CHLORAMINE T

Chloramine T = CAT = CLT

Chemical Name: Chloramine-T
CAS No.: 127-65-1
EC Number: 204-854-7
Molecular Formula: C7H7ClNNaO2S
Molecular weight: 227.64

Chloramine-T is the organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO2NClNa. 
Both the anhydrous salt and Chloramine T trihydrate are known, both are white powders. 
Chloramine-T is used as a reagent in organic synthesis

Chloramine-T, the sodium salt of N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide, is an antibacterial agent and disinfectant that has been in use for more than a century. 
Chloramine T's synthesis was first reported by F. D. Chattaway in 1905. 
In water, chloramine-T decomposes to release active chlorine, which acts as a biocide. 
The sulfonamide moiety’s action is similar to that of sulfa drugs.
Chloramine-T is a source of electrophilic chlorine. 
In water, chloramine-T is decomposed to yield hypochlorite, which acts as a disinfectant, and the sulfonamide moiety, which inhibits bacterial grow due to the similarity with para-aminobenzoic acid (a bacterial metabolite). 
Chloramine-T can therefore be used as a biocide and a mild disinfectant.

Uses of Chloramine T:
Chloramine T is used as reagent in amidohydroxylation
The Sharpless oxyamination converts an alkene to a vicinal amino alcohol. 
A common source of the amido component of this reaction is chloramine-T.
Vicinal amino-alcohols are important products in organic synthesis and recurring pharmacophores in drug discovery.
Tosylchloramide sodium salt (C7H7CINO2S), known commercially as Chloramine-T, is a N-chlorinated and N-deprotonated sulfonamide used as a biocide and a mild disinfectant. 
Chloramine T is a white powder that gives unstable solutions with water. 
Chloramine-T is used for disinfection and as an algicide, bactericide, germicide, for parasite control, and for drinking water disinfection. 
Chloramine T has been used in ornamental fish and aquaculture industries for many years, making it especially useful for disinfecting angling equipment before and after fishing. 
Chloramine-T is also used for disinfection in saunas, solariums, gyms, sport centres, kitchens, sanitary facilities, and air conditioning units. 
Chloramine-T is simple and safe to use, dissolves in water (warm) and immediately produces a ready-to-use, highly effective and long-lasting disinfectant solution that lasts up to eight weeks in special UV protected spray bottles.

Chloramine T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) (C7H7CINO2S), is a N-chlorinated and N-deprotonated sulfonamide produced by Iofina Chemical. 
Chloramine T is a white powder that gives unstable solutions with water. 
Chloramine T is used a a disinfectant and a biocide.
Chloramine T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is an investigational animal drug used in the aquaculture industry and also is a very effective odor control compound. 
Chloramine T has other applications that include: algaecide, bactericide, germicide, parasite control, and for drinking water disinfection. 
Chloramine T is also highly effective against bacteria, viruses, and spores.

Uses of Chloramine T:
Chloramine-T is used in cosmetics and in medical practices: 
Chloramine-T has been used in the cosmetics industry; typically it is added to a product as an anti-microbial agent.
First introduced as a disinfectant by Dakin in 1916, chloramine-T has been used as such in a number of different industries. 
Chloramine-T has been used to irrigate various parts of the body including the pleural cavity, urethra, urinary bladder, uterus, sinuses, mouth, and the eye. 
However, in 1955, the FDA withdrew the approved uses of buccal and ophthalmic sprays and drops containing 0.13% chloramine-T; the compound had been used in combination with actilamide (concentration n.p.) and sulfanilamide (0.4%). 
In 1957, the FDA withdrew approval for use of chloramineT (5 g) in Halo-San vaginal powder. 
In 2000, the FDA also withdrew the approval for Heliogen tablets (29.22 mg chloramine-T), Chloracidin topical paste (1.6% chloramine-T), Fawn topical soap (7% chloramine-T), and Xilor topical lotion (chloramine-T concentration n.p.). 
Reasons for discontinuation of approval were not provided.

Chloramine-T is easy to use and effective against many bacteria (both Gram-negative and ­ positive), viruses (enveloped and naked), fungi, algae, yeast, and parasites.  
During the Second World War, chloramine-T was used to prevent gangrene. 
The mode of action of chloramine-T is thought to be through oxidative processes, quickly destroying cell material or disrupting essential cellular processes.
Microorganisms do not develop resistances to chloramine-T as often happens with antibiotics. 
In addition, the chloramine-T ion is highly stable and remains active over an extended period of time. 
Because chloramine-T is effective at low concentrations (200 to 300 ppm [ 710 to 1070 µM]), it is an effective disinfectant without causing tissue cytotoxicity. 
Chloramine T may be used as a disinfectant for both skin and for wounds.

Chloramine T use: Chloramine-T could be commonly used as decolorizer, sanitizer and detergent in sorts of chemical areas. 
Chloramine-T could be commonly used as decolorizer, sanitizer and detergent in sorts of chemical areas.

Chloramine T is an effective treatment for fish against harmful bacteria including Myxobacteria, and parasites such as Ichthyobodo (Costia) and White Spot. 
Chloramine T is suitable as a general-purpose treatment, but can also be used to reduce the water bacterial count where ulcer or septicemia problems are occurring.
Chloramine T is effective at low levels in most cases, so always start with the recommended dosing.
At normal dose rates Chloramine T will not harm filters or plants.

In Europe, chloramine-T has been approved for many uses in medical, dental, and veterinary applications. 
Chloramine T is used as a disinfectant and sterilizer for use on utensils, tools, equipment, and surfaces. 
In Germany, chloramine-T was used in the treatment of bacterial infections in premature and newborn infants and children.
Reports from Germany indicate that using chloramine-T as a prophylactic peritoneal lavage (0.1% solution [3.6 mM]) reduces the rate of wound-healing disorders substantially. 
As a therapeutic peritoneal lavage, chloramine-T is superior to simple washing with physiological salt solution (reduction in wound healing disorders from 22.4% to 8.3%). 
In the case of perforations, the rate of healing disorders was reduced to 4.5% when chloramine-T was applied directly to the surgical wound.
In the United States, chloramine-T has been used in the treatment of burns, specifically for wetto-dry dressings used in preparing a graft recipient site or for minor debridement of the wound surface. 
The dressing is applied every four to six hours and is particularly effective during the 24 hours prior to a split thickness skin grafting.

Chloramine T has been used in other countries in the treatment of burns resulting from chemical and microbiological war gases.
With low cytotoxicity, chloramine-T has been used by the dental industry as a whole-mouth wash, especially in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease and as a subgingival irrigation system. 
However, the status of subgingival irrigation is controversial in the treatment of periodontitis. 
The evidence suggests that although suspected pathogenic organisms were reduced, they were not eliminated, and the effects were transient in nature, with a rebound to baseline levels within weeks.
When studied for effectiveness in preventing localized alveolitis and infections associated with the removal of the mandibular third molar, there seemed to be no apparent advantage to either preoperative or postoperative use of chloramine-T in place of the normal saline solution. 
Chloramine-T has been used in Denmark for root canal therapy. 

Chloramine-B and Chloramine-T are antiseptic agents derived from combining chloramine and benzenesulfonamide or p-toluenesulfonamide repectively. 
Chloramine  is one of the most widely used chemical disinfectants in drinking water system. 
Sulfonamide molecular structure is similar to p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) which is needed in bacteria organisms as a substrate of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). 
Sulfonamides are capable of interfering with the metabolic processes in bacteria that require PABA. 
They act as antimicrobial agents by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity. 
Chloramine B and Chloramine B are used as an oxidizing agent, an antiseptic, a germicide as well as a chlorinating agent in organic synthesis. 
Chloramine Ts ions resulting from dissolving in water involve in interfering with micro-organisms' cell process by oxidations of proteins or enzyms.

As an oral irrigation solution (1% [35 mM]), OraChlor (active ingredient chloramine-T) is four times more bactericidal than sodium hypochlorite (bleach), but less irritating. 
Chloramine T also has a fair duration of activity, excellent clinical results, and is very economical. 
In one scientific study, chloramine-T was classified as a product that exerted a sustained effect (reduction of at least one log colony-forming unit one hour after application). 
In vitro studies, however, suggest that a 5% (178 mM) solution of chloramine-T causes severe cell and tissue reactions. 
Chloramine-T also has a very strong taste (chlorine) and results in a slight staining of teeth. 
In Europe, chloramine-T is an ingredient in dental creams.

Chloramine T use in whirlpool baths: One of the major marketing areas for chloramine-T is for use in whirlpool baths. 
Chloramine T is marketed under the various names of Chlorazene Whirlpool Antiseptic, Advantage Antimicrobial Whirlpool Additive, Chlorazene, and HydroChlor Whirlpool Antiseptic. 
Most of these products are listed as 100% chloramine-T, though they are dissolved in water for use.
Maxim LLC (undated) has formulated an all-in-one product for whirlpool pedicure spas called Pedi Redi Plus. 
Containing chloramine-T, this product is marketed as a superior sanitizing formulation that replaces the need to further sanitize the whirlpool or run bleach or calgon through the system. 
According to the manufacturer, one of the advantages of chloramine-T use is that Chloramine T does not cause skin irritation and actually assists in wound healing.
There is some controversy over the use of antiseptic agents in whirlpool baths. 

The scientific evidence suggests that the most commonly used agents are harmful to the cells responsible for tissue repair. 
Antiseptic agents may not be as effective if the bacterial load in the wound is high.
Also, there is a risk of developing allergic responses to the chemical agents in patients with chronic wounds. 
As a cautionary note, chloramine-T is considered an antiseptic and as such reduces the levels of microorganisms during the bath. 
However, chloramine-T is not a considered to be a disinfectant because Chloramine T is not able kills 100% of microorganisms except spores; nor Chloramine T is considered to be a sanitizer because it is not capable of killing 99.999% of the test organism. 
Although Maxim LLC has stated that Pedi Redi Plus replaces the need for other sanitizers, Sussman stated that all whirlpools should be disinfected at the start of the day, after each use, and at the end of the day with an appropriate disinfectant cleaner.

Use in agriculture and aquaculture: 
In the United Kingdom, chloramine-T has been approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, the Secretary of State for Wales, and the Secretary of State for Scotland as a broad spectrum biocide for foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, diseases of poultry, and tuberculosis. 
Akzo Nobel (1997b) lists their product as an all-purpose disinfectant used in numerous branches of industry, including intensive farming, veterinary practice, slaughterhouses, kitchens, food industry including canning, ice cream industry, and aquaculture. 
As a general disinfectant and fungicide, chloramine-T is used on working surfaces, in foot dips, as a vehicle for disinfection, as an aerial fogger, and for disinfecting water systems for poultry. 
In Australia, chloramine-T is approved for use on cats, cattle, dogs, domestic birds, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep, and may be used to treat superficial wounds or skin infections by swab, douche, or irrigation with a 0.3% [10.6 mM]solution. 
In dairy farming, chloramine-T is applied directly to the cow in cleaning the udder prior to milking and in dipping the teats after milking.
Although Halamid has been used for a number of decades as a disinfectant in the farming of cattle, pigs, and poultry, it is receiving increased attention as a disinfectant in the farming of trout, salmon, sea bass, sea bream, and turbot, especially in Europe. 
In aquaculture, Halamid may be used to disinfect both surfaces and water. 
Akzo Nobel provides information regarding the use of Halamid in the fish hatchery, the nursery, the grow-out farm, and the processing plant.

Chloramine-T is effective for the control of BGD, PGD, and flexibacteriosis. 
BGD is caused by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. 
The disease is highly contagious among cultured salmonids and can lead to substantial fish losses. 
An approved therapeutant to control BGD is needed to enable the production of salmonids for restoration of fish stocks and for sport and commercial fisheries. 
Flexibacteriosis is a generic term that includes columnaris disease, saddleback disease, bacterial cold water disease, tail rot, peduncle disease, and related infections caused by the disease organisms Flexibacter columnaris (Cytophaga columnaris) and F. psychrophilus in freshwater and F. maritimus in marine fish. 
There is no FDA-approved therapeutant that will control or prevent external flexibacteriosis on cultured fish.
Although chloramine-T is not licensed in the United States for use with fish intended for human consumption, as a therapeutic agent, it is used as an effective treatment of BGD in freshwater or marine aquaria, garden ponds, or other aquatic systems at concentrations ranging from 6.5 to 10.0 mg/L [23.1 to 35.5 µM] and as a preventative, prophylactic, and disinfectant treatment in many fresh water hatcheries.
Use of chloramine-T as a therapeutant in fish culture in the U.S. depends on approval by the FDA.
Chloramine T use in the bookbinding and book conservation industry: Chloramine-T is used in the bookbinding and conservation industry to remove “fox marks” and stains and also for general bleaching purposes.

Chloramine T use in the textile industry: Chloramine T uses in the textile and clothing industry include both bleaching and dying of fabrics. 

Chloramine T use in laboratory research: As a reagent in analytical chemistry, chloramine-T is used in assays to determine cyanide in either human tissues (blood). 
Analyses of collagen in meat and meat products, proline in biological samples, and lactose in milk products all rely on reactions with chloramine-T. 
Other laboratory uses include the production of dipolar reagents in the construction of 5-member heterocycles, radioiodination of proteins, preparation of α-aminoaldehydes from enamines, and in the determination of sulfa drugs, bromates, and halogens. 
Chloramine T is used in an 125I-postlabeling assay that measures the induction of DNA-protein crosslinks in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Other uses of Chloramine T: Finally, chloramine-T is used as a deodorizer (both gas and wastewater) and for emergency sanitation of drinking water. 

In the past, chloramine-T was used in the U.S. as an anti-microbial to disinfect eating establishment utensils and barbershop instruments, and as an herbicide. 
EPA registration for these applications was withdrawn between 1983 and 1987.

In the aquaculture and aquafarming industries, Chloramine -T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is used to treat external bacterial infections in salmonid fish such as koi, salmon, trout, and whitefish. 
In the personal care industry, Chloramine T is used in hydrotherapy treatments to revitalize, maintain, and restore health.
Hydrotherapeutic applications include whirlpools, saunas, steam baths, foot baths, and sitz baths. 
Chloramine-T is also used for disinfection in saunas, solariums, gyms, sport centres, kitchens, sanitary facilities, and air conditioning units.
Chloramine-T is simple and safe to use, dissolves in water (warm) and immediately produces a ready-to-use, highly effective and long-lasting disinfectant solution that lasts up to eight weeks in special UV protected spray bottles.
As an anti-microbial agent,Chloramine-T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) it has had widespread use in a broad range of practices, including medical, dental, verterinary food processing and agricultural. 
Chloramine T also has been used in direct contact with tissues because it has a low degree of cytotoxicity. 
Within the United States of America, the use of Chloramine-T is more restricted.

Where is chloramine t found?
Chloramine T is a biocide found in personal care products, and a mild disinfectant used for instruments, hands and surfaces in medical work.
How can you avoid contact with chloramine t?
Avoid products that list any of the following names in the ingredients:
-Chloramine T
-Chloramine-T
-Tosylchloramide sodium
-N-chlorotosylamide, sodium salt
-N-chloro para-toluenesulfonylamide

What are some products that may contain chloramine t?
-Cosmetics
-Disinfectants
-Instruments
-Surfaces
-Hands

Chloramine-T (n-chloro-para-toluene sulfonamide sodium salt) like most other Koi medication that we use in bulk, is also used extensively for many other purposes.
The uses of Chloramine T include treating water plants, aquatic bio security, dental hygiene as well as a disinfectant for pig-, poultry-, and cattle farming, cooling towers and for veterinarian use. 
Chloramine T is also used for disinfecting ion exchange resin.
Chloramine T is a broad spectrum antibacterial treatment and an excellent choice for the control and elimination of bacterial gill disease, body fungi and bacterial infections.
The dosage when treating a pond is very dependent on the alkalinity of the water, as well as the dissolved organic content.

Chloramine T reactions
Chloramine-T contains active (electrophilic) chlorine. 
Chloramine Ts reactivity is similar to that of sodium hypochlorite. 
Aqueous solutions of chloramine-T are slightly basic (pH typically 8.5). 
The pKa of the closely related N-chlorophenylsulfonamide C6H5SO2NCl(H) is 9.5.
Chloramine T is prepared by oxidation of toluenesulfonamide with sodium hypochlorite, with the latter being produced in situ from sodium hydroxide and chlorine (Cl2).

Formula: C7H7ClNNaO2S
Molecular mass: 227.6
Decomposes
Density (trihydrate): 1.4 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 25°C: (good, trihydrate)
Flash point: 192°C c.c. (trihydrate)
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.84 (estimated) 

Oxidant
Chloramine-T is a strong oxidant. 
Chloramine T oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and mustard gas to yield a harmless crystalline sulfimide.
Chloramine T converts iodide to iodine monochloride (ICl). 
ICl rapidly undergoes electrophilic substitution predominantly with activated aromatic rings, such as those of the amino acid tyrosine. 
Thus, chloramine-T is used to incorporate iodine into peptides and proteins. 
Chloramine-T together with iodogen or lactoperoxidase is commonly used for labeling peptides and proteins with radioiodine isotopes.

Chloramine-T has been used as a disinfectant since the early 1900s in a wide variety of industries that range from hospital to agricultural use. 
Chloramine T is effective against a large number of bacteria and viruses without inducing drug resistance. 
The aquaculture industry has become very interested in developing Chloramine-T for use as a therapeutant against PGD and BGD. 
Investigational new animal drug applications (INADs) have been submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to support the approval of chloramine-T for this use in the United States.
In March 2001, the FDA announced a concern that the residue marker for chloramine-T, ptoluenesulfonamide, might be a carcinogen, and that no slaughter authorizations for fish treated with chloramine-T would be approved after the current INADs expired. 
The focus of this report is chloramine-T and its metabolite, p-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA).
Chloramine-T should not be confused with the generic chloramine. 

In the municipal water treatment industry, chloramine refers to a combination of chlorine and ammonia used by some communities as an alternate to chlorination. 
Chloramination of drinking water is less effective than chlorine and may cause adverse health effects by both damaging and interfering with therepair of red blood cells. 
Where water is chloraminated, dialysis centers have had to treat their water with a combination of reverse osmosis and charcoal filtration systems to prevent anemia in hemodialysis patient.
Chloramines may also be created endogenously through inflammatory processes.
Myeloperoxidase, secreted by stimulated monocytes and neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, catalyzes the oxidation of chloride by H2O2 to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl).
Hypochlorous acid in turn reacts with ammonia and amines to form chloramines (N-Cl). 
Much of the scientific literature regarding chloramines uses chloramine-T as a surrogate for these endogenously formed chloramines to study the mechanisms by which they exert their activities. 

Chloramine T uses
-Sterilizer
-Disinfectant
-Antiseptic
-Chemical reagent

Chloramine T has usually been classified as a slow hypochlorite-releasing agent (Axcentive, undated; Mavlab, undated). 
However, Chloramine T has several properties that do not fit the typical pattern of slow releasing agents, including stability in aqueous solutions, moderate pH dependency for biocidal efficacy, influence of organic matter on biocidal efficacy, minor skin irritation, and low chlorinating ability. 
Chloramine T does not form chlorine or hypochlorous acids; therefore production of chlorinated organic compounds (AOX) is irrelevant. 

CAS Number: 127-65-1 
7080-50-4 (trihydrate)
3D model (JSmol)        
CHEBI:53782 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1697734
ChemSpider: 
2876055 
29119 (free acid)
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.414 
EC Number: 204-854-7
KEGG: D02445 check
PubChem CID: 
3641960
31388 (free acid)
UNII:
328AS34YM6 
4IU6VSV0EI (trihydrate)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID6040321

Chloramine T is an excellent choice for the control and elimination of bacterial gill disease, body fungi and bacterial infections in Koi. 
Chloramine T has some effect on Flukes in clean water conditions such as hospital tanks and quarantine tanks. 
Chloramine T is safe when dosed correctly, please follow doses accurately. NOTE: Bio-filtration MUST be bypassed during dosing. 
For ornamental pond use ONLY, Chloramine T can not be used on food fish.

Description of Chloramine T:
White to yellow crystals with a slight odor of Chlorine. 
Chloramine T was originally used as a bleach in a manner similar to Chloramine B. 
Chloramine T is now primarily used as an Disinfectant and Fungicide.

Synonyms and Related Terms
n-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide; sodium p-toluenesulfochloramine; chlorimine (sp); n-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide sodium salt; benzene sulfonamide, n-chloro-4-methyl-, trihydrate

Risks of Chloramine T:
Toxic chlorine gas is formed when mixed with ammonia. 
Skin contact causes irritation. 
Ingestion may cause burning sensation and allergic reaction.
Not listed as fire hazard. 
Flash point = 192 C

The Chloramine-T method for lactose determination exploits the reducing properties of the sugar and is an internationally recognized method for lactose determination in milk. 
A deproteinized sample of milk is mixed with Chloramine-T and KI, and a series of reactions generate KIO within the sample, which reacts with the lactose. 
Acidification of the sample liberates I2 from the unreacted KIO and allows its estimation by titration with Na2S2O3 using a starch indicator. 
A blank determination is similarly performed, and the difference between the blank and sample titers represents the amount of KIO required to react with the lactose in the sample.

General description of Chloramine T:
Chloramine T (CAT) trihydrate is a commonly used reagent for organic synthesis especially in heterocyclic chemistry. 
CAT is an active chlorine compound that shows antimicrobial activity.

Chloramine T application:
Nitrene source for aziridinations and aminohydroxylations.
Chloramine T trihydrate may be used as an oxidizing agent in the synthesis of 8-chloro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazine derivatives and novel isoxazolines.
Chloramine T may also be used in the synthesis of the following compounds:
Nitrile imines by the oxidative dehydrogenation of N-(nitrobenzyl)-imidazole aldehyde hydrazine.
Mono-N-tosylated-1,2-diamines.
3,5-Disubstituted isoxazoles.
Fused 3,6-disubstituted triazolothiadiazoles by the oxidative cyclization of N-heteroaryl-substituted hydrazones.

Chloramine-T trihydrate is a stable material, but is incompatible with oxidizing agents. 
Chloramine-T trihydrate may decompose violently if heated above 130°C, and may decompose on exposure to air. 
On combustion, chloramine-T trihydrate forms toxic and irritating gases (e.g., hydrogen chloride, and nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon oxides).

Applications of Chloramine T:
Reactant for:
-Preparation of factor Xa inhibitors as novel anticoagulants
-Nitrene source for aziridinations and aminohydroxylations.
-A review.
-Capable of oxidative cyclization to produce various heterocycles.

Synthesis and Analysis
Chloramine-T is synthesized from methylbenzene and four volumes of chlorosulfonic acid, which are allowed to react together at less than –5 °C. 
This reaction results in equal amounts of ortho- and para-toluenesulfonyl chloride. 
Pouring the mixture over ice separates the isomers.
The p-toluenesulfonyl chloride crystallizes out of the mixture while the o-toluenesulfonyl chloride remains in solution. 
p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride is treated with ammonia, followed by sodium hypochlorite to form chloramine-T.
Many analytical methods have been developed to detect residues of both chloramine-T and its major metabolite (p-TSA) in a variety of foods (milk, ice cream, whole eggs, mechanically deboned poultry meat and croquettes. 
Most recently, isocratic reverse-phase liquid chromatography (absorbance detection set at 226 nm) has been used to measure chloramine-T’s drug marker residue (p-TSA) in edible tissues of fish. 
Reported Chloramine T mean recoveries of p-TSA ranging from 77 to 93.17% (method quantitation limits: 13 to 18 ng/g [0.076 to 0.11 nmol/g]; method detection limits: 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g [0.022 to 0.030 nmol/g]). 

Chloramine-T, as an anti-microbial agent, has had widespread use in a broad range of practices, including medical, dental, veterinary, food processing, and agricultural. 
As a disinfectant, Chloramine T is used to disinfect surfaces and instruments. 
Chloramine-T has a low degree of cytotoxicity and has been used in direct contact with tissues. 
As such, Chloramine T is used in the treatment of burns, in whirlpools for the treatment of wounds, and as an oral mouthwash. 
In agricultural practices, chloramine-T has been approved as a broadspectrum biocide for foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, diseases of poultry, and tuberculosis in the United Kingdom, and is used in numerous branches of industry such as intensive farming, slaughterhouses, and kitchens. 

How To Use Chloramine T:
Fill a clean watering can with pond water, calculate the correct dose then add Kusuri Chloramine T.
Slowly apply to the pond over a 1 hour period, this will prevent shocking the pond with a highly concentrated dose.
Switch off UV steriliser until course of treatment is complete.
Do not use below 12.5°C (54.5°F).
Do NOT overdose Chloramine T, may cause fish fatalities.

Chemical formula: 
C7H7ClNO2S·Na
C7H7ClNO2S·Na·(3H2O) (hydrate)
Molar mass: 
227.64 g/mol
281.69 g/mol (trihydrate)
Appearance: White powder
Density: 1.4 g/cm3
Melting point: Releases chlorine at 130 °C (266 °F; 403 K)
Solid melts at: 167–169 °C
Solubility in water: >100 mg/mL (hydrate)

Chloramine-T was nominated by a small commercial organization for toxicology studies based on its current status as an Investigational New Animal Drug (INAD) for controlling proliferative gill disease and bacterial gill disease in aquaculture and the need for additional toxicology studies to support it’s safe use. 
The metabolite p-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is of importance as the primary residue of chloramine-T in chloramine-T treated fish intended for human consumption. 

Other names
N-Chloro para-toluenesulfonylamide
Sodium N-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulphonomite
Chloraseptin
Chlorazol
Clorina
Disifin
Halamid
Hydroclonazone
Trichlorol
Minachlor
Tosylchloramide Sodium
N-chloro tosylamide, sodium salt

What Does Chloramine-T Treat?
As mentioned above, chloramine-t is a fungicide, algaecide, antibacterial/germicide, and virucide, so Chloramine T helps to both treat and prevent a host of issues both inside and outside of ponds. 
In aquariums, aquaculture, and ponds, chloramine-t is most often used to treat bacterial gill disease but is also utilized to treat gill and skin flukes, fungal infections, costia, chilodonella, trichodina, and is particularly effective against myxobacteria.
Myxobacteria exist in soil but are also commonly found in pond sediments, where Chloramine T’re known for lysing (or essentially breaking down) various algae species and cyanobacteria. 
While Chloramine T is generally beneficial, myxobacteria can colonize inside of fish wounds and cause infections and illness. 
Because chloramine-t is so reactive and readily able to bind to organic compounds, it’s very effective at treating most of the above conditions either as a pond-wide treatment or a low-dose bath.

Synonym(s):
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
Linear Formula:
CH3C6H4SO2NClNa · 3H2O

Chloramine-T in tablet form is widely used for disinfection of drinking water during and after emergency situations such as natural disasters, wars and outbreaks of infectious diseases, but also under normal conditions in the drinking water supply of residential areas. 
Chloramine-T is very effective against pathogenic bacteria, viruses and prevents resistance of microorganisms. 
Chloramine T virtually has no taste when added to the drinking water and is mild for water-pipes and water-tanks. 
Chloramine T use is biocides safely. 
Before using Chloramine T, read the label and product information.

Chloramine-T is most commonly used to treat a broad spectrum of bacterial infections, but can also help to control fungal infections as well as parasites. 
In fact, many hospitals as well as water treatment facilities use it as a disinfectant solution. 
Chloramine T’s highly water soluble, and works by breaking down into hypochlorous acid that in turn releases chlorine and oxygen, with the chloramine ions also going to work in the water. 
The chloramine itself is able to hinder bacterial growth by destroying the bacterial DNA structure via oxidation, which in turn thwarts any microbial reproduction and reformation.
The primary byproduct of chloramine, chlorine (and, in fact, chloramine as well) is very reactive and able to easily bind to and react with organic compounds. 
They’re both quite effective in treating things like algae overgrowth, bacterial gill disease, white spot disease, and a host of other issues, but of course are also toxic to aquatic life, particularly if used incorrectly.

Appearance: white or yellow powder with a chlorine-like odour
Assay: 99%min
Item: Specifications
Appearance: White crystal powder
Content: 99.0%Min
Active Chlorine: 25%Min
PH Value: 9~11
Iron: 5ppm Max
Heavy metal: 5ppm Max

Chloramine-T (CLT) is a candidate for approval for use in U.S. aquaculture to control mortality in freshwater-reared salmonids caused by bacterial gill disease (causative agent, Flavobacterium branchiophilum). 
The proposed treatment regimen is to administer CLT at 12–20 mg/L in a static or flow-through bath for 60 min/d on three alternate or consecutive days. 
To estimate a CLT margin of safety, defined as the highest dosing regimen above the proposed maximum therapeutic regimen at which no adverse effects are observed, we conducted seven experiments with fry, fingerling, and juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that examined mortality and an eighth experiment that examined mortality, gross pathology, and histopathology after CLT exposure. 
In each experiment, triplicate groups of fish were exposed to a range of CLT concentrations representing 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5× the highest proposed dose (20 mg/L) for 3× the proposed treatment duration (60 min) on three alternate or consecutive days at 8 C or 14°C. 
The survival of fry and fingerlings was unaffected by exposure to CLT concentrations as high as 100 and 60 mg/L, respectively (survival = 97.3–100%). 
Although the survival of juvenile fish was unaffected by exposure to 20 mg/L, exposure to higher CLT concentrations significantly reduced survival (≤10.0% at 100 mg/L). 
Across experiments, 92% of all mortalities occurred within 20 h of the first exposure to CLT. 
The histopathological changes of most concern were associated with gill tissues, but these were evident only in moribund fish exposed to doses of 60 mg/L or higher. 
Based on analysis of the survival data, the margin-of-safety estimates were approximately 100 mg/L for rainbow trout fry, at least 60 mg/L for fingerlings, and 50–60 mg/L for juveniles. 
Tissue responses to CLT at these concentrations were minor and did not warrant decreasing these estimates.

Chloramine-T Dosage & Storage Information
Your dosage depends on your pond or tank size, the water quality parameters, and the fish species that are present as some may be more sensitive than others.
Firstly, check your pH parameter (most important) and then dose treatment based on hardness of water. 
Treatment within a separate stock or quarantine tank is always far more safe and effective than treating the entire pond system.
In low pH waters (6.5 at the lowest) with soft water (low CaCO3 mg/L), you can dose at about 5.0 mg per liter, while higher pH (8 or above) hard water (high CaCO3 mg/L) will need a greater dose of around 20 mg per liter. 
Of course, this does depend on other water quality parameters as well as water temperature. 
For a more general dosage guide, you can utilize this calculator while keeping in mind the water parameters from the table.
Make sure that you’re continually aerating the pond or tank (separate stock tank is better), as chloramine-t will deplete oxygen levels over time. 
About 4 hours after treatment, change 25 to 50% of your water and treat it with a dechlorinator, since chlorine is one of the by-products of chloramine-t and can harm your fish. 
If needed, you can add more chloramine-t after 2 days, but no sooner than 24 hours after the first treatment.
When not in use, chloramine-t should be stored in a dark, ventilated area away from any other chemicals or, obviously, food. 
The storage area temperature should be at room temperature or below, 70° F (21° C) or under.

Chloramine T usage: Disinfectant (Anti-Bacteria, Fungal, Parasite)

Other name: Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt
Highly water soluble, Chloramine -T is employed as an essential and reliable disinfectant for fish in aquaculture and aquafarming industries. 
Chloramine T is used for its effectiveness and low toxicity to fish, shrimp and aquatic environments. 
Chloramine-T is a fungicide, algaecide, antibacterial/germicide, and virucide. 
All-round disinfectant of tanks and pounds. 
Chloramine T can use to disinfect aquarium equipment as well, Chloramine-T ensures that pathogenic microorganisms are rapidly and effectively destroyed by way of oxidation, destroying the bacterial DNA structure. 
Chloramine-T is the safe alternative for traditional and more dangerous chemicals, non-toxic for fish and shrimp at effective dosage and does not leave residues. 
Chloramine -T is an alternative to potassium permanganate (PP). 
Chloramine T is extremely effective towards gill disease and fluke parasites.
Chloramine-T is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including the list below:

Furunculosis
Marine columnaris
Columnaris
Flavobacterium branchiophilum (BGD)
Vibriosis
Hemorrhagic septicemia virus
Saprolegnia (fungi)
Fungal infections
Chilodonella
Trichodina
Myxobacteria
Algae growth
Gyrodactylus salaris
Ichthyobodo necator (Costia)
Ich (white spots)
Neopatamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Bacteria Gill Disease)
Trematodes (Flukes / Flatworms)

Chloramine T treatment procedure:
Caution: Use caution when dosing senstive fish. 
Chloramine - T will deplete oxygen level, aeration is key when treating fish. 
Chloramine-T is using as a disinfectant when cleaning aquarium tank and or bath dips when treating fish.  

Chloramine T's general Doseage
1 gram treats 100 gallons of water.
Shake 1 gram of Chloramine T along with 1 cup of water in a bottle container before pouring the mix into your aquarium tank. 
Treatment last 8 days, a second dosage may be recommended for an effective treatment. 

Chloramine T bath Procedure 
Prepare a 2 mg/L solution. 
To achieve this, dissolve 2 grams of Chloramine - T powder to 1 liter (4 cups of water).
Place fish in a clean dechlorinated quarantine tank with aeration. 
Add 1 mL of Chloramine - T solution (which you've made) to 1 liter (4 cups of water). 
This produce a 2 mg/L concentration. 
Medicate fish with this solution for 5 hours. 
Keep eye on the fish for signs of extreme stress and intolerance. 
If signs exist, please do 100% water change to remove the medication. 
Lower dosage maybe required to ensure less stress of the fish. 

Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4­
methyl, Sodium salt (CA Index Name)
p-Toluenesulfonamide, N-chloro-,
sodium salt
Actamid
Acti-chlore
Aktivin
Anexol
Aseptoclean
Berkendyl
Chloralone
Chloramine-T
Chlorasan
Chloraseptine
Chlorazan
Chlorazene
Chlorazone
Chlorozone
Chlorseptol
Cloramine T
Clorina
Clorosan
Desinfect
Euclorina
Gansil
Gyneclorina
Halamid
Helogen
Kloramin
Kloramine-T

Chloramines in Drinking Water
Chloramines (also known as secondary disinfection) are disinfectants used to treat drinking water and they:

Are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water.
Provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.
Chloramines have been used by water utilities since the 1930s.  
More than one in five Americans uses drinking water treated with chloramines.

Water that contains chloramines and meets EPA regulatory standards is safe to use for:
-Drinking
-Cooking
-Bathing
-Other household uses
Many public water systems (PWSs) use chlorine as their primary disinfectant. 
However, some PWSs changed their secondary disinfectant to chloramines to meet disinfection byproduct requirements. 
Since then, consumers have raised questions about this switch in disinfection.

Is Chloramine-T Safe For Fish & Ponds?
Chloramine-t is extremely reactive, and so should only be used in small doses and as a last resort rather than a first response since even low doses can cause issues such as gill burns and stress. 
Try utilizing more natural methods such as salt baths before resorting to chloramine-t treatments. 
Also don’t use chloramine-t while using any other medications or treatments (with the exception of salt), as chloramine-t can and likely will react with them and the results could be quite toxic to your fish.
Chloramine T’s incredibly important to note that chloramine-t should only be used under very particular water conditions, and that it can itself impact water quality. 
In particular, pH and water hardness are the largest impactors of the chemical’s effectiveness – chloramine-t is much more toxic in soft, acidic waters (low alkalinity) and so should be used in waters preferablely with a pH of 6.5 or greater and moderately hard or hard water greater than 7°dH (130 ppm), assuming the “hardness” comes primarily from calcium, as calcium carbonate [CaCO3]. 
If you have soft water, a lower dose will be needed as the chloramine-t will be more reactive.
Chloramine T’s also not effective if water temperatures are below approximately 11° C (approximately 52° F). 
Some fish are more sensitive to the treatment than others, and so chloramine-t should be used with great care with tench, orfe, or sturgeon. 
While chloramine-t can be used pond-wide, to prevent adverse impacts to non-impacted fish, vegetation, and any other wildlife present, it’s best to quarantine fish and only treat the quarantine stock tank(s). 
The treatment is  suitable for both  koi carp and goldfish.

Mannolite
Mianine
Monochloramine T
Multichlor
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzylsulfonamide
sodium salt
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chlorotoluenesulfonamide sodium salt
Sodium chloramine T
Sodium N-chloro-4­
methylbenzenesulfonamide
Sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide
Sodium p-toluenesulfochloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonylchloramide
Sodium tosylchloramide
Tampules
Tochlorine
Tolamine

If chloramine-T is used in an earthen raceway or when treated effluent enters an earthen pond (e.g., an unlined-detention pond), some potential exists for it or its residues to infiltrate the pore water of the bottom sediments and possibly enter the groundwater. 
However, Chloramine T is unlikely that the presence of dilute chloramine-T in earthen ponds or raceways would lead to a significant release into adjacent sediments or groundwater because most ponds or raceways are constructed to hold water with minimal leakage. 
Bentonite clay or synthetic liners impervious to water are commonly used for this purpose.
Depending on the concentration of chloramine-T present, an effect on organisms in the bottom sediments of earthen ponds or waters receiving aquaculture effluent could possibly be realized. 
The potential for long-term substantial environmental impacts in groundwater or sediments after chloramine-T treatment is unlikely because of its rapid degradation by sediment, the relatively low treatment concentrations used, the relative impermeability of the pond wall liner, and the dilution by groundwater. 
Therefore, we have not further explored chloramine-T contamination of groundwater or conducted a risk characterization for any organisms in sediment or groundwater. 

Formula    C7H7ClNNaO2S
Net Charge: 0
Average Mass: 227.64400
Monoisotopic Mass: 226.97837
InChI: InChI=1S/C7H7ClNO2S.Na/c1-6-2-4-7(5-3-6)12(10,11)9-8;/h2-5H,1H3;/q-1;+1
InChIKey: VDQQXEISLMTGAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
SMILES: [Na+].Cc1ccc(cc1)S(=O)(=O)[N-]Cl

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are pharmaceutically important compounds and are widely used for the treatment of psychiatric patients suffering from clinical depression Goodman and Gilman (2001). 
The main function of Chloramine T is to block the reuptake of the neurotransmitters in the central nervous system . 
Imipramine hydrochloride (IMP) and Clomipramine hydrochloride (CLM) are important compounds of this group of drugs. 
Inspite of the importance of these drugs, a review of literature reveals the absence of comprehensive studies on the solution behaviour of these drugs especially on their oxidation-kinetics and mechanisms. 
In biochemical reactions, kinetic knowledge is used to optimize the reaction conditions in order to unfold the mechanistic picture of the particular redox system which remains an area of interest and importance. 
Hence, such a study could throw some light on the mechanism of metabolic conversions of these drugs in the biological systems. 
Chloramine T was, therefore, found to be of interest and important to investigate the mechanism of oxidation of IMP and CLM with halogen +1 oxidant kinetically.

Chloramine-T (CLT) is a candidate for approval for use in U.S. aquaculture to control mortality in freshwater-reared salmonids caused by bacterial gill disease (causative agent, Flavobacterium branchiophilum). 
The proposed treatment regimen is to administer CLT at 12–20 mg/L in a static or flow-through bath for 60 min/d on three alternate or consecutive days. 
To estimate a CLT margin of safety, defined as the highest dosing regimen above the proposed maximum therapeutic regimen at which no adverse effects are observed, we conducted seven experiments with fry, fingerling, and juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that examined mortality and an eighth experiment that examined mortality, gross pathology, and histopathology after CLT exposure. 
In each experiment, triplicate groups of fish were exposed to a range of CLT concentrations representing 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5× the highest proposed dose (20 mg/L) for 3× the proposed treatment duration (60 min) on three alternate or consecutive days at 8°C or 14°C. 
The survival of fry and fingerlings was unaffected by exposure to CLT concentrations as high as 100 and 60 mg/L, respectively (survival = 97.3–100%). 
Although the survival of juvenile fish was unaffected by exposure to 20 mg/L, exposure to higher CLT concentrations significantly reduced survival (≤10.0% at 100 mg/L). 
Across experiments, 92% of all mortalities occurred within 20 h of the first exposure to CLT. 
The histopathological changes of most concern were associated with gill tissues, but these were evident only in moribund fish exposed to doses of 60 mg/L or higher. 
Based on analysis of the survival data, the margin-of-safety estimates were approximately 100 mg/L for rainbow trout fry, at least 60 mg/L for fingerlings, and 50–60 mg/L for juveniles. 
Tissue responses to CLT at these concentrations were minor and did not warrant decreasing these estimates.

Tosylchloramide sodium 
Bensenesulfonamide, 4-methyl- (CA p-TolylsulfonamideIndex Name) 
p-Tosylamide
4-Methylbenzenesulfonamide 
Plasticizer 15
4-Methylphenylsulfonamide 
Toluene-4-sulfonamide
PTSA Toluene-p-sulfonamide
p-Toluenesulfamide 
4-Toluenesulfonic acid, amide
para-Toluenesulfamine 
Tolylsulfonamide
para-Toluenesulfonamide 
p-Tolylsulfonamide
4-Toluenesulfanamide 
Tosylamide
4-Tolylsulfonamide 
p-Tosylamide
p-Methylbenzenesulfonamide 
Uniplex 173
4-MBSA 

Chloramine T application Notes
Chloramine T Sodium Salt Trihydrate is a reagent for selective oxidation of methionine. 
Chloramine T is used as an antibacterial agent; a topical antiseptic. 
Capable of oxidative cyclization to produce various heterocycles. 
Nitrene source for aziridinations and aminohydroxylations. 
Reactant for Preparation of factor Xa inhibitors as novel anticoagulants.

Chloramine T usage Statement
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. 
For more information, please contact our customer service department.

Key Applications
-Reagent for selective oxidation of methionine 
-Antibacterial agent 
-Capable of oxidative cyclization to produce various heterocycles 
-Nitrene source for aziridinations and aminohydroxylations

Chloramine-T Trihydrate, Reagent, ACS is also known as tosylchloramide. 
Chloramine T is most commonly used as a disinfectant or as a biocide. 
Chloramine T is a white powder and can be a source of electrophilic chlorine in organic synthesis. 
As an ACS grade quality reagent, Chloramine Ts chemical specifications are the de facto standards for chemicals used in many high-purity applications and typically designate the highest quality chemical available for laboratory use. 
Spectrum Chemical manufactured Reagent ACS grade products meet the toughest regulatory standards for quality and purity.

Synonyms:
N-Chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide Sodium Salt ; Sodium N-Chlorotoluene-p-sulphonimidate, Trihydrate ; Tosylchloramide Sodium

Chloramine-T trihydrate
7080-50-4
Chloramine T trihydrate
Tosylchloramide sodium trihydrate
Chlorazol
UNII-4IU6VSV0EI
MFCD00149066
4IU6VSV0EI
NCGC00164243-01
DSSTox_CID_20795
DSSTox_RID_79603
DSSTox_GSID_40795
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt, trihydrate
sodium;chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide;trihydrate
Chloraseptin
Hydroclonazone
Disifin
Minachlor
CAS-7080-50-4
Sodium derivative of N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide trihydrate
Sodium P-Toluenesulfonchloramide Trihydrate
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
Chloramine-t trihydrate [MI]
Chloroamine t trihydrate
C7H13ClNNaO5S
CHEMBL1591636
DTXSID6040795
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide, monosodium salt, trihydrate
Sodium chloro(tosyl)amide trihydrate
Tox21_112091
Tox21_302436
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:1:3)
HY-U00087

General Information:
AdvaCare is a GMP manufacturer of Chloramine T tablets.
Chloramine T Tablets are used as a biocide and disinfectant. 
Chloramine T tablets can be used to disinfect drinking water and as the active ingredient is an algaecide, bactericide, virucide, fungicide, and germicide which is also effective against mycobacteria.
Chloramine T tablets are used to inhibit bacterial growth by destroying the bacteria DNA structure via oxidation (irreversible chemical reaction) in order to prevent reproduction and reforming.

Side Effects:
As with all pharmaceuticals, some unwanted effects can occur from the use of chloramine tablets. 
Always consult a doctor or health care professional for medical advice before use. 
Common side effects include kidney problems, digestive disorders, dry skin, and respiratory problems. 
Seek medical attention if any adverse effects occur.
For a comprehensive list of all possible effects, consult your doctor.
If any symptom persists or gets worse, or you notice any other symptom, then please call your doctor immediately.

AKOS015904558
AKOS025310804
NCGC00255685-01
Chloramine T trihydrate, A.C.S. reagent
U319
Chloramine T trihydrate, p.a., 98-103%
Chloramine T trihydrate, ACS reagent, 98%
149358-73-6 (.xH2O)
Chloramine T trihydrate, JIS special grade, >=98.0%
Q27259662
F0001-1827
Chloramine T trihydrate, Reag. Ph. Eur., 98.0-103.0%
Chloramine T trihydrate, meets analytical specification of Ph.??Eur., BP, 98-103%
Chloramine T trihydrate, purum p.a., for the detection of halogens and bromate, >=98.0% (RT)

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