] However, castor oil tends to form gums in a short time, and its use is therefore restricted to engines that are regularly rebuilt, such as race engines. Biodegradability results in decreased persistence in the environment (relative to petroleum-based lubricants[38]) in case of an accidental release. The lubricants company Castrol took its name from castor oil.

 

Castor oil is the preferred lubricant for bicycle pumps, most likely because it does not dissolve natural rubber seals.

 

Early aviation and aeromodelling
Castor oil was the preferred lubricant for rotary engines, such as the Gnome engine after that engine's widespread adoption for aviation in Europe in 1909. It was used almost universally by the rotary engined Allied aircraft in World War I. Germany had to make do with inferior ersatz oil for its rotary engines, which resulted in poor reliability.

 

The methanol-fuelled two-cycle glow plug engines used for aeromodelling, since their adoption by model airplane hobbyists in 1948, have used varying percentages of castor oil as a dependable lubricant. It is highly resistant to degradation when the engine has its fuel-air mixture leaned for maximum engine speed. Gummy residues can still be a problem for aeromodelling powerplants lubricated with castor oil, however, usually resulting in eventual ball bearing replacement when the residue builds up too much within the engine's bearing races. One British manufacturer of sleeve valved four-cycle model engines has, however, stated the "varnish" created by using castor oil in small percentages can improve the pneumatic seal of the sleeve valve, improving such an engine's performance over time.

 

Derivatives
Castor oil is the raw material for the production of a number of chemicals, notably sebacic acid, undecylenic acid, and nylon-11. A review listing numerous chemicals derived from castor oil is available. The production of lithium grease consumes a significant amount of castor oil. Hydrogenation and saponification of castor oil yields 12-hydroxystearic acid which is then reacted with lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate to give high performance lubricant grease.

 

Other derivatives are produced by first transesterification of the castor oil to methyl ricinoleate, followed by steam cracking to methyl undecylenate and n-heptaldehyde.

 

Turkey red oil
Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is made by adding sulfuric acid to vegetable oils, most notably castor oil. It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap. It is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.

 

Biodiesel
Castor oil, like currently less expensive vegetable oils, can be used as feedstock in the production of biodiesel. The resulting fuel is superior for cold winters, due to its exceptionally low cloud and pour points.

 

Initiatives to grow more castor for energy production, in preference to other oil crops, are motivated by social considerations. Tropical subsistence farmers would gain a cash crop.

 

Intimidation in Fascist Italy and Spain
In Fascist Italy under the regime of Benito Mussolini, castor oil was one of the tools of the Blackshirts. Political dissidents were force-fed large quantities of castor oil by Fascist squads. This technique was said to have been originated by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Victims of this treatment did sometimes die, as the dehydrating effects of the oil-induced diarrhea often complicated the recovery from the nightstick beating they also received along with the castor oil; however, even those victims who survived had to bear the humiliation of the laxative effects resulting from excessive consumption of the oil.

 

It is said Mussolini's power was backed by "the bludgeon and castor oil". In lesser quantities, castor oil was also used as an instrument of intimidation, for example, to discourage civilians or soldiers who would call in sick either in the factory or in the military. Since its healing properties were widely exaggerated, abuse could be easily masked under pretense of a doctor's prescription. It took decades after Mussolini's death before the myth of castor oil as a panacea for a wide range of diseases and medical conditions was totally demystified, as it was also widely administered to pregnant women, elderly or mentally-ill patients in hospitals in the false belief it had no negative side effects.

 

It was also often used as both a punishment and torture by the Spanish Nationalists, led by Francisco Franco, as they purged Spain of those who supported the democratic, left-wing Republic during the Spanish Civil War.

 

Linguistic connotations
Today, the Italian terms manganello and olio di ricino, even used separately, still carry strong political connotations (especially the latter). These words are still used to satirize patronizing politicians, or the authors of disliked legislation. They should be used with caution in common conversation. The terms Usare l'olio di ricino, ("to use castor oil") and usare il manganello ("to use the bludgeon") mean "to coerce or abuse," and can be misunderstood in the absence of proper context.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical is also classified under CAS No.8001-79-4.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the Castor plant (Ricinus communis). Castor Oil - Textile Chemical is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste.  

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical is derived from the beans of the castor plant, grown in the tropical regions.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, for which it is being used for centuries. The benefits of the Castor Oil - Textile Chemical are also derived from its high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical & its derivatives are useful for skin, health & beauty and thus is used in various cosmetics, soaps,textiles, massage oils, medicines and also can be used in the manufacturing of  lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold, resistant plastics, waxes, polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.

In the food industry, Castor Oil - Textile Chemical (food grade) is used in food additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., Polyglycerol polyricinoleate or PGPR in chocolate), as a mold inhibitor, and in packaging. Polyoxyethylated castor oil (e.g., Kolliphor EL) is also used in the food industries.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized Castor Oil - Textile Chemical as "generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative with its major site of action the small intestine where it is digested into Ricinoleic acid.

Due to its well known anti-inflammatory properties,Castor Oil -Textile Chemical is used as an effective remedy for arthritis. It acts as excellent massage oil for joint pain, nerve inflammation and sore muscles.

Ringworm is one of the most common and stubborn skin problems, which occurs commonly across all age groups.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical contains active compounds called undecylenic acid which is very effective for treating the fungal infection.

Castor Oil - Textile Chemical has better low temperature viscosity properties and high temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant.The lubricants company Castrol took its name from castor oil.

Castor Oil -Textile Chemical is the raw material for the production of a number of chemicals, notably sebacic acid, undecylenic acid, zinc undecylenate, undecylenic monoethanolamide, alcohol c11 undecylenic, methyl undecylenate, calcium undeylenate, calcium ricinoleate, calcium undecylenate,heptaldehyde, heptyl alcohol, undecanoic acid, zinc ricinoleate, cetyl ricinoleate, glyceryl mono ricinoleate, glyceryl mono undecylenate, heptyl undecylenate,  methyl ricinoleate,  pentaerythritol mono ricinoleate,polyricinoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, methyl acetyl ricinoleate,  and nylon-11.

Hydrogenation and saponification of Castor Oil - Textile Chemical yields 12-hydroxystearic acid which is then  reacted with lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate to give high performance lubricant grease.


 

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