DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL

DMAE or DMEA
Dimethylaminoethanol or dimethylethanolamine

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is an effective, economical amine catalyst for flexible and rigid PUR foams. 
Reportedly reduces viscosity of the polyol mix, shows solvent properties to help disperse polyol-mix components, and provides good latitude in adjusting cream and rise times. 
When combined with tin catalysts, DMAE gives more independent control of foaming reaction than other amine catalysts.

Dimethylethanolamine (DMAE or DMEA) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NCH2CH2OH. 
Dimethyl ethanol amine  is bifunctional, containing both a tertiary amine and primary alcohol functional groups. 
Di methyl ethanol amine  is a colorless viscous liquid. 
It is used in skin care products. 
It is prepared by the ethoxylation of dimethylamine

Dimethylethanolamine  is a precursor to other chemicals, such as the nitrogen mustard 2-dimethylaminoethyl chloride.
The acrylate ester is used as a flocculating agent.


EC / List no.: 203-542-8
CAS no.: 108-01-0
Mol. formula: C4H11NO


Related compounds are used in gas purification, e.g. removal of hydrogen sulfide from sour gas streams.

DMEA is a widely used and well-known and proven cost cutting catalyst in the urethane foam industry. 
Dimethylethanolamine effects especially the acceleration of the blowing reaction and is therefore well suited for producing PUR-foams in a widely spread density range.
For achieving the safest production conditions DMEA in some formulation is also being applied in combination with triethylene diamine.
The quantity to be applied depends on the quantity of the blowing agent in the formulations, resp. on the density wanted. 
DMEA is generally used in the range of 0.15~0.3 parts per 100 parts of polyol. 
We do not advise the use of DMEA together with commercial grade methylenechloride. 
However, DMEA can be used with methylenechloride, polyurethane grade(stabilized).

DMEA is widely used in the water treatment industry, as a polyurethane catalyst, a range of coatings applications and as an intermediate in textile chemicals, ion exchange resins, pharmaceuticals and emulsifying agents.

Description: N,N-Dimethylethanolamine S is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid with an amine-like odor. 
It is miscible in water.

Synonyms: DMEA, DMEOA, Dimethylamine-2-ethanol, Dimethylethanolamine, (N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol, 2-(Dimethylamino-1-ethanol, 2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol, Dimethylmonoethanolamine

Applications: Intermediate used in the production of Flocculation agents, Ion exchange resins, Dyes, Corrosion inhibitors, Water based coatings, Pharmaceuticals, Crop protection agents, Pesticides, Additives for textiles, Hardeners for epoxy resins and Polyurethane catalyst

2-dimethylaminoethanol appears as a clear colorless liquid with a fishlike odor. 
Flash point 105°F. 
Less dense than water. 
Vapors heavier than air. 
Toxic oxides of nitrogen produced during combustion. Used to make other chemicals.

N,N-dimethylethanolamine is a tertiary amine that is ethanolamine having two N-methyl substituents. 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine has a role as a curing agent and a radical scavenger. 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is a tertiary amine and a member of ethanolamines.

DMAE (also known as dimethylaminoethanol, dimethylethanolamine, or Deanol) is a compound sometimes used as an ingredient in lotions, creams, and other skincare products. 
It is also available in dietary supplement form.

Health Benefits
DMAE is hypothesized to increase the production of acetylcholine (a chemical that helps nerve cells transmit signals). 
Since acetylcholine plays a key role in many brain functions, such as learning and memory, proponents claim that taking DMAE in supplement form may boost brain health by raising acetylcholine levels.1


Drugs that raise acetylcholine levels have been used to treat Alzheimer's disease, so some studies have looked at DMAE as a potential Alzheimer's treatment. 
So far, however, they've failed to show any promising results.2

DMAE has been used somewhat to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but this use has only weak evidence behind it. 
A 2011 study on nutritional treatments stated that it "probably has a small effect."3

In addition, DMAE has been looked at to boost athletic performance, elevate mood, and address symptoms of depression.

Currently, the effects of DMAE aren't scientifically well documented.


Skin Care Products
DMAE cream, lotion, and other skin-care products are said to offer anti-aging benefits by reducing the appearance of wrinkles, dark under-eye circles, and sagging neck skin. 
While research on DMAE's effectiveness is very limited, there's some evidence that using DMAE-based products may help improve skin.

Abstract
2‐Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) (also known as deanol) has been used as an ingredient in skin care, and in cognitive function‐ and mood‐enhancing products. 
It is marketed as a free base or salt, and in theory, the two forms should be equally effective and able to substitute for each other in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Detecting possible alterations in the active principle is a basic part of preformulation studies. 
Accordingly, this study compared DMAE and DMAE bitartrate to identify potential alterations or differences between the free base and the salt that might compromise the long‐term stability of cosmetic preparations at different temperatures, and also compared the behavior of the base substance and derivative alone and in solution. 
Samples were analyzed with different physicochemical methods such as differential scanning calorimetry, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Definition: A tertiary amine that is ethanolamine having two N-methyl substituents.

Chemical Role(s): radical scavenger
A role played by a substance that can react readily with, and thereby eliminate, radicals.

Bronsted base
A molecular entity capable of accepting a hydron from a donor (Bronsted acid).

Application(s):    curing agent
A chemical additive used to toughen or harden a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains.


N,N-dimethylethanolamine has role curing agent 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine  has role radical scavenger 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is a ethanolamines 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is a tertiary amine 
cyclopentolate (CHEBI:4024) has functional parent N,N-dimethylethanolamine 


Other names: N,N-Dimethyl-2-aminoethanol; Deanol; Varesal; Bimanol; Ethanol, 2-(dimethylamino)-; β-(Dimethylamino)ethanol; β-(Dimethylamino)ethyl alcohol; β-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine; (Dimethylamino)ethanol; (2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine; Dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)amine; Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine; Dimethylethanolamine; Dimethylmonoethanolamine; DMAE; Kalpur P; Liparon; N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine; N,N-Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine; N,N-Dimethyl-N-(β-hydroxyethyl)amine; N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine; N,N-Dimethylethanolamine; Norcholine; Propamine A; 2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol; 2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol; (CH3)2NCH2CH2OH; Amietol M 21; Dimethylaminoaethanol; N-(Dimethylamino)ethanol; 2-(Dimethylamino)-1-ethanol; Dimethylaethanolamin; UN 2051; N,N-Dimethyl-β-hydroxyethylamine; Dabco DMEA; N,N'-Dimethylethanolamine; Tegoamin DMEA; Texacat DME; DMEA; NSC 2652; 67-48-1

IUPAC Name 
2-(dimethylamino)ethanol
Synonyms     Sources
(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine    
2-(Dimethylamino)-1-ethanol    
2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol     
2-Dimethylaminoethanol    
beta-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol    
beta-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine    
Deanol    
Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine    
Dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)amine    
Dimethylaminoäthanol Deutsch     
Dimethyläthanolamin Deutsch     
Dimethylethanolamine    
Dimethylmonoethanolamine    
DMAE    
DMEA    ChEBI
N,N-Dimethyl-2-aminoethanol     
N,N-Dimethyl-2-hydroxyethylamine     
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine     
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl)amine     
N,N-Dimethylaminoethanol     
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine     
N,N-dimethylethanolamine    ChEBI
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine     
N-Dimethylaminoethanol     
Norcholine    
Propamine A    

Antiaging is an eternal topic and dream of human being. 
Age-related skin changes are inevitable and include thinning, sagging, wrinkling, loss of elasticity, areas of dryness, and an inversed turnover of collagen type I/III ratio in the skin which presented as reduced synthesis of collagen type I but upregulated production of collagen type III [1]. 
Currently Mesotherapy has been arousing everyone’s interest as an antiaging strategy. 
It is a minimally invasive procedure, which consists of intradermal microinjection of pharmacologic substances, such as nutrients, hormones, vitamins, enzymes, and other reagents, that have been diluted and are administered directly into the region to be treated. 
Under sterile and professional manipulation, Mesotherapy is very rarely causing troubles of skin infection and necrosis, except some minor risks like swelling and pain during the injection. 
As a safe, simple, less painful procedure which is one of the so-called “lunchtime cosmetic procedures,” it requires no recovery time and is perfect for professionals and successful people in the fast-paced modern life [2–4].
Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), an analog of the B vitamin choline and a precursor of acetylcholine, has been receiving more attention as an exciting new skincare supplement today for its acute effects of antiaging, antiwrinkle, and skin firmness. 

DMAE is well known for use in external application. 
In the randomized clinical studies, 3% DMAE facial gel has been shown to be safe and efficacious in the mitigation of forehead lines and periorbital fine wrinkles, and in improving lip fullness and shape and the overall appearance of facial skin [5, 6]. 
An open-label extension of the trial also showed that the long-term application of DMAE gel for up to 1 year was associated with a good safety profile [7]. 
However, tropical treatment with DMAE usually requires high dose and concentration to pass through epidermal permeability barrier, which could incur concerns of its toxicity, side effects, and medical costs. 
It was reported that 2.5–10 mmol/mL DMAE could cause a vacuolar cytopathology of in vitro cultured human fibroblast cells. 
In addition, studies showed that application of 3% DMAE gel tropically could also incur the vacuolar cytopathology of rabbit ear epidermal cells. 
Alternative delivery of DMAE is needed to evaluate the relative efficacy for the improvement of aging skin.
In order to evaluate potential antiaging effects of low-dose DMAE administered intradermally by localized microinjection (Mesotherapy), tissue structure and collagen metabolism of D-gal induced aging skin were measured in this study. 
Meanwhile, coinjection of compound amino acid (AA), leading to a reduced cellular toxicity by DMAE injection and to be a local nutrition supply, was studied as well. 
Their considered mechanism of action in the skin was also described.


The Role of Dimethylaminoethanol in Cosmetic Dermatology
Rachel Grossman 
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology volume 6, pages39–47(2005)

Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. 
Here, we review available data on one such agent — 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or deanol — that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. 
DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. 
Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. 
Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE.

In a randomized clinical study, 3% DMAE facial gel applied daily for 16 weeks has been shown to be safe and efficacious (p < 0.05) in the mitigation of forehead lines and periorbital fine wrinkles, and in improving lip shape and fullness and the overall appearance of aging skin. 
These effects did not regress during a 2-week cessation of application. 
Beneficial trends (p > 0.05 but ≤ 0.1) were noted in the appearance of coarse wrinkles, under-eye dark circles, nasolabial folds, sagging neck skin, and neck firmness. 
Application was found to be well tolerated, with no differences in the incidence of erythema, peeling, dryness, itching, burning, or stinging between the DMAE and placebo groups. 
An open-label extension of the trial showed that the long-term application of DMAE gel for up to 1 year was associated with a good safety profile. 
The acute skin-firming effects of DMAE have been confirmed by quantitative measures of cutaneous tensile strength. 
In vitro studies in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate that DMAE is a moderately active anti-inflammatory agent. 
Although its mechanisms of action in the skin remain to be elucidated, evidence suggests that the skin is an active site of acetylcholine synthesis, storage, secretion, metabolism, and receptivity. 
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been localized to keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts, whereas nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found in keratinocytes. 
The role of acetylcholine and the role of DMAE as a modulator of acetylcholine-mediated functions in the skin remain to be elucidated.

Thus, the benefits of DMAE in dermatology include a potential anti-inflammatory effect and a documented increase in skin firmness with possible improvement in underlying facial muscle tone. 
Studies are needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of DMAE compared with other skin-care regimens (e.g., topical antioxidant creams, α-hydroxy acids).


DMAE, also known as dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), is a curing agent for epoxy resins.

2-Dimethylaminoethanol is miscible with water, alcohols, ether, and aromatic solvents. 
It undergoes reactions typical of amines and alcohols. It is used in the preparation of waterborne (WB) coatings formulations.

Main Applications    flocculating agent, ion-exchange resin, urethane catalyst

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)
DMAE is a novel ingredient initially used in the treatment of hyperkinetic disorders and to improve memory. 
It is now being used in cosmeceutical products, gaining popularity from its activity as a precursor to acetylcholine. 
Initially utilized as a firming and anti-aging product, new functions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, have now been elucidated. 
In vitro, DMAE inhibits IL-2 and IL-6 secretion in addition to its actions as a free radical scavenger. 
Although the exact mechanism of action of DMAE is unclear, its acetylcholine-like functions increase contractility and cell adhesion in the epidermis and dermis, resulting in the appearance of firmer skin.

Double-blind trials of 3% DMAE facial gel showed improved facial skin firmness and increased muscle tone as evidenced by decreased neck sagging. 
Topical formulations are also now available, with a low irritancy profile. 
Few well controlled studies exist documenting its long-term efficacy and toxicity.

New Insights on Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Features as a Free Radical Scavenger
Recently, a number of synthetic drugs used in a variety of therapeutic indications have been reported to have antiaging effects. 
Among them, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), an anologue of dietylaminoethanol, is a precursor of choline, which in turn allows the brain to optimize the production of acetylcholine that is a primary neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory. 
The data presented here includes new information on the ability of the compound to scavenge specific free radicals, assessed by Electron Spectroscopic Resonance (EPR), to further analyze the role of DMAE as an antioxidant. 
DMAE ability to directly react with hydroxyl, ascorbyl and lipid radicals was tested employing in vitro assays, and related to the supplemented dose of the compound.


Nutraceutical uses
The bitartrate salt of DMAE, i.e. 2-dimethylaminoethanol (+)-bitartrate, is sold as a dietary supplement.[4] It is a white powder providing 37% DMAE.[5]

IUPAC name
2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
Other names
deanol, dimethylaminoethanol, dimethylaminoethanol
Identifiers
CAS Number    
108-01-0 check

Chemical formula    C4H11NO
Molar mass    89.138 g·mol−1
Appearance    Colourless liquid
Odor    Fishy, ammoniacal
Density    890 mg mL−1
Melting point    −59.00 °C; −74.20 °F; 214.15 K
Boiling point    134.1 °C; 273.3 °F; 407.2 K
log P    −0.25
Vapor pressure    816 Pa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa)    9.23 (at 20 °C)[1]
Basicity (pKb)    4.77 (at 20 °C)
Refractive index (nD)    1.4294

DIMETHYLETHANOLAMINE (DMEA) PRESENTATION: Dimethylethanolamine, also known as Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA and DMAE respectively), is an organic compound which is industrially produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide with dimethylamine. 
It contains both an amine group and a hydroxyl group, and can therefore react as as an amine or an alcohol. 
It is a transparent, pale-yellow liquid. 
APPLICATIONS: Dimethylaminoethanol is used as a catalyst, corrosion inhibitor, addative to paint removers/boiler water/amino resins and it is used in cosmetic and biomedical products

WHAT IS IT?
Dimethylaminoethanol, also known as dimethylethanolamine -Dimethyl MEA (DMAE and DMEA respectively), is a primary alcohol used as a pH adjuster. 
MORE INFORMATION
In skin care, the concern is its potential to cause Nitrosamines and in a  2007 study published in the British Journal of Dermatology, DMAE produced an effect known as vacuolization. Vacuolization is often observed in cells after various types of damage as cells try to encapsulate and excrete foreign agents and/or their own damaged components. 
Hence the researchers concluded that the vacuolization induced by DMAE was suggestive of cell damage. 
They also observed that DMAE impaired the ability of fibroblasts to divide. Notably, the above adverse effects reversed after DMAE had been washed out of the culture following a short-term exposure. 
(Long-term exposure has not been studied.)  Use limited in skin care and cosmetics.  
DMAE  Dimethylaminoethanol is used as a curing agent for polyurethanes and epoxy resins. 
It is also used in mass quantities for water treatment, and to some extent in the coatings industry. 
It is used in the synthesis of dyestuffs, textile auxiliaries, pharmaceuticals, emulsifiers, and corrosion inhibitors. 
It is also an additive to paint removers, boiler water and amino resins  DMAE is used in pharmaceuticals as a Cholinergic drug for ADHD, Alzhemier’s as it thought to increase the level of aceylcholine.  
Also listed as: 2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL; DIMETHYL (HYDROXYETHYL) AMINE; DMAE; ETHANOL, 2 (DIMETHYLAMINO) ; N,N-DIMETHYLETHANOLAMINE; 2- (DIMETHYLAMINO) ETHANOL; 2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL; 2-DWUMETYLOAMINOETANOLU (POLISH) ; AMIETOL M 21; BETA-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL; BETA-DIMETHYLAMINOETHYL ALCOHOL


N,N-Dimethylethanolamine; Dimethylethanolamine; Deanol; DMEA; N,N-Dimethyl-2-Hydroxyethylamine; N,N-Dimethyl-N-ethanolamine
Presentation
DMAE is a clear hygroscopic liquid with an amine-like odour.
The freshly distilled product is colourless, but prolonged storage may induce a yellowish discoloration.
Physical & Chemical behaviour DMAE can be mixed in all proportions with water. It is also soluble in most organic solvents.
In chemical nature it is both a tertiary amine and an alcohol. Neutralisation of the amino function by acids will result in salts.
The product is stable at high temperatures but must be kept away from oxidisers and acids.


Chemical & Physical properties
    Property    Value
    CAS Nr. EINECS Nr.
UN Nr.    108-01-0
203-542-8
2051
    Form    Liquid
    Colour    Colourless
    Odour    Amine-like
    Molecular weight    89.14
    Melting point    -59°C
    Boiling point    134.5 °C
    Flash point    39 °C (DIN 51755)
    Explosion limits    Lower LEL 1.4 vol%
Upper UEL 12.2 vol%
    Ignition temperature    245 °C (DIN 51794)
    Heat of vaporisation    94.8 kcal/kg
    Heat of combustion    768 kcal/mol
    Refractive index nD20    1.4294
    Density    0.887 kg/l
    Viscosity (20 °C)    3.85 cPoise
    Vapour pressure (20 °C)    6.1 mbar
    Solubility in water    Complete
    Partition coefficient Octanol/water    -0.55 (log Pow)
    pH of a 0.001 N aqueous solution    9.5
    Critical temperature    299 °C


108-01-0 [RN]
1209235 [Beilstein]
2-(Dimethylamino)-1-ethanol
2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-(Diméthylamino)éthanol [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
203-542-8 [EINECS]
2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL
2-Dwumetyloaminoetanolu [Polish]
2N6K9DRA24
4-11-00-00122 [Beilstein]
Deanol [Wiki]
Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
Dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)amine
Dimethylaethanolamin [German]
Dimethylaminoaethanol [German]
DMAE
DMEA
Ethanol, 2-(dimethylamino)- [ACD/Index Name]
KK6125000
MFCD00002846 [MDL number]
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
N,N-Dimethyl-2-aminoethanol
N,N-Dimethyl-2-hydroxyethylamine
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(β-hydroxyethyl)amine
UNII-2N6K9DRA24
β-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
β-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine
(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
(CH3)2NCH2CH2OH
(Dimethylamino)ethanol
116134-09-9 alternate RN [RN]
2-(Dimethylamino) ethanol
2-(dimethylamino)ethan-1-ol
2-(Dimethylamino)-ethanol
2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol
2-Dimethylamino ethanol
2-Dimethylamino-ethanol
Amietol M 21 [Trade name]
Bimanol [Trade name]
Demanol [Trade name]
Dimethylaminoethanol [Wiki]
Dimethylethanoiamine
Dimethylethanolamine [Wiki]
Dimethylmonoethanolamine
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:271436
Kalpur P [Trade name]
Liparon [Trade name]
N-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
N, N-Dimethylethanolamine
N,N-Dimethyl ethanolamine
N,N-Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-dimethylaminoethanol
N,N'-Dimethylethanolamine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(β -hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(β-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-ethanolamine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-ethanolamine.
N,N-Dimethyl-β -hydroxyethylamine
N,N-Dimethyl-β-hydroxyethylamine
N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-tyrosine
N-dimethyl aminoethanol
N-Dimethylaminoethanol
Norcholine [Trade name]
Propamine A [Trade name]
Q2N1 & 1 [WLN]
Texacat DME [Trade name]
UN 2051
Varesal [Trade name]
β -(dimethylamino)ethanol
β -(dimethylamino)ethyl alcohol
β -dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
β -hydroxyethyldimethylamine
β-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
β-(Dimethylamino)ethyl alcohol
β-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
β-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine

Applications

Flocculants
DMAE is a key intermediate in the production of dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate. 
The water-soluble polymers produced from this ester, mostly by copolymerisation with acrylamide, are useful as flocculents.

Pulp and paper chemicals
The dry strength or wet strength of paper is increased by adding to the unbleached kraft paper a homopolymer of dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate.

Ion exchange resins
Anion exchange resins can be prepared by reacting tertiary amines like DMAE or trimethylamine with the chloromethylated vinyl or styrene resin.
Increased exchange capacity is obtained by reacting a cross-linked polymer, containing haloalkyl functions,The anion exchange membranes are aminated with DMAE.


Polyurethane
In the production of PU foam for insulating purposes, the use of DMAE is a practical and effective way of reducing the total formula cost.

Resins
•Epoxy
DMAE is an effective and versatile curing agent for epoxy resins. 
It also acts as viscosity reducing agent for resinous polyamides and other viscous hardeners. DMAE is also an extremely good wetting agent for various filters in epoxy formulations.
•Acrylics
DMAE improves the acid-dyeing properties of acrylonitrile polymers by copolymerisation of DMAE esters.
Water-soluble DMAE salts are used to improve the behaviour of coatings and films to make them water-resistant or provide specific desired sensitivity to water.


Textiles – leather
The acid-dyeing capability of polyacrylonitrile is improved by copolymerisation of the acrylonitrile with DMAE esters, such as dimethylaminoethyl acrylate.
Cellulose modified with the homopolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate can be dyed with ester salts of a leuco vat dye.
The impregnation of cellulose with polydimethylaminoethyl methacrylate also improves the gas-fading resistance of the fabric.
Long-chain alkylphosphates of DMAE form anti-static agents for non-cellulosic hydrophobic textile materials.

Paints, coatings inks
DMAE is excellent for neutralising free acidity in water- soluble coating resins. The resin can be acrylic, alkyd or styrene-maleic. 
DMAE is often preferred to triethylamine when lower volatility is required, as in electrodeposition. 
It also improves pigment wettability. 
Some synthetic enamels with a metallic appearance can be prepared from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate polymers.
In flexographic inks DMAE can be used to solubilize resins and inoxes.
In leatherthe adhesion of latex coatings can be improved by copolymerisation of the acrylic monomers with dimethylaminoethyl acrylate.

Surfactants –detergents
Alkylethanolamine salts of anionic surfactants are generally much more soluble than the corresponding sodium salts, both in water and oil systems. 
DMAE can be an excellent starting material in the production of shampoos from fatty acids. 
The fatty acid soaps are especially effective as wax emulsifiers for water- resistant floor polishes.
DMAE titanates, zirconates and other group IV-A metal esters are useful as dispersing agents for polymers, hydrocarbons and waxes in aqueous or organic solvent systems.


Drugs and pharmaceuticatls
DMAE is often transformed by chlorination into dimethylaminoethylchloride.HCI.
Some of the following pharmaceutical products can be synthesised: bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, brompheniramine, carboxamine, chloropyramine, chlorphenamine, chlorphenoxamine, dibenzepin, diltiazem, dimethindene, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, meclofenoxate, mepyramine, noxiptiline HCI, phenyriamine, phenyltoloxamine, tarnoxifen, tripelenamine, cefotiam.


2-DIMETHYLAMINO-ETHANOL
2-dimethylaminoethanol
2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL
2-dimethylaminoethanol
2-dimethylaminoethanol; N,N-dimethylethanolamine
Deanol
dimethylaminoethanol
N,N-dimethylethanolamine
2-(dimethylamino)ethan-1-ol (cs)
2-(dimetylamino)etanol (sk)
2-(dimetyloamino)etanol (pl)
2-dimethylaminoethanol (da)
2-Dimethylaminoethanol (de)
2-dimethylaminoethanol (nl)
2-dimetil-aminoetanol (hr)
2-dimetilaminoetanol (es)
2-dimetilaminoetanol (hu)
2-dimetilaminoetanol (pt)
2-dimetilaminoetanol (ro)
2-dimetilaminoetanol (sl)
2-dimetilaminoetanolis (lt)
2-dimetilaminoetanolo (it)
2-dimetilaminoetanols (lv)
2-dimetylaminoetanol (no)
2-dimetylaminoetanol (sv)
2-dimetyyliaminoetanoli (fi)
2-dimetüülaminoetanool (et)
2-diméthylaminoéthanol N,N-diméthyléthanolamine (fr)
2-διμεθυλαμινοαιθανόλ (el)
2-диметиламиноетанол (bg)
<I>N,N</I>-dimetil-etanolamin (hr)
N,N-dimethylethanolamin (cs)
N,N-Dimethylethanolamin (de)
N,N-dimetiletanolamin (hu)
N,N-dimetiletanolamin (sl)
N,N-dimetiletanolamina (ro)
N,N-dimetiletanolaminas (lt)
N,N-dimetiletanolamīns (lv)
N,N-dimetyletanolamín (sk)
N,N-dimetyloetanoloamina (pl)
N,N-dimetüületanoolamiin (et)
N,N-диметилетаноламин (bg)

CAS names
Ethanol, 2-(dimethylamino)-

IUPAC names
2- Dimethylaminoethanol
2-(Dimethylamino) ethanol
2-(dimethylamino)-ethanol
2-(dimethylamino)ethan-1-ol
2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
2-(dimethylamino)ethanol
2-(dimethylamino)ethanol
2-Dimethylaminoethanol
2-dimethylaminoethanol
2-Dimethylaminoethanol
2-dimethylaminoethanol
2-dimethylaminoethanol, DMAE
2-dimethylaminoethanol;
2-dimethylaminoethanol; N,N-dimethylethanolamine
Dimethylaminoethanol
DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL
Dimethylaminoethanol
Dimethylethanolamine
DMAE
DMAE - CM0564B
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine
N,N-dimethylethanolamine

Trade names
(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
(Dimethylamino)ethanol
(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol
.beta.-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
.beta.-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
.beta.-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine
2-(Dimethylamino)-1-ethanol
2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol
2-Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)
Amietol M 21
Amietol M21
Bimanol
Deanol
Dimethol
Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
Dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)amine
Dimethylethanolamin
Dimethylethanolamine
Dimethylmonoethanolamine
DMAE
DMEA
Ethanol, 2-(dimethylamino)- (8CI, 9CI)
Kalpur P
Liparon
N,N-Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-.beta.-hydroxyethylamine
N,N-Dimethyl-2-aminoethanol
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(.beta.-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
Norcholine
Propamine A
Texacat DME

2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
Deanol
108-01-0
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine
Dimethylaminoethanol
Dimethylethanolamine
Norcholine
2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL
DMAE
DMEA
Bimanol
Liparon
N,N-Dimethylaminoethanol
Varesal
Propamine A
Ethanol, 2-(dimethylamino)-
(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
Kalpur P
N-Dimethylaminoethanol
Dimethylmonoethanolamine
Dimethylaminoaethanol
N,N-Dimethyl-2-aminoethanol
Amietol M 21
N,N-Dimethyl-2-hydroxyethylamine
N,N-Dimethyl ethanolamine
2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethanol
Dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)amine
Texacat DME
Dimethylaethanolamin
Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
2-(Dimethylamino)-1-ethanol
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)dimethylamine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
2-(Dimethylamino) ethanol
Demanol
Demanyl
Tonibral
(Dimethylamino)ethanol
beta-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine
2-(dimethylamino)ethan-1-ol
2-Dimethylamino-ethanol
beta-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
2-Dwumetyloaminoetanolu
N-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl)amine
Tegoamin DMEA
NSC 2652
Dabco DMEA
UNII-2N6K9DRA24
Dimethylaethanolamin [German]
Dimethylaminoaethanol [German]
Deanol [BAN]
CCRIS 4802
2-Dwumetyloaminoetanolu [Polish]
HSDB 1329
2-Dimethylamino ethanol
N,N-Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
EINECS 203-542-8
MFCD00002846
N,N'-Dimethylethanolamine
UN2051
2-(dimethylamino)-ethanol
BRN 1209235
(CH3)2NCH2CH2OH
CHEMBL1135
N,N-Dimethyl-N-ethanolamine
.beta.-(Dimethylamino)ethanol
AI3-09209
2N6K9DRA24
.beta.-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine
CHEBI:271436
Phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine
Deanol (BAN)
N,N-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL (DMAE)
NCGC00159413-02
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(.beta.-hydroxyethyl)amine
DSSTox_CID_505
2-Dimethylaminoethanol [UN2051] [Corrosive]
DSSTox_RID_75628
DSSTox_GSID_20505
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine (2-Dimethylaminoethanol)
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine, 99%
Deanol (N,N-Dimethylethanolamine)
CAS-108-01-0
Dimethylamino ethanol
Jeffcat DMEA
Dimethylethanoiamine
Toyocat -DMA
dimethyl ethanolamine
dimethyl-ethanolamine
Paresan (Salt/Mix)
dimethyl ethanol amine
2-dimethyamino-ethanol
n,n-dimethylethanolamin
Biocoline (Salt/Mix)
N,N dimethylaminoethanol
N,N-dimethyl-ethanolamine
N,N-dimethylamino ethanol
N,N-dimethylethanol amine
N,N-dimethylethanol-amine
ACMC-1C0DD
2-Hydroxyethyldimethylamine
Ethanol, 2-dimethylamino-
EC 203-542-8
beta -(dimethylamino)ethanol
CN(C)CC[O]
Dimethylaminoaethanol(german)
Choline chloride (Salt/Mix)
Luridin chloride (Salt/Mix)
KSC174O2J
beta -hydroxyethyldimethylamine
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine/DMEA
beta -dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethanol
2-(N,N-dimethylamino) ethanol
DTXSID2020505
CTK0H4724
N-hydroxyethyl-N,N-dimethylamine
.beta.-Dimethylaminoethyl alcohol
2-(N,N-dimethyl amino) ethanol
Ni(1/4)OEN-Dimethylethanolamine
NSC2652
beta -(dimethylamino)ethyl alcohol
2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethylethanaminium
WLN: Q2N1 & 1
2-Dimethylaminoethanol, >=99.5%
BCP22017
CS-M3462
KS-00000VF7
NSC-2652
ZINC1641058
.beta.-(Dimethylamino)ethyl alcohol
N, N-Dimethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
Tox21_113163
Tox21_201821
Tox21_302844
ANW-56403
BDBM50060526
LS-449
N,N-Dimethyl-beta -hydroxyethylamine
STL282730
Dimethylaminopropylamine Reagent Grade
AKOS000118738
N,N-Dimethyl-.beta.-hydroxyethylamine
DB13352
MCULE-7567469160
MP-2185
UN 2051
N, N-Dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
N,N-Dimethyl-N-(beta -hydroxyethyl)amine
N, N-Dimethyl-N-(beta -hydroxyethyl)amine
2-Dimethylaminoethanol [UN2051] [Corrosive]
2-Dimethylaminoethanol, purum, >=98.0% (GC)
115479-EP2275420A1
Q241049
2-Dimethylaminoethanol, analytical reference material
2-Dimethylaminoethanol, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
W-108727
F1908-0086
2-Dimethylaminoethanol, purified by redistillation, >=99.5%


dimethylaminoethanol, dimethylethanolamine, DMAE, DMEA, deanol,2-dimethylaminoethanol

Coatings 
Alkyl alkanolamines are used in a variety of coatings, both water- and solvent-based. 
Their main function is to increase the solubility of other components and enhance solution stability. 
Alkyl alkanolamines such as N,N-dimethylethanolamine and, N,N-diethylethanolamine are particularly useful in waterborne coatings. 
They increase resin solubility or reducibility, aid pigment dispersion, and improve solution stability by reducing pH drift. 
This latter problem is often seen in architectural paints utilizing a volatile pH modifier such as ammonia. 
Studies have also shown that they provide an attractive alternative to 2-amino-2-methyl propanol (AMP). 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine and N,N-diethylethanolamine are both recommended for use in waterborne baking enamels and primer formulations where adhesion to a variety of topcoats is needed. 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is particularly suitable for white or pastel baking enamels because of its resistance to discoloration (“yellowing”). 
Tests have shown that, when N,N-dimethylethanolamine is used in baked waterborne coatings formulations, it s superior scratch- and rub-resistance, as well as allowing an energy reduction of more than 20% in the bake cycle, compared to other commonly used alkanolamines, such as AMP. 
An additional advantage over AMP is that, as a tertiary amine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine does not tend to form water-soluble amides that remain in the film. 
Waterborne epoxy can-coating processes utilize alkyl alkanolamines, primarily N,N-dimethylethanolamine, to stabilize the final resin/solvent system and thus facilitate application by spraying, rolling, etc. 
Alkyl alkanolamines are also used in a number of cathodic electrodeposition systems. 
N-methylethanolamine, being a secondary amine, is often used to chain-extend high MW polyepoxides with a polyol. 
This is made water dispersible by neutralization to provide cationic groups in the polymer. 
A tertiary amine, such as N,N-dimethylethanolamine, is sometimes added as a catalyst, although N-methylethanolamine can form an “in-situ” tertiary amine catalyst by reaction with the polyepoxide.

Alkyl alkanolamines react readily with long-chain fatty acids to form surface-active soaps. 
The products are waxy, noncrystalline materials which have widespread commercial importance as emulsifying additives in textile lubricants, polishes, detergents, pesticides and personal care products such as hand lotions, shaving creams, and shampoos. 
Household Specialties and Personal Care The most common tertiary amine-based soaps are oleates and stearates. 
The oleate soap is water soluble; the stearate soap is not. 
Solutions of the oleate soap have very good detergent properties, are widely used with organic solvents, and are, typically, utilized in dry cleaning solvents.
Alkyl alkanolamine stearate soaps are frequently used in hand lotions, cosmetic creams, cleansing creams, shaving creams, and shampoos. 
Fatty-acid soaps of N,N-diethylethanolamine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine are employed as emulsifying and dispersing agents for water-resistant waxes and polishes.
These polishes may be used on metal, leather, glass, wood, ceramic ware, automobiles, floors, and furniture. 
The floor polishes are designed particularly for light-colored flooring

Textiles 
Surface-active alkyl alkanolamine soaps made primarily from oleic acid are used in cleaning and scouring textiles. When combined with chlorinated solvents, these soaps become wetting agents. 
Soluble in water and in most hydrocarbon solvents, they lather well in hard water. 
Combined with natural oils, such as linseed, olive, and castor oil, these soaps are utilized as textile lubricants, characterized by their excellent emulsifiability and ease of removal. 
Alkyl alkanolamine-based knitting oils prevent gum from clogging needles, and decrease the buildup of electric charge on the fiber during processing. 
The surface-active derivatives of alkyl alkanolamines also find use in desizing. 
Esters of N,N-dimethylethanolamine are used extensively in the textile industry as emulsifying agents. 
N-methylethanolamine is used as a brightening agent in the dyeing of polyester/cotton blends.


Lubricants 
The addition of alkyl alkanolamine soaps to mineral oils produces a soluble oil used in greases, cutting and lubricating oils, petroleum-water demulsifiers, and oil emulsifiers. 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is utilized in making sulfurized oils for extremepressure lubricants. 
Alkyl alkanolamines are also used in additives that lower the pour point of lubricating oils.

Gas Treating
Elimination of undesirable hydrogen sulfide from natural gas and refinery off-gases is almost universally accomplished by a process involving contact of the gas stream with a solution, and subsequent stripping of the acid gas from the solution. 
The process is referred to as sweetening. 
N-methyldiethanolamine is used in gas treating as a scrubbing and extraction agent, and provides the capability of selectively absorbing H2S in the presence of CO2. 
Under the UCARSOL™ trademark Dow s a line of high-performance solvents which provide additional improvements in acid gas removal from gas streams. 
A UCARSOL solvent is available for virtually every gas treating application. 

Pharmaceuticals
Alkyl alkanolamines and their derivatives are widely used as intermediates for the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. 
For example, N,N-dimethylethanolamine is an intermediate in the synthesis of procaine, a valuable local anesthetic and an intermediate in the preparation of procaine penicillin G, an important antibiotic. 
N,N-dimethylethanol-amine and N-methylethanolamine are used in the synthesis of antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine hydrochloride) for the symptomatic relief of allergies, such as hay fever as well as the common cold. 
N-methyldiethanolamine is an intermediate in the production of analgesics that have sedative and antispasmodic effects. 
N,N-dimethylethanolamine is employed in the synthesis of Tamoxifen, used in the treatment of malignant diseases.


Urethane Catalysts
DMEA is an amine catalyst, used alone or in combination with other catalysts, in the production of urethane foam. 
It promotes foam rise and gel strength characteristics that are particularly adaptable to intricate rigid foam molding, including refrigerator and other insulation applications. 
Isocyanates react with DMEA, thus limiting the amount of DMEA vapor released to the atmosphere during the foaming reaction.


Water Treatment
Alkyl alkanolamines are widely used in the water treatment industry. 
They are employed in the production of a number of important water treatment products, such as synthetic water-soluble polymeric flocculants and ion exchange resins. 
They are also used directly as corrosion inhibitors. 

Flocculants 
Acrylic and methacrylic acid esters of alkyl alkanolamines, particularly N,Ndimethylethanolamine, are quaternized, typically, with methyl chloride or dimethyl sulfate and then copolymerized with acrylamide to give cationic polymeric flocculants. 
When added in trace quantities to water, they adsorb solid and colloidal particles by electrostatic attraction to form large “flocs,” which can then be readily separated. They vastly improve solid/liquid separation processes such as sedimentation, filtration and flotation, and are thus widely used in the potable water and wastewater treatment industries to remove colloidal and suspended solids, as well as in the paper and mineral processing industries. 
They are also used in secondary sludge dewatering where, in conjunction with belt filter presses, high cake solid concentrations are obtained. 
To avoid crosslinking in the copolymerization step, and subsequent loss in product performance, high quality raw materials are essential. 


Ion Exchange Resins 
Strongly basic anion exchange resins are produced by reacting a tertiary amine with a chloromethylated styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer. 
When N,N-dimethylethanolamine is used, these resins are referred to as Type II Resins. They  improved regeneration efficiencies and are typically used in conjunction with a strong acid cation exchange resin for water demineralization and deionization.


Corrosion Inhibitors 
Alkyl alkanolamines are widely used as corrosion inhibitors in return-condensate steam and boiler systems. 
Two alkyl alkanolamines in particular, DMEA and MORLEX DEEA Corrosion Inhibitor meet the exacting requirements of this application. 
They have the correct combination of volatility and basicity to maintain a constant alkalinity in the boiling solution, vapor, and condensate. 
They do not form solid hydrates or react to form solid products which would impede line flow. 
These alkyl alkanolamines  distinct advantages over morpholine and cyclohexylamine, the two volatile amines traditionally employed in this application. 
The lower molecular weight of DMEA enables a more efficient use, on a pound-for-pound basis, than cyclohexylamine, and gives significant cost benefits. 
Similarly, the superior ability of DMEA to neutralize CO2 results in a lower requirement to achieve a given pH, in the range 7.0 to 8.5, than any other standard amine. 
MORLEX DEEA Corrosion Inhibitor and DMEA provide better protection than cyclohexylamine in high-temperature condensates, and better protection than morpholine in long runs of low-pressure steam lines.


Normal precautionary measures should be taken when using alkyl alkanolamines. 
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing, and wash thoroughly after handling.
When not in use, keep containers closed and use with adequate ventilation. 
Keep away from heat and open flames. 
Alkyl alkanolamines are for industrial use only. 
Alkyl alkanolamines may be stored and handled in carbon steel equipment. 
Anhydrous alkyl alkanolamines are compatible with aluminum, but aqueous mixtures can be highly corrosive to aluminum. 
To maintain product quality, it is recommended that storage containers, including drums, have a nitrogen blanket. 
Steel equipment that is frequently cleaned may contain small amounts of rust which will be picked up by the alkyl alkanolamine. 
This may cause a noticeable color increase in the product. 
Stainless steel equipment should be considered for multipleuse service to minimize this concern. 
All equipment must be clean of other chemicals or residue and must be thoroughly dried prior to placing it into alkyl alkanolamine service. 
Do not use copper alloys, zinc or galvanized iron. 
Be especially careful that pumps, valves or other equipment do not contain brass, bronze or other copper alloy components that can come into contact with the alkyl alkanolamine.

Most products may be stored at ambient outdoor conditions. 
However, at temperatures below 70°F (21°C) N-methyldiethanolamine becomes quite viscous; heated lines and tanks may be necessary to ease handling.
 N-methylethanolamine freezes at 24°F (-5°C); if ambient temperatures are expected to be this cold, then heated tanks and lines will be required. 
Steel pumps, valves and piping are most commonly used, although stainless steel is also acceptable. 
Centrifugal pumps or positive displacement vane or gear pumps are commonly used. 
Provision should be made in line sizing and pump selection if ambient temperatures may cause high viscosity as noted above. 
“Grafoil” Flexible Graphite and TFE gasketing and packing materials are compatible with these products. 
For general applications use EPR elastomer. 
Use Kalrez 4079 for higher temperatures.


alkyl alkanolamines present unique application opportunities.
 They are versatile, polyfunctional molecules that combine the characteristics of amines and alcohols. 
This makes them useful intermediates in the synthesis of numerous products, and has resulted in their use in many diverse areas. 
They are of major importance in the pharmaceutical, flocculant, coatings, and gas treating industries. 
Alkyl alkanolamines are characterized by the presence of a basic secondary or tertiary nitrogen atom and at least one hydroxyl group. 
They are capable of undergoing reactions typical of both alcohols and amines, but the amine group usually exhibits the greater activity. 
N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEEA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are tertiary amines. 
N-methylethanolamine (NMEA) is a secondary amine. MORLEX™ DEEA Corrosion Inhibitor is a proprietary version of DEEA geared to the boiler water corrosion inhibition markets

Alkyl alkanolamines are liquids at room temperature. 
N-methylethanolamine has the highest freezing point of this family at -5°C, while N,N-diethylethanolamine has the lowest freezing point at -78°C. 
They are hygroscopic, mildly alkaline, and completely water soluble. 
For these reasons, they are often used for pH control in such markets as water treating and coating applications. 
Alkyl alkanolamines react to form quaternary amine salts, soaps, esters, or amides. 
Secondary alkanolamines form salts, soaps, esters, and amides, while tertiary alkanolamines can only form esters, salts, and soaps. 
The reaction of acids, such as mineral acids or strong inorganic acids, with secondary or tertiary amines results in the formation of salts. 
The reaction of fatty acids with alkyl alkanolamines at room temperature results in the formation of neutral surface active soaps (e.g., N,N-diethylethanol ammonium stearate). 
At elevated temperatures, secondary alkyl alkanolamines (e.g., N-methylethanolamine) react with fatty acids in an equimolar ratio to give amides, along with significant quantities of amine and amide esters. 
Tertiary alkyl alkanolamines form only amine esters


Cellular urethane polymers are provided by effecting the reaction of an organic polyol reactant comprising a polyether polyol and an organic polyisocyanate reactant in the presence of a blowing agent and a catalyst system comprising a tertiary-dimethylamino ether mono-ol. 
In the dimethylamino ether mono-ols employed as catalysts in the practice of the invention, the tertiary-dimethylamino group and the hydroxyl group are positioned beta to a common acyclic ether oxygen atom or to different acyclic ether oxygen atoms which in turn are positioned beta to one another. 
The said dimethylamino ether mono-ols are versatile, low odor catalysts and are useful in forming cellular urethane polymers ranging from all water-blown flexible polyether foam to all fluorocarbon-blown rigid foam including semi-flexible and high-resilience foam products. 
Especially preferred for use in the practice of the invention are 2-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethanol and 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol either as such or in combination with other catalysts including other tertiary-amine components and/or organic compounds of tin. 
Also provided are blended catalyst systems comprising said dimethylamino ether mono-ols.

Of the aforementioned amines, one of the least expensive to manufacture is N,N-dimethylethanolamine ("DMEA") which is readily prepared as the 1:1 molar adduct of dimethylamine and ethylene oxide. Another attractive feature of DMEA is that it is less odorous than many other conventional amines such as N-ethylmorpholine, and those consisting of carbon, hydrogen and amino nitrogen such as, in particular, triethlenediamine and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,3-butanediamine. 
Relative to triethylenediamine and bis[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl]ether, DMEA exhibits moderate activity as a catalyst for water-blown, flexible slabstock. 
It is often necessary, therefore, in its use in the manufacture of conventional flexible slabstock, to employ DMEA at enhanced concentrations relative to more potent catalysts, in order to meet particular activity and foam property specifications of the foam manufacturer. 
The use of higher concentrations in turn may enhance any potential deleterious effects of residual amino nitrogen on foam properties. 
In view of its low cost and low odor, DMEA is typically used in combination with other amines either as a catalytically active diluent for more potent and expensive amines or to "spike" the activity of less potent but more expensive catalysts.

Further in regard to DMEA as well as certain amines of the catalytically potent variety such as triethylenediamine and N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, it is found that, whereas they may be suitable for forming conventional flexible and rigid foam, they are unsatisfactory catalysts over a broad range of concentration for the manufacture of void-free, semi-flexible molded foam.

Chemical Properties
Colourless liquid

Uses
dimethyl MEA (DMAE) is also known as dimethylaminoethanol. 
Studies indicate skin-firming properties, and an ability to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles as well as dark circles under the eyes. 
It is considered anti-aging, and antiinflammatory, and has exhibited free-radical scavenging activity.

Production Methods
Synthesis of dimethylaminoethanol can be accomplished from equimolar amounts of ethylene oxide and dimethylamine (HSDB 1988).

Definition
ChEBI: A tertiary amine that is ethanolamine having two N-methyl substituents.

Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. Partially soluble in water and less dense than water.

Reactivity Profile
DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL is an aminoalcohol. 
Amines are chemical bases. 
They neutralize acids to form salts plus water. 
These acid-base reactions are exothermic. 
The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. 
Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. 
Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides. 
N,N-Dimethylethanolamine may react vigorously with oxidizing materials.


Health Hazard
Inhalation of the vapor or mist can cause irritation to the upper respiratory tract. 
Asthmatic symptoms have been reported. Extremely irritating; may cause permanent eye injury. Corrosive; will cause severe skin damage with burns and blistering. 
Ingestion may cause damage to the mucous membranes and gastrointestinal tract.

Health Hazard
Dimethylaminoethanol is classified as a mild skin irritant and a severe eye irritant (HSDB 1988). 
Doses as high as 1200 mg daily produce no serious side effects and a single dose of 2500 mg taken in a suicide attempt had no adverse effects (Gosselin et al 1976). 
Reported side effects for the acetamidobenzoate salt of dimethylaminoethanol include occipital headache, constipation, muscle tenseness, restlessness, increased irritability, insomnia, pruritus, skin rash, postural hypotension, and weight loss (HSDB 1988). Under laboratory conditions, asthmatic responses resulted after exposure to a 2% dimethylaminoethanol solution to a spray painter who earlier was exposed to a similar concentration of dimethylaminoethanol via a particular paint (Vallieres et al 1977). 
Serious cholinergic side effects were reported in a 37 yr-old woman with tardive dyskinesia who had been taking dimethylaminoethanol (Nesse and Carroll 1976). 
After chronic treatment (5 months) with dimethylaminoethanol, marked sialism, bronchospasm,  nd parkinson rigidity was observed in an 89 yr-old male with a 50 yr history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (Mathew et al 1976). 
Dimethylaminoethanol appears to have a relatively low order of toxicity (HSDB 1988). 
Upon chronic administration in humans, plasma choline concentrations were found to be increased (Ceder et al 1978). 
No reports were found in the literature regarding carcinogenic or mutagenic potential.

Industrial uses
Dimethylaminoethanol is used as a chemical intermediate for antihistamines and local anesthetics; as a catalyst for curing epoxy resins and polyurethanes; and as a pH control agent for boiler water treatment. 
However, dimethylaminoethanol in the salt form, (i.e. dimethylaminoethanol acetamidobenzoate) is primarily utilized therapeutically as an antidepressant (HSDB 1988).

Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. 
A skin and severe eye irritant. 
Used medically as a central nervous system stimulant. 
Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidzing materials. 
Ignites spontaneously in contact with cellulose nitrate of high surface area. 
To fight fire, use alcohol foam, foam, CO2, dry chemical. 
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx


Inhibition Effect of N, N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on the
Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in 3M H2SO4
R.T. Loto1, C.A. Loto1, 2,* and T. Fedotova1
1 Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering; Tshwane University of Technology,Pretoria, South Africa
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

The effect of N,N'-dimethylaminoethanol on the corrosion of austenitic stainless steel type 304 in 3M H2SO4 has been studied by weight-loss method and linear polarization measurement in different concentrations of the compound. 
The inhibition efficiencies of the inhibitor compound on the corrosion of the stainless steel were evaluated through assessment of the anodic and cathodic polarization curves of the alloy, the spontaneity of the electrochemical process, inhibition mechanism and adsorption isotherm. 
The inhibitor efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. 
Results obtained reveal that the inhibitor performed effectively on the stainless steel providing good protection against pitting and uniform corrosion in the chloride containing acidic solutions. The compound acted through physiochemical mechanism on the stainless steel surface and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. 
The values of the inhibition efficiency calculated from the two techniques are in reasonably good agreement. 
Polarization studies showed that the compounds behave as mixed type inhibitor in the aggressive media.


N, N-dimethylethanolamine belongs to the group of alkanolamines, chemical compounds that carry hydroxy (-OH) and amino (-NH2, -NHR, and -NR2) functional groups on an alkane backbone. Alkanolamines have the combined physical and chemical characteristics of both alcohols and amines in one molecule, which makes them useful intermediates in the synthesis of various target molecules for use in many diverse areas such as pharmaceutical, urethane catalysts, coatings, personal care, products, Water treatments and gas treating industries, Dimethylaminoethanol used specifically for the synthesis of dyestuffs, textile auxiliaries and pharmaceuticals [such as procaine] contributing to its extensive industrial utilization and low cost[36]. 
A major problem with evaluating these inhibitors is that they are commonly used as part of complex formulations, marketed under trade names, whose compositions are uncertain. 
This study aims to investigate the corrosion inhibition effect of N, N dimethylethanolamine, an amino alcohol compound, and its ability to provide protection against pitting and uniform corrosion at different concentrations in 3M H2SO4 solution, using linear polarization and weight loss techniques.

CONCLUSIONS
(i) N, N'-dimethylaminoethanol is an inhibitor for austenitic stainless steel in acidic chloride environment
(ii) The inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration.
(iii) The investigated compound inhibits corrosion by adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface blocking the active sites and inhibition of the hydrogen evolution reactions.
(iv) The adsorption of the compounds on the stainless steel surface was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
(iv) The order of the inhibition efficiency of inhibitor at varying concentration as given by linear polarization measurements is in good agreement with that obtained from weight loss measurements.
(v) N, N'-dimethylaminoethanol provide protection against pitting corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in presence of chloride ions.
(vi) The free energy of adsorption indicates that the process was spontaneous and inhibition was due to physiochemical reactions on the steel surface


Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures 
Mohammed Hassoune1 , Abdelillah Bezzar1 , Latéfa Sail1 and Fouad Ghomari1 1 
Laboratory E.O.L.E, 
Abou Bekr Belkaid University, 
Civil Engineering, Tlemcen, Algeria 

Abstract. 
The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA), at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. 
The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl, over the whole range of temperatures studied. 
The inhibition efficiency (IE%) increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1. 
Potentiodynamic polarization data show that, the compound studied in this research predominantly act as anodic-type inhibitor. 
The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in neutral sodium chloride solution, due to the fact that the inhibitor molecules are strongly adsorbed on the active sites following Langmuir isotherm, thus leading to the formation of a stable protective film on the steel surface which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state. 
Furthermore, the values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained in this study indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively

The present work aims to investigate the efficiency of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA), an amino alcohol compound, used as an organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M NaCl solution, using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. 
The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature on the efficiency of the DMEA were examined. 
Moreover, the inhibition mechanism of DMEA in the test solution is studied and discussed.


CONCLUSION The inhibition efficiencies obtained in the present study from weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and EIS methods are in good agreement. 
The following conclusions could be drawn: 
The DMEA significantly reduces the corrosion rate of carbon steel in 0.5M NaCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1, The DMEA acts as an efficient organic corrosion inhibitor over the whole range of temperatures studied. 
The values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively. 
The adsorption of DMEA molecules obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm, The potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that the studied inhibitor is predominantly anodic-type in 0.5M NaCl solution, The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in 0.5M NaCl solution, due to the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the steel surface, thus leading to the formation of a protective film which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state.


Evaluation of corrosion resistance properties of N, N′-Dimethyl ethanolamine corrosion inhibitor in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution with different concentrations of chloride ions by electrochemical experiments
Author links open overlay panelHwa-SungRyuaJitendra KumarSinghbcHyun-MinYangbHan-SeungLeebMohamed A.Ismail
Abstract
Steel rebars attain passivity in concrete environment. 
Passive film can be destroyed by acidification through carbonation and chloride ions from NaCl in concrete. 
There are different techniques have been employed to mitigate the corrosion problem of steel rebars embedded in concrete. 
Among different methods inhibitors are very popular and frequently used. 
Commercially available N, N′-Dimethyl ethanol amine (DMEA) inhibitor is studied in different concentrations of NaCl in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. 
The performance of inhibitor was evaluated by potential time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic techniques. 
DMEA inhibitor is showing 63–74% efficiency and effectively reduces the corrosion rate.


Application
Jeffcat DMEA is a polyurethane foam auxiliary catalyst is a reactive catalyst, can be used for flexible polyurethane foam and polyurethane foam formulations;
Jeffcat DMEA also used in coatings, paints, inks;
Jeffcat DMEA very suitable for medium and water-soluble coating resin free acidity;
Tertiary amine catalyst to promote the reaction of isocyanate with water is particularly effective; Jeffcat DMEA added insulation can also play a role in the production of plastic foam PU effectively reduce the total cost; also used in polyurethane elastomers.


JEFFCAT DMEA    
Typically used in flexible foams and polyurethane foams (PUR). Used as an acid scavenger in polymeric isocyanate systems.

N,N-dimethylethanolamine

Amines for the coatings industry
Products    Properties & applications
IPDA (isophorone diamines)    Raw material for IPDI, crosslinker for PU coatings
MMEA (monomethylamine ssol.)
DMAPA (3-(Dimethylamino) pro)
DEOA (diethanolamines pure)    Building blocks for cathodic dip painting
DETA (diethylenetriamines)    Building blocks for cathodic dip painting and epoxy curing agents
DMEA (N,N-Dimethylethylamines)    Neutralization agent for waterborne coatings
Benzylamine    Building blocks for sag control agents
DMDC (4,4'-Diamino-Dicyclo)    Epoxy curing agents
PEA (polyetheramines)    Epoxy curing agents
MEOA (N-Methylethanolamine)    PU chain extender
Baxxodur® EC 331 (cycloaliphatic amines)    Used as curing agent with moisture and temperature resistance
Baxxodur® EC 201 (cycloaliphatic amines)    Used as curing agent with high strength, moisture and temperature resistance

1,4 CYCOLOHEXANEDIMETHANOL DIVINYL ETHER

1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE

1-VINYLIMIDAZOLE

2-ETHYLHEXYLAMINE

2-MERCAPTOETHANOL

2-METHYLIMIDAZOLE PURE

3-(DIMETHYLAMINO)PROPYLAMINE

4,4'-DIAMINO-DICYCLOHEXYLMETHANE

4-HYDROXYBUTYLVINYLETHER

BAXXODUR EC 201

BAXXODUR EC 331

BENZYLAMINE

DELTA-VALEROLACTONE

DIBUTYLAMINE

DIETHANOL-PARA-TOLUIDINE

DIETHANOLAMINE PURE

DIETHANOLAMINE PURE

DIETHYLENETRIAMINE

DIISOPROPANOL-PARA-TOLUIDINE

DIMETHYLETHYLAMINE

ETHYLENE UREA

FORMAMIDE

ISOBUTYLVINYLETHER STAB. 0,1% DEA

ISOPHORONE DIAMINE

LUPRAGEN N 103

MONOMETHYLAMINE SOLUTION

N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE

N-(3-AMINOPROPYL)IMIDAZOLE

N-ETHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE

N-VINYL-2-PYRROLIDONE STAB. 0.1% NAOH

N-VINYL-2-PYRROLIDONE STAB.100PPM KEROBIT

N-VINYL-2-PYRROLIDONE STAB.25PPM KEROBIT

POLYETHERAMINE D 230

POLYETHERAMINE T 403

PROPYLENE CARBONATE S

THIODIGLYCOL HP

TMDD 100%

TMDD 440

TMDD 50% BG

TMDD 50% EG

TMDD 50% PG

TPP PELLETS

TRIDECYLAMINE MIXTURE OF ISOMERS

TRIETHYLENEGLYCOL DIVINYL ETHER

TRIISOPROPANOLAMINE

TRIISOPROPANOLAMINE TECHN. 85%

TRIS-(2-ETHYLHEXYL)AMINE

VINYLCAPROLACTAM HO-TEMPO

VINYLCAPROLACTAM KEROBIT

The Role of Dimethylaminoethanol in Cosmetic Dermatology
February 2005American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 6(1):39-47
DOI: 10.2165/00128071-200506010-00005
SourcePubMed
Authors:
Rachel Grossman


Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. 
Here, we review available data on one such agent — 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or deanol — that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. 
DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. 
Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. 
Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE. 
Thus, the benefits of DMAE in dermatology include a potential anti-inflammatory effect and a documented increase in skin firmness with possible improvement in underlying facial muscle tone. 
Studies are needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of DMAE compared with other skin-care regimens (e.g., topical antioxidant creams, α-hydroxy acids).


DMAE, also known as dimethyl MEA, is a derivative of the B vitamin choline. 
It has been around for years as an oral supplement that's popularly believed to improve mental alertness, much like Ginkgo biloba and coenzyme Q10. 
However, the research about DMAE does not show the same positive results as the other two supplements. 

Because DMAE is chemically similar to choline, DMAE is thought to stimulate production of acetylcholine. 
And because acetylcholine is a brain neurotransmitter, it's easy to see how it could be associated with brain function. 
However, only a handful of studies have looked at DMAE for that purpose and they have not been conclusive in the least, while some have shown that DMAE may be problematic or not very effective.

It’s a controversial ingredient for skin because research has shown conflicting results. 
It seems to offer an initial benefit that improves skin firmness, but these results are short-lived and eventually give way to destruction of the substances in skin that help keep it firm. DMAE may also have skin-calming effects.

Interestingly, there is a formulation challenge when including DMAE in skincare products. 
To maintain the efficacy and stability of DMAE, the product’s pH level must be at least 10. 
A pH of 10 is highly alkaline, which isn’t good news for skin. 

Moreover, because almost all moisturizers (including serums and eye creams) are formulated with a pH that closely matches that of human skin (generally 5.5–6.5, which is on the acidic side of the scale), in all likelihood the DMAE included in skincare products cannot have any prolonged functionality.

References for this information:
Pharmazie, December 2009, pages 818-822
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Supplement 72, 2008, pages S17–S22
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, November-December 2007, pages 711–718
British Journal of Dermatology, March 2007, pages 433-439
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, Volume 6, 2005, pages 39–47
European Journal of Medical Research, May 2003, pages 183–191
Mechanisms of Aging and Development, February 1988, pages 129–138


Method and composition for neutralizing acidic components in petroleum refining units
Abstract
Methods and compositions are disclosed for neutralizing acidic components in petroleum refining units. 
The neutralizing agent comprises a member selected from the group of dimethylaminoethanol and dimethylisopropanolamine. 
The neutralizing agent may be added directly to the charge, in a reflux line, or directly to the overhead line of the refining unit. 
In those instances in which sour crude is to be refined, it is desirable that dimethylisopropanolamine be used in conjunction with the dimethylaminoethanol. T
he neutralizing agents are added in an amount sufficient to elevate the pH of the condensate (as measured at the accumulator) to within the pH range of 4.5-7.

Corrosion may occur on the metal surfaces of fractionating towers such as crude towers, trays within the towers, heat exchangers, etc. 
The most troublesome locations for corrosion are the overhead of the distillation equipment which includes tower top trays, overhead lines, condensers, and top pump around exchangers. 
It is usually within these areas that water condensation is formed or is carried along with the process stream. 
The top temperature of the fractionating column is maintained about at or above the boiling point of water. 
The condensate formed after the vapor leaves the column contains significant concentration of the acidic components above-mentioned. 
This high concentration of acidic components renders the pH of the condensate highly acidic and, of course, dangerously corrosive. 
Accordingly, neutralizing treatments have been used to render the pH of the condensate more alkaline to thereby minimize acid-based corrosive attack at those apparatus regions with which this condensate is in contact.

Prior art neutralizing agents include ammonia, morpholine, cyclohexylamine, diethylaminoethanol, monoethanolamine, ethylenediamine and others. U.S. Pat. No. 4,062,764 (White et al) suggests that alkoxylated amines, specifically methoxypropylamine, may be used to neutralize the initial condensate. U.S. Pat. No. 3,779,905 (Stedman) teaches that HCl corrosion may be minimized by injecting, into the reflux line of the condensing equipment, an amine containing at least seven carbon atoms. 
Other U.S. patents which may be of interest include U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,614,980 (Lytle); 2,715,605 (Goerner); and 2,938,851 (Stedman).

The use of such prior art neutralizing agents has not been without problem, however, For instance, in many cases the hydrochloride salts of neutralizing amines form deposits in the equipment which may result in the system being shut down completely for cleaning purposes. 
Also, as the use of sour crudes has increased, in many cases the neutralizing agent has demonstrated an affinity to form the sulfide salt, thus leaving the more corrosive HCl, unreacted in the condensate and causing severe corrosion.

Accordingly, there is a need in the art for a neutralizing agent which can effectively neutralize the condensate in refinery systems without resulting in excessive system fouling. 
There is a further need for such a neutralizing treatment which can function effectively in those systems charged with a high sulfur content feedstock.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention comprises the discovery that the use of a member or members selected from the group of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA) effectively neutralizes the condensate without resulting in appreciable deposit formation. 
In those instances in which sour crudes are to be refined, the dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA) amine is used in combination with the DMAE. 
In these "sour crude" applications, the DMIPA selectively neutralizes the HCl component of the crude instead of the H2 S component. 
In this manner, the DMIPA is not consumed by the H2 S so that the more serious corrosive material, HCl, can be neutralized.


PREVENTING CORROSION IN CONDENSATE SYSTEMS 
The two basic approaches for the prevention of corrosion in condensate systems are: 
· Minimise carbon dioxide & oxygen contamination; 
· Use chemical inhibitors to counteract corrosive conditions. 

Various ion exchange methods are available for reducing or eliminating carbonates and bicarbonates from the fresh make-up water; however, in most cases, pretreatment of the water solely for removing carbonates and bicarbonates can not be justified from an economic standpoint. 
Dissolved oxygen in the fresh make-up water can be eliminated or greatly reduced by de-aeration plus the use of an oxygen scavenger. 
In small systems with very little fresh water make-up, chemical oxygen scavenging alone is effective. 
However, in systems with extensive piping, it is difficult to completely eliminate air in-leakage into the steam condensate lines. 
Chemical Inhibitors There are two basic chemical inhibitors that are used for minimising corrosion in condensate systems—neutralising amines and filming amines. 
Neutralising amines are volatile, alkaline chemicals that increase the condensate pH level. 
They offer protection against carbonic acid attack, but do not completely prevent oxygen corrosion. 
Filming amines form a barrier between the metal and the condensate, thus preventing both carbonic acid and oxygen attack. 
The choice between neutralising and filming amines, or both, depends on the particular operating conditions. 
That is, if there is air leakage into steam condensate lines, generally filming amines are better suited, whereas in tight systems with low fresh water make-up, neutralising amines are usually more practical. 
Neutralising Amines The most common neutralising amines are listed in Table 1 below. 
Each one functions by neutralisation, and is effective only in controlling corrosion caused by low pH. 
Neutralising amines volatise from the boiler water, carry-over with the steam, and dissolve in the condensate where they react with carbonic acid to form amine carbonate or amine bicarbonate. 
Excessive amine carbonate/bicarbonate concentrations may result in their precipitation. 
However, in most cases the amine carbonates/bicarbonates dissolve in the condensate and are returned to the boiler where heat causes them to break down into amine and carbon dioxide, and the cycle is repeated. 
The amine vapour/liquid distribution ratio (DR)—defined as the ratio of the amount of amine in the steam to the amount of amine in the condensate—is used to determine which amine, or groups of amine, that is best suited for a particular condensate system. 

The amine DR’s are listed in Table 1 below. 

Table 1: Distribution Ratios of Neutralising  mines Amine Vapour/Liquid Distribution Ratio (at 0 psig)
 Vapour/Liquid Distribution Ratio (at 600 psig) 
Ammonia 10.0/1.0 4.2/1.0 
Cyclohexylamine 4.0/1.0 6.6/1.0 
Diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) 1.7/1.0 3.8/1.0 
Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) 1.0/1.0 1.9/1.0 
Morpholine 0.4/1.0 1.3/1.0 

Since the object of volatile amine treatment is to neutralise the carbonic acid that is formed in the condensate, it is important to note that only that portion of the amine that dissolves in the condensate is capable of complying with this objective. 

The amine in the steam phase does not neutralise acid in the condensate. 
Therefore, if most of the steam condenses early in the system, morpholine with its low DR of 0.4/1.0 (i.e., 0.4 part morpholine in the steam; 1.0 part morpholine in the condensate) would be the amine of choice because of its higher concentration in the condensate. 
Cyclohexylamine with its higher DR of 4.0/1.0 would be more effective for longer far reaching condensate systems due to its higher concentration in the steam phase. 
Similarly, DEAE or DMAE would be the amine of choice for moderately sized condensate systems because of their intermediate DR’s. 
In complex steam systems, the prevention of deposits from excessive amine carbonate/bicarbonate concentrations may be best accomplished by feeding a mixture of amines. 
The volatility of neutralising amines dictates that they should be purchased at a concentration that is in keeping with due regard to the fire hazard associated with their low flash point temperatures (i.e., 40% for morpholine & cyclohexlyamine). 
They are usually added to the boiler feedwater, al ng with the boiler water scale & corrosion inhibitors, and continuous injection is required. 

The primary means for controlling neutralising amines is by adding sufficient amine to maintain condensate pH levels within the range of 8.5-9.5 pH for systems without steam humidification and 8.0-8.5 pH in systems where a portion of the steam is used for space humidification.
However, control can also involve the monitoring of condensate iron concentrations, the use of corrosion coupons, and visual examination. Whichever method(s) is used, it is important to monitor as many condensate streams as possible. 
Filming Amines The most common filming amine is octadecylamine (ODA). 
It is a large molecule that has both hydrophilic—water attracting—and hydrophobic—water repelling— ends in its structure. 
Bonding at the hydrophilic end forms an adherent nonwettable organic film on the metal surface, thus preventing contact between that surface and the corrosive condensate. 
The monomolecular film thus formed inhibits attack from both oxygen and carbonic acid. 
A clean surface is required for filming amines to work properly because the presence of deposits on the metal surface inhibits film formation; therefore, either areas under the deposits are not protected, or the deposits are undercut and sloughed off, thus resulting in blockage of steam traps and valves in the condensate system. 
Because  high velocities could potentially erode the protective film, a continuous amine feed directly to the main steam supply at a typical concentration of 1-3 ppm is required. 
The control of filming amines is accomplished by monitoring condensate iron concentrations, the use of corrosion coupons, and visual examination. 
Whichever method(s) is used, it is important to monitor as many condensate streams as possible


DMAE Bitartrate Powder
Be the first to review this product
SKU 129-116
DMAE is a potent, site-specific environmental damaged scavenger that can help improve the appearance of aging skin. 
Vegan No Added Parabens No Added Phthalates No Added Gluten


Amine additives in paints and coatings market players are seen focusing on expanding their portfolio with specialty additives such as amine additives in paints and coatings. 
The amine additives in paints and coatings providers are constantly focused on providing environmentally safe amine additives in paints and coatings while still achieving performance excellence with their amine additives in paints and coatings. 


Amine Additives has had a huge impact, especially on the paints and coatings market since their inception. 
Use of amine additives in paints and coatings enables manufacturers to produce low odor, environmental friendly and zero VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) formulations. 
Amine additives can be used as upstream building blocks to modify properties or during the production of resins or in the final formulation of paints and coatings. 
Amine additives for paints and coatings offer a number of features. 
Viscosity stability, improved film performance, excellent co-dispersion (such as opacity, gloss, color acceptance, whiteness), enhanced physical properties and additive optimization are some of the multifunctional features offered by the application of amine additives in paints and coatings. 
Amine additives in paints and coatings disperse efficiently and allow reduction of hygroscopic constituents, better water and scrub resistance along with reduced water spotting of the paint and coating.


On the basis of function, the amine additives in paints and coatings market is segmented into:

Co-monomer
Hardener
Neutralizing agent
Anti-skin agent
Thickening agent
Others
On the basis of chemistry, the amine additives in paints and coatings market is segmented into:

Polyurea
Polyurethane
Polyamide
Epoxy
On the basis of end use, the amine additives in paints and coatings market is segmented into:

Residential
Commercial
Industrial
On the basis of application, the amine additives in paints and coatings market is segmented into:

Adhesives
Decorative paints
Industrial paints
Marine paints
Protective coatings
Powder coatings
Sealants
Colorants
Printing inks
Polymer dispersions
Polyurethane dispersions
Printing inks
Others

Deanol is commonly referred to as 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). 
It holds tertiary amine and primary alcohol groups as functional groups. Deanol has been used in the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Alzheimer's disease, autism, and tardive dyskinesia. It has been also used as an ingredient in skin care, and in cognitive function- and mood-enhancing products.


General description
2-Dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) is a precursor of acetylcholine.
Microwave spectral studies on DMAE have reported the following values; the rotational constants (MHz) A = 5814.0(2), B = 2214.54(2), and C = 2037.96(2) and a dipole moment of 2.56 D, with a, b, and c components (D) of 2.27(2), 0.3(1), and 1.16(5), respectively.[4]

Application
2-Dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) may be employed as a ligand in the copper-catalyzed amination of aryl bromides and iodides.


New Insights on Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Features as a Free Radical Scavenger
Author(s): Gabriela Malanga, Maria Belen Aguiar, Hugo D. Martinez, Susana Puntarulo
Abstract:
Recently, a number of synthetic drugs used in a variety of therapeutic indications have been reported to have antiaging effects. 
Among them, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), an anologue of dietylaminoethanol, is a precursor of choline, which in turn allows the brain to optimize the production of acetylcholine that is a primary neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory. 
The data presented here includes new information on the ability of the compound to scavenge specific free radicals, assessed by Electron Spectroscopic Resonance (EPR), to further analyze the role of DMAE as an antioxidant. 
DMAE ability to directly react with hydroxyl, ascorbyl and lipid radicals was tested employing in vitro assays, and related to the supplemented dose of the compound.

Keywords: Radical Scavenger, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), synthetic drugs, ascorbyl radical, lipid, radicals, hydroxyl radical, antioxidant, lipofuscin, ROS

Structural characterization and stability of dimethylaminoethanol and dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate for possible use in cosmetic firming
B. Clares  M. A. Ruíz  M. E. Morales  J. A. Tamayo  V. Gallardo Lara
First published: 20 October 2010 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00620_1.x
Abstracts of papers published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science, Volume 61, No. 4, 2010

Abstract
2‐Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) (also known as deanol) has been used as an ingredient in skin care, and in cognitive function‐ and mood‐enhancing products. 
It is marketed as a free base or salt, and in theory, the two forms should be equally effective and able to substitute for each other in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Detecting possible alterations in the active principle is a basic part of preformulation studies. 
Accordingly, this study compared DMAE and DMAE bitartrate to identify potential alterations or differences between the free base and the salt that might compromise the long‐term stability of cosmetic preparations at different temperatures, and also compared the behavior of the base substance and derivative alone and in solution. 
Samples were analyzed with different physicochemical methods such as differential scanning calorimetry, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.


Chemical synonyms:    N,N-Dimethylethanolamine; Dimethylethanolamine; Deanol; DMEA; N,N-Dimethyl-2-Hydroxyethylamine; N,N-Dimethyl-N-ethanolamine
Product description

Amietol™ M21 (DMAE) is a clear hygroscopic liquid with an amine-like odor. 
The freshly distilled product is colorless, but prolonged storage may cause a yellowish discoloration.
The principal applications for Amietol™ M21 include:

Flocculants
DMAE is a key intermediate in the production of dimethylaminoethyl-(meth)acrylate. 
The water-soluble polymers produced from this ester, mostly by copolymerisation with acrylamide, are useful as flocculents.
Pulp and paper chemicals
The dry strength or wet strength of paper is increased by adding a homopolymer of dimethylaminoethyl(meth)acrylate to the unbleached kraft paper.

Ion exchange resins
Anion exchange resins can be prepared by reacting tertiary amines like DMAE or trimethylamine with the chloromethylated vinyl or styrene resin.
Increased exchange capacity is obtained by reacting a cross-linked polymer, containing haloalkyl functions, with an amine.
The anion exchange membranes are aminated with DMAE.

Polyurethane
In the production of PU foam for insulating purposes, the use of DMAE is a practical and effective way of reducing the total formula cost.
Resins

Epoxy
DMAE is an effective and versatile curing agent for epoxy resins. 
It also acts as viscosity reducing agent for resinous polyamides and other viscous hardeners. 
DMAE is also an extremely good wetting agent for various filters in epoxy formulations.

Acrylic
DMAE improves the acid-dyeing properties of acrylonitrile polymers by copolymerisation of DMAE esters.

Water-soluble DMAE salts are used to improve the behaviour of coatings and films to make them water-resistant or provide specific desired sensitivity to water.

Textiles – leather
The acid-dyeing capability of polyacrylonitrile is improved by copolymerisation of the acrylonitrile with DMAE esters, such as dimethylaminoethyl acrylate.
Cellulose modified with the homopolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate can be dyed with ester salts of a leuco vat dye.
The impregnation of cellulose with polydimethylaminoethyl methacrylate also improves the gas-fading resistance of the fabric.
Long-chain alkylphosphates of DMAE form anti-static agents for non-cellulosic hydrophobic textile materials.

Paints, coatings and inks
DMAE is excellent for neutralising free acidity in water-soluble coating resins. The resin can be acrylic, alkyd or styrene-maleic. 
DMAE is often preferred to triethylamine when lower volatility is required, as in electrodeposition. 
It also improves pigment wettability.
Some synthetic enamels with a metallic appearance can be prepared from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate polymers.
In flexographic inks DMAE can be used to solubilize resins and inoxes.
The adhesion of latex coatings can be improved by copolymerisation of the acrylic monomers with dimethylaminoethyl acrylate.

Surfactants – detergents
Alkylethanolamine salts of anionic surfactants are generally much more soluble than the corresponding sodium salts, both in water and oil systems. DMAE can be an excellent starting material in the production of shampoos from fatty acids. 
The fatty acid soaps are especially effective as wax emulsifiers for water-resistant floor polishes.
DMAE titanates, zirconates and other group IV-A metal esters are useful as dispersing agents for polymers, hydrocarbons and waxes in aqueous or organic solvent systems.

Applications/uses
Paints & coatings


In the process of synthesizing polyurethane, the polyurethane catalyst can increase the reaction rate, increase the production efficiency, and promote the  positive  reaction and suppress the side reaction selectively. 
In  the production of many polyurethane products, the catalyst is a commonly used additive, although the amount is small, but the role is very great. 
Polyurethane  catalysts  mainly  include  inorganic  salt  compounds, organophosphorus  compounds,  amine  catalysts,  and  organometallic compounds, etc. 
Although a small amount of inorganic salt compounds and organic  phosphonium  compounds  can be used as a catalyst for polyurethanes, catalysts commonly used in the synthesis of polyurethanes and their raw materials are mainly amine catalysts and  organic  metal compounds.  
With the rapid economic development, people are increasingly demanding for the environment.  
For  the  polyurethane industry,  the environmental issues include production and use, such as the early use of TDI to gradually shift  to  a  bubble  rich  in  MDI systems,and improve the production environment for production workers. 

In consumer applications, polyether polyols,  amine  catalysts,  silicone  surfactants,  flame  retardants,  and antioxidants all determine the performance of the final product,including VOC emissions  such as aldehydes  and benzenes. 
Low-VOC,  Low-Fogging, and Low-Odor polyurethane products have been increasingly used in the automotive interior  industry. 
Conventional amine  catalysts are currently the  focus of  attention, while  the new  generation of  amine catalysts  can balance the  reaction of  gels and  foams with a wide  range of  processing technologies. 
They can meet the low amine emission, low fogging and odor reduction in  the polyurethane  industry.,  including  all MDI, TDI/MDI and TDI based formulations. 
For many years, tertiary  amine catalysts are an important  part of typical polyurethane foam formulations. Some of the catalysts are biased towards the reaction of water and isocyanate (blowing reaction), while others are biased  towards  the reaction  of polyols  with  isocyanates (gels  reaction), depending on  the molecular structure of  the catalyst itself and its steric, electronic effects, etc., will affect its function. 
This work focuses on amine catalysts and their production technology. 


3. FUNCTION OF AMINE CATALYST

According  to  different  uses  of  polyurethanes,  different  catalysts  are needed  to  give  polyurethanes  special  properties.  
Therefore,  there  are many  types  of  catalysts  for  polyurethanes,  but  the  catalysts  used  for polyurethane  foaming  and  curing  are  mainly  amine  catalysts. 
Polyurethane  foam  products  are  mainly  synthesized  from  polyether’s, isocyanates,  foaming  agents,  catalysts.  
Foams  are  generated  in polyurethane  reaction  systems  by  physical and  chemical  methods.  
The main foaming method is  that  water and  isocyanate  are used  to produce carbon dioxide to form  foam.  
Amine catalysts  are good  catalysts  for the reaction  of  NCO  and  water.  
That  is  amine  catalysts  can  promote  the foaming reaction.  
The organometallic  catalyst has high selectivity  for the reaction of NCO and OH, but  it is  insensitive to water and  NCO reactions. 
The catalytic effect of amines on the polymerization of polyurethanes  is accelerated by the  formation of  R-N=C=O from  the nitrogen  atom  of  the amine and the isocyanate,  so that the activation  energy of  the isocyanate is greatly reduced.  
Since the  polymerization of  polyurethane  is a stepwise polyaddition reaction,  the  hydrogen  in  the  reaction  process is  transferred  from  the hydroxyl  group  (polyester  or  polyether)  to  the  nitrogen  atom  of  the isocyanate, so  that the carbon-nitrogen  double bond is opened to  form a carbon  cation.  
Carbonium  ions  are  ionically  reacted  with  a  hydroxyl-depleted  hydroxy  compound  (polyester  or  polyether)  to  form polyurethane. 
This type of  common amine  is not  considered  if the emission of volatile VOCs from  the foam, the  discoloration, fog, and  odor of the  PVC skin are not considered. 
The use of  catalysts will  continue. These  problems have been greatly improved in silicone oils, polyether polyols, flame retardants, and antioxidants. 
Especially in the fields of furniture, automotive interiors and other areas, this is a key enabler of this technology improvement. 
The conventional  tertiary  amine  catalysts  TEDA,  BDMAEE clearly  show  the release  of VOC  species in  the  foam product.  
The use  of large  molecular weight tertiary amine catalysts has three distinct advantages in use: 
First, the molecules of the  catalyst  are  limited in  the  combined  polyether and cannot  diffuse  themselves,  thereby  improving  odor, PVC skin discoloration  and  fogging  values;  secondly,  Due  to the  large  molecular weight  catalyst,  the low  vapor pressure  drops the  volatility at  a certain temperature; a  third advantage is that the  alternative end of the catalyst not only affects the boiling point or vapor pressure of the catalyst, but also reduces  its  own  toxicity.  
However,  compared  with  the  reaction  type catalyst,  the  reaction activity  is  poor,  the  amount  is  large, the  process tolerance is narrow, and it has a great impact on the cost. 
The catalytic effect of amines on the polymerization of polyurethanes is to accelerate the reaction by the formation of  -R-N=C=O  from  the  nitrogen atom  of the  amine and  isocyanate, so  that the  activation energy  of the isocyanate is greatly reduced, and thus the catalytic activity of  the amine compound. 
It is proportional to the density (alkaline) of the electron cloud on  the nitrogen  atom  and  inversely  proportional to  the volume  (space effect) of the radical that the nitrogen atom is attached to [1].  
Since  the  polymerization  reaction  of  polyurethane is a stepwise polyaddition reaction,the ammonia in the reaction proces  passes through the  nitrogen atom of the  acetoacid vinegar,  so that  the carbon-nitrogen  double bond  is opened  to form  a carbon  cation and  loses the hydroxy  compound  of  ammonia.  
The  ionic  reaction  combines  to  form polyurethane. 
The reduction of the activation energy of isocyanate  does not necessarily accelerate the polymerization reaction. 
It is only when the activation energy of  isocyanate is reduced, and the hydroxy compound is activated to form ammonium ions. 
Therefore, the polymerization reaction can be accelerated, so the stronger the amine-hydroxy complexing ability, the faster the  polymerization  reaction proceeds.  
In general,the change rule of the catalytic activity of the polymerization reaction is: tertiary amine> secondary amine> primary amine. 

4. THE MAIN  TYPES OF AMINE CATALYSTS AND  THEIR SYNTHESIS TECHNIQUES 

For  polyurethanes,  especially two  main  reactions  of polyurethane  foam synthesis            
-NCO  with  water and  -NCO  with a  hydroxyl  terminated polyester  or  polyether  polyol, tertiary amin  catalysts have a strong catalytic effect, especially the catalytic effect of  -NCO  and  -OH  is  more pronounced.  
The  former can  promote the  growth of  polymer molecular chains, the increase in viscosity  and the increase  of the foam network strength rapidly. 
The latter can promote the reaction of -NCO with water, and  quickly  produce  carbon  dioxide  gas,  so  that  the  polymer  volume increases rapidly and expands. 
There are many varieties of tertiary amines catalysts  of polyurethanes.  
According  to their  chemical  structures, they can be basically divided into fatty amines, alicyclic amines, aromatic amines, alcohol amines and their ammonium compounds. 

4.1 Aliphatic amine catalysts Aliphatic amine catalysts include N,N-dimethylcyclohexane, triethylenediamine, N,N,N,N-tetramethylalkylenediamine, N,N,N,N-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, riethylamine, N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, N,N-dimethylhexadecylamine, N,N-dimethylbutylamine , etc. 
In the  early 1950s, American  Air Products Company  was involved in  the development of triethylenediamine, and in conjunction with the development of the polyurethane industry,  this  type  of  catalyst  was launched.  
The  registered  trademark  was  DABCO,  which laid the foundation for the application of tertiary amine catalysts in polyurethane industry.  
It  has  also been found  that  the  tertiary  amine catalysts  act synergistically. 
For example, the  use of mixed  catalytic  system  of dimethylethanolamine and  triethylenediamine in the production of rigid polyurethane  foams can effectively improve the catalytic effect  of  the reaction,  shorten  the aging  time of  the foam  products, and improve  the production efficiency. 
In order to improve the economics and environmental friendliness of N,N-dimethyl n-butylamine synthesis method, Zhang used  a route  of catalytic amination with n-butylamine and methanol as the main raw materials, and the atomic utilization ratio was high. The effects of the active components of the catalyst  and reaction conditions on the synthesis of  N, N-dimethyl-n-butylamine were investigated [2]. 
Aliphatic Isocyanate  Polyurethane Catalyst  is a gel-type  polyurethane catalyst.  
Compared with traditional  catalysts,it has better solubility in polyurethane systems,shorter gel time and tack-free time, faster curing speed, etc.  
It is suitable for polyurethane  pray foam, coatings  and adhesives. 
The dehydration of hydroxyethylamine compounds to triethylenediamine is  the  focus  of  current  research.  
This process uses ethanolamine or diethanolamine, triethanolamine, etc. as raw materials, in the presence of a catalyst  (such  as  ZSM-5  or  TS-1),and ammonia.  
Such reactions, condensation dehydration, to obtain the product triethylenediamine. 
The reaction process is shown in Figure  1. 

Triethylenediamine  has a unique cage structure in  which two  nitrogen atoms  are directly  linked to  three ethylene groups to form a bimolecular structure, which is very dense and symmetrical.  
Since there are not only other substituents on the N atom that increase the steric  hindrance, but also have  a pair of very  accessible empty electrons, in the  catalytic foaming system,  after the urethane  bond is  formed, the  triethylenediamine  will  dissociate  and  participate  in the next catalytic  process. 
Thus, although triethylenediamine is not a strong base,it  exhibits extremely high catalytic activity for the reaction of isocyanate groups and active hydrogen compounds

Effect of N, N-Dimethylethanolamine on the Self-Matting Waterborne Polyurethane
February 2018Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng/Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering 34(2):99-104
DOI: 10.16865/j.cnki.1000-7555.2018.02.017

Self-matting waterborne polyurethane (WPU), a kind of novel functional coating, is able to avoid the defect of matting agents. 
WPU dispersions in which isophorone diisocyanate, poly-1, 4-butylene adipate glycol, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (DMPA) and trimethylol propane were all used as raw materials of polyurethane prepolymer, triethyl amine and/or N, N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA) as neutralizers, hydrazine hydrate and 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt as post-chain extenders, were synthesized by prepolymer emulsification process. 
The matting comparison of a series of WPU dispersions without DMEA and another series of WPU dispersions containing DMEA were discussed to find out the effect of DMEA on the self-matting waterborne polyurethane. 
The results indicate that the mean particle size of WPU dispersions is maintained about 2100 nm, the particle size distribution is uniform and the DMPA content has slight effect on the particle size of WPU dispersions when the DMEA mass fraction is 1%. 
The series of WPU containing DMEA have lower transparency, at the same time, spherical granules pack tightly in the surface morphology via SEM. 
It is most worth noting that the surface gloss at 60° of all samples containing DMEA is below


JD DMEA catalyst (dimethylethanolamine) contains both a tertiary amine group and a hydroxyl group, and therefore, undergoes reactions typical of both amines and alcohols. 
It strongly catalyzes the water-isocyanate reaction in the production of polyurethane foam. 
Its hydroxyl group can react with the isocyanate, thereby chemically bonding the JD DMEA catalyst molecule to the polyurethane polymer. 
As a result, residual amine odour in the finished foam product is minimised. 
However, poor surface cure and green strength may result. When this is a concern, JD DMEA catalyst should be replaced with a stronger amine catalyst such as JD TEDA catalysts.


Dimethylethanolamine is a reactive catalyst in polyurethane foams and is often used as a cocatalyst;
Dimethylethanolamine is commonly used in polyurethane soft foam and polyurethane rigid foam composition formulations to neutralize acidic materials in various combinations to ensure catalyst activity in the composition.

(N, N-Dimethylethanolamine) is abbreviated as DMEA, which is a colorless and volatile liquid with ammonia smell and boiling point of 134.6℃. 
Used in ion exchange resin; used in the preparation of high-purity water and decolorization of sugar liquid, the treatment of three wastes of film lotion; used in polyurethane soft block foam, molded foam and rigid foam, smoldering elastic foam, etc.; Co-solvent, polyurethane paint curing agent; reaction product with acrylic microorganisms as a flocculant for urban water purification 
This product has a strong stimulating effect on the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. 
May cause skin burns. 
Inhalation can cause inflammation, edema, and spasm of the larynx and bronchus, chemical pneumonia, and pulmonary edema. 
Has a sensitizing effect on the skin.


DMEA catalyst (dimethylethanolamine) is a clear, colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. 
It contains both a tertiary amine group and a hedroxyl group, and therefore undergoes reactions typical of both amines and alcohols.
DMEA catalyst strongly catalyzes the water-isocyanate reaction in the production of polyurethane foam. 
The hydroxyl group of this catalyst can react with isocyanate, thereby chemically bonding the DMEA catalyst molecule to the urethane polymer. 
As a result, residual amine odor in the finished foam product is minimized. 
However, poor surface cure and green strength may result.
When this is a concern, DMEA catalyst should be replaced with a stronger amine catalyst such as TEDA L-33 or TEDA crystal catalysts.


Reactive catalysts - 
Reactive amine catalysts, as DMEA, DMAEE and TMAEE that contain a hydroxyl group, are able to react with isocyanates becoming chemically a portion of the polymer matrix. 
The disadvantage of polymer-bonded catalysts may be the deterioration of foam physical properties, especially when the foam is exposed to hot and humid climates. 
They are used in special applications, such as dashboard production, in order not to migrate into the PVC skin, this causing its discoloration.

 


 

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