DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE

DEHA is used in Water Treatment Chemical Formulations for controlling corrosion in boiler very effectively due to its property of oxygen scavenging. Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) has been utilized as an oxygen scavenger in boiler systems in many industriess. Its unique combination of properties, such as volatility; the ability to passivate steel surfaces; and its very low toxicity makes it the oxygen scavenger of choice for many applications. The application of DEHA in a number of different systems is discussed in this article and its performance is compared with hydrazine and sulfite. DEHA was introduced as an alternative oxygen scavenger to hydrazine, offering the advantages of very low toxicity and the volatility of a neutralizing amine. Like hydrazine, DEHA also promotes the formation of a passive magnetite film on low carbon steel surfaces minimizing corrosion in the system
Deha Performance Characteristics. DEHA has a number of beneficial properties as an oxygen scavenger in boiler feedwater systems: 1. Rapid complete oxygen removal under typical boiler feedwater temperature and pH conditions. 2. Promotes passivation of internal surfaces in the boiler system. 3. It is volatile similar to a neutralizing amine with the ability to distilled off the boiler, and is available to protect the entire steam condensate system as well as the feedwater and boiler system


Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is an organic compound with the formula (C2H5)2NOH. It is a colorless liquid, although it is usually encountered as a solution. 
It is mainly used as an oxygen scavenger in water treatment.

N,N-diethylhydroxylamine; Ethanamine, N-ethyl-N-hydroxy-; DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE; N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethanamine; N-etyl-N-hydroxyethanamine; DEHA 85; cas no: 3710-84-7

DEHA is used in boiler water treatment applications, as an oxygen scavenger for medium and high pressure boilers. DEHA also functions as a free radical scavenger in polymerization, it is a short stopper in the production of styrene butadiene rubber.

Diethylhydroxylamine is utilized as a water treatment chemical and is commonly known by its abbreviation of DEHA. It helps control the corrosion in boilers efficiently because of its oxygen scavenging properties. It is much less toxic than most other similar chemicals and meets the governed standards for proper disposal without resulting in difficulties for those who work with it. The properties of the compound also make it ideal for use in a variety of different plastics. DEHA contains powerful free radical scavenging abilities, which allow it to effectively be utilized as an in process inhibitor for the manufacturing of a variety of chemicals, including styrene, butadiene, and isoprene. As with most chemicals, it is an irritating compound that reacts with skin and eyes, and should always be handled with care. In the event of contact with skin, individuals should wash appropriately and avoid contact with the chemical until they have had time to recover.


Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is also known by alternate names such as N-Ethyl-N-Hydroxy-Ethanamine. It is manufactured by reacting triethylamine and a peroxide which is then followed by purification and distillation. It is majorly used as oxygen scavengers for medium and high pressure boilers. It removes dissolved oxygen thus preventing corrosion. In case of ferrous metals DEHA forms a protective film, apart from being widely used in the water treatment industry, diethylhydroxylamine is also being used as a short stopper in the rubber and other polymer processing industry. Other relatively smaller applications of diethylhydroxylamine includes removal of residue such as photoresist and other residue from the microelectronic parts. In the inks and photographic industry, diethylhydroxylamine is a color stabilizer.

IUPAC name: N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine
Other names: N-Ethyl-N-hydroxyethanamine
CAS Number: 3710-84-7 
N,N-Dethylhydroxylamine; n,n-diethyl-hydroxylamine;
N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethanamine

EC 223-055-4


Synonyms:
N,N-diethylhydroxyamine
diethylhydroxylamine
N,N-diethylhydroxylamine
ethanamine, N-ethyl-N-hydroxy-
N-hydroxydiethylamine
hydroxylamine, N,N-diethyl-

Increasing use of rubbers and other types of polymers to replace metals and other materials across a broad range of applications is also expected to fuel the overall development of the global Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) market in the coming years of the forecast period.

Diethylhydroxylamine is a better alternative as compared to conventionally used oxygen scavengers. They are the metal passivating chemicals that protect the metal from corrosion. It has higher efficiency as compared to other oxygen scavengers such as sulfite, hydrazine and, erythorbate. DEHA has higher reactivity with oxygen as compared to other scavengers.

However, there are some factors that are impeding the growth of the global Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) market. One of the key restraining the high cost associated with the use of the chemical. In developing countries like India, hydrazine continues to be the most widely used oxygen scavenger for medium and high pressure boilers.


Corrosion inhibitors are general purpose chemicals applied to deal with corrosion caused in boilers. Corrosion occurs due to the reaction of oxygen with metallic parts in a boiler to form oxides. Corrosion affects the metallic part of the boiler, thereby, increasing the cost of energy and maintenance. Corrosion inhibitors act by forming a thin layer of barrier over the exposed parts of the boiler from the water.
Several types of corrosion inhibitors are used in water boilers. These include condensate line corrosion inhibitor, DEHA - diethyl hydroxyl amine, polyamine, morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and carbon dioxide corrosion inhibitor. A mixture of filming amines is used to prepare a condensate line corrosion inhibitors. This can provide protection in every stage, due to the presence of both high and low vapor/liquids.
DEHA is a volatile compound, which is also an oxygen scavenger and acts as a metal passivating agent. Polyamine can be used in both low pressure and high-pressure boilers. Morpholine protects the boiler by increasing the pH level of the liquid. Cyclohexylamine is used in low pressure boilers. Carbon dioxide corrosion inhibitor is used, along with polyamine, to control the corrosion.


Chemical formula: C4H11NO
Molar mass: 89.138 g·mol−1
Appearance: Colorless liquid
Odor: Ammoniacal
Density: 867 mg mL−1
Melting point: −26 to −25 °C 
Boiling point: 127.6 °C
Solubility in water: Miscible
Vapor pressure: 500 Pa (at 0 °C)
Acidity (pKa): 5.67 (est) 

It is a volatile oxygen scavenger and reacts in a ratio of 2.8/1 DEHA/O2. It is employed in high pressure (>70 bar) boiler systems due to a very low rate of reaction at low temperatures and pressures. 
Due to its volatility, it acts as an oxygen scavenger throughout the entire boiler system due to steam carryover.
DEHA also reacts with ferrous metals to form a passivized film of magnetite throughout the boiler system.

It has these other uses:

Polymerisation inhibitor
Color stabilizer (photographics)
Corrosion inhibitor
Discoloration inhibitor (phenolics)
Antiozonant
Radical scavenger[5]

DEHA (Diethylhydroxylamine) – DEHA is an excellent chemical product used to prevent corrosion by exhibiting characteristics that have gained it widespread use in industrial water treatment. 
It is highly effective at removing dissolved oxygen from boiler systems, and it also provides excellent metal passivation. 
It has a higher volatility than other common oxygen scavengers, which allows it to be distributed throughout the entire steam system; thus, protecting the system from oxygen corrosion. 
In addition to its metal passivating and oxygen scavenging properties, DEHA degrades (thermal and oxidative degradation) to form neutralizing amines that protect condensate piping from carbonic acid attack, and to maintain proper pH. 
DEHA reacts with oxygen to form acetate, nitrogen and water; therefore, it does not add any dissolved solids to the system.


Diethylhydroxylamine
Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is an organic compound [(C2H5)2NOH] is a colorless liquid mainly used as an oxygen scavenger in water treatment. 
It is very important to remove oxygen from the boiler feed water as oxygen can cause serious issues in the steam producing plant by fostering corrosion in the total boiler system. 
The reasons due to which DEHA find its popularity as an oxygen scavenger is because of its ability to passivate steel and its low toxicity. 
As an Oxygen Scavenger, DEHA works efficiently removing oxygen at a rapid rate under normal boiler conditions.
 Its volatility is similar to amine and has the ability to provide protection to overall condensate system as well as boiler system.


DEHA (Diethylhydroxylamine) – DEHA is an excellent chemical product used to prevent corrosion by exhibiting characteristics that have gained it widespread use in industrial water treatment. 
It is highly effective at removing dissolved oxygen from boiler systems, and it also provides excellent metal passivation. 
It has a higher volatility than other common oxygen scavengers, which allows it to be distributed throughout the entire steam system; thus, protecting the system from oxygen corrosion. 
In addition to its metal passivating and oxygen scavenging properties, DEHA degrades (thermal and oxidative degradation) to form neutralizing amines that protect condensate piping from carbonic acid attack, and to maintain proper pH. 
DEHA reacts with oxygen to form acetate, nitrogen and water; therefore, it does not add any dissolved solids to the system.

DEHA is used in boiler water treatment applications, as an oxygen scavenger for medium and high pressure boilers. 
DEHA also functions as a free radical scavenger in polymerization, it is a short stopper in the production of styrene butadiene rubber.


DEHA is used in boiler water treatment applications, as an oxygen scavenger for medium and high pressure boilers. DEHA also functions as a free radical scavenger in polymerization, it is a short stopper in the production of styrene butadiene rubber.


Key Features and Benefits
Completely organic nature
Volatile product, does not add to TDS of blowdown water
Metal passivator and rust converter
Effective condensate line treatment and pH booster
Non-toxic and safer than hydrazine and carbohydrazide based chemicals
Compatible with other boiler treatment chemicals
Compatible with other boiler treatment chemicals
Returns to the feed line with the condensate return so passivates total system
High rate of reaction with oxygen compared with other oxygen scavengers
Offers vapour liquid distribuon ratio of 1.3 and thus distributes all along the condensate circuit
Physico chemical Data
Properties: Typical Value
Form: Clear liquid
Appearance: Light yellow
Odour: Amine like
Solubility: Completely soluble in water
Application Areas
Corrosion inhibitor
Polymerization inhibitor
Colour stabilizer (photographics)
Discoloration inhibitor (phenolics)
Electronic chemicals
Photographic chemicals
Polymer processing
Upstream Oil & Gas Production
Industrial Water Treatment

Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) - 85%
Chemical synonyms:    N-Ethyl-N-Hydroxy-Ethanamine; Diethylhydroxylamine 85%

Product description
DEHA 85% solutions is available as a yellow liquid with an amine-like odor.
DEHA products are manufactured by the reaction of a triethylamine and a peroxide, followed by purification and distillation. ATAMAN supplies both DEHA Anhydrous and DEHA 85%.

Both DEHA Anhydrous and DEHA 85% function primary as radical and oxygen scavengers.

DEHA is used in boiler water treatment applications, as an oxygen scavenger for medium and high pressure boilers.
DEHA also functions as a free radical scavenger in polymerization, it is a short stopper in the production of styrene butadiene rubber.

Beyond its application as scavenger, DEHA is also used in refinery chemicals and other niche markets, such as:

Microelectronics industry: for example, DEHA is formulated to remove residual photoresist and other residue from microelectronic parts.
Photographic industry: DEHA is blended with other chemicals to produce good color development.
The reduction of toxic heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium to their more environmentally-friendly counterparts such as trivalent chromium is done using an aqueous solution containing DEHA.


Applications/uses
Electronic chemicals
Photographic chemicals
Polymer processing
Upstream O&G-production
Water treatment industrial
 


Diethylhydroxyamine;N,N-DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE, TECH;N,N-Diethylhydroxyla;N-DiethylhydroxylaMine;DiethylhydroxylaMine (DEHA85);(D.E.H.A )N.N-DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE;N,N-DiethylhydroxylaMine, 97% 5GR;N,N-DiethylhydroxylaMine

N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine

3710-84-7

DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE

Ethanamine, N-ethyl-N-hydroxy-

N-Hydroxydiethylamine

N,N-Diethylhydroxyamine

Hydroxylamine, N,N-diethyl-

UNII-314I05EDVH

CCRIS 964

EINECS 223-055-4

BRN 1731349

AI3-28026

314I05EDVH

N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine, 97%

HSDB 6819

hydroxydiethylamine

Diethyl hydroxykamine

Pennstop 1866


A boiler is a device that heats water to make necessary steam or hot water. There are various types of boilers depending on the purpose of use. Domestic power generation facilities are mostly using high-capacity, high-pressure boilers and water treatment for water quality control of water supply and boiler water. The purpose of water treatment is to increase the operation efficiency and extend the life span of power generation facilities.

Water treatment improves the quality of the system water and prevents the corrosion of system components. Each power plant adopts a water treatment method suitable for the characteristics and conditions of the power plant boiler.

Damage of the boiler tube due to corrosion of the boiler system is the biggest cause of the operation stoppage of the power generation facility, which causes a great economic loss such as the cost loss due to the operation stoppage and the maintenance cost. There are many factors such as the presence of corrosive ions and the presence of dissolved gas in the system water. However, it is known that the dissolved oxygen present in the boiler system water of the power plant has the greatest influence on the corrosion of the system material. have.

As a method to remove dissolved oxygen in the boiler system, it is necessary to remove the primary dissolved oxygen by deaerator which is a mechanical dissolved oxygen removing method and secondary chemical dissolution using deoxidizer to remove residual dissolved oxygen which is not removed by deaerator There is an oxygen removal method.

Currently, most domestic power generation boilers use hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ), which is also used as fuels for deoxidizing fuels, but hydrazine is toxic substance that has high human carcinogenicity and may affect respiratory, skin, .

Since the discovery that hydrazine is a pseudo-carcinogen, advanced countries require extreme caution when using hydrazine and have strict regulations on hydrazine emissions and storage. However, according to the Chemical Safety Agency, the amount of hydrazine hydrazine (hydrazine hydrate form) in Korea in 2013 is 1,992 kg per year, and the amount of waste water and waste including hydrazine is 16,954 kg and 56,794 kg per year, Regulation is expected to become strict.

The United States and other countries have developed alternate deoxidizing agents that can replace hydrazine for decades ago and have been applied to power boilers and industrial boilers.

Major alternative deoxygenators that are currently being developed and commercialized or being promoted for commercial use include Carbohydrazide, Hydroquinone, Diethyl hydroxylamine (DEHA), Methyloethyl ketoxime (MEKO), Ascorbic acid Acid).

The carbohydrazide in the alternative deoxygenating agent reacts with dissolved oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide as shown in the following reaction formula. Carbohydrazide is known to have a higher dissolved oxygen removal rate than hydrazine up to 85 ° C. It hydrolyzes to 150 ° C to generate hydrazine and carbon dioxide, and decomposes to ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen at temperatures above 200 ° C. Unlike hydrazine, however, carbohydrazide is not recognized as a carcinogen and is less toxic than hydrazine.

(H 2 N-NH) 2 CO + 2O 2 → 2N 2 + 3H 2 O + CO 2

Diethyl hydroxylamine reacts with dissolved oxygen to produce acetic acid and water as shown in the following reaction formula. DEHA is also not recognized as a carbal substance as carbohydrazide, and is less toxic than hydrazine.

4 (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NOH + 9O 2 → 8CH 3 COOH + 2N 2 + 6H 2 O

Morpholine is a typical additive for compositions comprising deacidified materials as C 4 H 9 NO compounds as volatile amines.

On the other hand, the steam generated from the industrial boiler used for the process heat exchange and power generation is advantageous in saving energy and water consumption by being condensed after being used and then being recovered to the boiler water supply. Therefore, in the field where the boiler is located, the recovery rate of the condensate should be increased as much as possible.

Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA): A Volatile
Oxygen Scavenger for Boiler System Treatment
By Frank Kasinecz "MR. GOOD CHEM" INC.
Abstract
Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) has been utilized as an oxygen scavenger in boiler systems in many industries for the past 20 years. 
Its unique combination of properties, such as volatility; the ability to passivate steel surfaces; and its very low toxicity makes it the oxygen scavenger of choice for many applications. 
The application of DEHA in a number of different systems is discussed in this article and its performance is compared with hydrazine and sulfite.

Introduction
The presence of dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwater can present serious problems in a steam generating plant by promoting corrosion in the feedwater system, the boiler, and the steam condensate system. 
Therefore, it is important to remove oxygen from the feedwater and also from the condensate where inleakage can occur.

The first step in the elimination of oxygen from the boiler feedwater is mechanical deaeration. 
With good deaeration oxygen values as low as 7 g/L (ppb) can be attained.
The second step involves chemical oxygen scavenging to remove the residual. 
For many years sodium sulfite and hydrazine were the chemical oxygen scavengers of choice.

However, sodium sulfite contributes solids to the boiler water and hydrazine was found to be toxic. 
These factors led to the introduction of alternative oxygen scavengers including diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA). 
DEHA was introduced as an alternative oxygen scavenger to hydrazine, offering the advantages of very low toxicity and the volatility of a neutralizing amine. 
Like hydrazine, DEHA also promotes the formation of a passive magnetite film on low carbon steel surfaces minimizing corrosion in the system

Deha Performance Characteristics
DEHA has a number of beneficial properties as an oxygen scavenger in boiler feedwater systems:
1. Rapid complete oxygen removal under typical boiler feedwater temperature and pH conditions.
2. Promotes passivation of internal surfaces in the boiler system.
3. It is volatile similar to a neutralizing amine with the ability to distilled off the boiler, and is available to protect the entire steam condensate system as well as the feedwater and boiler system.

4. Under the action of heat, some of the DEHA is degraded to yield two neutralizing amines which assist in elevating the pH in the condensate.

5. It has very low toxicity making it safe and easy to handle in typical boiler application systems.
The goal of the water treatment professional is to provide clean corrosion free surfaces throughout the entire boiler feedwater/boiler/steam condensate system. 
The unique feature of DEHA based products is that they can provide corrosion protection in a simple package, which is safe and easy to use.

1. Reaction with Oxygen
From a stoichiometric standpoint, 1.2 mg/L of DEHA is required to react with 1 mg/L of oxygen, however for practical purposes 3 mg/L DEHA per 1 mg/L oxygen is recommended. 
The oxidation of DEHA is a complex process involving several reactions, which are dependent on temperature, pH and the concentrations of both DEHA and oxygen.
The overall reaction of DEHA with oxygen can be summarized as: 4(C2H5)2NOH + 9O2 8CH3COOH + 2N2 + 6H2O
The total oxidation of DEHA through to acetic acid, nitrogen and water involves six steps. 
Extensive application experience over more than 20 years has shown that the formation of acetate is minimal in the presence of the other reducing agents generated in the oxidation process.

2. Metal Passivation
The primary objectives of a boiler water treatment program are the prevention of both scale formation and corrosion on internal surfaces in the system. 
Minimizing corrosion in boiler systems involves removing all traces of oxygen from the boiler feedwater and creating conditions, which promote the formation of a passive magnetite film on the internal surfaces.
At high temperature iron corrodes in water to form magnetite as follows:
Fe + H2O FeO + H2
3FeO + H2O Fe2O3 · FeO + H2
Under normal boiler system conditions magnetite forms a stable tightly bonded surface
layer, which inhibits further corrosion (Bain et al, 1994). 


3. Volatility
In addition to oxygen scavenging and metal passivating capabilities, another key advantage of DEHA is volatility. 
Not only does DEHA scavenge oxygen and passivate metal in the feedwater and boiler portions of a steam boiler cycle, it also volatilizes with the steam to provide complete system protection.
The fact that DEHA is volatile represents an enormous advantage in condensate system treatment because most of it is transported and absorbed into the condensate system allowing it to:
• Passivate condensate system metallurgy preventing corrosion
• Scavenge oxygen if it enters the condensate system preventing corrosion
• Reduce corrosion byproduct transport to the boiler minimizing the potential for boiler deposition and corrosion
• Improve equipment reliability and efficiency
• Minimize overall condensate system corrosion reducing the related maintenance costs

4. Thermal Degradation
Under the action of heat in the system DEHA degrades to form two neutralizing amines, diethylamine and ethylmethylamine. 
In many instances it will be possible to reduce or eliminate neutralizing amine feed while maintaining the condensate pH in the desired range with DEHA in the system. 
Over the past 20 years DEHA has been used in many systems to elevate condensate pH as well as remove oxygen from the system eliminating the requirement to apply neutralizing amines.

5. Toxicity
DEHA has very low toxicity making it safe and easy to handle in typical application systems. 
One standard acute oral toxicity test measures LD50, the amount of a substance required to kill 50% of the laboratory population of a given species under test conditions.
The LD50 numbers for DEHA are 2190 mg/kg on rats and 1300 mg/kg on rabbits. 
These are very high dose rates. As an example from a safety and handling standpoint, in this type of testing DEHA exhibits less than 10% of the toxicity of hydrazine.

6. DEHA Applications
DEHA has been successfully utilized to treat a variety of low pressure and high-pressure boiler systems replacing both hydrazine and sulfite as well as competitive organic oxygen scavengers. 
It can be used in any type of boiler system where the feedwater temperature exceeds 180°F under alkaline conditions (pH 8.5 or higher). 
However, DEHA does not have FDA approval. 
Therefore, it cannot be used in systems where the steam comes into direct contact with food. 
DEHA has also found many applications aside from conventional boiler feedwater treatment over the years


Wet storage or lay-up of a boiler system:
DEHA should be recommended in accounts when wet storage of a boiler is being considered. Use 500 mg/L DEHA (active) with morpholine to adjust the pH to 10.0-11.0 (> 400 mg/L). 
Test for DEHA and pH on a weekly basis (Thompson, 1986).

Systems where air in-leakage is a problem due to operation schedules requiring regular downtime:
Examples are steam systems involving surface condensers and condensate systems with atmospheric vents. 
DEHA will remove the oxygen, which is causing corrosion in these situations (Schneider, 1986).

Systems where steam and cooling water interchange:
Batch chemical manufacturing systems with jacketed reactors, and tire manufacturers are examples. 
DEHA will passivate the metal surfaces in the system during steam introduction, reducing the corrosive impact of the cooling water.

Applications where rapid surface passivation is required:
For example nail, nut and bolt manufacturing systems. 
DEHA will passivate metal part surfaces. 
In the production of semi-finished goods, this may eliminate a two-step procedure for the application and removal of temporary corrosion protection on inventoried parts.

Processes where an organic reducing agent is used:
For example, refinery process side reducing agents.
Any industrial application requiring oxygen scavenging and passivation with minimal solids added to the boiler water:

For example pulp and paper utility applications.

7. DEHA Application and Control
A. Dosage Recommendations
The dosage demand for DEHA will fluctuate, as it is very difficult to anticipate how much product will be consumed in the passivation of system metallurgy. 
In general, the dosage recommendations for DEHA feed are dictated by:
• The amount of oxygen present
• The feed point of the product
• The state of passivation of the system
• The operating parameters of the system (pressure, temperature)
In low to moderate pressure industrial boiler systems, an initial feedwater DEHA dosage of 300-500 ppb (active DEHA) is recommended. 
Adjust product feed rates until a consistent DEHA residual of 80-120 ppb has been established in the condensate. 

In moderate to high-pressure industrial or utility systems (>600 psi), passivation is much more prevalent. 
Product demand requirements are generally low and residual requirements are lower due to reduced upset potential. 
In many instances, as little as 75-100 ppb of DEHA in the feedwater will generate at 40-50 ppb residual in the condensate and promote the maintenance of a passive magnetite surface.

B. Product Feed Points
DEHA products can be fed to a number of different points in a standard steam/condensate system. 
The impact of DEHA may vary, depending upon the point of application. 
There are a number of application points for DEHA.

Deaerator – The most common introduction point of DEHA into a steam generating system is to the storage section of the deaerator. 
This is the furthest upstream point in the system where a chemical oxygen scavenger should be added. 
Care should be taken to insure that the product is not added to the dome section or the dropleg of the deaerator, causing excessive product losses to occur through venting.
Avoid feeding DEHA and sodium sulfite at the same point in the system since DEHA will react with the sulfite. 
If sodium sulfite is being fed to the deaerator, the feed point for DEHA should be moved downstream, preferably into the steam header. 
The use of hydroquinone as a feedwater oxygen scavenger is preferable to sulfite when using DEHA.

Feedwater – DEHA can be fed to the feedwater, either by itself or in combination with other treatment chemicals.
Boiler – If the boiler itself is the only point in the system where chemicals can be injected, DEHA can be combined with other products and fed at that point.
Steam Header – The optimal point of application for DEHA products used for post boiler protection is to the steam header because product application changes will have immediate and measurable impact.

Deha Versus Competitive Oxygen Scavengers
The following information describes how DEHA technology compares with hydrazine,and sulfite.

Hydrazine
DEHA functions extremely well when applied as a hydrazine replacement. 
From an oxygen scavenging standpoint, 40% more DEHA is required than hydrazine (N2H4). 
The competitive advantages, which DEHA has over hydrazine, result from its volatility and low toxicity (Schneider, 1986).

While hydrazine is a strong passivating agent, it functions as a reducing agent in the feedwater/boiler phases of the system. 
Not only does DEHA perform the same oxygen scavenging/passivating functions in these areas, it also passivates the entire steam condensate system due to its volatility. 
In addition, hydrazine thermally degrades to ammonia, which can be very corrosive to yellow metals in the presence of oxygen. 
By comparison, ammonia generation from DEHA is only 10 to 20 % of that generated by hydrazine.

The second significant advantage of DEHA over hydrazine is its toxicity (Cuisia et al,1983). 
The LD50 for hydrazine is 82 mg/kg on rats and 91mg/kg on rabbits. 
This is the dosage of hydrazine necessary to kill 50% of a laboratory population of these species under test conditions. 
The same LD50 numbers for DEHA are 2190 mg/kg on rats and 1300 mg/kg on rabbits. 
In essence, from a safety and handling standpoint, DEHA exhibits less than 10% of hydrazine toxicity. 
Hydrazine has also been identified as a suspected animal carcinogen by the U.S. government. 
In today's changing marketplace, with a heightened emphasis on employee health and safety in the working environment.

Conclusion
Many years of application have clearly demonstrated the excellent performance of DEHA as a passivating agent and oxygen scavenger for the entire boiler feedwater, boiler water and steam condensate system. 
Its many advantages in application and cost-effectiveness make it the oxygen scavenger of choice for most types of steam generating facilities. 

N,N-DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE (DEHA)
Properties          

Application Areas: 


Water Treatment
DEHA is used in Water Treatment Chemical Formulations for controlling corrosion in boiler very effectively due to its property of oxygen scavenging.
It scoresover conventional hydrazine hydrate since it is far less toxic and meets the standard for disposal of blow offs without any difficulty giving a good protection against corrosion at the same time.


Polymerization    
DEHA's powerful free radical scavenging ability coupled with its moderate volatility and relatively low order of acute toxicity makes it an ideal “popcorn Polymer ”/ vapour phase inhibitor for olefins or styrene monomer storage & recovery system.
Because of its capability of inhibiting polymerization in the gas phase, DEHA is finding use as an in-process inhibitor for the production of styrene, divinylbenzene, butadiene, isoprene and other monomers containing a reactive double bond.


Photographic Chemicals
DEHA has reducing property, so it is used as an auxiliary chemical photographic developer for instant colour photos. 
Also, DEHA is effective in stabilization of image and in the prevention of discolouration.

 
Decolourisation
Phenol and Phenolic antioxidants can be decolourised with DEHA.


Inhibitors
DEHA also can be used as a colour stabiliser of monoalkyl phenol.


Silicon Rubber     
DEHA can be used as a raw material for the hardener of the Silicon Sealant and coating agent.

 

Storage
Can be stored and handled in equipment made of stainless steel of Type SS304 or SS316 or steel lined with glass, polypropylene or polyethylene.
Storage in mild steel equipment or containers is not recommended.
DEHA drums should be stored in a cool and well ventillated area, away from sources of ignition.
Forms two layers for concerntration from 33 to 87 wt %.


Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) has been utilized as an oxygen scavenger in boiler systems in many industriess. 
Its unique combination of properties, such as volatility; the ability to passivate steel surfaces; and its very low toxicity makes it the oxygen scavenger of choice for many


N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine

3710-84-7

DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE

Ethanamine, N-ethyl-N-hydroxy-

N-Hydroxydiethylamine

N,N-Diethylhydroxyamine

Hydroxylamine, N,N-diethyl-

UNII-314I05EDVH

CCRIS 964

EINECS 223-055-4

BRN 1731349

AI3-28026

314I05EDVH

MFCD00002126

N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine, 97%

diethyl hydroxylamine

HSDB 6819

hydroxydiethylamine

Diethyl hydroxykamine

Pennstop 1866

N,N-Dethylhydroxylamne

n,n-diethyl-hydroxylamine

DSSTox_CID_7543

EC 223-055-4

N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethanamine

DSSTox_RID_78498

DSSTox_GSID_27543

4-04-00-03304 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

KSC225O0D

(C2H5)2NOH

CHEMBL3184786

DTXSID2027543

CTK1C5701

FVCOIAYSJZGECG-UHFFFAOYSA-

1-[Ethyl(hydroxy)amino]ethane #

N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine, >=98%

DEHA85 N, N-Diethylhydroxylamine 85, (water content 15% max.)
Short stopper of polymerization in production of SBR/NBR and poly butadiene polymer.
Polymers short stopped by DEHA are stable, and do not change their viscosity due to incomplete reaction and maintain their color.


DEHA85 
N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine 85, (water content 15% max.)
Short stopper of polymerization in production of SBR/NBR and poly butadiene polymer. 
Polymers short stopped by DEHA are stable, and do not change their viscosity due to incomplete reaction and maintain their color.
DEHA


Chemical description:
Chemical name: N,N-Diethylohydroxyloamine 85
Chemical formula: (C2H5)2NOH
CAS number: 3710-84-7
EINECS number: 223-055-4

Typical properties:
Appearance at 20o C: Colourless to light yellow liquid
Molecular weight: 89,1 g / mol
Vapour pressure at 25o C: 43 hPa
Solubility in water at 20oC: Complete below 35 % and above 85 %
Initial boiling point at 760 mm Hg: 95o C
Flash point: 46o C
Freezing point: -16o C
Density at 20o C: 0,900 ± 0,005 g / cm3

Specification values:
Specification values
No.    Property    Unit    Specification    Test Method
Min    Max
1    DEHA content    wt. %    85,0    -    
2    DEA content    wt. %    -    0,2    
3    Density at 20o C    g / cm3    0,895    0,905    ISO 758:1976
4    Phase separation volume < 20o C    %    -    0,5    Visual
5    Color    APHA    -    30    
6    Appearance    -    Clear without solids    Visual

Handling precautions:
DEHA is a harmful and flammable liquid
DEHA can react violently with strong oxidants
For further detailed information, please refer to Material Safety Data Sheet

Aplications:
Short stopper of polymerization in production of SBR/NBR and poly butadiene polymer. Polymers short stopped by DEHA are stable, and do not change their viscosity due to incomplete reaction and maintain their color.
Polymerization inhibitor used as anti-popcorn agent in styrene/butadiene monomer production. Due to the inhibition of the formation of high cross-linked polymer, damage of equipment and pipes can be avoided.
Water treatment chemical to avoid corrosion in water boilers by binding oxygen (Oxygen scavenger). This maximizes the energy use and life of the boiler system.
Film development industry,where it is used as anti-oxidant in formulations for rapid development of color prints. It also acts as an initiator in the development process.
DEHA acts as an inhibitor because it scavenges peroxides, oxygen and organic radicals. It is used as a colour stabilizer in polymers and fuel systems.
Reagent for the selective reduction of quinones to quinols under mild conditions.
A patent search also showed usage in the following applications:
Preparation of phentyltetrahydrophthalimide herbicides.
Catalyst in the formation of ceramic coatings from a ceramic precursor.
Vulcanizing agent for silicone rubbers free of organometalic catalysts.
Catalysts for hydrolysis of siloxanes in silicone rubber manufacturing.
Anti-foulants and color for distillate fuel oils.
Oxidizing agents for post-leaching kaolinite clays.
Manufacture of room temperature curable sealants.

Oxygen scavenger which can exhibit excellent
oxygen reduction effect in a wide variety of conditions is
provided as an alternative volatile oxygen scavenger to
hydrazine. The oxygen scavenger contains a heterocyclic compound having N-substituted amino group such
as 1-amino-4-methylpiperazine and a hydroxylamine
compound such as N,N-diethylhydroxylamine. The oxygen scavenger may further contain a polyhydric phenol
type catalyst such as pyrogallol. By adding the oxygen
scavenger to feed water of a water system of a boiler,
oxygen reduction treatment of the water system is carried
out.

N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine(DEHA)
Molecular Fomula: C4H11NO

Molecular Weight: 89.14

CAS No.: 3710-84-7

Usage:
1. Used in efficient polymerization inhibitor for alkene as vinyl monomer.

2. As efficient end-polymerization inhibitor.

3. Excellent terminator in emulsion polymerized butadiene styrene rubber procedure.

4. Antioxidant for unsaturated oils and resin.

5. Favorable stabilizer for photosensitive resin, sensitive emulsion and synthetic resin.

6. Favorable photochemical smog inhibitor in environmental protection.

7. Corrosion inhibitor for boiler feed water and steam heat exchanger.

8. Antioxidant in photography.

Application Areas

Water Treatment: DEHA is used in water treatment Chemical Formulations for controlling corrosion in boiler very effectively due to its property of oxygen scavenging. It scores over conventional hydrazine hydrate since it is far less toxic and meets the standard for disposal of blow offs without any difficulty giving a good protection against corrosion at the same time.

Polymerization: DEHA's powerful free radical scavenging ability coupled with its moderate volatility and relatively low order of acute toxicity makes it an ideal "popcorn Polymer"/vapour phase inhibitor for olefins or styrene monomer storage & recovery system. Because of its capability of inhibiting polymerization in the gas phase, DEHA is finding use as an in-process inhibitor for the production of styrene, divinylbenzene, butadiene, isoprene and other monomers containing a reactive double bond. 

Photography: DEHA has reducing property. So it is used as the auxiliary photographic developer for instant color photos. Also, DEHA is effective in stabilization of image and in the prevention of discoloration.

Decolorisation: Phenol and phenolic antioxidants can be decolourised with DEHA.

Inhibitors: DEHA also can be used as a colour stabilizer of monoalkyl phenol.

Silicon Rubber: DEHA can be used as a raw material of the hardener of the Sealant and coating agent.


DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE (DEHA)
GROUPS / USES: Curing Agent, Epoxy Resins, Polymerization Inhibitors, Polyurethane coatings, Collectors, Polymers
SYNONYMS: DEHA, N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine, N-Diethylhydroxylamine


Market Overview
Global Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) Market Introduction

Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is also known by alternate names such as N-Ethyl-N-Hydroxy-Ethanamine. 


Diethylhydroxylamine is majorly used as oxygen scavengers for medium and high pressure boilers. 

Diethylhydroxylamine removes dissolved oxygen thus preventing corrosion. 
In case of ferrous metals DEHA forms a protective film, apart from being widely used in the water treatment industry, diethylhydroxylamine is also being used as a short stopper in the rubber and other polymer processing industry. 
Other relatively smaller applications of diethylhydroxylamine includes removal of residue such as photoresist and other residue from the microelectronic parts. 

Diethylhydroxylamine is one of the most commonly used photo-processing chemical. 
In the metal processing industry, diethylhydroxylamine is used for the reduction of heavy metals to environmental friendly equivalents.


The growing use of rubber and other polymers replacing metals and other materials across a wide range of application areas is projected to drive the market demand for diethylhydroxylamine market.

Other niche application areas such as metal processing industry, microelectronics residue remover and photography industry are also projected to create steady demand for diethylhydroxylamine over the forecast period.

Diethylhydroxylamine is a better alternative as compared to conventionally used oxygen scavengers. 
They are the metal passivating chemicals that protect the metal from corrosion. 
It has higher efficiency as compared to other oxygen scavengers such as sulfite, hydrazine and, erythorbate. DEHA has higher reactivity with oxygen as compared to other scavengers.


Trends

One of the major trend observed in the global Diethylhydroxylamine market is the use of combination of oxygen scavengers such as DEHA (Diethylhydroxylamine) and HQ (Hydroquinone) for both high pressure and low pressure conditions.

Global Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) Market Segmentation
The global diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) market can be segmented on the basis of product type, application, end use industry and region.

On the basis of end use industry, the global Diethylhydroxylamine market can be segmented as:

Chemical formulations
Oxygen scavenger
Polymer processing
Color stabilizer
Antioxidants
On the basis of product type, the global diethylhydroxylamine market can be segmented as:

Anhydrous
85% solution
On the basis of end use industry, the global diethylhydroxylamine market can be segmented as:

Water Treatment
Rubber and other polymer processing
Electrical and electronics
Chemical Processing
Photographic inks
Oil and Gas


Amines are a large group of substances. Some are much used as organic oxygen absorbents. 
Amines are also pH-adjusting like ammonia.
Chemically, amines are ammonium compounds, in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms in NH4+ are replaced by another chemical compound. 
Amines are sold under many names such as Helamin,Morfolin, Cyclohexylamin, and DEHA (diethyl hydroxylamine).

Amines for water treatment can be divided into three groups. 
Some amines are oxygen absorbent, and some are neutralizing, while others are film forming so-called “fatty” amines. 
These “fatty” amines form film on steel faces in boilers and on heat exchangers, etc., which contribute to corrosion protection in the same way as tannins.

The oxygen binding occurs by decomposition of amines to lower organic compounds under liberation of carbon dioxide (CO2), therefore amines are sodium hydroxide consuming and contribute to raising the total salt content and the conductivity in the district heating water.

When using amines as oxygen absorbent, make sure that the reaction velocity at temperatures under 50-60°C is sufficient to ensure the oxygen binding in the return pipe.


 

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