Diisononyl Phthalate = DINP = diisononyl ester = 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid

CAS Number: 28553-12-0
EC / List number: 249-079-5
Molecular formula: C26H42O4

Diisononyl phthalate is the diisononyl ester of benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. 
DINP has a role as a plasticiser. 
Di-isononyl phthalate is an oily colorless liquid with a slight ester odor. 
DINP insoluble in water. 
Diisononyl Phthalate is a phthalate ester and a diester.
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a phthalate used as a plasticizer. 
DINP is typically a mixture of chemical compounds consisting of various isononyl esters of phthalic acid, and is commonly used in a large variety of plastic items.
Diisononyl Phthalate, also known as DINP, is a clear and colorless liquid substance with a mild odor. 
Diisononyl Phthalate is insoluble in water, extremely  resistant to changing temperatures and has high thermal insulation as well as long lasting wear and durability. 
DINP is a general purpose plasticizer, used in a wide range of industries and products.
Diisononyl Phthalate is most commonly used to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC), also known as vinyl, in the automobile, flooring and construction industries. 
Diisononyl Phthalate is a major component in determining the physical properties of vinyl products such as their durability, resistance to heat and cold and their  flexibility.  
Common products using DINP are electric cables and synthetic leather, hoses for household appliances and wiring. 
Diisononyl Phthalate's extreme flexibility and low volatility make DINP a preferred choice in a wide range of indoor and outdoor applications.
While Diisononyl Phthalate is primary used as a plasticizer it also finds use in paints, sealants and lubricants.
Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP) is used for a wide variety of flexible PVC applications including plastisols, extruded and molded parts.

Uses of DINP:
In the draft scope of the DINP risk evaluation, EPA preliminarily identified conditions of use associated with the importing; processing; distribution in commerce; industrial, commercial and consumer uses; and disposal of DINP, including as:
plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), in automotive care and fuel products; and in other commercial and consumer products, including adhesives and sealants, paints and coatings, electrical and electronic products, and other plastic and rubber products.

Diisononyl (DINP) is a phthalate-based plasticizer consisting isononyl esters of phthalic acid. 
Plasticizers are most commonly used for improving the flexibility, durability, and stretchability of polymeric films, reducing melt flow at the same time.
Diisononyl Phthalate have high compatibility with PVC and are used for numerous applications, such as floor and wall coverings and medical applications.

What is DINP?
DINP belongs to a family of chemicals called phthalates, which are added to some plastics to make them flexible.  
DINP is one of the phthalates most frequently used in plastic products.
DINP is used in various types of plastic consumer products, including:
Some polyvinyl chloride (PVC, vinyl) flooring, materials used in automobile interiors, wire and cable insulation, gloves, tubing, garden hoses, and shoes.
DINP is also used in some non-PVC products, such as some inks and pigments, adhesives, sealants, paints and lacquers.

Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP) is a general use high molecular weight PVC Plasticizer which provides a good balance of cost savings and properties. 
DINP is a preferred replacement for DOP plasticizer, and is highly compatible with PVC and shows good permanence. 
When Diisononyl Phthalate compared to DOP, DINP has lower volatility, improved cold temperature flexibility, and better permanence in the final product. 
DINP is a versatile plasticizer used for a wide variety of flexible PVC applications including plastisols, extruded, and molded parts. 
In particular, DINP finds use in the automotive, construction, home, adhesive, leather and shoe, wire & cable, and textile markets. 
DINP can also be mixed with a variety of secondary plasticizers. It is REACH registered.

How does exposure to DINP occur?
DINP can be gradually released from consumer products into indoor environments such as homes, schools, daycare centers, offices and cars.  
Diisononyl Phthalate settles on floors and other surfaces, and can accumulate in dust and air.
Exposure can result from contact with products containing DINP.
Low levels of DINP have been detected in some foods that have been in contact with plastics during processing and packaging.
During pregnancy, DINP can pass from mother to baby.

About DINP:
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is used to soften or “plasticize” polyvinyl chloride (PVC), commonly referred to as vinyl. 
DINP is a general purpose plasticizer used in a multitude of vinyl products that demand flexibility, durability and specific functionality. 
While DINP’s primary function is as a softener, it is also used in sealants, paints and lubricants.

Uses of Diisononyl phthalate: 
Diisononyl phthalate with its medium level of performance has found general use in applications that require permanence higher than what would be obtained through the use of DOP. 
Diisononyl phthalate has good efficiency properties, low volatility characteristics and good permanence in polar fluids. 
Diisononyl phthalate is replacing DOP where regulatory issues restrict the use of DOP as a general-purpose plasticizer.

Formula: C26H42O4
Molecular mass: 421 (average)
Boiling point at 0.7kPa: 244-252°C
Melting point: -43°C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.98
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: <0.01 (very poor)
Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: <0.01
Flash point: 221°C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 380°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 0.4-2.9
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 8.8
Viscosity: 77.6 mm²/s at 20°C 
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed:    No
Melting Point: -48.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Boiling Point: 463.35 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:    5.400000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 419.00 °F. TCC ( 214.90 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 9.026 (est)

The information collected by NICNAS indicated that in Australia DINP is used mainly as a plasticiser (plastic softener) for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products but also in other applications such as adhesives, laminations, resins, surfactants and screen printing inks, with a small proportion in children’s toys. 
DINP is present in imported PVC toys at a concentration range of 0.005% to 35%.
International sources report that DINP is used as a plasticiser for PVC applications, such as in the manufacture of toys and construction materials. 
DINP is also used in non-PVC applications, such as rubbers, paints, sealants, lacquer and lubricants.
The information on the use of DINP provided by Australian industry did not include any indication that it is used in cosmetic and personal care products. 
Furthermore, the available information on the use of DINP in cosmetics overseas indicates that it is not used. 
There is also no information that supports the substitutability of high molecular weight phthalates, such as DINP, for low and mid molecular weight phthalates commonly used in cosmetics.
Therefore, risk characterisation for adults using cosmetics containing DINP is not discussed in this report.
Restrictions (either interim or permanent) on the use of DINP in toys and child-care articles that can be placed in the mouth by children have been implemented in the European Union (EU), the United States of America (US) and Canada. 
There are currently no restrictions on the use of DINP in toys and child-care articles in Australia.

Di-isononyl (DINP) is a phthalate based plasticizer consist of isononyl esters of phthalic acid. 
Plasticizers are most commonly used for improving the flexibility, durability, and stretchability of polymeric films, reducing melt flow, at the same time. 
DINP have high compatibility with PVC and are used for numerous applications such as floor and wall coverings, medical applications, etc. 
The increasing demand and usage of DINP is expected to drive the market during the forecast period.

Inhalation risk of Diisononyl Phthalate:
Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed. 

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure:
Tumours have been detected in experimental animals but may not be relevant to humans. 

Uses of Diisononyl Phthalate: 
DINP widely used chemical with potential thyroid-disrupting properties. 
Diisononyl ester used in toxicology studies as well as risk assessment studies of food contamination that occurs via migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials.
The diisononyl ester of benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid.
General Description: 
Oily colorless liquid with a slight ester odor. 
Diisononyl ester is denser than water. 
Diisononyl ester insoluble in water.
Air & Water Reactions: 
DINP insoluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: 
Diisononyl phthalate reacts exothermically with acids to generate isononyl alcohol and phthalic acid. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by interaction with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing with alkali metals and hydrides. Can generate electrostatic charges. [Handling Chemicals Safely, 1980. p. 250].
Health Hazard: 
Produces no ill effects at normal temperatures, but may give off irritating vapors at high temperatures.
Fire Hazard: 
Diisononyl phthalate is combustible.
Purification Methods: 
Wash Diisononyl phthalate with aqueous Na2CO3 then shake it with water. 
Ether is added to break the emulsion, and the solution is washed twice with water, and dried (CaCl2). 
After evaporating the ether, the residual liquid is distilled three times under reduced pressure. 
Diisononyl phthalate is stored in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5.

DINP Has Unique Benefits
More than a chemical additive, DINP is a major component in determining the physical properties (e.g., degree of flexibility, resistance to heat, durability) of vinyl products. 
DINP is extremely effective in a wide range of indoor and outdoor applications. 
Some of the many key properties of vinyl products with DINP include resistance to changing weather conditions, water resistance, high thermal insulation, long-lasting wear and durability. 
Diisononyl Phthalates low volatility makes it effective in applications where products are exposed to high temperatures, making them more resistant to degradation.
Another very important property of DINP is its versatility. 

DINP Has Many Applications and its Benefits Can Be Seen in Products Developed Across Multiple Industries
The benefits of DINP in vinyl are evident in products manufactured by the automobile, building and construction, cable and wire and flooring industries. 
PVC made flexible with DINP extends the life of modern cars through its design, weight, comfort and cost benefits. 
Car manufacturers choose soft vinyl because of its protective benefits, and its durability provides a longlasting and protective layer for chassis, protects cars against grit and reduces rust and corrosion. 
Diisononyl Phthalate is also easy to apply.
PVC made flexible with DINP is widely used in the building and construction industry today. 
DINP is used in cladding, or the facings of buildings, and roofing membranes, and frequently used to cover buildings and sports arenas because of its durability, water resistance and high thermal insulation properties.
Flexible PVC is a widely used electrical insulation material in our homes, offices and factories. 
Diisononyl Phthalate is also preferred insulation for transmission cables and fiber optics. 
DINP is a material of choice for protecting wires that run through homes and offices and charge our computers, appliances and a variety of other machines used in our daily lives. 
Diisononyl Phthalate provides durability and cost-effectiveness, and the flexibility that allows it to bend and twist without cracking.

How can I reduce my exposure to DINP?
Avoid plastics known as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or vinyl (with recycle code 3).
Minimize exposure to dust, which can contain DINP.  
Wash your hands and your child’s hands frequently, especially before preparing food, and before eating.
Clean floors regularly, using a wet mop or a vacuum cleaner with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, if possible.
Wipe up dust regularly, using a damp cloth.
Eat more fresh food, and less processed and packaged food.

Accredited by A2LA for ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO/IEC Guide 34 and certified by UL-DQS to ISO 9001.

GHS/OSHA Complaint
Concentration or Composition Notes:
Certificate of Analysis reports target analytes to a +/−2% accuracy and correct for raw material purity.

CAS: 28553-12-0
MF: C26H42O4
MW: 418.61
EINECS:    249-079-5
Chemical Name or Material: Diisononyl phthalate
CAS Min %: 0.1, 99.9
Molecular Formula: C26H42O4
Molecular Weight (g/mol): 418.62
Solvent or Matrix: Acetone

1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid
diisononyl ester
baylectrol 4200
bisoflex DINP
DINP (=diisononyl phthalate)
ENJ 2065
isononyl alcohol
phthalate (2:1)
jayflex diisononylphthalate
jayflex diisononylphthalate-s
jayflex DINP
jayflex DINP-E
jayflex DINP-S
palatinol DINP
palatinol DN
palatinol N
phthalic acid diisonyl ester
phthalisocizer DINP
sansocizer DINP
vestinol NN
vinylcizer 90
witamol 150
Isononyl alcohol phthalate
Palatinol DN
Palatinol N
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester
Bis(7-methyloctyl) phthalate
Di(C8-C10) branched alkyl phthalate
Di(isononyl) phthalate branched

DINP is a clear, colourless liquid with a very slight odour (molar mass 418.6 g/mol, melting point –48°C, boiling range 253–267°C at 7 hPa, vapour pressure <0.1 hPa at 20°C). 
Isononyl alcohol phthalate is practically insoluble in water and readily soluble in common organic solvents.
DINP is used as a plasticiser with low volatility and good behaviour at low temperatures. 
Approx. 95% of DINP is used as an additive for PVC and approx. 5% as a plasticiser in rubber, paints, adhesives, varnishes, sealants and solvents. 
In terms of the molecular structure and chain length of the alcohol groups diisononyl phthalate is similar to the plasticiser di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), however, in many cases it exhibits better properties in the manufacturing process as well as in the products.

Substance name:diisononyl phthalate
Trade name:Diisononyl Phthalate
EC no:249-079-5
CAS no:28553-12-0
HS code:29173490
K&H product code:100157
Boiling Point: 172 ° F at 760 mm Hg 
Molecular Weight: 418.6 
Water Solubility: Insoluble (<1 mg/ml at 70° F)
Melting point: -48°
density: 0.98
vapor pressure: 1 mmHg ( 200 °C)
refractive index: n20/D1.485(lit.)
Fp: 235 °C
Water Solubility: <0.1 g/100 mL at 21 ºC
Merck: 14,3290
for Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters
Specification Assay : 98.0+% (Titration)
Storage Condition : Keep at 2-10 degrees C.

Di-isononyl (DINP) is a phthalate plasticizer, used in the manufacture of flexible PVCs (Poly vinyl chloride) plastics, co polymers and resins. 
Plasticizers increase the pliability and flexibility of polymeric materials. 
Phthalate plasticizers are colorless, odorless, durable, economical and weather and temperature resistant. 
DINP is classified as a HMW (high molecular weight) phthalate plasticizer. 
The other types of HMW phthalates include: diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP). 
DINP is used to increase the flexibility of following PVC products: vinyl flooring, wire, garden hoses, stationery, automobile undercoatings coated fabrics, gloves, tubing, artificial leather, footwear, roofing materials, cable insulation and toys. Non-PVC products containing DINP include rubbers, lacquers, inks, sealants, pigments, adhesives and paints.
Asia Pacific and Europe are the largest consumers of DINP. 
The growing demand of electronics, electrical wirings, automobiles and textiles are the main drivers for this market. 
Phthalate plasticizers are also used as food contact material and for manufacturing teethers for babies. 
They are known to leach into the food products and cause toxicity. This is a major restraining factor for their usage in food and baby products. 
Soft PVC plasticized with DINP is used for underbody coatings and sealants in automotive industry. 
An average car contains more than 1,000 plastic parts, of which about 12 per cent (by weight) are made of soft PVC, lowering the total weight of vehicles, which leads to less wear and tear on roads, reduced fuel consumption and lower CO2 emissions. 
DINP also provides protection benefits to automobiles: Soft PVC used as a protective layer for the chassis, doubles the normal in-service life of modern vehicles and reduces the need for servicing and repairs. 
Car manufacturers spray the plastisol (liquid layer produced using DINP) onto the metal underside of the chassis where it solidifies into a thin but extremely tough surface during the curing of the paint.
About 25% of total plasticized PVC is used by the wire, cable and electrical industries.
By varying the phthalate used, cable manufacturers are able to produce a wide range of sheathing for particular applications. 
Manufacturers can select precisely the degree of flexibility necessary to meet the mechanical requirements of the end application. 
Road vehicles, for example, need very different wiring than household appliances. 
PVC's ability to bend and twist without cracking is a safety feature which makes it particularly suitable for a wide range of applications. 
This flexibility is provided by the addition of plasticizers, such as DINP, that are mixed with the PVC before it is extruded around the metal wires it has to insulate and sheath.
PVC floors are outstandingly durable and typically last for up to 20 years of intensive use. 
Over all this time, despite large daily temperature changes, phthalates guarantee the flexibility of the application. 
They also resist degradation and discoloring from exposure to ultra violet (UV) light. 
PVC floors also offer a lot of design and patterns choice and thereby contribute to the aesthetics of the floor. 
DINP-plasticized PVC is used for many shoe soles because of its flexibility, durability and anti-slip properties. 
One of the non-PVC applications of DINP are sealings, which are often applied to windows and doors for improved insulation.

Air & Water Reactions
Diisononyl Phthalate is insoluble in water.
Health Hazard:
Produces no ill effects at normal temperatures, but may give off irritating vapors at high temperatures.
Reactivity Profile
DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE reacts exothermically with acids to generate isononyl alcohol and phthalic acid. 
Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. 
Heat is also generated by interaction with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing with alkali metals and hydrides. 
Diisononyl Phthalate can generate electrostatic charges.

Water solubility
DINP is a high molecular weight phthalate. 
Evidence indicates that many of the measured water solubilities for high molecular weight phthalates esters reported in the literature are erroneously too high. 
The water solubility is calculated to be 2.31-5 mg/l /7/ while, in the literature, several aqueous solubility data on DINP range from 7.8·10-5 to 0.0006 mg/l. 
DINP was concluded that a water solubility of <0.001 mg/l was the most likely value based on available evidence.

Fires involving this material should be controlled using a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Non-Fire Response
SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: If you spill this chemical, use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material. 
Your contaminated clothing and absorbent paper should be sealed in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. 
Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with alcohol followed by washing with a strong soap and water solution. 
Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.

STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should store this material in a refrigerator away from oxidizers, mineral acids and bases.

DINP is on the Proposition 65 list because it can cause cancer.
Exposure to DINP may increase the risk of cancer.
Proposition 65 requires businesses to determine if they must provide a warning about exposure to listed chemicals.

First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. 
Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. 
If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. 
If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. 
Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. 
Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. 
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.

There is no harmonised classification and there are no notified hazards by manufacturers, importers or downstream users for Diisononyl Phthalate.
Diisononyl Phthalate is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.
Diisononyl Phthalate is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses:
This substance is used in the following products: adhesives and sealants, coating products, lubricants and greases and polymers.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use, outdoor use, indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release.

Diisononyl phthalate (C26H42O4) is a mixture of phthalic acid esters on the basis of a mixture of isomeric nonanols. 
As a result of manufacturing conditions there are two different diisononyl phthalate products with different CAS numbers. 
DINP with the CAS number [28553-12-0] contains more than 50% alkyl-substituted iso-nonyl alcohols, also iso-octyl alcohols as well as iso-decyl alcohols. 
In the case of the DINP registered under CAS number [68515-48-0] the alcohol part consists only of dimethyl heptanol isomers. 
DINP is produced by the reaction of phthalic acid anhydride with iso-nonyl alcohol using a titanium catalyst.

Flash point: 221 °C (430 °F; 494 K) (c.c.)
Autoignition temperature: 380 °C (716 °F; 653 K)
Chemical formula: C26H42O4
Molar mass: 418.618 g·mol−1
Appearance: Oily viscous liquid
Density: 0.98 g/cm3
Melting point: −43 °C (−45 °F; 230 K)
Boiling point: 244 to 252 °C (471 to 486 °F; 517 to 525 K) at 0.7 kPa
Solubility in water: <0.01 g/mL at 20 °C
Viscosity: 64 to 265 mPa·s
CAS Number: 28553-12-0 / 68515-48-0
CHEBI:35459 check
ChemSpider: 513622
ECHA InfoCard: 100.044.602
PubChem CID: 590836
UNII: 4010KIX4CK check

Summary of Health Effects
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) can lead to growth of tumors in the liver, spleen and kidneys of animals and can affect how unborn babies develop. 
Diisononyl Phthalate may also cause cancer in humans.

How is DINP used?
DINP is primarily used as a plasticizer or softener in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, including vinyl flooring, wire and cable insulation, coated fabrics, gloves, toys, garden hoses, artificial leather and footwear.
DINP is also used in other products such as rubber, inks, pigments and paints.
Toxicity: What are its health effects?
The National Toxicology Program determined through animal testing that DINP is a developmental toxicant based on fetuses growing additional ribs at the high dose tested.
DINP is listed as a carcinogen on California’s Proposition 65 list.

How can a person come in contact with it?
A person can come in contact with DINP by breathing in contaminated air, swallowing dust, eating contaminated food, or from skin contact with consumer products.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 results showed that mono-(carboxyoctyl) phthalate, a metabolite (breakdown product) of DINP, is present in urine samples of 95.2% of the sampled U.S. population.

Background on DINP
DINP is a common chemical name for the category of chemicals that includes the following substances: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-isononyl ester and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C9-11-branched alkyl esters, C9-rich. 
The primary use for DINP is as a plasticizer in plastic and rubber products. 
Information from the 2016 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) for DINP indicates the reported production volume is between 200 million and 500 million lbs/year .

DINP’s volatilization weightlessness is smaller than DOP. 
Intrinsic viscosity is similar to DOP. 
You will get a more high viscosity value if use DINP alone. 
DINP is suitable for the plastic production, proving stable viscosity and no problems exist during disperse foaming. 
The melting temperature is low. 
As the PVC coating, DINP has the lowest viscosity and the change in viscosity quite small.
Mainly used to PVC, and also widely used to toys’ film, wire and cable since DINP has good water proofing, extraction resistance, electric insulating property and low-poisonousness. 
Industry thin-film, waterproof cloth, layer sheet, ground covering, wallpaper, cable batch, special type fibre, artificial leather binder, coating, solvent, packaging film, tube stock and sectional materials.

Phthalates are a large class of organic chemicals that are synthetically created from petroleum and are known to disrupt the endocrine system. 
Phthalates were introduced in the 1920s, and they quickly replaced earlier forms of volatile and odorous plasticizers, such as camphor. 
As phthalate production increased in the 1930s, so did their uses as plasticizers, stabilizers, or solvents applied to polyvinyl chloride, personal care products, detergents, medication, medical equipment, adhesives, food packaging and wraps, and pesticides. 
Typically, high molecular-weight phthalates are used as plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride. 
In contrast, low molecular-weight phthalates are used in personal care products to stabilize fragrances and colors. 
The ubiquitous uses of phthalates and their non-covalent binding properties to materials allow phthalates to leach into the environment. 
They can then end up in the human body through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. 
However, the primary route of exposure to phthalates is through ingestion because phthalates are easily leached from the packaging materials into foods.

DINP is introduced into Australia through importation both in finished products or mixtures and as a raw chemical for local formulation and processing. 
There are no specific data from calls for information indicating the manufacture of DINP in Australia.

Phthalates, used as plasticizers, have become a ubiquitous contaminant and have been reported for their potential to induce toxicity in living organisms. 
Among them, di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) has been recently used to replace di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). 
Nowadays, there is evidence that DINP is an endocrine-disrupting chemical; however, little is known about its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and lipid metabolism. 
Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of DiNP on the ECS in zebrafish liver and brain and on hepatic lipid storage. 
To do so, adult female zebrafish were exposed to three concentrations of DINP via water for 3 weeks. 
Afterwards, we investigated transcript levels for genes involved in the ECS of the brain and liver as well as liver histology and image analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging, and measurement of endocannabinoid levels. 
Our results demonstrate that DINP upregulates orexigenic signals and cau es hepatosteatosis together with deregulation of the peripheral ECS and lipid metabolism. 
A decrease in the levels of ECS components at the central level was observed after exposure to the highest DINP concentration tested. 
These findings suggest that replacement of DEHP with DiNP should be considered with caution because of observed adverse DINP effects on aquatic organisms.

Bis(7-methyloctyl) phthalate
Enj 2065
bis(7-methyloctyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-diisononyl ester
DINP branched
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10-branched alkyl esters, C9-rich
Diisononyl phthalate, technical grade
Baylectrol 4200;ENJ 2065;Phthalisocizer DINP;
Diisononyl Phthalate (mixture of branched chain isomers)
di-isononyl phthalate
aromatic ester
Phthalic Acid Bis(7-methyloctyl) Ester
Di(C8-10, C9 rich) branched alkyl phthalates
CCRIS 7927
Di(isononyl) phthalate branched
Diisononyl Phthalate, Technical
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(7-methyloctyl) ester
Bis(7-methyloctyl) phthalate #
EINECS 271-090-9
Di(C8-C10) branched alkyl phthalate
Phthalic acid, bis-7-methyloctyl ester
Phthalic acid, bis(7-methyloctyl) ester
di-'isononyl' phthalate, mixture of esters
EC 271-090-9
Bis(7-methyloctyl)??phthalate, analytical standard
1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid
Diisononyl Phthalate, (mixture of branched chain isomers)
Diisononyl Phthalate, >/=95%,mixture of branched chain isomers
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-C10-branched alkyl ester, C9-rich
1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10 branched alkylesters
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10 branched alkylesters, C9 rich
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylicacid, 1,2-diisononyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylicacid, diisononyl ester
1,2-bis(7-methyloctyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Aromatic Ester
bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
bis(7-methyloctyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
bis(7-methyloctyl) phthalate
C9-rich; Di-isononyl phthalate
Di isononyl phthalate
di-"isononyl" phthalate
Di-''isononyl'' phthalate
di-''isononyl'' phthalate
di-''isononyl'' phthalate
Di-isononyl phthalate
di-isononyl phthalate
Diisononyl phthalate
diisononyl phthalate
diisononyl phthalate
Diisononyl Phthalate (mixture of branched chain isomers)
Phthalic acid, bis(7-methyloctyl) ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (9CI)
Diisononyl phthalate
Isononyl alcohol, phthalate (2:1)
Palatinol N
Phthalic acid, diisononyl ester (7CI, 8CI)
Vestinol 9

Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) is a mixture of phthalates with branched alkyl side chains of varying length. 
DINP is primarily used to produce flexible plastics and has replaced di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in some plastics, though not in medical products. 
DINP is widely used in such products as toys, flooring, gloves, drinking straws, garden hoses, and in sealants used for food packaging. 
People exposed to DINP will excrete small amounts of mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) and other secondary oxidative metabolites. 
Urinary MiNP represents only about 2% of a dose. 
Because DINP is a complex mixture, MiNP may not reflect exposure to all the chemical components.

Uses & Benefits
DINP is a colorless, odorless high phthalates are used in a multitude of products that demand high performance, long-lasting wear and durability. 
DINP is primarily used to soften or “plasticize” vinyl, due to their strong performance, durability and stability. 
DINP is tightly bound into the structure of the vinyl and do not easily migrate out of the product or evaporate.
While DINP can be used in a variety of applications, different types of high phthalates are not necessarily interchangeable. 
The characteristics of DINP often make it well-suited to a specific product, allowing manufacturers to meet unique requirements for its use (function and safety specifications), appearance (texture, color, size and shape), durability and wear.
Used in PVC as a plasticiser; used in production of polymers other than PVC (e.g. rubbers); used in non-polymer applications including anti-corrosion paints, anti-fouling paints, lacquers, inks, adhesives, and sealants.

Product Use: Plasticizer for Polymer
Uses advised against: Shall not be used as substance or in mixtures in concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight of the plasticized material, in toys and childcare articles with can be place in the mouth by children. 

grade: technical grade
vapor pressure: 1 mmHg ( 200 °C)
compositioN: ester content, ≥99% (mixture of C9 isomers)
impurities: ≤0.15% dioctyl phthalate (typical)
refractive index: n20/D 1.485 (lit.)
density: 0.972 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
InChI: 1S/C26H42O4/c1-21(2)15-9-5-7-13-19-29-25(27)23-17-11-12-18-24(23)26(28)30-20-14-8-6-10-16-22(3)4/h11-12,17-18,21-22H,5-10,13-16,19-20H2,1-4H3

Diisononyl phthalate(DINP) is a plasticizer with a combination of 9-carbon branched dialkyl phthalate isomers. 
Diisononyl Phthalate can plasticize a variety of polyvinylchloride (PVC) based products that are majorly used in personal care items, nutritional supplements, and pharmaceutical industries.

Production and Composition of DINP
Commercially available DINP is a complex mixture of diesters of o-phthalic acid containing C8–C10 (C9 rich) alkyl side chains. 
In the plasticizer industry, the term “iso” (as in di“iso”nonyl phthalate) refers to the “mixture of isomers” rather than the structural classification based on IUPAC nomenclature. 
DINP has an average molecular formula of C26H42O4 and molecular weight of 420.6 g/mol. 
Although DINP-1 and DINP-2 share these general characteristics, they are manufactured via two distinct chemical processes and hence their final chemical compositions differ considerably. 
DINP-1 is manufactured using the “polygas” process. 
In this process of Diisononyl Phthalate, propylene and butanes (n-butene and isobutene) undergo oligomerization to produce octene. 
Oxonation and hydrogenation of octene produces isononyl alcohols, mainly dimethyl heptanol-1, which is reacted with phthalic anhydride to obtain DINP-1. 
The DINP-2 manufacturing process utilises n-butene as the starting material. Here, n-butene is subjected to dimerization to yield isooctene. 
Oxonation and hydrogenation of isooctene primarily results in the formation of methyloctanols and dimethyl heptanols that are esterified with phthalic anhydride to yield DINP-2.

Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is used to soften or “plasticize” polyvinyl chloride (PVC), commonly referred to as vinyl. 
DINP is a general purpose plasticizer used in a multitude of vinyl products that demand flexibility, durability and specific functionality. 
While DINP’s primary function is as a softener, it is also used in sealants, paints and lubricants.

Phthalates can be substituted for each other in certain applications. 
However, given the range of phthalate chemicals that exist, there are likely to be limits to substitutability for any particular application. 
Information on the use patterns of phthalates indicate generally that lower molecular weight phthalates are used as solvents whilst higher molecular weight phthalates are used asplasticisers

Diisononyl phthalate also known as DINP, is a mixture of isomers that have alkyl chains from 8 to 10 carbons long, but the largest portion of the mixture have chains composed of 9-carbons. 
Uses: A plasticizer in PVC, polymer production, anti-corrosion paints, anti-fouling paints, lacquers, ink, adhesives and sealants.

Human exposure to phthalates has received special attention due to their possible adverse human health effects. 
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a plasticizer still widely used in many products, despite being considered an endocrine disruptor. 
Diisononyl phthalate effect on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and its effect on sirtuin expression in HepG2 cells. 
The term diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) denominates a group of several phthalate diesters with slightly different branching of the alcohol chains.

Diisononyl phthalate labelled compound of a widely used chemical with potential thyroid-disrupting properties. 
Diisononyl phthalate used in toxicology studies as well as risk assessment studies of food contamination that occurs via migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM).

Respiratory Protection: 
Under conditions of frequent use or heavy exposure, respiratory protection may be needed. 
Respiratory protection is ranked in order from minimum to maximum. 
Consider warning properties before use.
Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). 
Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full face piece and organic vapor catridge (s). 
Any air-purifying respirator with a full face piece and organic vapor canister
Provide local exhaust or process enclosure ventilation system.
Protective Gloves: 
Wear appropriate chemical resistant gloves.
Eye Protection: 
Wear safety glasses or chemical goggles to prevent eye contact as necessary. 
Wear a face shield if so lashing is a problem.
Skin and Body Protection: 
Wear appropriate chemical resistant clothing.
Other Precautions: 
Wash with soap and water before eating, drinking or using toilet facilities. 
Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.
Thermal hazards: 
The substance does not represent a thermal hazard, thus special consideration is not required.
Environmental exposure controls: 
Avoid dispersal of spilled material and contact with soil, ground and surface water, drains and sewers.
Decontamination Facilities: 
Eye bath, washing facilities (sinks / showers)

ENJ 2065
bis(7-methyloctyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Di-''isononyl'' phthalate
Di-isononyl Phthalate
Diisononyl Phthalate (mixture of C9 isomers), tech.
Diisononyl phthalate, mixture of branched chain isomers
MFCD00026335 [MDL number]
Phthalic acid bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) ester
Phthalic acid, bis-7-methyloctyl ester
Phthalic acid, diisononyl ester

Production Process
Di-isononyl phthalate is produced by one-step esterification of phthalic anhydride with isononanol (INA) and a catalyst. 
Two types of isononanol can be used for the synthesis: either a pure C9 fraction (synthesized from isooctene), or a C8-C10 fraction, C9-rich (synthesized from C7-C9, C8-rich alkene). 
The reference flow to which all data given in this EPD refer is 1 kg of DINP.

Other(deleted CASRN): 105009-97-0
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 249-079-5
Nikkaji Web: J216.866I
Beilstein Number: 3217775
XlogP3:    9.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 418.61754000
Formula: C26 H42 O4
CAS Number: 28553-12-0
Linear Formula: C6H4(CO2C9H19)2
Molecular Weight: 418.61
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 3217775
CAS Registry Number: 28553-12-0
PubChem Substance ID: 24863457
Formula: C26H42O4
Molecular mass: 421 (average)
Boiling point at 0.7kPa: 244-252°C
Melting point: -43°C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.98
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: <0.01 (very poor)
Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: <0.01
Flash point: 221°C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 380°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 0.4-2.9
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 8.8
Viscosity: 77.6 mm²/s at 20°C 
Physical Form: Liquid
Density: 980 kg/m3
Molar Mass: 418.609 g/mol
Formula: C26H42O4
Specific Gravity: 0.970 - 0.976 at 20 Deg C
Ester Content: 99.50%
Volatile loss: 0.10%
Plasticizing Ester: 99.50%
Water: 0.10%
Heat stability: No change in color at 180 Deg C/2 hours
Acidity as Acid % by mass: 0.01%
Ester Value: 267 +- 3 mgKOH/gm
Apparent Specific Gravity: 0.9723 at 25 Deg C
Coefficient of expansion: 0.00075
Solubility in Water: <0.01%
Boiling Point: 252 Deg C
Pour Point: -45 Deg C
Absolute Viscosity: 79 cp
Flash Point: 224 Deg C

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