D-PANTHENOL

D-panthenol = Dexpanthenol = Provitamin B5 =pantothenol = D-Pantothenyl alcohol

Panthenol or Pantothenol is known to be the alcohol analog of Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5).
Panthenol is a chemical substance which is derived from Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid. 
Panthenol occurs naturally in our body and is also found in plants and animals as well. Panthenol is known to be the precursor of Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid, hence commonly known as Provitamin B5. As compared to Pantothenic Acid, Panthenol is able to penetrate deeper into the skin because of its chemical structure, hence more preferred beauty ingredients in the cosmetic industry as compared to Vitamin B5.

Panthenol has 2 enantiomers i.e chiral molecules which are the mirror images of each other

D-Panthenol or Dexpanthenol
L-Panthenol
D-Panthenol is considered to be biologically more active. Panthenol gets readily converted into Pantothenic Acid in our body.

d-Panthenol Provitamin B5
Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. 
Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturizing properties. 
For cosmetic use, panthenol comes either in D form, or as a racemic mixture of D and L (DL-panthenol). 
Only D-Panthenol is converted to Vitamin B5 and not the L-Panthenol. 
So the racemic dl-Panthenol has only half of the physiological activity of D-Panthenol in skin care.

Panthenol is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care and hair care products. 
It improves the appearance of skin, hair and nails. 
D-Panthenol Care is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5). 
D-Pantothenic acid plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. It is a part of the Coenzyme A. 
Deficiency of Vitamin B5 results in many dermatological disorder. 

Coenzyme A is important for:

structure and function of living tissue
resistance of the mucous membrane
growth and pigmentation of hair
Role in the skin:

deep penetrating moisturizer
stimulates epithelisation
has wound healing effect
has an anti-inflammatory effect
Role in the hair:

long lasting moisturizer
prevents hair damage
thickens hair
improves luster and sheen
Role in nail care:

improves hydration
imparts flexibility


Display Name: Dexpanthenol
EC Number: 201-327-3
EC Name: Dexpanthenol
CAS Number: 81-13-0
Molecular formula: C9H19NO4
IUPAC Name: (2R)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide


OTHER NAMES OF PANTHENOL VISIBLE ON THE INGREDIENT LIST 
Butanamide
Dexpanthenol
D-pantothenyl alcohol
Alcohol analog of Pantothenic Acid
Provitamin B5

D-Panthenol is increasingly being used in many skincare, hair care and makeup products because of its moisturizing effect.
Panthenol and Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) have the same biological activity and Panthenol can be converted (by oxidation) to vitamin B5 in the skin.

Its moisturizing effect is the same on both your skin and hair. It works well with other humectants such as glycerine and hyaluronic acid in your cosmetic products. It helps to promote soft and shiny hair. It smooths out the wrinkles and fine lines from your skin, thereby nourishing and moisturizing your skin. Due to its beauty benefits, D-Panthenol regularly pops up in your cosmetic and beauty products. Other than moisturizing, D-Panthenol is also beneficial in wound healing and repairing the damaged cells and tissues. It acts as a protective barrier on the skin surface preventing moisture loss.

Synonyms: (R)-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide; (R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyric 3-hydroxypropylamide; D-Pantothenyl alcohol; Dexpanthenol; Provitamin B

D-Panthenol is an analogue of pantothenic acid, a member of the B complex vitamins. D-Panthenol is the biologically active enantiomer of Panthenol.

D-Panthenol USP, D-Panthenol 50 P, D-Panthenol 75 W, DL-Panthenol 50 W

Synomyms: Panthenol, pantothenyl alcohol, provitmain B5, dexpanthenol
Molecular formula: C9H19O4N
Molar mass:  205.3 g/mol

Grades available 
D-Panthenol USP
D-Panthenol 50 P
D-Panthenol 75 W
DL-Panthenol 50 W


D-Panthenol USP = CAS-No. 81-13-0 (D- Panthenol)
D-Panthenol 50 P = Panthenol (and) Propylene Glycol
D-Panthenol 75 W = Panthenol (and) Water
DL-Panthenol 50 W = Panthenol (and) Water


D-Panthenol USP = CAS-No. 81-13-0 (D- Panthenol)
D-Panthenol 50 P= 81-13-0 (D-Panthenol), 57-55-6 (Propylene glycol)
D-Panthenol 75 W = 81-13-0 (D-Panthenol),7732-18-5 (Water)
DL-Panthenol 50 W = 16485-10-2 (DL-Panthenol), 7732-18-5 (Water)

D-Panthenol USP
Parameter Specification Limits
Identification Conforms
Assay Minimum: 98.0%
Not more than: 102.0%
Aminopropanol: Not more than 1.0%
Organic volatile impurities: Conforms
Appearance: Clear, viscous liquid
Refractive Index:  Min. 1.495, max. 1.502
Specific Rotation: Min. +29.0, max.+31.5
Water Content: Max. 1.0%
Residue on Ignition: Not more than 0.1%

D-Panthenol 50 P
Parameter Specification Limits
Identification Conforms
Assay: Minimum 50%
Maximum: 55%
Aminopropanol: Maximum 0.5%
Appearance: Clear liquid


D-Panthenol 75 W
Parameter Specification Limits
Identification Conforms
Assay Minimum 75%
Aminopropanol Maximum 1.0%
Heavy Metals Maximum 10 ppm
pH-value 5.5 to 7.0
Appearance Clear liquid
Residue on Ignition Maximum 0.3%


DL-Panthenol 50 W
Parameter Specification Limits
Identification Conforms
Assay: Minimum 50%
Aminopropanol: Maximum 2.0%
Heavy Metals: Maximum 20 ppm
Appearance: Clear liquid
pH-value: 4.0 to 7.5
Residue on Ignition: Maximum 0.5%


D-panthenol is an active ingredient for further processing in the cosmetics industry.
D-panthenol improves the appearance of skin and hair.


D-Panthenol is an active for skin and hair care formulations that improves the appearance of skin and hair. 
D-Panthenol provides moisturization and anti-inflammatory benefits to skin and improves shine, prevents damage and moisturizes hair.

Dexpanthenol is the alcohol analog of vitamin B5.


Pro-Vitamin B5 acts as a skin moisturiser, helping to keep skin soft, smooth and healthy. 
Provitamin B5 also acts as an anti-inflammatory by stimulating your skin's healing processes. 
Provitamin B5 is deeply hydrating and it even helps to keep skin moist by absorbing moisture from the air 

D-Panthenol is an active for skin and hair care formulations that improves the appearance of skin and hair. 

D-Panthenol provides moisturization and anti-inflammatory benefits to skin and improves shine, prevents damage and moisturizes hair.

Panthenol is a B vitamin precursor (pro-vitamin B5) and substantially involved in regenerative metabolic processes of the skin. 
D-panthenol itself has no cosmetic effect but becomes active when it is converted into the cosmetically effective pantothenic acid. 
Because of its high compatibility, it is often used for baby care products, also in healing diaper creams. 
It has a moisture-binding, anti-inflammatory, regenerative and healing effect. 
Panthenol also strengthens the barrier function of the skin and improves its elasticity, promoting new cell formation in wounds. 
This is why it is also be used in cases of injuries or sunburn. Since the blood flow is reduced, skin redness subsides quickly and itching is reduced. 
Also, surfactant-or sun-damaged skin can recover quickly with the help of panthenol.
In hair care products, Panthenol moisturizes and smoothes. It can penetrate into the hair shaft and retain moisture there, or be included as provitamin over the scalp in the hair roots. 
When used in nail care it promotes flexibility and has a water-binding effect.

Cosmetic properties:

particularly compatible, ideal for baby care
healing, anti-inflammatory and regenerating, suitable for diaper care
binds moisture and promotes barrier function and skin elasticity, proven for the care of damaged, itchy skin, ideal after-sun care
can make redness fade
ideal for hair care, moisturizing & smoothing
increasing flexibility & water binding in nail care

D-panthenol is an active ingredient that helps to moisturize, revitalizes, nourishes and softens dry, damaged, irritated and sun-damaged skin and hair.

Provitamin B5 (synonyms: D-pantothenyl alcohol, pantothenol, dexpanthenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)


D-panthenol is moisturizer for skin and hair care. 
D-Panthenol (pro-vitamin B5) is a viscous liquid. 
D-Panthenol (or D-Panthenol 75L) is the form best suited for biological or physiological activity such as wound healing and soothing, stimulation of epithelization, etc. 
Beneficial for very dry, cracked, and rough skin. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.


d-Panthenol, also known as Pro-vitamin B5, is an active ingredient that can drastically improve the appearance of hair, skin and nails. 

When used in hair care, d-panthenol acts as a long-lasting moisturiser that can thicken the hair and prevent damage, while simultaneously improving sheen and lustre.

Deeply beneficial to the skin, our d-Panthenol can act as a deeply penetrating moisturiser with added anti-inflammatory benefits. 
When used in nail care it improves hydration and imparts flexibility.


Usage Rate: 0.1-5.0% (Hair Care), 0.5 -5.0% (Skin Care), 1% (Nail Care)
INCI: Panthenol
CAS Number: 81-13-0 (D-panthenol)
EINENS Number: 201-327-3 
Activity level: 75%
Vegan & Vegetarian: Yes

Panthenol improves and increases the humidity properties of the skin (moisturising effect), it also makes dry skin softer and more elastic. 
It has an anti-inflammatory effect and soothes irritated skin and it helps to heal minor wounds (shaving, skin grazes and blisters) Very popular in hair care products.


Panthenol, also known as provitamin B5, is the biologically active precursor of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid). 
A major physiological function of vitamin B5 is its conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA), which participates in many metabolic processes involving carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. 
Panthenol is essentially the alcohol form of vitamin B5.

Panthenol is most well known for its humectant properties—it is hygroscopic—thereby leading to its inclusion in moisturizing formulations. 
Several reports in the literature highlight panthenol’s moisturizing properties and ability to improve the appearance and physical properties (e.g., smoothness) of skin.
It has a long history of use in cosmetic products and good toxicological profile.

In addition, topically applied panthenol helps to heal wounds, burns, and dermatitis. 
There have been reports purporting the anti-inflammatory activity of panthenol, which would explain its efficacy as a healing agent.
In fact, a clinical study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of nanotopes loaded with panthenol in the treatment of erythema induced by UV radiation.
Moreover, it was shown to alleviate inflammation caused by sodium lauryl sulfate treatment.
A recent study demonstrated that gene expression is modulated as a result of panthenol treatment during wound healing.

Panthenol is also used in hair care compositions—mostly in conditioner and shampoo formulations—for its humectant properties. 
A search of the patent literature reveals a number of inventions in which panthenol is used in combination with other ingredients as an adjuvant treatment in hair care. 
However, there are no comprehensive reports in the scientific literature examining the benefits of panthenol in the treatment of hair.

The detection of the concentration of panthenol in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations is important from a quality control and product stability standpoint. 
A number of studies have focused on chromatography technicques, alone or in combination with mass spectrometry.
Other methods take advantage of the optical properties of panthenol and employ colorimetric or spectrofluoremetric determination of the chromophore.


Dexpanthenol is an alcohol derivative of pantothenic acid, a component of the B complex vitamins and an essential component of a normally functioning epithelium. 
Dexpanthenol is enzymatically cleaved to form pantothenic acid, which is an essential component of Coenzyme A, which acts as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions that are important for protein metabolism in the epithelium. 
Due to its good penetration and high local concentrations, dexpanthanol is used in many topical products, such as ointments and lotions for treatment of dermatological conditions to relieve itching or promote healing. Dermatological effects of the topical use of dexpanthenol include increased fibroblast proliferation and accelerated re-epithelialization in wound healing.

Furthermore, it acts as a topical protectant, moisturizer, and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties.


d-Panthenol (provitamin B5) and salt of pantothenic acid are used in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for their skin emollient, regenerating and hair conditioning properties

Applications 
Panthenol is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care and hair care products. It improves the appearance of skin, hair and nails.
D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vita­min B5). 
D-Pantothenic acid plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. 
It is a part of the Coenzym A. 
Deficiency of Vitamin B5 results in many dermatological disorder.

Coenzym A is important for:
• structure and function of living tissue
• resistance of the mucous membrane
• growth and pigmentation of hair

Role in the skin:
• deep penetrating moisturizer
• stimulates epithelisation
• has wound healing effect
• has an anti-inflammatory effect

Role in the hair:
• long lasting moisturizer
• prevents hair damage
• thickens hair
• improves luster and sheen

Role in nail care:
• improves hydration
• imparts flexibility

Synonyms:
     dexpanthenol
(R)-2,4-    dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl butanamide
(R)-2,4-    dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide
dextro(+)-alpha,gamma-    dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl butyramide
D(+)-alpha,gamma-    dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-beta,beta-dimethylbutyramide
(+)-    panthenol
D-    panthenol
D-    pantothenyl alcohol
dextro-    pantothenyl alcohol
     sinecort


PANTHENOL
Pro-Vitamin B5. Panthenol is a soothing agent and moisturizer. It helps the skin to attract water and then hold onto it.
PANTHENOL is classified as :
Antistatic
Hair conditioning
Skin conditioning
CAS Number: 81-13-0 / 16485-10-2
EINECS/ELINCS No: 201-327-3 / 240-540-6
COSING REF No:    35839
INN Name: dexpanthenol
PHARMACEUTICAL EUROPEAN NAME:    dexpanthenolum
Chem/IUPAC Name: Butanamide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (2R)-; dl-Panthenol

D-Panthenol is the Provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), and is used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in many types of cosmetic preparations.

Use Of D-Panthenol:

D-Panthenol is used in hair care, skin moisturizers, and helps skin wounds heal, fight inflammation, and is good for post-sun repair. It is widely used in medicine, food, cosmetics and liquid preparations.


Panthenol (pantothenol) is an alcohol form of the B5 vitamin pantothenic acid. 
It easily penetrates the skin retaining water and is a humectant, emollient and moisturizer. 
Panthenol mitigates signs of inflammation and stimulates epithelization. Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. 
Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturizing properties. 
Because of the ability to attract and hold moisture panthenol is used in skincare products as a humectant. 
It also has a role as provitamin (called pro-vitamin B5) and is used as a vitamin supplement in complex and alone, and as a cholinergic drug. 
Panthenol is a highly viscous transparent liquid at room temperature, but salts of pantothenic acid (sodium pantothenate) are powders (typically white). 
It is soluble in water, alcohol, propylene glycol, ether and chloroform, and slightly soluble in glycerin. 
Panthenol mixes readily with many different types of ingredients, making it a versatile ingredient to be used in formulas because it improves skin’s barrier function and maintains the proliferation of fibroblasts. 
In organisms it is quickly oxidized to pantothenate (pantothenic acid). 
Defficiency of Vitamin B5 results in many dermatological disorder. 
Due to the fact that only D-Panthenol is converted to Vitamin B5 and not L-Panthenol, the racemic mixture of D- and L- panthenol (DL-panthenol) has only half of the physiological activity of the D-Panthenol. 
These include stimulation of epithelisation, wound healing effect and anti-infl ammatory effect. 
Panthenol is FDA approved for cosmetic use and comes either in D form, or as a racemic mixture. 
It is also in the FDA list of over-the-counter drug products that are not generally recognized as safe and effective or are misbranded: as "Insect Bite and Sting Drug Products" and "Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Drug Products".


SUGGESTED USE: Skincare, haircare, and cosmetic use only.

BENEFITS: D-Panthenol is great for treating minor wounds such as those caused by shaving and scratches to the skin. Its anti-inflammatory effect first soothes, then helps prevent damaged skin. Found in many nail formulas, D-Panthenol strengthens as it protects.
This great product leaves your hair shiny and manageable and fights split ends in the process. 

Common uses: Hair & Nail formulations.

Applications
D-Panthenol is used as precursors in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A. 
D-Panthenol and D-Pantothenic acid are used in a variety of skin protection products. 
D-pantothenic acid have a role in controlling keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. 
D-Panthenol is used for studies of skin protection emulsions from UV irradiation and as a humectant. 
It is also used in creams, lotions, shampoos, conditioners and body washes.


D-Panthenol USP is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care and hair care products, improving the appearance of skin, hair and nails. It is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), playing a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. This product has applications as a healing effect for the structure and function of living tissue, and has deep penetrating moisturizing properties for the growth and pigmentation of hair.

D-Panthenol USP/BP/IP

D-pantothenyl alcohol. Acts as a moisturizing, healing and anti-inflammatory active. 
It is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), which plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. It is hygroscopic in nature. 
It stimulates epithelization and prevents hair damage. It thickens hair & improves luster and sheen. 
Increases hydration and imparts flexibility to nails. Used in skin care, hair care and nail care products.

Benefits: 
Anti-inflammatories
Healing Agents
Moisturizing Agents

GRADES AVAILABLE :

Description    
INCI name

D-Panthenol USP    
100% D-Panthenol

Panthenol
D-Panthenol 75L    
75% D-Panthenol

Panthenol & Aqua
DL-Panthenol 50L    
50% DL-Panthenol

Panthenol & Aqua
Ethyl Panthenol    
100% Ethyl Panthenol

Ethyl Panthenol
Calcium D-Pantothenate    
100% Calcium Pantothenate    
Calcium Pantothenate


D-Panthenol/Dexpanthenol
D-Panthenol is the more stable alcohol form of Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5), when applied topically DPanthenol is absorbed by the skin where it is converted into Pantothenic Acid.
CAS No. / EINECS 81-13-0 / 201-327-3
CN Code 2936 2400
INCI/CTFA Panthenol

D-(+)-Panthenol
(+)-Panthenol
(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-diméthylbutanamide [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
(D)-(+)-2, 4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
(R)-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
(R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyric 3-hydroxypropylamide
(R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
1023
1724947 [Beilstein]
1O6C93RI7Z
201-327-3 [EINECS]
4-04-00-01652 [Beilstein]
81-13-0 [RN]
Butanamide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (2R)- [ACD/Index Name]
D-(+)-α,γ-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-β,β-dimethylbutyramide
dexpantenol [Spanish] [INN]
Dexpanthenol [INN] [USP] [Wiki]
dexpanthénol [French] [INN]
Dexpanthenol (Pantothenyl Alcohol)
dexpanthenolum [Latin] [INN]
Dexpanthenolum
D-Panthenol
D-PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL
Intrapan [Trade name]
MFCD00065006 [MDL number]
N-Pantoyl-3-propanolamine
Panthenol [BAN] [INN] [JAN] [USAN] [USP] [Wiki]
Panthenol, (+)-
Pantothenol
Penthenol
Provitamin B
Q3MVYQX1&1&1Q &&R Form [WLN]
декспантенол [Russian] [INN]
ديكسبانثينول [Arabic] [INN]
右泛醇 [Chinese] [INN]
(2R)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-butanamide
(2R)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-butyramide
(R)-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide
(R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl
(R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide
[81-13-0]
1113-70-8 [RN]
240-540-6 [EINECS]
Alcopan-250
Bepanthen
Bepanthene
Bepantol
BPBio1_000093
BSPBio_000083
Calcium D-Pantothenate USP/BP/EP/IP
Cozyme
d (+)-panthenol
D Panthenol
D-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
D(+)-Panthenol
D(+)-Pantothenyl alcohol
D-(+)-Pantothenyl alcohol
Dexpantenol
Dexpanthenol|D-Pantothenyl alcohol
Dextro pantothenyl alcohol
D-P-A Injection
D-Panthenol 10 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
d-panthenol 98%
D-Panthenol USP/BP/IP
d-panthenol, 98+%
D-Panthenol;Dexpanthenol
d-Pantothenol
ES4316000
Fancol DL
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:27373
Ilopan [Trade name]
Motilyn
NCGC00142622-01
NCGC00142622-03
N-Pantoyl-propanolamine
Panadon
Pantenol
Pantenolo
Pantenyl
Panthenolum
PANTHODERM
Pantol
Pantothenyl alcohol
Pantothenylol
Prestwick2_000022
Prestwick3_000022
Propanolamine, N-pantoyl-
Provitamin B5
SBB012405
Synapan
Thenalton
UNII:1O6C93RI7Z
UNII-1O6C93RI7Z
UNII-WV9CM0O67Z
Urupan
Varitan
Zentinic

D-Panthenol is the alcohol analogue and biological precursor of D-pantothenic acid. 
These analogues are precursors in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A. 
D-Panthenol and D-Pantothenic acid are used in a variety of skin protection products. 
D-pantothenic acid may have a role in controlling keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. 
D-Panthenol may be used for studies of skin protection emulsions from UV irradiation and as a humectant.

D-Panthenol is the moisturizing vitamin ingredient for effective skin and hair care cosmetic applications
The vitamin ingredient Panthenol is valued in skin and hair care applications for its moisturizing properties. 
D-Panthenol has anti-inflammatory effects and soothes irritated and sensitive skin. 
For hair care application D-Panthenol is known for its humectant properties and its ability to improve the resistance of hair to mechanical stress.

Preferred IUPAC name
2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide[1]
Other names
Pantothenol
Pantothenyl alcohol
N-Pantoylpropanolamine
Bepanthen (trade name)
Dexpanthenol (D form)
Identifiers

CAS Number    
16485-10-2 check
81-13-0 R check
3D model (JSmol)    

ECHA InfoCard: 100.036.839 
EC Number: 240-540-6
MeSH: dexpanthenol
    

Properties
Chemical formula: C9H19NO4
Molar mass: 205.254 g·mol−1
Appearance: Highly viscous, colourless liquid
Density: 1.2 g mL−1 (at 20 °C)
Melting point: 66 to 69 °C (151 to 156 °F; 339 to 342 K) [contradictory]
Boiling point: 118 to 120 °C (244 to 248 °F; 391 to 393 K) at 2.7 Pa
log P : −0.989
Acidity (pKa): 13.033
Basicity (pKb): 0.964
Chiral rotation ([α]D): +29° to +30°
Refractive index (nD): 1.499


Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5. 
In organisms it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. It is a viscous transparent liquid at room temperature. 
Panthenol is used as a moisturizer and to improve wound healing in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

In pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and personal-care products, panthenol is a moisturizer and humectant, used in ointments, lotions, shampoos, nasal sprays, eye drops, lozenges, and cleaning solutions for contact lenses.

In ointments it is used for the treatment of sunburns, mild burns, minor skin injuries and disorders (in concentrations of up to 2–5%).
D-Panthenol improves hydration, reduces itching and inflammation of the skin, improves skin elasticity, and accelerates epidermal wounds' rate of healing.
For this purpose, it is sometimes combined with allantoin.

D-Panthenol binds to the hair shaft readily; so, it is a common component of commercial shampoos and hair conditioners (in concentrations of 0.1–1%). 
D-Panthenol coats the hair and seals its surface,lubricating the hair shaft and giving it a shiny appearance.

D-Panthenol is also recommended by tattoo artists as a post-tattooing moisturising cream.

Pharmacology
Panthenol readily penetrates into the skin and mucous membranes (including the intestinal mucosa), where it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is extremely hygroscopic, that is, it binds water effectively. It is also used in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, which plays a role in a wide range of enzymatic reactions and thus in cell growth.


Physical and chemical properties

Dexpanthenol
Panthenol is an odourless, slightly bitter, highly viscous, transparent and colourless liquid at room temperature, but salts of pantothenic acid (for example sodium pantothenate) are powders (typically white). 

It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, moderately soluble in diethyl ether, soluble in chloroform (1:100), in propylene glycol, and slightly soluble in glycerin.

Panthenol's expanded chemical formula is HO–CH2–C(CH3)2–CH(OH)–CONH–CH2CH2CH2–OH.

Stereochemistry
Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturizing properties. 
For cosmetic use, panthenol comes either in D form, or as a racemic mixture of D and L (DL-panthenol).

Formulating
D-Panthenol is a highly viscous, very water soluble material. 
To make it easy to handle it could be mixed with warm water, but also exposed to heat in water bath. Exposure to heat exceeding 70°C-75°C may cause racemization. 
D-Panthenol is stable in neutral or less acidic aqueous solution (ph 4-6), less stable in acidic or alkaline aqueous solution by hydrolytic cleavage.

The recommended usage level of D-Panthenol is 0.3% to 5.0%.

Toxicological Data
The Expert Panel released the Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Pantothenic Acid stating that Panthenol is safe as presently used in cosmetic products.
A CIR (cosmetic ingredient review) report is available.

Physiological function
• D-Panthenol is the more stable alcohol form of Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5), when applied topically D-Panthenol is absorbed by the skin where it is converted into Pantothenic Acid.
• in nature only the biological D-form is present, the L-form has no vitamin activity
• conversion from Pantothenic Acid to Coenzyme A in the body

Efficacy of D-Panthenol in cosmetic products*
• stimulates the wound-healing
• very good moisturizing properties
• anti-inflammatory and anti-irritation
• humectant for hair
• strong deposition onto the cuticula, makes the hair easier to comb, glossy hair
• deep penetration into the hair cortex, strengthens the hair shaft
• penetrates the scalp and provide the hair roots with Pantothenic Acid
• increase the water retention of the keratin structure of the nails
• improves flexibility and stability of nails

Recommended concentrations 
Panthenol, %
Skin care (D-Panthenol): 0.5 - 5.0
Face creams: 0.5 - 5.0
Body lotions: 0.5 - 2.0
Hand cream:  0.5 - 3.0
Lipsticks: 1.5
After shave lotion: 1.0 – 5.0
Anti-perspirant: 0.5 - 1.0
Sun protection lotion: 1.0 - 5.0
After sun lotion: 1.0 - 5.0
Soap and bath preparations: 0.5 - 3.0
Hair care(D-Panthenol or DL-Panthenol): 0.1 - 5.0
Shampoo: 0.1 - 5.0
Hair spray: 0.1 - 0.5
Styling mousse:  0.1 - 0.5
Conditioner (rinse-off): 0.5 - 5.0
Conditioner (leave-on): 0.1 - 0.5
Nail care(D-Panthenol or DL-Panthenol): 1.0
For skin care products the use of D-Panthenol is recommended. For hair care and nail care products both D- and DL-Panthenol can be used.
Solubility Panthenol is readily miscible with water, ethanol, methanol and propylene glycol.
It is insoluble in oils and fats.

Panthenol is a chemical substance made from pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B-5. 
It occurs organically and can also be produced from both plant and animal sources. 
It’s used as an additive in various cosmetic products around the globe.


Panthenol takes the form of either a white powder or a transparent oil at room temperature. 
You will sometimes see panthenol listed under one of its other names on ingredients list, including:

dexpanthenol
D-pantothenyl alcohol
butanamide
alcohol analog of pantothenic acid
provitamin B-5
When absorbed into the body, panthenol becomes vitamin B-5.


Product Features
D-Panthenol maintains a healthy skin: right balance between the stem cell renewal and the cell differentiation 
D-Panthenol increases stratum corneum hydration by inducing long-lasting skin moisturization
D-Panthenol reinforces the skin barrier by reducing transepidermal water loss 
D-Panthenol is produced with the highest standards 
D-Panthenol forms show very good compatibility with all groups of cosmetics ingredients

Benefits
D-Panthenol regenerates healthy skin maintaining cell stemness
D-Panthenol Improves symptoms of sensitive skin: dryness, roughness, redness, pruritus
D-Panthenol accelerates wound-healing
D-Panthenol moisturizes hair, strengthens damaged hair and reduces split ends
D-Panthenol reinforces the nails
D-Panthenol improves hydration and maintain skin softness and elasticity


Mode of Action
Panthenol is well absorbed into the skin and quickly converted into Pantothenic acid by oxidation. 
Pantothenic acid is distributed into the cells and is converted to Acetyl Coenzyme-A (Acetyl CoA) in the cells of the epidermis. 
Human being require Vitamin B5 to synthesize Acetyl CoA which is an essential mediator to many biochemical reactions that sustain life (maintenance and repair of all cells) and which breaks down fats, carbohydrates and proteins for carbon dioxide, water, and energy generation. 
Furthermore, it synthesis fatty acids and sphingolipids, for stratum corneum lipid layers and cell membrane integrity & fluidity.

Skin Benefits And Uses Of D-Panthenol

D-Panthenol benefits for skin
D-Panthenol is a nutrient from the B vitamin family that helps manage the negative results that oxidative stress can have on our skin, such as redness, fine lines, skin roughness and more. 
Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, works to support skin in numerous ways, first by maintaining the strength of the skin’s outer barrier, then by infusing skin cells with nutrients that go to work to fight the environmental toxins that are also stressors to our skin.
D-Panthenol helps nourish and add vital moisture to skin, first by sealing in hydration by boosting the skin barrier, but also by helping to rejuvenate and revitalize skin cells, helping to defy the aging process.

D-Panthenol is believed to be effective as a skin-friendly nutrient is its ability to manage the healthy levels of fibroblasts – the cells that are most prolific in our skin’s connective tissue – which in turn boosts collagen and elastin, the proteins that help keep skin luminous, elastic and even toned.

This form of vitamin B5 easily penetrates the skin, allowing it to promote recovery and revitalization of skin cells. 

D-Panthenol is a key ingredient across the range of dermatologically tested products.

Uses of D-Panthenol
In addition to skin care, D-Panthenol is often used in hair care products because its humectant properties help increase elasticity while boosting the moisture content to keep strands looking healthy and radiant with deep shine.

Source and sustainability of D-Panthenol
Because D-Panthenol is derived from pantothenic acid (known as vitamin B5), which is often extracted from honey, it is a sustainable, environmentally friendly product.

D-PANTHENOL 75 W-PL
Function: Anti-inflammatory Active
Form of Delivery: Liquid
Chemical Description: Dexpanthenol
INCI: Panthenol
Appearance / Product characteristics: Clear, colorless to light yellow liquid
Use: Active ingredient and Provitamin for improved appearance of skin, hair and nails.

Application
•    After Sun 
•    Antiperspirants & Deodorants 
•    Baby Care and Cleansing 
•    Body Care 
•    Conditioning 
•    Face Care 
•    Face Cleansing 
•    Liquid Soap
•    Personal Care Wipes 
•    Self Tanning 
•    Shampoo
•    Shower/Bath Products 
•    Sun Protection


Description: Provitamin B5 (synonyms: D-pantothenyl alcohol, pantothenol, dexpanthenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Activity 75%. pH 8-9. 
Clear viscous liquid, no or faint odor. 
Soluble in water & alcohol, not in oils.

CAS: 81-13-0, 7732-18-5

INCI Name: D-panthenol, water

Benefits:
- Penetrates readily into skin & hair
- Has good moisturizing and softening properties
- Soothes irritated and blemished skin
- Gives the hair moisture & shine and reduces split ends.

Use: Add to cold or hot formulas, usual final concentration 0.5-5%. For external use only.
Applications: Creams, lotions, shampoos, conditioners, body washes, makeup.
Raw material source: Propanolamine and beta-dimethylbutyrolactone
Manufacture: Panthenol is synthetically produced by combining propanolamine and beta-dimethylbutyrolactone.
Animal Testing: Not animal tested
GMO: GMO free (does not contain plant-derived components)
Vegan: Does not contain animal-derived components

Cosmetic Ingredient Functions
Anti-Aging Agent
Anti-Inflammatory Agent
Conditioner
Hair Straightening Agent
Healing Agent
Humectant
Hydrophillic Agent
Moisturizing Agent
Protective Agent
Skin Barrier Protectants
Smoothing Agent
Soothing Agent


Technologies
Cosmetic Ingredients
Product Families
Cosmetic Ingredients — Functionals
Conditioners & Emollients
Other Functional Additives
Sensorial Modifiers
Cosmetic Ingredients — Cosmetic Actives
Hair Actives
Other OTC Actives
Skin Actives
Cosmetic Ingredients — Vitamins, Extracts & Oils
Vitamins & Derivatives
Features & Benefits
Benefit Claims
Anti-Aging
Anti-Inflammatory
Conditioning
Hair Straightening
Healing
Humectancy
Moisturizing
Skin Protection

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Labeling Claims
BSE-free
Fragrance allergen-free
Non-GMO
Preservative-free
Origin
Synthetic
Product Highlights
Increases stratum corneum hydration by inducing long-lasting skin moisturization
Maintains a healthy skin: right balance between the stem cell renewal and the cell differentiation (p63 upregulated)
Panthenol forms show very good compatibility with all groups of cosmetics ingredients
Panthenol is produced with the highest standards in Dalry, Scotland a world-class DSM-owned facility honored with the CEFIC award for sustainable production processes
Reinforces the skin barrier by reducing transepidermal water loss (TEWL)

Key Attributes
Regenerates healthy skin maintaining cell stemness
Improvement symptoms of sensitive skin:
dryness, roughness, redness, pruritus
Accelerates wound-healing
Moisturizes hair, strengthens damaged hair and reduces split ends
Reinforces the nails
Improves hydration and maintain skin softness and elasticity
Applications & Uses

Markets
Home & Personal Care

Applications
Home & Personal Care — Beauty & Care
AP/Deo
Bath & Shower
Color Cosmetics
Hair Care
Nail Care
Other Beauty & Care
Skin Care
Sun Care
Home & Personal Care — Personal Hygiene
Hand Hygiene
Application Format
Bar
Creams
Gel
Lotions
Powder
Rinse Off
Roll On
Spray

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AP/Deo Applications
Antiperspirants & Deodorants
Bath & Shower Applications
Body Creams & Lotions
Hand Soap
Shower Gels
Color Cosmetic Applications
Eye Liner
Eye Shadow
Foundation
Lipstick
Mascara
Hair Care Applications
Shampoos & Rinses
Other Beauty & Care Applications
Hand Soap
Skin Care Applications
Body Creams & Lotions
Face Creams & Lotions
Hand Cream
Make Up Remover
Sun Care Applications
Sunscreen Lotions & Sprays
Use Level: 0.5 - 5%

Properties
Ingredient Origin: Chemical Synthesis
Physical Form: Liquid
Physical Form: Liquid
Odor: Odorless
Color: Colorless to slightly yellow

Appearance
Clear,Colorless to slightly Yellow,Viscous Liquid
Slightly Soluble In Ether
Insoluble in Fats and oils


Description: Provitamin B5 (synonyms: D-pantothenyl alcohol, pantothenol, dexpanthenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Activity 75%. pH 8-9. Stabilized & preserved with 1% D-pantolactone. Clear viscous liquid, no or faint odor. Soluble in water & alcohol, not in oils.
CAS: 81-13-0, 7732-18-5
INCI Name: D-panthenol, water

Benefits:
Penetrates readily into skin & hair
Has good moisturizing and softening properties
Soothes irritated and blemished skin
Gives the hair moisture & shine and reduces split ends.
Use: Add to cold or hot formulas, usual final concentration 0.5-5%. For external use only.
Applications: Creams, lotions, shampoos, conditioners, body washes, makeup.

Raw material source: Propanolamine and beta-dimethylbutyrolactone
Manufacture: Panthenol is synthetically produced by combining propanolamine and beta-dimethylbutyrolactone.
Animal Testing: Not animal tested
GMO: GMO free (does not contain plant-derived components)
Vegan: Does not contain animal-derived components


Product Applications: After Sun Care, Anti-Aging, Baby Care, Body Care, Face Care, Hair Care, Hair Cleansing, Hair Conditioning, Hair Styling, Hair Treatment, Hand & Nail Care, Lip Care, Oral Care, OTC, Pharmaceutical, Skin Care, Sun Care

Description
Panthenol is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care and hair care products. 
It improves the appearance of skin, hair and nails. 
D-Panthenol Care is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5). 
D-Pantothenic acid plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. 
It is a part of the Coenzyme A. Deficiency of Vitamin B5 results in many dermatological disorder. 
Coenzyme A is important for:

structure and function of living tissue
resistance of the mucous membrane
growth and pigmentation of hair
Role in the skin:

deep penetrating moisturizer
stimulates epithelisation
has wound healing effect
has an anti-inflammatory effect
Role in the hair:

long lasting moisturizer
prevents hair damage
thickens hair
improves luster and sheen
Role in nail care:

improves hydration
imparts flexibility
 

D-Panthenol Care is also applied in the pharmaceutical industry. The main areas of pharmaceutical application are syrups, drops, ampoules, creams, gels and capsules. 
In liquid multi-vitamin and Vitamin B complex preparations D-Panthenol is nearly always preferred to the D-Pantothenates because it is usually considerably more stable at the pH values below 5 usually employed in these preparations.
Lastly it is also used in oral care for its soothing properties.

D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-pantothenic acid. 
The substance, also known as pro-vitamin B5, is valued in skin and hair care for its moisturising properties and strengthening and moisturising conditioner for hair care products, especially conditioners. 
Panthenol is hygroscopic, since it acts as a humectant and adheres strongly to the cuticle and penetrates deep into the cortex of the hair shaft, thus improving the resistance of hair to mechanical stress.


Description : Panthenol is a considerable strengthening and moisturising conditioner for the hair. Because it is tends to absorb moisture from the air, it acts as a humectant and adheres strongly to the cuticle and penetrates deep into the hair shaft, thus improving the resistance of the hair to mechanical stress.

Suggestions for use: D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-pantothenic acid. The substance, also known as pro-vitamin B5, is valued in skin and hair care for its moisturising properties. However, the influence of panthenol on the tissue repair process together with its anti-inflammatory properties also make it ideal for soothing sensitive or irritated skin.


D-panthenol is the dextrorotatory form (form in which biological activity is the greatest) of vitamin B5, which is metabolized into pantothenic acid in the epidermis. D-panthenol is a small molecule which, although very hydrosoluble, easily penetrates the skin (unlike pantothenic acid), leaving a fine film on the surface.
Its acid form is found in all living cells as it is also found in the composition of coenzyme A (CoA) and acetyl CoA. These two elements are essential to the Krebs cycle, the source of cell energy. Pantothenic acid is therefore involved in glucid, lipid and protein metabolism. Deficiency in vitamin B5, which is omnipresent in food (particularly abundant in meat, fish, yeasts, vegetables and eggs), may cause physiological and dermatological disorders.
Numerous lip treatments already contain D-panthenol to repair cracks and moisturize the lips.

 

ACTION MECHANISMS / PROOFS OF EFFECTIVENESS
D-panthenol easily penetrates the epidermis [1].
D-panthenol induces the synthesis of a precursor of fatty acids and sphingolipids, which are essential in forming the lipid bilayer of the stratum corneum. D-panthenol helps to repair [3] the cutaneous barrier, improve moisturization, reduce roughness and indirectly reduce inflammation (as the barrier function is restored, it will thus restrict the penetration of potentially irritant agents), and this at a concentration of 5% [2].
The cicatrizing property of D-panthenol is due to its mitotic activity on the fibroblasts. The mitotic activity of its metabolization product in the epidermis, pantothenic acid, has also been proven on cultured human fibroblasts [4]. By stimulating cell growth, D-panthenol reduces wound cicatrization time.
Through its hygroscopic property, D-panthenol improves skin moisturization as of 1% with no significant difference compared with the placebo, whereas, at 2%, this difference is significant.

 

OUR EXPERT'S OPINION
This vitamin is the precursor of coenzyme A and is much more stable than the latter. 
The metabolic chain targeted is that of the lipid metabolism. In this respect, its role in cell repair, skin moisturization and inflammation has been revealed in vivo. 
Its association with cysteine may also be justified (biosynthesis of coenzyme A). 
Its amphiphilia makes it a good skin conditioner that helps moisturization and the barrier effect. 
Nothing in the literature makes it possible to specify an exact effect/dose ratio. 
We may consider a non-specific "metabolic recharge" activity and skin conditioning.
Concentrations higher than 1% are documented. We may therefore consider a concentration of a few percent (5%) as regards effectiveness in mono-active use.

Effect of D-Panthenol on Corneal Epithelial Healing after Surface Laser Ablation
Islam Mahmoud Hamdi 1,2


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Academic Editor: Van C. Lansingh
Received
21 Jul 2018
Accepted
09 Oct 2018
Published
12 Nov 2018
Abstract
Purpose. To study the effect of D-panthenol (provitamin B5) on corneal epithelial healing, in cases of surface laser ablation. 
Patients and Methods: 45 eyes, of 45 patients undergoing laser surface ablation, received D-panthenol 2% in one eye and artificial tear drops of similar composition not containing D-panthenol in the other eye, postoperatively, for 2 months. 
Patients were examined daily for 3 days after the procedure. They were then examined weekly for 1 month. 
An additional examination was made after 2 months. Visual acuity (Log MAR) was assessed at every visit. 
Rate of healing (% of covered area) and subjective sensation of discomfort (scale 0–5) were assessed in the 1st 3 visits. 
Residual manifest cylinder (D) (as a parameter of corneal irregularity) and corneal clarity (epithelial and stromal haze) were assessed from week 1 to month 2. 
Results. During the first 3 days, both groups showed statistically nonsignificant () results. 
From week 1 to month 2, eyes receiving D-panthenol showed better vision and less residual cylinder () at week 1. 
For all other parameters, and at different examinations, both groups showed a statistically nonsignificant () difference. 
Still, eyes receiving D-panthenol showed better values at the majority of the parameters tested. 
Conclusion. D-Panthenol effect on corneal epithelial regeneration is of minimal clinical relevance. 
A different dosage and a larger sample of patients might reveal a statistical relevance. 
This trial is registered with https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN81441126.

Applications
Skin Care
Cleanser
Sun Care
Mother and baby
Hair care
Shampoo and Conditioner
Bath and Body
Hand and foot care
Personal care
Men
Skin care
Antiperspirants and deodorants
Oral Care
Toothpaste
Mouthwash
Face Care
Pet Care
Pet Care TSCA
Pet Care DSL

Description: Provitamin B5

Benefits: Moisturises skin and hair and reduces damage and split ends, increasing hair strength.
D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-pantothenic acid. The substance, also known as pro-vitamin B5, is valued in skin and hair care for its moisturising properties. 
However, the influence of panthenol on the epithelialisation process together with its anti-inflammatory properties also make it ideal for soothing sensitive or irritated skin.

Panthenol is a substantive strengthening and moisturising conditioner for the hair. 
Because it is hygroscopic, it acts as a humectant and adheres strongly to the cuticle and penetrates deep into the cortex of the hair shaft, thus improving the resistance of hair to mechanical stress.

Panthenol can also substantially increase moisture in nails and so can improve their flexibility and stability.

Ethyl Panthenol is easier to use than Panthenol and has been shown to give greater deposition on the hair and superior strengthening properties. 

Also relevant is the ingredient Phytantriol, an excellent conditioning agent that is effective at levels as low as 0.1% in shampoos and conditioners. 
It is particularly useful at reducing the signs of mechanical damage associated with combing, brushing and heating the hair.

One of the major advantages in the use of Phytantriol is its ability to enhance the performance of Ethyl Panthenol & Panthenol.

D-Panthenol is a clear, colourless to slightly yellow, viscous liquid. It is practically odourless, slightly hygroscopic, and may crystallize on prolonged storage.
Product identification
Product code: 04 1385 2
Chemical names: (R)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide; D(+)-,-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-,-dimethylbutanamide
Synonyms: (R)-panthenol; D-panthenol; D-pantothenyl alcohol; dexpanthenol; pantothenol; provitamin B5

CAS No.: 81-13-0
EINECS No.: 201-327-3
INCI name: panthenol
Empirical formula: C9H19NO4
Molecular mass: 205.25 g/mol    OH    Chiral
HO        N    OH O


Residual Solvents:    Dichloromethane: not more than 600ppm Methanol: not more than 3000ppm
 

100 % D-Panthenol


Related substances:
Pantoic acid:    not more than 0.5%
D-Pantolactone:    not more than 1.0%
Assay:    98.0–101.0% (on anhydrous material)

Solubility
D-Panthenol is soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in fats and oils.

Stability and storage
D-Panthenol is fairly stable to air and light. It is hygroscopic and sensitive to heat; heating to over 70 °C may cause racemization. 
However, it may be heated to 40 °C for short periods in order to improve flowability. 
The product may be stored for 36 months from the date of manufacture in the unopened original container and at a temperature below 25 °C. 
The ‘best use before’ date is printed on the label. 
In aqueous solutions, D-Panthenol is markedly more stable than the salts of pantothenic acid, in particular at a pH of 3 to 6.

Uses
For pharmaceutical drops and syrups. For various cosmetic formulations.
This product is not intended for use in the manufacture of sterile drug products. 
The purchaser assumes all responsibility for additional processing, testing, labelling and registration required for such use.

Compendial compliance
D-Panthenol meets all requirements of the USP, FCC and Ph. Eur. when tested according to these compendia.

Safety
This product is safe for the intended use. Avoid ingestion or direct contact by applying suitable protective measures and personal hygiene.


PANTHENOL can be supplied in two chemical forms: 1. the dextrorotary isomer,d-PANTHENOL; or, 2. the racemic form, dl-PANTHENOL. The chemical structure of the two isomeric forms are shown below. We currently supply dl-PANTHENOL.


It has a molecular weight of 205.25

PANTHENOL is also known as:

1. Butanamide, 2, 4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3, 3-dimethyl (+)

2. (+)-2, 4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3, 3-dimethyl-butyramide

3. Pantothenyl Alcohol

4. N-pantoyl-3-propanolamine

5. Pantothenol

6. Pro-vitamin B5


Background

PANTHENOL (Pantothenic Acid or Vitamin B-5) is present in all living cells and acts as an essential nutritional component because of its role in the formation of coenzyme A. Acetyl-co-enzyme A is produced by the decomposition of carbohydrates, fatty acids and specific amino acids in the early stages of metabolism. Because of this, it performs a key role in the metabolism of hydrocarbons. The main role of acetyl-coenzyme A is to feed activated acetic acid into the citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle). This, in turn, produces carbon dioxide, water and energy. Co-enzyme A also transfers other groups, like N-acetyl-glucosamine and acetyl-choline to help the production of steroids and the resynthesis of fatty acids. Another important physiological role of co-enzyme A is to help the body detoxify foreign substances. PANTHENOL is the alcohol analog of the vitamin pantothenic acid. 
In the living cell, PANTHENOL is converted to the effective d-pantothenic acid form of the vitamin by several enzymes, including alcohol dehyrogenase.


Features and Benefits

• PANTHENOL has deep penetrating characteristics which provide excellent humectant benefits for restoring and maintaining natural skin moisture.
• PANTHENOL has the ability to penetrate hair roots and shafts repairing and strengthening damaged hair.
• PANTHENOL selectively deposits and adheres to damaged areas of hair where it is needed helping to prevent split ends.
• PANTHENOL has good humectant properties which help to attract and hold moisture on the hair and skin.

PANTHENOL is the alcohol analogue of the biologically active pantothenic acid or pro-vitamin B-5.
It is a member of the B-complex vitamin group that is a normal constituent of hair and skin.

PANTHENOL repairs and strengthens damaged hair, reduces split ends, and increases tensile strength. 
The effects on damaged hair are due to the penetrating and coating action of this material on the hair shaft. 
The selective deposition puts PANTHENOL on the damaged areas where it is needed and prevents buildup. 
The evidence of effects on damaged hair is documented by photomicrographic studies. 
PANTHENOL functions effectively as a plasticizer for film formers used in hair sprays and styling mousses. 
In leave-on hair products, it imparts sheen, luster and manageability while leaving the hair looking full and natural without oiliness or stickiness. 
The full beneficial effects of PANTHENOL may not be realized until the proper concentrations are used or multiple applications have been made. 
These effects are seen when normal concentrations of 3-5% are used in hair care applications. 
PANTHENOL functions as a solubilizer to bring about or maintain clarity in hydroalcoholic systems and transparent microemulsion gels.

PANTHENOL Properties:
dl- PANTHENOL is a white, crystalline powder.
It is highly soluble in water and alcohol, but insoluble in fats and oils. Therefore, PANTHENOL can easily be incorporated into the aqueous phase of any formulation. Aqueous solutions are most stable in the pH range of 4 to 7 with the optimum pH being 6. dl-PANTHENOL has a melt point of 64.5°- 68.5° Celsius
Usage Rate: 1-5% - Depending on Application


Typical Properties:
Appearance White to Creamy White crystalline powder
Molecular Weight 205.25
Odor Characteristic
Melting Point 64.5° to 68.5° Celsius
Residue on Ignition 0.1% Maximum
Heavy Metals 20 ppm Maximum
Solubility Freely soluble in water, alcohol, and propylene glycol. Slightly soluble in glycerin.
Assay 99.0% to 102%
Specific Rotation -0.05° to + 0.05°

75 % D-Panthenol
D-Panthenol 75 W is an active ingredient and Pro-vitamin for improved appearance of skin, hair and nails.
D-Panthenol helps nourish and adds vital moisture to the skin, initially sealing hydration by enhancing the skin barrier and helping to revitalize and revitalize skin cells by helping to defuse the aging process.
One of the most important ways that D-Panthenol is believed to be effective as a skin-friendly nutrient is its ability to manage healthy fibroblast levels – the cells most productive in the connective tissue of our skin – which by Its series strengthens collagen and elastin, proteins that help keep the skin bright, tough and uniform.
This form of vitamin B5 easily penetrates the skin, allowing it to promote the recovery and revitalization of the skin cells.
It gives long lasting hydration to the hair, thickens it, makes it shiny and shiny to protect it.
Water soluble
75% dissolution dosage:
Face-Body: 0.5-5%
Hair: 0.1-5

Only the D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), not the L-Panthenol.
The human body converts D-Panthenol to Vitamin B5 , which is D-Panthotenic acid. DL-Panthenol is a lit racemic mixture of D-Panthenol and L-Panthenol.

Due to the fact that only D-Panthenol is converted to Vitamin B5 and not LPanthenol, the racemic DL-Panthenol has only half of the physiological activity of the D-Panthenol. 
These include stimulation of epithelisation, wound healing effect and anti-inflammatory effect.
But for all the none physiological activities like moisturizer effect, improvement of hair structure, giving luster and sheen to the hair D- and DL-Panthenol are equally active.
The D-Panthenol USP and 50 P are also applied in the pharmaceutical industry.
The main areas of pharmaceutical application are syrups, drops, ampoules, creams, gels and capsules. In liquid multi-vitamin and Vitamin B complex
preparations D-Panthenol is nearly always preferred to the D-Pantothenates because it is usually considerably more stable at the pH values below 5 usually employed in these preparations.

Efficacy 
The trend in modern cosmetology is towards formulas containing substances with proven therapeutic efficacy. 
The effects of topically applied Panthenol have been confirmed in a large number of studies.

D-Panthenol is an active, biologically stable form of Pantothenic acid, which is Vitamin B5
It plays a fundamental role in the metabolism of all cells.
Topically applied Panthenol is absorbed by the skin and transformed into Pantothenic acid (G. Stüttgen, H. Krause, Arch. Klin. and Exp. Dermat, 209, 578-82 (1960)).
An ointment with Panthenol prevents erythema due to UV light (R. Lange, Med.Klin. 52,1379 (1957); H. Tronnier et al, Z. Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten 21,224-32 (1956)).
A cream with 5% Panthenol accelerates the healing of super­ficial wounds by 30% (H. Weiser, G. Erlemann, Parfümerie and Kosmetik, 68, 425-428 (1987)).
A cream with Panthenol regularly applied to the skin im­proves the moisture content of dry skin significantly (E. Wagner, Panthenol und Phytantriol in der Kosmetik, Parfümerie und Kosmetik, 75, 260-267 (1994)).
A D-Panthenol ointment protects the lips against solar herpes (H. Stellmann,Ärztl. Praxis 7, 16 (1955)).
A shampoo with 0.5% Panthenol was diluted 1:10 with water and applied to the hair. A deposit of Panthenol up to 36.4 μg/g hair after one cycle and up to 115.7 μg/g hair after five cycles of treatment was determined. 
The penetration of Panthenol in hair was determined in the same way. After one cycle up to 7.5 μg/g hair and after five cycles up to 21.5 μg/g hair were measured (E.Wagner, Panthenol und Phytantriol in der Kosmetik, Parfümerie und Kosmetik,75, 260-267 (1994)).
A rinse-off conditioner with 0.5% Panthenol applied once to the hair and rinsed off with water has a moisturizing effect on the hair for over 180 minutes. 
With water there is an effect for only 10 minutes (G.Erlemann, R.Merkle, Panthenol, Phytan­triol, Vitamin E und Vitamin A in der Kosmetik, SÖFW, 117, 379-384 (1991)).
The high water content prevents damage to the hair caused by combing, brushing, blow-drying and perming.


D-Panthenol
(D-Pantenolo)
Description
Known as the “beauty vitamin”, D-Panthenol is the more stable form of pantothenic acid or vitamin B5. It is a complex of oligopeptides obtained by biotransformation of the proteins of the Hibiscus Esculentus seeds.

Features
The main feature of D-Panthenol is its capacity of penetrating in the deepest layers of the skin, hydrating it deeply. It also contributes to repair the skin barrier, to decrease wrinkles and to reduce inflammation. Its healing action is guaranteed by the mitotic activity on fibroblasts.

Benefits
It nourishes and gives vital hydration to the skin
It rejuvenates and revitalizes skin cells, helping to oppose the ageing process
It supports the production of collagen and elastin, the proteins that help to maintain a radiant, elastic and compact skin


Name    
Pantothenol;
(R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide;
Dexpanthenol;
2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide;
(+)-Panthenol;
Bepanthen;
Bepanthene;
Bepantol;
D-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide;
Cozyme;
D(+)-Panthenol;
D(+)-Pantothenyl alcohol;
D-P-A Injection;
D-Panthenol;
d-Pantothenol;
d-Pantothenyl alcohol;
Ilopan;
Motilyn;
Panadon;
Panthenol;
Panthoderm;
Pantol;
Pantothenyl alcohol;
N-Pantoyl-propanolamine;
Provitamin B;
Synapan;
Thenalton;
Zentinic


D-Panthenol
Care of irritated and cracked skin and after laser treatment.

Moisturising and stimulation of cell proliferation.

Composition
Pro-vitamin B 5 (panthenol) in aqueous solution.

Properties
Panthenol is a pro-vitamin of the vitamin B complex. 
Panthenol increases and regulates skin hydration by improving the hydration capacity (moisturiser) and supports the regeneration of the skin and specifically, the cell formation. Panthenol has a smoothing effect on the skin. Among others panthenol is transformed to pantothenoic acid (constituent of coenzyme A).


What Is It?
Panthenol is derived from vitamin B5, also know as Pantothenic Acid. In cosmetics and personal care products, Panthenol and Pantothenic Acid can be found in moisturizers, skin care products, hair conditioners, shampoos, wave sets, and hair sprays, as well as in makeup products such as eye shadow, lipstick and mascara.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Panthenol acts as a lubricant on the skin surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. Panthenol and Pantothenic Acid also enhance the appearance and feel of hair, by increasing hair body, suppleness, or sheen, or by improving the texture of hair that has been damaged physically or by chemical treatment.
 
Panthenol and Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) have the same biological activity and Panthenol can be converted (by oxidation) to vitamin B5 in the skin. 
Pantothenic Acid is found in all living cells and tissues and is essential for normal metabolism and hormone production. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, two forms of Panthenol can be found: D-Panthenol occurs as a viscous oil and DL-Panthenol occurs as a creamy white, crystalline powder.


Panthenol or Pantothenol is known to be the alcohol analog of Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5). This chemical compound is a transparent viscous liquid at room temperature. It is packed with nourishing and moisturizing properties due to which it is readily used in major hair care products such as shampoos, conditioners, leave-in serums. Let’s look at some of the benefits of D-Panthenol for hair:

The moisturizing property of D-Panthenol improves the elasticity of your strands, thus preventing breakage and makes your hair look healthy and vibrant.
It forms a thin protective layer on the surface of your strands, thereby making it look shiny and radiant.
It acts as an excellent humectant due to which D-Panthenol is known to make your hair soft and silky.
It adds strength to your strands by boosting the elasticity of your hair and preventing the breakage, hair fall.
It also protects your strands from pollution and other environmental aggressors.
Due to these beneficial properties, you can frequently find this name popping up in the ingredient list of your haircare products.  D-Panthenol in your hair care products is known to improve the overall health of your scalp and hair, making it look healthy and bouncy.

BENEFITS OF D-PANTHENOL IN SKIN CARE 
Panthenol especially D-Panthenol is known for its incredible properties which are beneficial for your skin. D-Panthenol is considered to be more beneficial to your skin as compared to Vitamin B5 because of its chemical structure. Among the 2 forms of Panthenol i.e D-Panthenol and L-Panthenol, D-Panthenol is considered to be more beneficial to your skin as it is biologically more active. Let us have a closer look at some of the beneficial properties of D-Panthenol in skincare

1. SKIN HYDRATION 
Both the D and L forms of Panthenol demonstrate moisturizing properties on the skin. It is beneficial in preventing dry skin conditions as both forms of Panthenol exhibit excellent hydrating properties. Both D and L forms of Panthenol are known to be hydrophilic in nature due to which it attracts the water molecules and helps retain the moisture content of your skin. It forms a protective layer on the skin preventing water loss, thus helps to keep your skin well-nourished and hydrated.

2. PREVENTS TRANS-EPIDERMAL WATER LOSS 
D-Panthenol is known for its hydrating property, which helps to keep your skin moisturized and well-nourished. Another good thing about D-Panthenol is that it prevents the trans-epidermal loss of water from the surface of the skin due to evaporation. The best part of D-Panthenol is that it moisturizes your skin and helps to retain it for a longer time.

3. WOUND HEALING AND REPAIR OF DAMAGED SKIN CELLS 
D-Panthenol is extensively used in skincare products because of its moisturizing, healing and protective properties.  Exposure to pollution and harsh UV light of the sun has a damaging effect on our skin which causes dry, itchy and irritated skin. D-Panthenol helps to restore the lost moisture and has a soothing effect on the itchy and irritated skin. It is known to be very effective in treating minor cuts and wounds. Panthenol heals and repairs the damaged skin cells and tissues.

4. REDUCES WRINKLES AND FINE LINES 
D-Panthenol adds nourishment and moisturization to your skin and makes your skin soft, supple and plump, decreasing fine lines and wrinkles. Its skin-friendly nutrients help to boost the production of elastin and collagen which help to make your skin more youthful, radiant and even-toned.

5. EXHIBITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY 
Its anti-inflammatory property has a soothing effect on the dry and irritated skin. D-Panthenol is often used in the treatment of sunburns and dry skin conditions. It helps to reduce the symptoms of dry skin conditions such as redness, itchiness and swelling.

D-Panthenol is known to penetrate into the layers of the skin and in the body, it is converted to Vitamin B5 which is readily absorbed by the skin. Later your skin is able to harness all the beneficial properties of D-Panthenol.

DESCRIPTION
Used in a variety of cosmetics and skin-care applications for its healing and moisturizing properties.
FUNCTION
D-Panthenol is the provitamin of D-pantothenic acid, which plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism. Its main use in skin care is for moisturizing and treating inflammation. Panthenol is an active ingredient for sophisticated cosmetic skin care and hair care products. It improves the appearance of skin, hair and nails.
SYNONYMS
D-Panthenol USP,FCC,EP K; Dexpanthenol; D-Pantothenyl Alcohol; Unithol D 400; Provitamin B5; Unithol D50P

USES OF D-PANTHENOL 
D-Panthenol which is known to be biologically active plays an important role in enhancing the beauty of your hair and skin. Its hydrating, nourishing, protecting, repairing and healing properties play a vital role in many skincare, hair care and personal care products. You might see this name in almost all the cosmetic products that you use in your daily routine. Not only in cosmetics, but you will also find the name of Panthenol cropping up in beverages, as a food additive, in pharmaceutical products and agriculture or poultry feed. Let’s have a closer look at some of the applications of D-Panthenol in our daily life

1. IN-COSMETICS 
Due to its humectant property, D-Panthenol is used in many skin care products such as facial creams, anti-ageing creams, moisturizers, eye shadows, mascaras, lipsticks and foundations. The emollient property of Panthenol improves the texture of your skin and makes it soft, smooth and supple. Due to its wound healing and skin-repairing properties, Panthenol is used in treating sunburns, minor cuts and wounds.

In hair care products, Panthenol and Pantothenic Acid are known to improve the texture and feel of your hair making it look shiny, bouncy and more vibrant. It also helps to enhance the volume of your strands making them look silky and shiny. It is found in shampoos, conditioners, hair sprays, hair gels and mousses etc.

2. IN BEVERAGES 
D-Panthenol is used in many health drinks which helps to make your body strong and energetic.

3. IN PHARMACEUTICALS 
D-Panthenol is also used in many skincare creams, ointments as it is very effective in treating dry skin conditions such as eczema. It is also used in nasal sprays, eye drop solutions, cleaning solutions of contact lens and lozenges.

4. IN AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL POULTRY 
D-Panthenol is used as a food supplement in animal poultry and in agriculture as well.

Because of its myriad benefits, D-Panthenol is used not only in cosmetic products, but you will find its uses and applications in many other aspects of life.

SIDE EFFECTS OF D-PANTHENOL 
Generally, D-Panthenol is considered to be mild on your skin and safe for topical use. You can always do a patch test, before using it for the first time. It is also considered to be safe for ingestion in limited quantities as it is used as a nutritional supplement in many beverages. Allergic reaction on skin is generally rare, but in some cases, it is known to cause contact dermatitis and gastrointestinal distress.


Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5. In organisms it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. It is a viscous transparent liquid at room temperature. Panthenol is used as a moisturizer and to improve wound healing in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.
Panthenol is a multi-functional active ingredient that would be useful in most skin care formulations. Its efficacy has been substantiated in numerous peer-reviewed journals. The biologically active form of Panthenol, D-panthenol (EU), is the stable alcohol analogue of vitamin B5, pantothenic acid (EU), and is quickly converted to vitamin B5 (pantothenate) in the body. Pantothenic acid is present in all living cells and acts as an essential nutritional component due to its role in the formation of acetyl-co-enzyme A in the early stages of metabolism. The main role of acetyl-co-enzyme A is to provide activated acetic acid into the citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle). This produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Co-enzyme A also transfers to other molecules such as Nacetyl-glucosamine (EU) and acetylcholine (EU) to help in the production of steroids and the synthesis of fatty acids. Coenzyme A also helps the body detoxify foreign substances.


DL-Panthenol
panthenol
16485-10-2
DL-Pantothenol
DL-Pantothenyl alcohol
2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide
Panthenolum
Pantenol
Pantenolo
(+-)-Pantothenyl alcohol
Butanamide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-
Alcool DL-pantotenilico
Panthenol, racemic
MFCD00002944
Penthenol
Varitan
D-(+)-Panthenol
Provitamin B5
D-(+)-Pantothenyl alcohol
Dexpantenol
Dexpanthenolum
2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
DL-Pantothenol;DL-Pantothenyl alcohol
62507-76-0
Panthenol , DL-form
Butanamide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (+)- (9CI)
Pantenolo [DCIT]
Pantenol [INN-Spanish]
Panthenolum [INN-Latin]
component of Zentinic
Panthenol, (+)-
SMR000857333
N-Pantoyl-3-propanolamine
Alcool DL-pantotenilico [Italian]
SR-05000001760
EINECS 240-540-6
NSC302962
d,l- panthenol
Fancol DL
NCGC00186658-01
pantothenylol alcohol
ACMC-20ajzi
Dexpanthenol [USAN)
DL-Panthenol 99%
Panthenol [USAN:USP:INN:BAN:JAN]
2,3-dimethylbutyramide
DL-Panthenol, 99%
ACMC-209pkr
Panthenol (USP/INN)
(+-)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
ACMC-1AYN9
compnent of ilopan-Choline
EC 240-540-6
DSSTox_CID_24598
DSSTox_RID_80341
DSSTox_GSID_44598
SCHEMBL15567
MLS001336015
MLS001336016
(R)-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
CHEMBL1371937
D-(+)-2,3-dimethylbutyramide
DTXSID3044598
HMS2093B14
HMS2234M16
HMS3371M11
Pharmakon1600-01505420
Pharmakon1600-01505656
HY-B1024
Tox21_302660
ANW-22120
Butanamide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (+-)-
Butyramide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, DL-
NSC759127
NSC759899
s4566
STL453540
AKOS015841508
CCG-213502
CS-4541
EBD2293971
MCULE-2403906933
NSC-302962
NSC-759127
NSC-759899
VC31151
NCGC00256864-01
AK-60852
AK113720
AS-56363
DA-09547
P992
SBI-0206818.P001
CAS-16485-10-2
DB-056494
FT-0625499
FT-0625596
FT-0693817
P1318
A19436
D03726
AB00918367_05
A810597
Butyramide, 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3
Q196473
Q-201031
SR-05000001760-1
SR-05000001760-3
3-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyramido)-1-propanol
BRD-A59413292-001-04-1
Butanamide,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-
3,3-dimethyl-2,4-bis(oxidanyl)-N-(3-oxidanylpropyl)butanamide
D-2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)butyramide
Butanamide,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (R)-
Butyramide,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, D-(+)-
Panthenol, racemic, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard


d-Panthenol 50; d-Pantothenol; d-Pantothenyl Alcohol; (R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide;(+)-Panthenol; Alcopan 250; Bepanthen; Bepanthene; Bepantol; Cornergel; Cozyme; D(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide; D(+)-Panthenol; D(+)-Pantothenyl alcohol; D(+)-α,γ-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-β,β-dimethylbutyramide; D-P-A Injection; D-Panthenol; D-Pantothenyl alcohol; Dexpanthenol; Dolobene; Ilopan; Intrapan; Motilyn; NSC 302962; Panadon; Pantenyl; Panthenol; Panthenol 50W; Panthenol, (+)-; Panthoderm; Pantol; Pantothenol; Pantothenyl alcohol; Propanolamine, N-pantoyl-; Provitamin B; Provitamin B5; Synapan; Thenalton; Urupan; Zentinic

Dexpanthenol (D-Panthenol) is also known as the provitamin B5. It is widely used in medicine, food, cosmetics and liquid preparations. Dexpanthenol enters the human body and transforms into pantothenic acid, and then synthesize coenzyme A, which can promote the metabolism of human protein, fat, sugar, protect the skin and mucous membrane, improve hair luster and prevent the occurrence of disease. Dexpanthenol can prevent wrinkles, inflammation, insolation and erosion, prevent hair loss, promote hair growth, keep hair moist, reduce hair branching, prevent crisp and fracture, protect, repair and care for hair.

Product Name: D-Panthenol
Synonyms: Dexpanthenol; D-(+)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide; (+)-Panthenol; Alcopan-250; Bepanthen; Cozyme; D-Panthenol; Ilopan; Intrapan; Motilyn; N-pantoyl-3-propanolamine; Pantenyl; Panthoderm; pantothenyl alcohol; pantothenol; pantothenylol; Panyonyl; (R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide; Cornergel
CAS NO.: 81-13-0
EINECS No.: 201-327-3
Molecular Formula: C9H19NO4
Formula Weight: 205.25
Appearance: Colorless viscous liquid or colorless transparent liquid with a special odor.
Solubility: D-Panthenol is easy to dissolve in water, ethanol, methanol and propylene glycol.


Pantothenic acid, the amide of beta-alanine and pantoic acid, is a B complex vitamin acting as a precursor in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, involved in the metabolism as an antioxidant to breakdown many biochemical substances (fatty acids, steroids, phospholipids, heme, amino acids, and carbohydrates). The adrenal gland is an important site of pantothenic acid activity. It can be found ubiquitously in foods, and no deficiency syndrome has been demonstrated in humans except by experimental administration of the pantothenic acid antagonist (omega-methylpantothenic acid). Pantothenic acid is an unstable oil. The usual forms for feed supplementation are its salts, calcium D-pantothenate, sodium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol (liquid). Both salts are white hygroscopic powders easily soluble in water. D-Panthenol is a colourless viscous oil form which may turn to crystalline solid during storage (Racemic mixture is a solid form melting point 65C). Two enantiomers exit, D or L-form. D-panthenol is biologically active. But both forms show moisturizing properties. Panthenol is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid. Panthenol is converted to pantothenic acid in the body. Panthenol is called provitamin B5. It is freely soluble in water, methanol and propylene glycol, soluble in ether and chloroform, slightly soluble in glycerin, insoluble in white oils and fats. Panthenol is absorbed into hair and skin to enhance thickening and moisturization effects and to stimulate healing of the lesions of various dermatologic lesions. It is widely used in hair care products and personal care products. It is used to increase peristalsis in atony and paralysis of the lower intestine and to help relieve gas retention and abdominal distention; administered intravenously or intramuscularly and orally.
Pantetheine [2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(2-((2-merceptoethyl)carbamoyl)ethyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide] is the amide analogue of pantothenic acid. Pantethine (bis-pantetheine) is formed naturally when reacted with beta-mercaptoethanolamine. This amide is an intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A biosynthesis. Pantenicate [3-(3-Pyridinemethoxycarbonyl) propionic acid pantethine tetraester] is used as an antilipemic agent to reduce lipid levels in the blood (to treat hyperlipidemia).

PANTOTHENIC ACID MOLECULES
Product

CAS RN

alpha-Hydroxyhomopantothenic acid    1977-34-0
beta-Hydroxyhomopantothenic acid    1977-35-1
Calcium 4-phosphopantothenate        55816-28-9
Calcium D-pantothenate            15773-29-2
Calcium gamma-aminobutyratopantothenate    85625-91-8
Calcium hopantenate            17097-76-6
Calcium pantothenate hydrate        63409-48-3
Calcium Pantothenate racemic        6381-63-1
Calcium pantothenate            137-08-6
Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride complex    6363-38-8
Chloramphenicol pantothenate complex    31342-36-6
Copper gamma-aminobutyratopantothenate    85625-88-3
Dexpanthenol                81-13-0
Dihydrostreptomycin pantothenate    3563-84-6
DL-Pantothenic acid            599-54-2
D-Panthothenyl trifarnesylacetate    15470-06-1
D-Pantothenamide            7757-97-3
D-Pantothenic acid 4'-O-beta-glucoside    29588-37-2
Homopantothenic acid            1977-33-9
Hopantenic acid                18679-90-8
Kanamycin dipantothenate        17899-96-6
Kanamycin monopantothenate        17899-71-7
L-Arginine pantothenate            23541-09-5
Manganese gamma-aminobutyratopantothenate    85625-90-7
Methyl pantothenate            50692-78-9
N-D-(+)-Pantothenoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid    85647-53-6
Neomycin pantothenate            78149-94-7
Nickel gamma-aminobutyratopantothenate    85625-89-4
omega-Methyl pantothenic acid        2545-82-6
Pantetheine                 496-65-1
Pantethine                16816-67-4
Pantethine 4',4''-diphosphate        2664-64-4
Pantenicate                96922-80-4
Panthenol                16485-10-2
Pantothenate ion            20938-62-9
Pantothenate permease            99194-01-1
Pantothenic acid            79-83-4
Pantothenylcysteine 4'-phosphate    7196-09-0
Pantoyltaurine                2545-84-8
Phosphopantothenic acid            5875-50-3
S-Benzylisothiouronium pantothenate    63680-25-1
Sodium omega-methyl pantothenate    59203-09-7
Sodium pantothenate            867-81-2
Streptomycin-pantothenate        6227-52-7
Viomycin pantothenate sulfate        1401-79-2
Zinc pantothenate            65979-81-9


Stability and storage
D-Panthenol is fairly stable to air and light. It is hygroscopic and sensitive to heat; heating to over 70 °C may cause racemization. 
However, it may be heated to 40 °C for short periods in order to improve flowability. 
The product may be stored for 36 months from the date of manufacture in the unopened original container and at a temperature below 25 °C. 
The ‘best use before’ date is printed on the label. In aqueous solutions, D-Panthenol is markedly more stable than the salts of pantothenic acid, in particular at a pH of 3 to 6.


Uses For pharmaceutical products. For dietary supplements, food and beverages. 
For various cosmetic formulations. 
This product is not intended for use in the manufacture of sterile drug products. 
The purchaser assumes all responsibility for additional processing, testing, labelling and registration required for such use. 
Compendial compliance D-Panthenol meets all requirements of the USP, FCC and Ph. Eur. when tested according to these compendia.

Safety 
This product is safe for the intended use. Avoid ingestion or direct contact by applying suitable protective measures and personal hygiene. 


D-Pantothenic acid is the only naturally occurring and biologically active form of the vitamin. 
DPanthenol is a synthetic pro-vitamin which is oxidised in vivo to pantothenic acid. 
D-Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A, an essential coenzyme in a variety of chemical reactions involved in the energy metabolism; in particular, coenzyme A is required in the synthesis of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, cholesterol, porphyrins and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. 
Oral administration routes of D-panthenol via feed or water for drinking are considered as bioequivalent. 
The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of calcium D-pantothenate in feed and of D-panthenol in water for drinking is safe for all animal species and categories. 
The use of calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol as nutritional additives does not give rise to concern for consumers. 
Since no data on acute inhalation toxicity has been provided, inhalation of dust is considered as potentially hazardous. 
D-panthenol being currently only available in liquid preparations, the FEEDAP Panel does not anticipate any inhalation hazard.
Because of the lack of data, calcium D-pantothenate is considered as a skin and eye irritant and a skin sensitiser. 
D-Panthenol is regarded as a skin and eye irritant in rabbits, and allergic rashes in humans have been reported following its topical use. 
Pantothenic acid occurs widely in nature. Its use in animal nutrition is not expected to substantially increase the concentration in the environment. 
Therefore, a risk for the environment resulting from the use of pantothenic acid in animal nutrition is not foreseen. 
Due to its established nutritional role in domestic animals, calcium D-pantothenate is regarded as an effective source of pantothenic acid. 
D-Panthenol is considered a pro-vitamin essentially bioequivalent to pantothenic acid. 
The FEEDAP Panel recommends that specifications for calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol when used as additives should follow those defined by the European Pharmacopeia.


Pantothenic acid, previously called vitamin B5, is N-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl)-βalanine. 
D-Pantothenic acid is the only naturally occurring and biologically active form. 
D-Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A, an essential coenzyme in a variety of chemical reactions involved in the energy metabolism; in particular, coenzyme A is required in the synthesis of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, cholesterol, porphyrins and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. 
Pantothenic acid in the form of calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol is included in the European Union Register of Feed Additives pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003. 
It is authorised without a time limit in application of Article 9t (b) of Council Directive 70/524/EEC10 concerning additives in feedingstuffs (2004/C 50/01) for its use in all animal species as a nutritional additive.

1. Introduction Pantothenic acid, previously called vitamin B5, is N-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl)-βalanine. 
D-Pantothenic acid is the only naturally occurring and biologically active form. 
D-Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A, an essential coenzyme in a variety of chemical reactions involved in the energy metabolism; in particular, coenzyme A is required in the synthesis of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, cholesterol, porphyrins and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. 
Pantothenic acid in the form of calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol is included in the European Union Register of Feed Additives pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003. 
It is authorised without a time limit in application of Article 9t 
(b) of Council Directive 70/524/EEC10 concerning additives in feedingstuffs (2004/C 50/01) for its use in all animal species as a nutritional additive. 
The applicant asks for the re-evaluation of the use of calcium D-pantothenate as additive to feed for all animal species and categories without restrictions on age, (withdrawal) time and content in feedingstuff. 
The applicant is also seeking authorisation for a new use of D-panthenol in water for drinking. 
Pantothenic acid is authorised for use in food (Regulation (EC) No 1925/2006,11 amended by Regulation (EC) No 1170/2009)12 and in food supplements (Directive 2002/46/EC, Annex II),13 for addition for specific nutritional purposes in foods for particular nutritional uses (Regulation (EC) No 953/2009),14 to processed cereal based foods and baby foods for infants and young children (Directive 2006/125/EC, Annex IV)15 and to infant formulae and follow-on formulae when reconstituted as instructed by the manufacturer (Directive 2006/141/EC, Annex III).16 
Pantothenic acid (as vitamin B5), is also listed as a pharmacologically active substance in veterinary medicinal products and is not subject to maximum residue levels when used in food-producing animals (Commission Regulation (EU) No 37/2010).17 
D-Panthenol is authorised in cosmetics as skin conditioner (Directive 76/768/EEC, Annex 4).18 

Calcium pantothenate and dexpanthenol (D-panthenol) are described in the European Pharmacopeia (PhEur) as Monographs (MG) 0470 and 0761, respectively. 

2. Characterisation Free pantothenic acid and its sodium salt are chemically unstable, and therefore the usual pharmaceutical preparation is the calcium salt (calcium pantothenate). 
The alcohol, panthenol, is a synthetic form which can be oxidised in vivo to pantothenic acid. 
10 OJ C 50, 25.2.2004, p. 1. 11 OJ L 404 30.12.2006, p. 26. 12 OJ L 314 1.12.2009, p. 36. 13 OJ L 183 12.7.2002, p.51. 14 OJ L 269, 14.10.2009, p.9. 15 OJ L 339 6.12.2006, p. 16. 16 OJ L 401 30.12.2006, p. 1. 17 OJ L 15, 20.1.2010, p. 1. 18 OJ L 262, 27.09.1976, p. 169. 
Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 7 

2.1. Characterisation of the additive 
2.1.1. Calcium D-pantothenate Calcium D-pantothenate (IUPAC name: calcium bis[3-[[(2R)-2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl] amino]propanoate], synonyms: vitamin B5, vitamin B5 calcium salt, calpan) is identified by the CAS number 137-08-6 and the EINECS number 205-278-0. 
The structural formula of calcium Dpantothenate is shown in Figure 1. 
Figure 1: Structural formula of calcium D-pantothenate The molecular formula of calcium D-pantothenate is Ca[C9H16N2O5]2 and its molecular weight is 476.53. 
It has a melting point of about 200 °C with decomposition, a density of 1.32 g/cm3 and a bulk density of 0.57–0.67 g/cm3 . 
It is freely soluble in water (1 g dissolves in about 2.8 mL at 25 °C). 
The additive subject of this application is a whitish powder, slightly hygroscopic. 
The additive contains by specifications at least 98.0 % of dried substance (loss on drying < 3.0 %), in compliance with PhEur (MG 0470). 
The analysis of five batches of the additive showed an average content of calcium D-pantothenate of 99.6 ± 0.05 % (loss on drying 1.6–2.1 %).19 
The applicant provided the results of the analysis of impurities in five batches of the additive.18 

The residual organic solvents (methanol) were compliant with VICH thresholds. 
The known impurity (PhEur, MG 0470) 3-aminopropionic acid was < 0.5 %. 
Chloride was below 200 mg/kg and heavy metals (expressed as lead) below 20 mg/kg, both complying with PhEur MG 0470. 
The applicant provided data on particle size distribution and dusting potential for one batch of calcium D-pantothenate. 
The critical particle size fraction below 50 µm measured by laser diffraction was 7 % and the dusting potential 1.1 g/m3 . 20 
2.1.2. D-Panthenol D-Panthenol (IUPAC name: 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide; synonyms: dexpanthenol, vitamin B5) is identified by the CAS number 81-13-0 and the EINECS number 201- 327-3. 
The structural formula of D-panthenol is shown in Figure 2. 
Figure 2: Structural formula of D-panthenol 19 

Technical dossier/Section II and supplementary information January 2011/Annex 2.20. 20 
Technical dossier/Section II /Annex 2.03 and supplementary information January 2011/Annex 3.01. 
Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 8 The molecular formula of D-panthenol is C9H19NO4 and its molecular weight is 205.25. 
It has a boiling point of 118 °C, a flash point of 143 °C and a density of 1.16 g/cm3 . 
It is freely soluble in water. 
The additive subject of this application is a colourless or slightly yellowish, viscous hygroscopic liquid. 
The additive contains by specifications at least 98.0 % active substance with reference to the anhydrous substance (water < 1.0 %), in compliance with PhEur (MG 0761).
 The analysis of five batches of the additive resulted in an average of 99.5 ± 0.15 % D-panthenol (loss on drying 0.3–0.4 %).21 
The applicant provided the results of the analysis of impurities in five batches of the additive.20 The residual organic solvents (methanol) were compliant with VICH thresholds. 
The known impurity (PhEur, MG 0761) 3-aminopropanol was < 0.5 % and heavy metals (expressed as lead) below 20 mg/kg, both complying with PhEur MG 0761. 

2.2. Manufacturing process22 The manufacturing processes of calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol are fully described in the dossier submitted by the applicant. 
2.3. Stability and homogeneity 
2.3.1. Calcium D pantothenate 
2.3.1.1. Shelf life Calcium D-pantothenate (three batches, stored in plastic bags) was demonstrated to have a shelf life of 36 months at 25 °C. 
Shelf life under accelerated conditions at 40 °C was shown for three batches of the product for six months.23 

2.3.1.2. Stability in premixtures and feed According to the data published in the literature (Coelho, 2002), the stability of calcium Dpantothenate in premixtures depends on the presence of trace elements and choline, with an average loss per month ranging from 0.04 % (vitamin premix without trace elements and choline) to 5.5 % or even to 8 % (vitamin premix with both trace elements and choline), according to Whitehead (2002). 
Coelho (2002) reports that the average monthly loss of calcium D-pantothenate in pelleted and extruded feed is 1.8 %.
 Marchetti et al. (1999) investigated the stability of crystalline calcium Dpantothenate added to commercial fish feed. Initial concentrations of 226 mg/kg were reduced to 201 mg/kg after pelleting (by 11 %) and to 194 mg/kg after extrusion (by 14 %). When stored in paper bags at room temperature, the concentrations in pelleted fish feed were 194, 174 and 150 mg/kg after 30, 90 and 180 days, respectively, with a loss of 23 % after 90 days. In extruded feed, corresponding figures were 171, 152 and 142 mg/kg after 30, 90 and 180 days, respectively, with a loss of 33 % after 90 days. 
One batch of a broiler premixture containing 12 g calcium D-pantothenate/kg (no choline chloride added) was shown to be stable for at least six months when stored at 25 °C. 
In a further study, three batches of a pig premixture (1 % inclusion rate) containing choline chloride showed no reduction on the content of calcium D-pantothenate after six months when stored at 20 °C.24 
Stability of calcium D-pantothenate was also investigated in two batches of pig feed after pelleting and storage of feed (20 °C). 
After 12 weeks of storage, recovery ranged 83–91 %. 
Stability in broiler feed 21 Technical dossier/Section II and supplementary information January 2001/Annex 2.20. 22 

This section has been edited following the provisions of Article 8(6) and Article 18 of Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003. 23 
Technical dossier/Section II. 24 
Technical dossier/Section II and supplementary information January 2011/Annexes 2.24 and 2.25. 
Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 9 could be estimated from the results of a stress test conducted under accelerated conditions with a dosage of calcium D-pantothenate ten-fold higher than that used under practical condition (225 mg/kg). 
No loss of calcium D-pantothenate was observed in mash feed and upon pelleting at temperatures up to 95 °C and for up to 12 minutes. 25 

2.3.2. D-Panthenol 

2.3.2.1. Shelf life D-Panthenol (three batches, stored in polyethylene bags) was demonstrated to have a shelf life of 36 months at 25 ± 2 °C. 
Shelf life under accelerated conditions at 40 ± 2 °C was shown for three batches of the product for six months.26 

2.3.2.2. Stability in water for drinking The stability of the additive D-panthenol in water (three batches) was demonstrated when added at concentrations of 600–750 mg/L for 24 hours at 20–25 °C.27 2.3.3. 
Homogeneity Based on a statistical method (Jansen, 1992), the coefficient of variation for homogeneity of calcium D-pantothenate in poultry feed was calculated to be around 6.2 %. 
However, this method has been developed to test the working accuracy of mixing equipments. 
D-panthenol is freely soluble in water and therefore homogeneity in water for drinking does not need to be demonstrated. 

2.4. Physico-chemical incompatibilities or interactions No physico-chemical incompatibilities or interactions have been reported between calcium Dpantothenate or D-panthenol and feed materials, carriers, other approved additives or medicinal products when the additive was added to premixtures and feed. 
No such incompatibilities or interactions are expected. However, since calcium D-pantothenate is rapidly destroyed in water by acids (and alkalis), the simultaneous use of acids and calcium D-pantothenate in water for drinking should be avoided. 

2.5. Conditions of use Calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol are intended for use in all animal species and categories without a maximum content and a withdrawal period. 
Calcium D-pantothenate is intended for use in feed (premixtures, complete or complementary feed), D-panthenol in water for drinking only. 
2.6. Evaluation of the analytical methods by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) EFSA has verified the EURL report as it relates to the methods used for the control of calcium Dpantothenate and D-panthenol in animal feed. 
The Executive Summary of the EURL report can be found in the Appendix. 
3. Safety According to Regulation (EC) No 429/2008, tolerance, metabolism and residue, and toxicological (with concern to consumer safety) studies are not required for vitamins, pro-vitamins and chemically defined substances having similar effects which are already authorised as feed additives under 25 
Technical dossier A/Section II and supplementary information January 2011/Annexes 2.26 and 2.27. 26 
Technical dossier A/Section II. 27 T
echnical dossier A/Section II and supplementary information January 2011/Annex 2.28. 
Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 10 Directive 70/524/EEC and which do not have the potential to accumulate, which the FEEDAP Panel considers is the case for pantothenic acid. 
3.1. Safety for the target species According to the NRC (1987), oral doses of 10000 mg/kg bw are well tolerated in animals. 
The FEEDAP Panel found no more recent studies (searching Medline28 and Toxnet29) that would modify the NRC conclusion. 
Requirements for pantothenic acid (NRC, see McDowell, 2000) are in the range of 7–12 mg/kg for pigs and 2–11 (15) mg/kg for poultry, 10–50 mg/kg for fish and 0.4–5 mg/kg feed for pets. 

Vitamin supplementation of commercial compound feed is mostly oriented towards recommendations, which are in the range of 8–20 mg/kg for pigs, 10–15 mg/kg for poultry, 30–50 mg/kg for fish and 8–14 mg/kg feed for pets (AWT, 2002). 
A survey on vitamin supplementation of commercial feeds for pigs and poultry in Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom) identified a range of 0–35 mg pantothenic acid as commercial use levels (Gropp, 1994; Whittemore et al., 2002). 
It is concluded that pantothenic acid is safe for the target animals having a wide margin of safety (approaching 100 compared to the requirements/recommendations). 
3.2. Safety for the consumer Owing to the lack of systematic oral dose response intake studies and the very low toxicity of pantothenic acid, no UL could be derived by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF, 2002). 
The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA, 2003) for guidance purposes, identified a supplemental daily intake of 200 mg (equivalent to 3.3 mg/kg bw/day for a 60-kg adult), in addition to that present in the diet, as not being expected to produce adverse effects in the general population. 
Assuming a maximum dietary intake of about 10 mg/person/day (rounded from the 97.5th percentile), this would equate to a total intake of 210 mg/person/day, or 3.5 mg/kg bw/day for a 60-kg adult. 
A number of foods of animal origin are considered good sources of pantothenic acid, such as fish and chicken muscle, and milk; liver, kidney and egg yolk are considered as particularly rich sources. Approximately 80 % of pantothenic acid in animal tissues is incorporated in coenzyme A. 
Studies investigating the effect of feed supplementation on pantothenic acid levels in edible tissues and products are rather limited. 
A study performed by Pearson et al. in 1946 compared tissue levels in chickens fed 4 and 16 mg/kg pantothenic acid complete feed: deposition in liver was essentially unaltered, while levels in muscle approximately doubled (6.5 and 8.4 vs. 11.3 and 17.2 mg/kg in breast and leg, respectively). 
Other findings report that the levels in eggs can be influenced by dietary supplementation (Pérez-Vendrell et al., 2004; Johnson and Korver, 2008): e.g. supplemental levels of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg feed led to deposition of approximately 15 and 18.5 mg/kg, respectively, in the whole egg. 
Considering the very low toxicity of pantothenic acid, the available data do not suggest the recommended feed supplementation levels would pose any concern for consumer safety. 
Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of pantothenic acid as nutritional additive in animal feed as safe for consumers. 28 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 29 http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 11 3

3. Safety for the user 

3.3.1. Effects on the respiratory system Calcium D-pantothenate showed more than 7 % of particles with diameters < 50 µm and a dusting potential of 1.1 g/m3 . 
Since no data on acute inhalation toxicity has been provided, inhalation of dust is considered as potentially hazardous. 
D-Panthenol is currently only available in liquid preparations to be used only for addition to water for drinking. 
The FEEDAP Panel does not anticipate any inhalation hazard from such use. 

3.3.2. Effects on the eyes and skin Because of the lack of data, calcium D-pantothenate is considered as a skin and eye irritant and skin sensitiser. 
D-Panthenol is described in the Material Safety Data Sheet as a skin and eye irritant in rabbit. 
Allergic skin rashes have been reported in humans following its topical use (Roberts et al., 2006). 
3.4. Safety for the environment Pantothenic acid occurs widely in nature. 
Its use in animal nutrition is not expected to substantially increase the concentration in the environment. Therefore, a risk for the environment resulting from the use of pantothenic acid in animal nutrition is not foreseen. 
4. Efficacy According to Regulation (EC) No 429/2008, efficacy studies are not required for vitamins, provitamins and chemically defined substances having similar effects which are already authorised as feed additives under Directive 70/524/EEC and which do not have the potential to accumulate in the body, which the FEEDAP Panel considers is the case for pantothenic acid. Calcium D-pantothenate has about 92 % the biological activity of D-pantothenic acid; panthenol is described as a pro-vitamin and is mostly converted to pantothenic acid (Pfaltz, 1943, Rubin et al., 1948). Pantothenic acid has been globally used in animal nutrition for decades. Clinically evident deficiency is very rare in field conditions, but sub-clinical deficiency with lower production and reproductive performance may occur. Data on requirement, allowances and recommendations (see Section 3.1) for feed supplementation are easily accessible as standard literature for animal nutrition experts. 5. Post-market monitoring The FEEDAP Panel considers that there is no need for specific requirements for a post-market monitoring plan other than those established in the Feed Hygiene Regulation30 and Good Manufacturing Practice. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS 
Oral administration routes of D-panthenol via feed or water for drinking are considered as bioequivalent. 
The use of calcium D-pantothenate in feed and of D-panthenol in water for drinking is safe for all animal species and categories. 30 OJ L 35, 8.2.2005, p. 1. 
Pantothenic acid for all animal species EFSA Journal 2011;9(11):2409 12 
The use of calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol as nutritional additives does not give rise to concern for consumers. 
Calcium D-pantothenate showed a potential for inhalation exposure to particles of respirable size. 
Since no data on acute inhalation toxicity has been provided, inhalation of dust is considered as potentially hazardous. 
D-panthenol being currently only available in liquid preparations, the FEEDAP Panel does not anticipate any inhalation hazard. 
Because of the lack of data, calcium D-pantothenate is considered as a skin and eye irritant and a skin sensitiser. 
D-Panthenol is regarded as a skin and eye irritant in rabbits, and allergic rashes in humans have been reported following its topical use. 
Pantothenic acid occurs widely in nature. Its use in animal nutrition is not expected to substantially increase the concentration in the environment. 
Therefore, a risk for the environment resulting from the use of pantothenic acid in animal nutrition is not foreseen. 
Due to its established nutritional role in domestic animals, calcium D-pantothenate is regarded as an effective source of pantothenic acid. 
D-Panthenol is considered a pro-vitamin essentially bioequivalent to pantothenic acid. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

The FEEDAP Panel proposes to adjust calcium D-pantothenate and D-panthenol specifications to PhEur MG 0470 and MG 0761, respectively, considering purity, substance-related impurities and other impurities. 
When giving a warranty for stability in premixtures, the manufacturer should consider the effect of choline chloride. 
The FEEDAP Panel recommends therefore including a corresponding warning under other provisions of the authorisation (e.g. ‘Stability of calcium D-pantothenate may be reduced in premixtures containing choline chloride’). DOCUMENTATION PROVIDED TO EFSA


 

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