CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS

CAS Number: 77-92-9
EC Number: 201-069-1
Molar mass: 192,12 g/mol
Linear Formula: HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2

Citric acid anhydrous is used in the preparation of citrate buffer for antigen and epitope unmasking in IHC
Citric acid is a natural occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. 
Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.
Citric acid anhydrous occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. 
Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether.
Citric acid anhydrous is non-toxic and has a low reactivity. 
Citric acid anhydrous is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Citric acid anhydrous is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.

Anhydrous Citric Acid has the chemical name Citric Acid and has the appearance of an odorless, colorless, white powder. 
This substance is toxic to plants and should not be used on any plant life that is of value. 
Anhydrous means that the substance has no water and is in a dry, granulated form. 
Citric acid is found naturally in plants and animals. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used in the fermentation of cane sugar and molasses

Main application: Citric acid anhydrous is mainly used as an acid condiment, flavoring agent and preservative in food and beverage and as pharmaceutical excipients in pharmaceutical industry. 
Citric acid anhydrous is also used as an antioxidant, plasticizer and detergent builder in chemical, cosmetics and detergent industries.

General description of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous is an organic acid. 
Citric acid anhydrouss molar enthalpy of solution in water has been reported to be ΔsolHm (298.15K, m = 0.0203molkg-1) = (29061±123)Jmol-1. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be produced by crystallization from mother liquor of citric acid solution at 20-25°C during citric acid synthesis. 
An investigation of Citric acid anhydrouss crystal growth kinetics indicates that growth is linearly dependent on size.

Citric acid anhydrous is generally prescribed for the treatment of GI upset and associated symptoms including acid digestion and heartburn. 
Citric acid anhydrous is usually prescribed as a combined therapy with sodium bicarbonate salts.

Citric Acid was discovered in the 8th century and although people were aware of the acidic nature of limes and lemons, there was little information about the discovery and uses until later years. 
Citric acid anhydrous wasn’t until 1784 when a Swedish chemist, Carl Scheele was able to crystallize lemon juice. 
In World War I citric acid became important to industries.

Uses of Citric acid anhydrous:
There are many uses for this dry form of citric acid. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in flavorings, cosmetics, candy, gelatin, jams, jellies, soft drinks and fruit. 
Citric acid anhydrous has the ability to retard discoloration and retain flavor and vitamins. 
Salts or citrates of citric acid is also used as anticoagulants and are used to lower the citric acid in urine to treat kidney stones by lessening calcium deposits. 
Anhydrous citric acid has been used to control Caribbean Tree Frogs on the Hawaiian Islands.

Anhydrous citric acid is the water-free form of citric acid but, the monohydrate citric acid is the water-containing form of citric acid. 
This is the main difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric acid. 
Furthermore, the chemical formula of anhydrous citric acid is C6H8O7. 
The molar mass of this compound is 192.12 g/mol. 
We can produce this compound via crystallization from hot water. 
On the other hand, the chemical formula of monohydrate citric acid is C6H8O7.H2O, and the molar mass is 210.138 g/mol. 
In addition, we can produce this compound via crystallization from cold water.

The anhydrous citric acid forms from the monohydrate form at 78 °C. 
The density of the anhydrous form is 1.665 g/cm3. 
Citric acid anhydrous melts at 156 °C, and the boiling point of this compound is 310 °C. 
The chemical formula of Citric acid anhydrous is C6H8O7 while the molar mass is 192.12 g/mol.

Application of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.

Citric acid anhydrous may be used:
-As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
-To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
-To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.

Citric acid anhydrous is a weak organic acid that has the molecular formula C6H8O7. 
Citric acid anhydrous occurs naturally in citrus fruits. 
In biochemistry, Citric acid anhydrous is an intermediate in the Citric acid anhydrous cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
More than two million tons of Citric acid anhydrous are manufactured every year. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and a chelating agent.

A citrate is a derivative of Citric acid anhydrous; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. 
An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate. 
When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate anion is written as C6H5O3−7 or C3H5O(COO)3−3.

Natural occurrence and industrial production of Citric acid anhydrous
Lemons, oranges, limes, and other citrus fruits possess high concentrations of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. 
Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; Citric acid anhydrous can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/l in the juices). 
The concentrations of Citric acid anhydrous in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes; these values vary within species depending upon the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown.

Citric acid anhydrous was first isolated in 1784 by the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who crystallized it from lemon juice.
Industrial-scale Citric acid anhydrous production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) to precipitate calcium citrate, which was isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid. 
In 1893, C. Wehmer discovered Penicillium mold could produce Citric acid anhydrous from sugar. 
However, microbial production of Citric acid anhydrous did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports.

Citric acid exists in two forms as anhydrous form and monohydrated form. 
The difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric acid is that the anhydrous citric acid has no water of crystallization whereas the monohydrate citric acid has a water molecule associated with one citric acid molecule.

pH: 1,7 (100 g/l)
Melting / freezing point: 153°C (1013 hPa)
Relative density: 1,665 g/cm3 (20°C)
Solubility in water: 590 g/l (20°C)

Anhydrous Citric Acid, Powder, USP belongs to a class of drugs known as urinary alkalinizers that are used to treat certain metabolic problems (acidosis) caused by kidney disease. 
All Spectrum Chemical USP grade products are manufactured, packaged and stored under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) per 21CFR part 211 in FDA registered and inspected facilities.

WE number: 201-069-1
Chemical formula: C6H8O7
Molar mass: 192,12 g/mol
Customs tariff code: 29181400

Chemical characteristics of Citric acid anhydrous
Speciation diagram for a 10-millimolar solution of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous can be obtained as an anhydrous (water-free) form or as a monohydrate. 
The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when Citric acid anhydrous is crystallized from cold water. 
The monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form at about 78 °C. 
Citric acid anhydrous also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76 parts of Citric acid anhydrous per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 °C. 
Citric acid anhydrous decomposes with loss of carbon dioxide above about 175 °C.

Citric acid anhydrous is a tribasic acid, with pKa values, extrapolated to zero ionic strength, of 2.92, 4.28, and 5.21 at 25 °C. 
The pKa of the hydroxyl group has been found, by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy, to be 14.4. 
The speciation diagram shows that solutions of Citric acid anhydrous are buffer solutions between about pH 2 and pH 8. 
In biological systems around pH 7, the two species present are the citrate ion and mono-hydrogen citrate ion. 
The SSC 20X hybridization buffer is an example in common use. 
Tables compiled for biochemical studies are available.
On the other hand, the pH of a 1 mM solution of Citric acid anhydrous will be about 3.2. 
The pH of fruit juices from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons depends on the Citric acid anhydrous concentration, being lower for higher acid concentration and conversely.

Acid salts of Citric acid anhydrous can be prepared by careful adjustment of the pH before crystallizing the compound..
The citrate ion forms complexes with metallic cations. 
The stability constants for the formation of these complexes are quite large because of the chelate effect. 
Consequently, Citric acid anhydrous forms complexes even with alkali metal cations. 
However, when a chelate complex is formed using all three carboxylate groups, the chelate rings have 7 and 8 members, which are generally less stable thermodynamically than smaller chelate rings. 
In consequence, the hydroxyl group can be deprotonated, forming part of a more stable 5-membered ring, as in ammonium ferric citrate, (NH4)5Fe(C6H4O7)2·2H2O.
Citric acid anhydrous can be esterified at one or more of its three carboxylic acid groups to form any of a variety of mono-, di-, tri-, and mixed esters.

Citric acid anhydrous can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or in recipes in place of fresh lemon juice. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used with sodium bicarbonate in a wide range of effervescent formulae, both for ingestion (e.g., powders and tablets) and for personal care (e.g., bath salts, bath bombs, and cleaning of grease). 
Citric acid anhydrous sold in a dry powdered form is commonly sold in markets and groceries as "sour salt", due to its physical resemblance to table salt. 
Citric acid anhydrous has use in culinary applications, as an alternative to vinegar or lemon juice, where a pure acid is needed. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye.

Cleaning and chelating agent of Citric acid anhydrous
Structure of an iron(III) citrate complex.
Citric acid anhydrous is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals by making them soluble. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used to remove and discourage the buildup of limescale from boilers and evaporators. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used to treat water, which makes Citric acid anhydrous useful in improving the effectiveness of soaps and laundry detergents. 
By chelating the metals in hard water, Citric acid anhydrous lets these cleaners produce foam and work better without need for water softening. 
Citric acid anhydrous is the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. 

A solution with a six percent concentration of Citric acid anhydrous will remove hard water stains from glass without scrubbing. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair. 
Illustrative of its chelating abilities, Citric acid anhydrous was the first successful eluant used for total ion-exchange separation of the lanthanides, during the Manhattan Project in the 1940s. 
In the 1950s, Citric acid anhydrous was replaced by the far more efficient EDTA.
In industry, Citric acid anhydrous is used to dissolve rust from steel and passivate stainless steels.

Other fruits also contain Citric acid anhydrous but in lesser amounts. 
These include:
pineapple, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, cherries, tomatoes
Beverages or food products that contain these fruits — such as ketchup in the case of tomatoes — also contain Citric acid anhydrous.
While not naturally occurring, Citric acid anhydrous is also a byproduct of cheese, wine, and sourdough bread production.
The Citric acid anhydrous listed in the ingredients of foods and supplements is manufactured — not what’s naturally found in citrus fruits.
This is because producing this additive from citrus fruits is too expensive and the demand far exceeds the supply.
Lemons, limes, and other citrus fruits are the predominant natural sources of Citric acid anhydrous. 
Other fruits that contain much less include certain berries, cherries, and tomatoes.

Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and foods
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an acidulant in creams, gels, and liquids. 
Used in foods and dietary supplements, Citric acid anhydrous may be classified as a processing aid if Citric acid anhydrous was added for a technical or functional effect (e.g. acidulent, chelator, viscosifier, etc.). 
If Citric acid anhydrous is still present in insignificant amounts, and the technical or functional effect is no longer present, Citric acid anhydrous may be exempt from labeling <21 CFR §101.100(c)>.
Citric acid anhydrous is an alpha hydroxy acid and is an active ingredient in chemical skin peels.
Citric acid anhydrous is commonly used as a buffer to increase the solubility of brown heroin.
Citric acid anhydrous is used as one of the active ingredients in the production of facial tissues with antiviral properties.

Other uses of Citric acid anhydrous
The buffering properties of citrates are used to control pH in household cleaners and pharmaceuticals.
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an odorless alternative to white vinegar for home dyeing with acid dyes.
Sodium citrate is a component of Benedict's reagent, used for identification both qualitatively and quantitatively of reducing sugars.
Citric acid anhydrous can be used as an alternative to nitric acid in passivation of stainless steel.

Citric acid anhydrous can be used as a lower-odor stop bath as part of the process for developing photographic film. 
Photographic developers are alkaline, so a mild acid is used to neutralize and stop their action quickly, but commonly used acetic acid leaves a strong vinegar odor in the darkroom.
Citric acid anhydrous/potassium-sodium citrate can be used as a blood acid regulator.

Citric acid anhydrous is an excellent soldering flux, either dry or as a concentrated solution in water. 
Citric acid anhydrous should be removed after soldering, especially with fine wires, as Citric acid anhydrous is mildly corrosive. 
Citric acid anhydrous dissolves and rinses quickly in hot water.

Artificial Sources and Uses of Citric acid anhydrous
The characteristics of Citric acid anhydrous make Citric acid anhydrous an important additive for a variety of industries.
Food and beverages use an estimated 70% of manufactured Citric acid anhydrous, pharmaceutical and dietary supplements use 20%, and the remaining 10% goes into cleaning agents.

Food Industry of Citric acid anhydrous
Manufactured Citric acid anhydrous is one of the most common food additives in the world.
Citric acid anhydrous’s used to boost acidity, enhance flavor, and preserve ingredients.
Sodas, juices, powdered beverages, candies, frozen foods, and some dairy products often contain manufactured Citric acid anhydrous.
Citric acid anhydrous’s also added to canned fruits and vegetables to protect against botulism, a rare but serious illness caused by the toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum bacteria.

Effects of Citric Acid
Dr. Tomohiro Sugino led a 2007 study on the effects of Citric Acid vs. Placebo on volunteers. 
The study volunteers who citric acid during the test had less mental and physical fatigue than volunteers who ingested the placebo. 
People who took citric acid had lower stress markers than the placebo group as well. 
Citric acid is a large part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which increases energy. 
The study supported the theory that citric acid has a better track record for anti-fatigue than hydroxycitric acid.

Medicines and Dietary Supplements
Citric acid anhydrous is an industrial staple in medicines and dietary supplements.
Citric acid anhydrous’s added to medicines to help stabilize and preserve the active ingredients and used to enhance or mask the taste of chewable and syrup-based medications.
Mineral supplements, such as magnesium and calcium, may contain Citric acid anhydrous — in the form of citrate — as well to enhance absorption.

CAS No 77-92-9
Packaging Size 25 Kg
Packaging Type Composite paper-plastic bags
Brand Ensign
Physical State White Crystalline Powders
Molar Mass 192.123 g/mol
Density    1.665 g/cm3
Standards BP/USP/FCC/E330/GB1886.235-2016
Storage condition Kept in a light-proof, well-closed,dry and cool place
Assay 99.5-100.5%, >=99.5%

Citric acid anhydrous is found naturally in citrus fruits, especially lemons and limes. 
Citric acid anhydrous’s what gives them their tart, sour taste.
A manufactured form of Citric acid anhydrous is commonly used as an additive in food, cleaning agents, and nutritional supplements.
However, this manufactured form differs from what’s found naturally in citrus fruits.
For this reason, you may wonder whether Citric acid anhydrous’s good or bad for you.
This article explains the differences between natural and manufactured Citric acid anhydrous, and explores its benefits, uses, and safety.

What Is Citric acid anhydrous?
Citric acid anhydrous was first derived from lemon juice by a Swedish researcher in 1784.
The odorless and colorless compound was produced from lemon juice until the early 1900s when researchers discovered that Citric acid anhydrous could also be made from the black mold, Aspergillus niger, which creates Citric acid anhydrous when it feeds on sugar.
Because of Citric acid anhydrouss acidic, sour-tasting nature, Citric acid anhydrous is predominantly used as a flavoring and preserving agent — especially in soft drinks and candies.

Citric acid anhydrous’s also used to stabilize or preserve medicines and as a disinfectant against viruses and bacteria.
Citric acid anhydrous is a compound originally derived from lemon juice. 
Citric acid anhydrous’s produced today from a specific type of mold and used in a variety of applications.

Anhydrous Citric acid anhydrous is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to Citric acid anhydrouss antioxidant properties. 
Citric acid anhydrous maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. 
Citric acid anhydrous is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.

Citric acid anhydrous and Citric acid anhydrouss salts are naturally occurring constituents and common metabolites in plants and animal tissues. 
Citric acid anhydrous is an intermediary compound in the Krebs cycle linking oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. 
The concentration of naturally occurring citrate is relatively higher in fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices than vegetables and animal tissues.
In human (as well as in animal and plant) physiology, Citric acid anhydrous is a very common intermediate in one of the central biochemical cycles, the Krebs or tricarboxylic acid cycle, which takes place in every cell. 
Citric acid anhydrous completes the breakdown of pyruvate formed from glucose through glycolysis, thereby liberating carbon dioxide and a further four hydrogen atoms which are picked up by electron transport molecules. 
Thus, in man approximately 2 kg of Citric acid anhydrous are formed and metabolised every day. 
This physiological pathway is very well developed and capable of processing very high amounts of Citric acid anhydrous as long as Citric acid anhydrous occurs in low concentrations.

Water <=1.0%, <=0.5%
Sulphated Ash <=0.1%, <=0.05%
Chloride <=50 ppm
Sulphate <=100 ppm, <=150 ppm
Oxalate    <=360 ppm, <=100ppm
Calcium    <=200
Arsenic    <=1 ppm
Lead <=0.5 ppm
Aluminum <=0.2 ppm
Mercury    <=1 ppm
Heavy Metals <=10 ppm
Bacterial Endotoxins <0.5 IU/mg

Environmental and Health Impact
Citric acid helps reduce toxins in the environment because it is an all natural ingredient in many products. 
The cleaners made wither citric acid as an active ingredient reduces production of chemical cleaners. 
Pharmaceutical use of citric acid reduces the toxins manufactured and ingested. 
Fewer people are allergic to the natural ingredient, though some may have a stomach or skin sensitivity to products that use citric acid.

Citric acid anhydrous is an acidic compound from citrus fruits; as a starting point in the Krebs cycle, citrate is a key intermediate in metabolism. 
Citric acid is one of a series of compounds responsible for the physiological oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins to carbon dioxide and water. 
Citric acid anhydrous has been used to prepare citrate buffer for antigen retrieval of tissue samples. 
The citrate solution is designed to break protein cross-links, thus unmasking antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, and resulting in enhanced staining intensity of antibodies. 
Citrate has anticoagulant activity; as a calcium chelator, Citric acid anhydrous forms complexes that disrupt the tendency of blood to clot. 
May be used to adjust pH and as a sequestering agent for the removal of trace metals.

Pharmacodynamics
No information available

Pharmacokinetics
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous Indications / Citric acid anhydrous Uses
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous Adverse Reactions / Citric acid anhydrous Side Effects
No adverse events are reported after administration of Citric acid anhydrous.

Precautions about Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous is contraindicated in phenylketonuria patients, salt-restricted patients and children.

Special Precautions about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Other Drug Interactions about Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous may interact with antacids.

Other Interactions about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Dosage of Citric acid anhydrous
Dissolve two tablets (575 mg) of Citric acid anhydrous completely in four ounces of water and drink the mixture.
 
Adults and Geriatric patients:
Take two tablets of Citric acid anhydrous, every four hours or as needed.

Food(before/after) about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

List of Contraindications
Citric acid anhydrous and Pregnancy
Not classified under USFDA Pregnancy category. However, Citric acid anhydrous should be avoided during pregnancy

Citric acid anhydrous and Lactation
Citric acid anhydrous is unlikely safe in breastfeeding mothers. Consult a physician before taking Citric acid anhydrous.

Citric acid anhydrous and Children 
Do not give Citric acid anhydrous to children, unless prescribed by a pediatrician.

Citric acid anhydrous and Geriatic 
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous and Other Contraindications 
No information available

Storage about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Lab interference about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with excess water for 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with excess water for 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing.
Ingestion: Call Poison Control immediately. 
Rinse mouth with cold water. 
Give victim 1-2 cups of water or milk to drink.
Induce vomiting immediately.
Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.

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