CMIT/MIT is an isothiazolone biocide having a 3:1 ratio of CMIT and MIT, widely used for its broad-spectrum action against microbes, algae, and fungi.
It is one of the active ingredients of humidifier disinfectants and a commonly used preservative in industrial products such as cosmetics, paints, adhesives and detergents.
Chloromethylisothiazolinone is a 1,2-thiazole that is 4-isothiazolin-3-one bearing a methyl group on the nitrogen atom and a chlorine at C-5.
It is a powerful biocide and preservative and is the major active ingredient in the commercial product Exocide. It has a role as an antimicrobial agent, a xenobiotic and an environmental contaminant.
It is a member of 1,2-thiazoles and an organochlorine compound. It derives from a methylisothiazolinone.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) is an isothiazolinone commonly used as a preservative with antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is found within many commercially available cosmetics, lotions, and makeup removers. It is also a known dermatological sensitizer and allergen; some of its side effects include flaky or scaly skin, breakouts, redness or itchiness, and moderate to severe swelling in the eye area. The American Contact Dermatitis Society named Methylchloroisothiazolinone the Contact Allergen of the Year for 2013.
Sensitivity to Methylchloroisothiazolinone may be identified with a clinical patch test.
Methylisothiazolinone is a 1,2-thazole that is 4-isothiazolin-3-one bearing a methyl group on the nitrogen atom.
It is a powerful biocide and preservative and is the minor active ingredient in the commercial product Exocide.
It has a role as an antifouling biocide, an antimicrobial agent and an antifungal agent.
IUPAC name: 5-Chloro-2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one. Other names: 5-Chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one; 5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; Chloromethylisothiazolinone; Chloromethylisothiazolone; Methylchloroisothiazolinone; Methylchloroisothiazolone; CMI; CMIT; MCI; MCIT; CAS Number: 26172-55-4
Preferred IUPAC name: 2-Methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one. Other names: 2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one; 2-Methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; MIT; MI. CAS Number: 2682-20-4
Features & Benefits
Broad-spectrum of activity
Low level of metal salt
Protection against bacteria and fungi
Wide range of pH stability up to 8.5
Effective at a low level of use 0.05 - 0.15%
No color or odor imparted into end products
Excellent compatibility with surfactants
Safe at recommended use levels
Active Ingredient in this product is listed by EPA in the Safer Chemical Ingredients List (SCIL)
Cleaners and polishes, such as all-purpose cleaners, cleaning and industrial use wipes, floor and furniture polishes/waxes, automotive washes, polishes and waxes
Laundry products, such as liquid laundry detergents, fabric softeners and pre-spotters
Liquid detergents, such as dish wash detergents and general liquid cleaning solution
Other applications, such as moist towelettes, air fresheners, moist sponges, gel air fresheners
Raw materials and surfactants preservation
Chloromethyl-methylisothiazolone (CMIT/MIT) is a broad spectrum biocide which has been used successfully for microbial control and preventing biofouling in industrial water treatment.
ATAMAN CHEMICALS reports over the past 20 years on the efficacy of CMIT/MIT biocide versus Legionella bacteria and the protozoa associated with their growth.
The studies included a wide range of conditions, including single organisms in cooling water and complex model systems with bacteria, biofilms, and protozoa.
Overall, low levels of CMIT/MIT (1-10 ppm active) provided significant reduction in viable counts of various strains and species of Legionella bacteria in planktonic and biofilm studies and also against the amoebae and ciliated protozoa associated with their growth.
ISOTHIAZOLONE BIOCIDES IN WATER TREATMENT
Isothiazolone biocides are widely used for microbial control in industrial water treatment.
The most frequently used product is a 3:1 ratio of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMIT) and 2-methyl- 4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT) at a final concentration of 1.5% total active ingredient.
CMIT/MIT has broad spectrum efficacy versus bacteria, algae, and fungi.
Exocide product is a blend of Isothiazolinones and is composed of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-thiazoline-3-ketone (CMIT) and 2-methyl-4-thiazoline-3-ketone (MIT).
The bactericidal effect of Isothiazolinones is carried out through breaking the bond between the bacteria and algae protein. The product can be used in many industrial applications to inhibit microbes’ growth, and it has inhibition and biocidal effects on ordinary bacteria, fungi and algae.
Isothiazolinones (also CMIT/MIT) is a blended biocide with methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone which carry out the bactericidal effect through breaking the bond of bacteria and algae cell protein. When isothiazolinones contact with microbes, it can quickly break cell protein bond and inhibit their growth, and then lead to the apoptosis of these microbes.
Isothiazolinone products can be effective in controlling both the planktonic and surface growth at very low concentrations and have been produced specifically for oilfield water treatment and paper mill applications.
CMIT/MIT has strong biocidal effects on ordinary bacteria, algae and fungi which has many advantages such as no residue, good compatibleness, high stabilization, good degradation, safety and low cost in operation. Isothiazolinone products can mix with other chlorine biocides and most cation, anion, and non-ionic surfactants.
It can be an excellent eco-friendly sludge remover when used at high dosage. Methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone are fungicidal with properties of high efficiency, broad spectrum, non-oxidative and low toxicity. CMIT/MIT is the most suitable biocide in industrial circulating cool water systems and in wastewater treatment for oilfield, papermaking, pesticide and other industries. Bichain is one of reliable isothiazolinones manufacturers and suppliers of CMIT/MIT, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone for oilfield water treatment.
We supply high quality isothiazolinone products with CAS 55965-84-9.
Area of use
CMIT/MIT is often not stable under certain conditions such as high temperatures or high pH values. Normally it is stabilised with Mg, Cu or Na salts. However, some applications are sensitive to salts or electrolyte.
In this case Exocide 1012 AG is an excellent alternative.
This broadband biocide is used to preserve water-based and water-dilutable chemical/technical products, and can be used as an in-can preservative in technical applications such as paints, adhesives, and household and industrial cleaners.
It is especially suitable for preserving fuels such as diesel, or for use in secondary oil production.
This Exocide is also suitable as a slimicide, protective media for liquids in cooling and production systems, and as a protective medium for fluids used in metalworking.
This biocide formulation has a broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi and yeasts and can be used in many cases where other products fail.
Exocide 1012 AG is free of formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, phenols and heavy metals, and exhibits excellent chemical stability.
It is not volatile, exhibits outstanding long-term effectiveness, and is one of the best examined broadband biocides.
Gypsum, plaster and mortar
Laundry and cleaning agents
Paint and coatings industry
Textile and leather industry
ranges from 3 to 8
Favorable compatibleness and stabilization with a large range of corrosion and scale inhibitors
Cost effective and easy formulation
Available in drums and IBC’s
This biocidal product can be used in industrial circulating cooling water systems.
Other use areas include:
Oil field water
Detergent & cosmetics industries
Methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT or MI) and Methylchloroisothiazolinone (CMIT or CMI) are two preservatives from the family of substances called isothiazolinones, used in some cosmetic products and other household products.
MIT can be used alone to help preserve the product or it may be used together with CMIT as a blend.
Preservatives are an essential element in cosmetic products, protecting products, and so the consumer, against contamination by microorganisms during storage and continued use.
MIT and CMIT are two of the very limited number of ‘broad spectrum’ preservatives, which means they are effective against a variety of bacteria, yeasts and moulds, across a wide range of product types.
MIT and CMIT have been positively approved for use as preservatives for many years under the strict European cosmetics legislation.
The primary purpose of these laws is to protect human safety. One of the ways it does this is by banning certain ingredients and controlling others by limiting their concentration or restricting them to particular product types.
Preservatives may only be used if they are specifically listed in the legislation.
MIT can be used on its own to help preserve cosmetic products.
Following discussions with dermatologists, who reported an increase in cases of allergy to MIT in their clinics, the European cosmetics industry assessed the available information regarding the risk of allergic reactions to MIT, and in December 2013, the European Personal Care Association, Cosmetics Europe, issued a Recommendation for companies to discontinue the use of MIT in leave-on skincare products.
The European Commission’s independent expert scientific panel (the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, SCCS), which advises on safety matters, reviewed the use of MIT in cosmetic products.
In 2013, the SCCS also recommended that MIT be removed from leave-on cosmetic products and that the amount of MIT used in rinse-off cosmetic products should be reduced.
As a result, the European Commission changed the cosmetic law to ban the use of MIT in leave-on cosmetic products. Since 12 February 2017, it is no longer permitted to make these products available to consumers.
In addition, the maximum amount of MIT present in rinse-off products has been reduced and since 27 April 2018, all products made available to consumers must comply with the new limit.
If consumers have been diagnosed as allergic to MIT it is important to check the ingredient list of rinse-off cosmetic products. The name ‘methylisothiazolinone’ will always be listed as ‘methylisothiazolinone’ regardless of where in Europe a product is purchased.
MIT may also be used in a blend with CMIT. If the MIT and CMIT blend is used to preserve a cosmetic product, then the names methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone will both be present in the ingredients list, which every cosmetic product must have either on its carton, pack or label, card etc. at point of sale.
In its review of the MIT/CMIT blend, the SCCS has stated that the MIT/CMIT blend should only be allowed to be used in rinse-off cosmetic products.
As a result, the European cosmetic law was changed to restrict the use of this blend to rinse-off products only from April 2016.
CMIT: Methylchloroisothiazolinone, also referred to as MCI, is a preservative with antibacterial and antifungal effects within the group of isothiazolinones.
These compounds have an active sulphur moiety that is able to oxidize thiol-containing residues, thereby effectively killing most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone is effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone is found in many water-based personal care products and cosmetics.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone was first used in cosmetics in the 1970s. It is also used in glue production, detergents, paints, fuels, and other industrial processes.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone is known by the registered tradename Kathon CG when used in combination with methylisothiazolinone.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone may be used in combination with other preservatives including ethylparaben, benzalkonium chloride, and bronopol.
Methylchloroisothiazolinone can cause allergic reactions in some people. The first publication of the preservative as a contact allergen was in 1988.
Cases of photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis, i.e. worsening of skin lesions after sun exposure, have also been reported.
In pure form or in high concentrations, methylchloroisothiazolinone is a skin and membrane irritant and causes chemical burns.
In the United States, maximum authorized concentrations are 15 ppm in rinse-offs (of a mixture in the ratio 3:1 of 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol 3(2H)-one and 2-methylisothiazol-3 (2H)-one).
In Canada, methylchloroisothiazolinone may only be used in rinse-off products in combination with methylisothiazolinone, the total concentration of the combination may not exceed 15 ppm.
MIT: Methylisothiazolinone, MIT, or MI, (sometimes erroneously called methylisothiazoline), is a powerful synthetic biocide and preservative within the group of isothiazolinones, which is used in numerous personal care products and a wide range of industrial applications.
It is a cytotoxin that may affect different types of cells. Its use for a wide range of personal products for humans, such as cosmetics, lotions, moisturizers, sanitary wipes, shampoos, and sunscreens, more than doubled during the first decade of the twenty-first century and has been reported as a contact sensitizing agent by the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety.
Industrial applications also are quite wide ranging, from preservative and sanitizing uses to antimicrobial agents, energy production, metalworking fluids, mining, paint manufacturing, and paper manufacturing, many of which increase potential exposure to it by humans as well as organisms, both terrestrial and marine.
Industrial applications in marine environments are proving to be toxic to marine life, for instance, when the effect of its now almost-universal use in boat hull paint was examined.
Methylisothiazolinone and other isothiazolinone-derived biocides are used for controlling microbial growth in water-containing solutions.
Two of the most widely used isothiazolinone biocides are 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (chloromethylisothiazolinone or CMIT) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (methylisothiazolinone or MIT), which are the active ingredients in a 3:1 mixture (CMIT:MIT) sold commercially as Exocide.
Exocide is supplied to manufacturers as a concentrated stock solution containing from 1.5-15% of CMIT/MIT. For applications the recommended use level is from 6 ppm to 75 ppm active isothiazolones.
Biocidal applications range from industrial water storage tanks to cooling units, in processes as varied as mining, paper manufacturing, metalworking fluids and energy production.
MIT also has been used to control slime in the manufacture of paper products that contact food. In addition, this product serves as an antimicrobial agent in latex adhesives and in paper coatings that also contact food.
One isothiazolinone, Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolino-3-one, DCOI), has quickly replaced tributyltin as the antifouling agent of choice in ship hull paint. A recent study reported the presence of DCOI in both port water and sediment samples in Osaka, Japan, especially in weakly circulating mooring areas.
Of environmental concern, DCOI levels predicted in marinas now are considered a threat to various marine invertebrate species.
Isothiazolinones also are extremely toxic to fish.
In industrial use, the greatest occupational inhalation exposure occurs during open pouring. Non-occupational exposure to isothiazolinones by the general population also occurs, albeit at much lower concentrations.
These compounds are present in a very large number of commonly used cosmetics.
MIT is allergenic and cytotoxic, and this has led to some concern over its use. A report released by the European Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) in 2003 also concluded that insufficient information was available to allow for an adequate risk assessment analysis of MIT.
Rising reports of consumer impact led to new research, including a report released in 2014 by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety which reported: "The dramatic rise in the rates of reported cases of contact allergy to MI, as detected by diagnostic patch tests, is unprecedented in Europe; there have been repeated warnings about the rise (Gonçalo M, Goossens A. 2013).
The increase is primarily caused by increasing consumer exposure to MI from cosmetic products; exposures to MI in household products, paints and in the occupational setting also need to be considered. The delay in re-evaluation of the safety of MI in cosmetic products is of concern to the SCCS; it has adversely affected consumer safety."
"It is unknown what proportion of the general population is now sensitized to MI and has not been confirmed as sensitized."
In 2014, the European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety further issued a voluntary ban on "the mixture of Methylchloroisothiazolinone (and) Methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) from leave-on products such as body creams. The measure is aimed at reducing the risk from and the incidence of skin allergies.
The preservative can still be used in rinse-off products such as shampoos and shower gels at a maximum concentration of 0.0015 % of a mixture in the ratio 3:1 of MCI/MI.
The measure will apply for products placed on the market after 16 July 2015." Shortly thereafter, Canada moved to adopt similar measures in its Cosmetic Ingredients Hotlist.
Additionally, new research into cross reactivity of MI-sensitized patients to variants benzisothiazolinone and octylisothiazolinone have found that reactions may occur if present in sufficient amounts.
Allergic contact dermatitis
Methylisothiazolinone is used commonly in products in conjunction with methylchloroisothiazolinone, a mixture sold under the registered trade name Kathon CG. A common indication of sensitivity to Kathon CG is allergic contact dermatitis. Sensitization to this family of preservatives was observed as early as the late 1980s.
Due to increased use of isothiazolinone-based preservatives in recent years, an increase in reported incidences of contact allergy to this product has been reported. In 2013 the substance was declared the 2013 Contact Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
In 2016 the Dermatitis Academy launched a call to action for patients to report their isothiazolinone allergy to the FDA.
On December 13, 2013 the trade group, Cosmetics Europe,following discussions with the European Society of Contact Dermatitis (ESCD),recommended to its members "that the use of Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) in leave-on skin products including cosmetic wet wipes is discontinued.
This action is recommended in the interests of consumer safety in relation to adverse skin reactions. It is recommended that companies do not wait for regulatory intervention under the Cosmetics Regulation but implement this recommendation as soon as feasible."
On March 27, 2014, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety issued an opinion on the safety of Methylisothiazolinone. This report only considered the issue of contact sensitization. The committee concluded:
“Current clinical data indicate that 100 ppm MI in cosmetic products is not safe for the consumer.
"For leave-on cosmetic products (including ‘wet wipes’), no safe concentrations of MI for induction of contact allergy or elicitation have been adequately demonstrated.
"For rinse-off cosmetic products, a concentration of 15 ppm (0.0015%) MI is considered safe for the consumer from the view of induction of contact allergy. However, no information is available on elicitation
Kathon CG 5243
55965-84-9 CMIT, MIT
5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (>14% solution in water)
5-Chloro-2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone; 5-Chloro-2-methyl-Isothiazolone; Kathon WT; MCI/MI
5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, tech grade, >14% in water. CMI/MI >2.0
5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE (ACTIVE INGREDIENT >14%, CMI/MI 2.5 - 4.0)
3(2H)-Isothiazolone, 5-chloro-2-methyl- [ACD/Index Name]
5-Chlor-2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-on [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
5-Chloro-2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one [ACD/IUPAC Name]
5-Chloro-2-méthyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MFCD00792550 [MDL number]
55965-84-9 CMIT, MIT
5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (active ingredient >14%, cmi/mi 2.5 - 4.0)
Kathon CG 5243
Plant preservative mixture|PPM
Caswell No. 572A
2-Methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, 50% aqueous solution
Acticide M 10
Acticide M 20
Kathon CG 243
2-Methyl 4-Isothiazoline 3-one
2-Methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, analytical standard
2-Methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-on [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-Methyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-Méthyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one [ACD/IUPAC Name]
3(2H)-Isothiazolone, 2-methyl- [ACD/Index Name]
MFCD01742315 [MDL number]
T5SNVJ B1 [WLN]
2-Methyl 4-Isothiazoline 3-one
2-Methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-one, 50% aqueous solution
50% aqueous solution