CAS Number: 16423-68-0
E number: E127 (colours)

Erythrosine, C20H6I4O5 is a reddish-pink synthetic dye. 
Erythrosine is most popularly used as a food coloring agent and a host of other applications such as printing inks, a dental plaque disclosing agent, a biological stain and a radiopaque medium.
Erythrosine is used drugs and cosmetics, cocktails, tinned fruits, biscuits, chocolate, dressed crabs, garlic sausage, luncheon meat, salmon spread pate, scotch eggs, stuffed olives, sweets, bakery and snack foods.

Erythrosine, also known as Red No. 3, is an organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. 
Erythrosine is a pink dye which is primarily used for food coloring.
Erythrosine is the disodium salt of 2,4,5,7-tetraiodofluorescein. 
Erythrosines maximum absorbance is at 530 nm in an aqueous solution, and it is subject to photodegradation.

Dye used in food and feed additives. Prohibited in U.S.A. and Norway [DFC] Erythrosine, also known as Red No. 3, is a cherry-pink synthetic fluorone food coloring. 
Erythrosine is the disodium salt of 2,4,5,7-tetraiodofluorescein. 
Erythrosine is commonly used in sweets such as some candies and popsicles, and even more widely used in cake-decorating gels. 
While commonly used in many countries of the world, erythrosine is less commonly used in the United States because Allura Red AC (Red #40) is generally used instead. 

Erythrosine is used as a:
-food coloring.
-printing ink.
-biological stain.
-dental plaque disclosing agent.
-radiopaque medium.
-sensitizer for orthochromatic photographic films.
-Visible light photoredox catalyst.
-Erythrosine is commonly used in sweets such as some candies and popsicles, and even more widely used in cake-decorating gels. 
-Erythrosine is also used to color pistachio shells.
-As a food additive, Erythrosine has the E number E127.

Erythrosine is used drugs and cosmetics, cocktails, tinned fruits, biscuits, chocolate, dressed crabs, garlic sausage, luncheon meat and salmon spread pate.

16423-68-0, E127 (colours), E127, colorant, Erythrosine B, Erythrosin B , Acid Red 51 , C.I. 45430 , FD & C Red No.3, Tetraiodofluorescein Sodium Salt 

Physical Description
Erythrosine is principally the monohydrate of 9 (o-carboxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3H-xanthen-3-one, disodium salt, with smaller amounts of lower imidinated fluoresceins. 
Erythrosine is a bluish pink dye that lends a pink shade to applications.

Common Uses
Erythrosine provides a watermelon-red color when used in foods and pharmaceuticals. 
Erythrosine is used to color dietary supplements, confections, beverages, cereals, ice cream cones, frozen dairy desserts, popsicles, frostings and icings, baked goods, dried fruit, frozen breakfast foods, and processed foods (fish, meat and egg products).

Erythrosine (FD&C Red No. 3) is widely used as a coloring agent for foods, beverages, pharmaceutical preparations, and cosmetics. 
Erythrosine has been evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1964, 1969 and 1974. 
At the 18th Meeting (1974) of the Committee, an ADI of 0 - 2.5 mg/kg body weight was allocated. 
Toxicological monographs, were published in 1970 and 1975.

Since the previous evaluation, additional data have become available and are summarized and discussed in the following monograph.
The previously published monographs have been expanded and are reproduced in their entirety below.

Erythrosine (C20H8I4O5) is commonly referred to as red dye #3. 
FDA has regulatory oversight for color additives used in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices. 
Red Dye #3 can be used in food and drugs per the FDA. 
According to the FDA, FD&C Red No.3 may be safely used for coloring foods generally (including dietary supplements) in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. 
Red Dye #3 is commonly used to color maraschino cherries. 
FD&C Red No. 3 is a synthetic dye with a cherry-pink stain. 
In foods Erythrosine is used to dye cake decorating gel, candies and popsicles, among other food items. 
Erythrosine is an azo dye, and due to this fact has been replaced with Red #40 (Allura Red), but can still be found in use in the food industry. 
Erythrosine is also used as color additive for ingested drugs. 
Erythrosine is not listed as approved for use in cosmetics.

Regulation and prevalence
While erythrosine is commonly used in many countries of the world, Erythrosine is less commonly used in the United States (the second least used after Fast Green FCF) because Allura Red AC (Red #40) is generally used instead. 
However, Allura Red AC is banned in many European countries because Erythrosine is an azo dye.
Erythrosine can be used in colored food and ingested drugs in the USA without any restriction, however, Erythrosines use is banned in cosmetics and external drugs.
The lake variant is also banned from use in the United States.

Erythrosine B
Erythrosin B 
Acid Red 51 
C.I. 45430 
FD & C Red No.3
E127; 2',4',5',7'-Tetraiodo-3',6'-dihydroxy-spiro[3H-isobenzofuran-1,9'-xanthen]-3-one disodium salt
Tetraiodofluorescein Sodium Salt 
Calcoid Erythrosine N 
2,4,5,7-Tetraiodo-3,6-dihydroxyxanthene-9-spiro-1'-3H-isobenzofuran-3'-one disodium salt; 2',4',5',7'-Tetraiodofluorescein, disodium salt 
C.I.Food Red 14 
Aizen Erythrosine 
Tetraiodifluorescein, disodium salt 
Spiro[isobenzofuran- 1(3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-3-one, 3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-, disodium salt

Erythrosine is an artificial red (cherry-pink) food colouring made from coal tar.  
Erythrosine is an organic compound containing iodine and sodium.  
Erythrosine is also commonly referred to as red dye #3.

You might also hear erythrosine referred to as a xanthene dye.  
Xanthene dyes are a group of brilliant fluorescent dyes ranging in colour from yellow to pink to bluish red.  
They are called xanthene dyes because they all contain a xanthene molecule as their base.  
To see what this means, lets look at a xanthene molecule.  
The chemical formula for xanthene is C13H100, meaning there are 13 carbon atoms, 10 hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. 

Erythrosine most commonly is used to color food. 
Jarred cherries, such as maraschino cherries, are often colored with erythrosine. 
Other foods that are colored with this synthetic dye include cake icing, colored pistachio shells, lunch meat, hot dogs, pâté, and salmon spread. 
Erythrosine is also used in dental tablets that leave a red residue behind on teeth to indicate areas of plaque build-up. 
In addition, Erythrosine is often used by the printing industry for some varieties of red or cherry-pink inks.

There are two sets of thought when Erythrosine comes to erythrosine: Erythrosine should be used or Erythrosine should not be used. 
People who claim that erythrosine is beneficial say that Erythrosine colors items better than other red dyes. 
Consequently, Erythrosine takes less erythrosine to develop a richly colored product than Erythrosine would take of other red dyes. 
The theory continues that less dye is better, so erythrosine is better. 
In addition, proponents may point out that Erythrosine is one of the few kosher red dyes. 
Others point out that Erythrosine may cause negative side effects. 
Specifically, research studies have shown Erythrosine may have a negative effect on the thyroid gland in animals, and Erythrosine may create sensitivity to light. 
In addition, dyes in food have been linked to hyperactivity in children.

CAS Number: 16423-68-0
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1332616 
ChemSpider: 3144 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.036.390 
E number: E127 (colours)
PubChem CID: 3259
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7044843

Each country is handling the dye in a different manner. 
In Australia and New Zealand, the chemical traditionally was only used in preserved cherries; however, there was a large push to allow Erythrosines use in candies and cookies. 
The debate is on-going in those countries. 
In South Africa, Erythrosine was used in Strawberry Nesquick, but those products were removed from the stores in the 1990s and the dye can now only be used in meats, preserved cherries, and icing. 
In the United Kingdom, retailer ASDA announced in 2007 that Erythrosine would remove the dye from its private label products.

Chemical formula: C20H6I4Na2O5
Molar mass: 879.86 g/mol
Melting point: 142 to 144 °C (288 to 291 °F; 415 to 417 K)

IUPAC name
2-(6-Hydroxy-2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3-oxo-xanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid

Common Uses:
Erythrosine is primarily used as a food dye. 
Some of the more common applications include:
-cocktail and candied cherries (Maraschino cherries)
-cake decorating gels
-used to colour pistachio shells

Erythrosine is a synthetic red dye used primarily to color food. 
Since dyes and additives must be listed on packaging in many countries, consumers may note that Erythrosine can also be called FD&C No. Red 3, E 127, Red 14, or by its chemical name, disodium 2 (2,4,5,7-tetraiodo- 3-oxido- 6- oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoate monohydrate. 
Although Erythrosine is allowed in many countries, there are often reservations about Erythrosines safety.

Erythrosine is listed under the following number systems:

Erythrosine (FD&C red no. 3) is one the best characterized chemicals that acts as a 5′-deiodinase inhibitor and results in perturbations of thyroid function. 
Erythrosine is a tetraiodinated derivative of fluorescein, with iodine accounting for ~58% of the molecular weight. 
Erythrosine is a red dye used widely as a color additive in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. 
Amiodarone is an organic iodinated antiarrhythmic compound that also disrupts thyroid hormone economy by inhibiting 5′-deiodinase. 
Iopanoic acid and flavonoids also inhibit the enzyme in hepatocytes.
Erythrosine alters the peripheral metabolism of T4. 
Inhibition of 5′-deiodinase in the liver and kidney by erythrosine causes lower circulating T3 levels. 
This results in accumulation of inactive reverse T3. 
The lowered circulating levels of T3 causes increased secretion of TSH from the pituitary and stimulation of thyroid follicular cells.

FD&C Red No. 3
E number E127 (Food Red 14)
Color Index no. 45430 (Acid Red 51)
Indian Standards No. 1697

E Number:
The E number for erythrosine is 127.
Other common red food colours include Allura Red (E number 129) and Amaranth (E number 123).

According to the World Health Organization, erythrosine intake in Canada was 10 times higher than in either the US or Japan.
In all cases, the intake was below established acceptable daily intake amounts. 
Still, given the possible health risks, I’d like to be able to see what products contain erythrosine. 
Unfortunately, in Canada, companies only need to list “colour” in their ingredients.

Erythrosin B
Erythrosine B
C.I. Acid Red 51
Erythrosine Lake
Erythrosin extra bluish
Sodium 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-3-oxo-3H-spiro[isobenzofuran-1,9'-xanthene]-3',6'-bis(olate)
Tetraiodofluorescein sodium salt
Food Red No. 3
C.I. Food Red 14
FD and C Red No. 3
Erythrosine I
Erythrosine BS

A brown powder that forms a cherry red synthetic dye solution with water. 
First discovered in 1876 by Kussamaul, erythrosine is an iodinate derivative of Fluorescein. 
Erythrosine is used as a direct dye on Wool and Silk. 
Erythrosine is also used in inks, lacquers, cosmetics, and as a lake pigment. 
Erythrosine is not colorfast in sunlight.

Other Properties
Soluble in water, ethanol. 
An aqueous solution of erythrosine will form a yellow-brown precipitate when drops of HCl are added and a red precipitate when drops of NaOH solution are added.

Maximum absorption wavelength = 524 nm.
The fluorescence of erythrosine changes with pH. 
Erythrosine is colorless at pH 4.0 changing to a fluorescescent yellow-green at pH 4.5

Erythrosine TB
Erythrosine 3B
Maple erythrosine
Sodium erythrosin
Erythrosine Extra
Cilefa Pink B
Erythrosine Bluish
Erythrosine B Disodium Salt
Dolkwal erythrosine
Erythrosin B, pure, certified
Food Dye Red 3
Erythrosine TB Extra

Erythrosin, eosin, and, more recently, metallo-porphyrins have been checked as labels for phosphorescence immunoassays (PIAs). 
Usually phosphorescence can be measured only at low temperatures (77 K) to avoid molecule collisions. 
Since this requires a rather complicated instrumental setup, this technique found only rare application. 
Room temperature phosphorescence in solution is a rather rare phenomenon because of molecule collisions and quenching effects of oxygen. 
Some compounds such as biphenyl, biacetyl, and bromonaphthalene derivatives show room temperature phosphorescence, providing a deoxygenated solution. 
The addition of detergents for forming micelles or the inclusion into the cavities of cyclodextrins has been shown to support room temperature phosphorescence. 
Furthermore, the creation of a rigid state by adsorption or immobilization to a solid matrix has been found to enable room temperature measurements. 
Room temperature phosphorescence, although a promising approach, has only rarely been applied to immunoassays up to now.

FDC Red 3 dye
Food Red 14
Usacert Red No. 3
Calcocid erythrosine N
Schultz No. 887
Hexacert Red No. 3
Hexacol erythrosine BS
FD and C Red 3
New Pink Bluish Geigy
Red Dye No. 3

Erythrosine and tartrazine are common artificial food additives which have become a part of daily human consumption. 
Advised daily intake values for these agents are set strictly, however, the actual intake is much higher than the recommended ADI. 
A higher intake of erythrosine and tartrazine is shown to exhibit adverse effects in mammalian models, and is thus a matter of public health concern.

Canacert erythrosine BS
Erythrosine (indicator)
Caswell No. 425AB
FDC Red 3
Erythrosine Extra Bluish
LB-Rot 1
Erythrosine Extra Pure A
D&C Red No. 3
Edicol Supra Erythrosin AS
Edicol Supra Erythrosine A

The red food dye erythrosine contains high levels of bound iodine, although there is evidence that the bioavailability of this iodine is relatively low (Wenlock et al., 1982). 
Erythrosine provides another example of the variability in the advised content of a low-iodine diet between countries. 
In the US, erythrosine is known as F&DC Red No. 3 and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use as a food coloring. 
In contrast, in the UK, erythrosine is known as E127 and, under legislation implementing European Union law, Erythrosine is limited to use in “cocktail cherries, candied cherries, bigarreaux cherries in syrup and cocktails”. 
Even these types of ­cherries in the UK are often not colored with ­erythrosine. 
Alternative red food dyes are not high in iodine and ­blanket advice sometimes given to patients to avoid products colored pink or red is not necessary in countries such as the UK, in contrast to the US.

Erythrosine is also used to provide the red color in the coating of some tablets. 
This use continues in the UK as Erythrosine is not covered by food legislation. 
Red-colored tablets can provide a source of iodine in the diet that is sometimes not considered.

Cerven kysela 51 [Czech]
Cerven kysela 51
Sodium 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-3-oxo-3H-spiro-[isobenzofuran-1,9'-xanthene]-3',6'-bis(olate)
Spiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-3-one,3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-, disodium salt
Dye FD and C Red No. 3
Erythrosine B (biological stain)
Cerven potravinarska 14 [Czech]
Erythrosine Extra Conc. A Export
Cerven potravinarska 14
EINECS 240-474-8

Where is erythrosine-b found?
Erythrosine-B is fluorescin with a bluish shade. 
Erythrosine is found in cosmetics and food. 
Erythrosine is also used as a plasma stain for nerve cells and staining bacteria in soil.

E127: Erythrosine
CI 45430

Synthetic iodine-containing red dye.

Erythrosine is an artificial red or cherry-pink food colouring made from coal tar. 
Erythrosine is predominantly used as a food Colours. 
Erythrosine is used to colour products like canned fruit, candy, pistachios, popsicles, maraschino cherries, cake decorating gels, and toothpaste.

Function & characteristics:
Red food colour. Very soluble in water.

erythrosine BS Red colour permitted in foods in most countries (known as Red number 3 in the USA). 
Used in preserved cherries, sausages, and meat and fish pastes; Erythrosine is unstable to light and heat. 
Chemically the disodium or potassium salt of 2,4,5,7‐tetraiodofluorescein.

Many products.

Daily intake:
Up to 0.1 mg/kg body weight.

How can you avoid contact with erythrosine-b?
Avoid products that list any of the following names in the ingredients:

•1427 Red
•1671 Red
•2',4',5',7'-Tetraiodofluoroescein disodium salt
•2,4,5,7-Tetraiodofluorescein disodium salt
•3',6-Dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'- tetraiodospiro(isobenzofuran-
•1(3H),9'(9H)xanthen)-one disodium salt
•9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-2,4,5,7- tetraiodo-3H-xanthene-3-one disodium salt monohydrate
•Acid Red 51
•Aizen Food Red 3
•Aizen erythrosine
•C.I. 45430
•C.I. Acid Red 51
•C.I. Food Red 14
•CCRIS 892
•Calcocid erythrosine N
•Canacert erythrosine BS
•Caswell No. 425AB
•Cerven kysela 51
•Cerven kysela 51 [Czech]
•Cerven potravinarska 14
•Cerven potravinarska 14 [Czech]
•Cilefa Pink B
•D&C Red No. 3
•Disodium 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein
•Disodium 3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'- tetraiodospiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'- (9H)xanthen)-3-one
•Disodium 9-(O-carboxyphenyl)-6- hydroxy-2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3H-xanthen-3- one monohydrate
•Dolkwal erythrosine
•Dye FD and C Red No. 3
•E 127
•EINECS 240-474-8
•EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 120901
•Edicol Supra Erythrosin AS
•Edicol Supra Erythrosine A
•Erythrosin B
•Erythrosin B sodium salt
•Erythrosin BS
•Erythrosine (indicator)
•Erythrosine 3B
•Erythrosine B
•Erythrosine B (biological stain)
•Erythrosine B-FO (biological stain)
•Erythrosine BS
•Erythrosine Bluish
•Erythrosine Extra
•Erythrosine Extra Bluish
•Erythrosine Extra Conc. A Export
•Erythrosine Extra Pure A
•Erythrosine I
•Erythrosine K-FO (biological stain)
•Erythrosine Lake
•Erythrosine TB
•Erythrosine TB Extra
•Erythrosine bluish
•Erythrosine bluish (biological stain)
•Erythrosine sodium
•FD and C Red 3
•FD and C Red No. 3
•FD&C Red No. 3
•FDC Red 3
•FDC Red 3 dye
•Fluorescein, 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-, disodium salt
•Food Color Red 3
•Food Dye Red 3
•Food Red 14
•Food Red 3
•Food Red No. 3
•Hexacert Red No. 3
•Hexacol erythrosine BS
•LB-Rot 1
•Maple erythrosine
•New Pink Bluish Geigy
•Red Dye No. 3
•Schultz No. 887
•Sodium erythrosine
•Spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'- (9H)xanthen)-3-one, 3',6'-dihydroxy-
•2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-, disodium salt
•Tetraiodofluorescein sodium salt
•Usacert Red No. 3

What are some products that may contain erythrosine-b?

Erythrosine B-FO (biological stain)
Erythrosine K-FO (biological stain)
Erythrosine bluish (biological stain)
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 120901
Erythrosine sodium (close form) [USAN]
Disodium 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein
E 127
HSDB 7974

Erythrosine is a dye used in food and feed additives. 
Prohibited in U.S.A. and Norway Erythrosine is a cherry-pink synthetic fluorone food coloring. 
Erythrosine is the disodium salt of 2,4,5,7-tetraiodofluorescein. 
Erythrosines maximum absorbance is at 530 nm in an aqueous solution, and Erythrosine is subject to photodegradation. 
Erythrosine is used as a food coloring, in printing inks, as a biological stain, a dental plaque disclosing agent and a radiopaque medium. 
Erythrosine is commonly used in sweets and foods marketed to children such as cake icing and cake-decorating gels. 
Erythrosine is also used to color pistachio shells. 
While commonly used in most countries of the world, erythrosine is rarely used in the United States due to its known hazards, with Allura Red AC (Red #40) being generally used instead. However, Allura Red AC is banned in many European countries because it is an azo dye, despite the fact that it has fewer known health risks than Erythrosine.

2',4',5',7'-Tetraiodofluorescein, disodium salt
Erythrosin B disodium
Spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one, 3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-, disodium salt
CI 45430
Disodium 2-(2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-6-oxido-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoate
9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3H-xanthene-3-one disodium salt monohydrate
Disodium 9-(O-carboxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3H-xanthen-3-one monohydrate
Disodium 3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodospiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one
Erythrosin B, analytical standard

Erythrosine B is widely used for coloring in various applications, especially in the food industry, despite Erythrosines already proved toxicity and carcinogenicity. 
The agrowaste pumpkin seed hulls were applied as potential adsorbent for the removal of Erythrosine from aqueous solutions. 
Adsorption mechanism and kinetics were analyzed for design purposes. 
The seed hulls were characterized by specific techniques before and after dye retention. 

Erythrosine, also known as Red No. 3, is an organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. 
Erythrosine is cherry-pink synthetic, primarily used for food coloring. 
Erythrosine is the disodium salt of 2,4,5,7-tetraiodofluorescein

Erythrosine was found that the attachment of Erythrosine B molecules on adsorbent surface may be attributed to the interactions between carboxyl and/or carbonyl groups of both dye and agrowaste wall components. 
A univariate approach followed by a factorial design was applied to study and analyze the experimental results as well as to estimate the combined effects of the process factors on the removal efficiency and dye uptake. 
Adsorption mechanism may be predominantly due to intraparticle diffusion, dependent on pore size. 
The four equilibrium models applied fitted the data well; the maximum adsorption capacity for Erythrosine was 16.4 mg/g. 
The results showed that adsorbent is effective for Erythrosine B removal for a large concentration range in aqueous solutions (5–400 mg/L) in batch systems.

NSC 759227
3',6'-Dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodospiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'- -(9H)xanthen)-3-one, disodium salt
Erythrosin extra bluish (C.I. 45430)
Erythrosin extra bluish, 87.0-100.0%
Erythrosin B, pure, high purity, biological stain
Erythrosin B disodium 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile/Water
Erythrosin extra bluish, certified by the Biological Stain Commission
Erythrosin B, certified by the Biological Stain Commission, Dye content 90 %
Erythrosin extra bluish, for microscopy (Bact., Hist.), adsorption and fluorescent indicator
Sodium 2',4',5',7'-tetraiodo-3-oxo-3H-spiro[isobenzo[b]furan-1,9'-xanthene]-3',6'-bis(olate)

Melting point:142~144℃
Density 0.98
Flash point:285℃
storage temp. room temp
solubility 100g/l
pka4.1(at 25℃)
Colour Index 45430
form Fine Powder
color Deep red to brown

Colour Index No.: 45430
Food Colour No.    Red 14
F.D. & C. No.: Red 3
CAS NO.    16423-68-0
E.E.C. No.: E-127
I.S. No.: 1697
Total Dye Content Corrected for Sample (Min.): 87%
Volatile Matter (chloride & sulphate) (Max): 13%
Solubility In Water (20oc): 120 gram / litre
Combined Ether Extract. (Max): 0.20%
Water Insoluble (Max): 0.20%
Class: Xanthene
Light: Stability    3
Heat: Stability (100oc)    4
Alkali: Stability: 3
Subsidiary Dyes (MAX): 4.00%
Dyes Intermediate (Max): 0.50%
Lead: < 10 ppm
Arsenic: < 3 ppm
Mercury: < 1 ppm
Heavy Metals: < 20 ppm

PH6-7 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
PH Range0(yellow)-3.6(red)
Water Solubility Soluble in water
Merck 14,3693
BRN 1443945
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Major Application: 
color filter, light emitting diodes, nanosensors, imaging materials, inks, paints, colored bubbles, detergents, cleaners, cosmetics, oral care agent, hair dyes, antiseptic, treatment of burns, diabetes, obesity, cancer, viral diseases, radio chemotheray, photodynamic therapy
Biological Applications:
Detecting gene expression,phosphoproteins,protease,stress biomarkers; treating age-related macular degeneration,arteriosclerosis,bone metabolic diseases,burns,cancer,diabetes,human immunodeficiency virus infection,obesity

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