ETHYLPARABEN

Chemical name
Ethyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate


INCI designation
Ethylparaben
Product properties *)
Appearance (20°C): White, or almost white crystalline powder.
Chemical and physical data
Melting point: 115 - 118 oC
Assayacc. BP/PH.Eur:  98.0 - 102.0 %


IUPAC name
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
Other names
Ethyl paraben;
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate;
Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate;
Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate;
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester

Identifiers
CAS Number: 120-47-8 


Ethylparaben is an ethyl ester resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with ethanol, It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an antifungal agent, a plant metabolite and a phytoestrogen. It is a paraben and an ethyl ester.

Antimicrobial Preservative Used in Cosmetics and Personal Care.


Uses
Ethyl paraben is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent designedfor preservation of a wide range of cosmetics, toiletries and topical pharmaceuticals. 
Ethyl paraben is suitable to preserve both rinse- off and leave- on formulations.

Applications
Typical use concentrations of Ethylparaben is 0.1 – 0.3 %.
Combinations of p- Hydroxybenzoic acid esters, e.g. with Nipasol M, Nipagin M or Nipabutyl exhibit increased activity compared with individual esters.


Incorporation
Ethylparaben is freely soluble in most oils, waxes, fatty alcohols, but have relatively low solubility in water.
The low aqueous solubility does not affect the microbiological efficacy of the esters.
Most formulations requiring preservation contain a significant amount of water.
This may mean that Ethylparaben cannot readily be added directly to the formulation.
Other methods of incorporation are quite straightforward however, and are listed below.


Ethyl paraben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Its formula is HO-C6H4-CO-O-CH2CH3. It is a member of the class of compounds known as parabens.

It is used as an antifungal preservative. As a food additive, it has E number E214.

Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate, the sodium salt of ethylparaben, has the same uses and is given the E number E215.


Dissolving in water
The solubility of Ethylparaben increases greatly as the temperature of the water rises. 
Therefore a concentrate may be made up by heating an appropriate quantity of water to 60- 100 °C prior to addition of Ethylparaben. 
This concentrate may then be added to the formulation, provided that the ester concentration does not exceed its solubility in the formulation at normal ambient temperatures.
Dissolving in organic solvents Ethylparaben is readily soluble in polar organic solvents.
Where such a solvent is already part of a formulation an Ethylparaben concentrate may be made up prior to addition.
If a suitable solvent is not already part of the formulation,a highly concentrated solution may be madeup e.g. 32 % in Ethanol, which would give insignificant residual levels of ethanol in the end product.

Solubilisation in oils, emulsifiers etc.
Ethylparaben is readily soluble in lipophilic ingredients and may be introduced to a formulation by adding to the oil phase with some warming before any emulsification stage. 
In multiphase systems, such as emulsions, it is often advisable to use a combination of aqueous dissolution with either of the other methods to ensure adequate preservation. 
The ester may be incorporated in the water to its maximum solubility and any further quantities may be dissolved in the oil phase, or solvent, as appropriate.

pH stability
Ethylparaben remains fully stable over a wide pH range from 4- 8. 
In general the lower the pH of the formulation, the more active is Ethylparaben. 
That can result in a lower use concentration when the pH of the formulation is more acidic.

Temperature stability
Ethylparaben is stable up to 80 °C

Solubility
The solubility of Ethyl paraben in different solvents is illustrated
in the following table.
Solvent % (w/w)
Water 10 °C 0.06
Water 25 °C 0.11
Water 80 °C 0.86
Water 100 °C 1.7
Acetone 46
Methanol 45
Ethanol 41
Propylene Glycol 20
Glycerol 0.5
Vegetable oils (arachis) 1.0
Liquid paraffin 0.025

Microbial Activity
Ethylparaben exhibits microbiostatic activity against a wide range of bacteria, yeast and mould. 
This is illustrated by the following table which shows the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ethylparaben against examples of different groups of microorganisms.

Microorganisms MIC level (%)
Gram Negative Bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.10
Escherichia coli 0.05
Klebsiella aerogenes 0.05
Klebsiella pneumoniae 0.05
Serratia marcescens 0.05
Proteus vulgaris 0.06
Salmonella enteritidis 0.05
Salmonella typhi 0.10


Microorganisms MIC level (%)
Gram Positive Bacteria
Stpahylococcus aureus 0.07
Streptococcus haemolyticus 0.06
Bacillus cereus 0.025
Bacillus subtilis 0.10
Lactobacillus buchneri 0.06


Yeasts
Candida albicans 0.07
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.05


Molds
Aspergillus niger 0.04
Penicillium digitatum 0.025
Rhizopus nigricans 0.025


Ethylparaben
ETHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE
120-47-8
Ethyl paraben
Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
Mycocten
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
Ethyl parasept
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate
Easeptol
Ethyl butex
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
Tegosept E
Napagin A
Ethylparaben
Nipazin A
Solbrol A
Sobrol A
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, ethyl ester
p-Carbethoxyphenol
Aseptoform E
Mekkings E
Aseptin A
Bonomold OE
Ethyl p-oxybenzoate
Ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate
Ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate
Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate
p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester
4-Hydroxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester
4-Carbethoxyphenol
NSC 23514
p-Hydroxybenzoate ethyl ester
Ethylparaben [NF]
9001-05-2
UNII-14255EXE39
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester
4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenol
Para-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove
MFCD00002353
Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, ethyl ester
Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego
E214
Ethylparaben (NF)
14255EXE39
NCGC00160654-01
Carbethoxyphenol
DSSTox_CID_2528
WLN: QR DVO2
DSSTox_RID_76615
DSSTox_GSID_22528
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 99%
Caswell No. 447
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester
CAS-120-47-8
HSDB 938
EINECS 204-399-4
p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester [German]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 061202
BRN 1101972
Ethyl chemosept
AI3-30960
Aseptine a
Nipagina A
Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove [Czech]
Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego [Polish]
PubChem20417
Ethyl 4-hydroxy-benzoate
Ethyl 4-hydroxyl-benzoate
Ethylparaben, INN, USAN
ACMC-209a7k
bmse010255
EC 204-399-4
p-Hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester
SCHEMBL28368
4-10-00-00367 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Ethyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate,(S)
BIDD:ER0023
CHEMBL15841
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate (TN)
ZINC1392
DTXSID9022528
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzenecarboxylate
CHEBI:31575
4-hydroxybenzoic acid-ethyl ester
NSC8510
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate (JP17)
ETHYL PARA HYDROXY BENZOATE
HMS2091E17
Parahydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
Pharmakon1600-01400151
4-hydroxy benzoic acid ethyl ester
HY-B0934
NSC-8510
NSC23514
4-(Dimethylamino)benzenesulfonicacid
Tox21_111961
Tox21_300335
ANW-17502
BBL012166
BDBM50428380
NSC-23514
NSC755851
s4525
SBB038536
STK070911
AKOS000120512
Tox21_111961_1
CCG-213682
CS-4403
DB13628
MCULE-4906467392
NSC-755851
NCGC00160654-02NCGC00160654-03

NCGC00160654-04
NCGC00160654-06
NCGC00254462-01
AC-11586
AK-49315
AS-11988
NCI60_041866
SC-22680
SC-46755
SBI-0206674.P002
E-214
E0884
FT-0623514
FT-0626357
FT-0668364
ST50210582
4-FLUORO-3-METHYLPHENYLMAGNESIUMBROMIDE
A16012
A18133
D01647
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, ReagentPlus(R), 99%
M-3934
AB00375765_03
Q229976
SR-05000001552
SR-05000001552-1
W-108475
BRD-K02464583-001-01-4
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
Ethylparaben, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
F0728-0009
UNII-AZF98361GV component NUVBSKCKDOMJSU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid-ethyl ester 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
Ethylparaben, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Ethylparaben, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
E4B

ethylparaben
Rating: GOOD
Categories: Preservatives
Parabens are a group of controversial preservatives that include butylparaben, isobutylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben. All of these were at one time the most widely used group of preservatives used in cosmetics. Parabens were so popular because of their gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective profile in comparison to other preservatives but also because they were derived naturally from plants, a rare phenomenon for a preservative. Parabens are found in plants in the form of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), a chemical that breaks down to become parabens for a plants own protection.

Over the past 10 years parabens have become criticized and condemned for use in cosmetics due to their alleged relation to health concerns affecting women and men. The research about parabens is conflicting and polarizing. Some research indicates they are safe as used in cosmetics and are preferred over other preservatives to keep a formula stable. These studies also showed parabens did not have any effect when compared to natural hormones in the body.

However, other research has concluded they are indeed problematic: Some studies determined a 100% concentration of parabens caused skin samples (meaning not intact skin on a person) to break down. However, these studies don’t apply to the tiny amount (1% or less) of parabens typically used in cosmetics. In low amounts, parabens were not shown to harm skin; in fact, they offer a benefit due to their ability to thwart the growth of mold, fungi, and harmful pathogens.

Other studies casting parabens in a negative light were based on force-feeding them to rats, a practice that is not only cruel but unrelated to what happens when parabens are applied to skin. There are studies indicating absorption of parabens through skin associated with application of skincare products, but those studies did not take into consideration that parabens are still used as food-grade preservatives or found naturally in plants and that could have been the source not the cosmetics. We also looked at studies showing other questionable effects but those were done in vitro meaning in a petri dish or, again, animal studies in species whose biologic makeup does not closely relate to people.


Chemical Properties
white crystalline powder

Chemical Properties
Ethylparaben occurs as a white, odorless or almost odorless, crystalline powder.

Uses
An antimicrobial

Uses
bronchodilator, tocolytic

Uses
Preservative for pharmaceuticals.

Production Methods
Ethylparaben is prepared by the esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic acid with ethanol (95%).

Synthesis Reference(s)
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 39, p. 3343, 1974 DOI: 10.1021/jo00937a007

Pharmaceutical Applications
Ethylparaben is widely used as an antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics,food products, and pharmaceutical formulations.
It may be used either alone or in combination with other paraben esters or with other antimicrobial agents. In cosmetics it is one of the most frequently used preservatives.
The parabens are effective over a wide pH range and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, although they are most effective against yeasts and molds.
Owing to the poor solubility of the parabens, paraben salts, particularly the sodium salt, are frequently used. However, this may cause the pH of poorly buffered formulations to become more alkaline.

Contact allergens
This substance is one of the parabens family. Parabens are esters formed by p-hydroxybenzoic acid and an alcohol. They are largely used as biocides in cosmetics and toiletries, medicaments, or food. They have synergistic power with other biocides. Parabens can induce allergic contact dermatitis, mainly in chronic dermatitis and wounded skin.

Safety
Ethylparaben and other parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, food products, and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations.
Systemically, no adverse reactions to parabens have been reported, although they have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Parabens, in vivo, have also been reported to exhibit estrogenic responses in fish.(10) The WHO has set an estimated total acceptable daily intake for methyl-, ethyl-, and propylparabens at up to 10 mg/kg body-weight.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.52 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 3.0 g/kg

storage
Aqueous ethyl paraben solutions at pH 3–6 can be sterilized by autoclaving, without decomposition. At pH 3–6, aqueous solutions are stable (less than 10% decomposition) for up to about 4 years at room temperature, while solutions at pH 8 or above are subject to rapid hydrolysis (10% or more after about 60 days at room temperature).
Ethylparaben should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Incompatibilities
The antimicrobial properties of ethyl paraben are considerably reduced in the presence of nonionic surfactants as a result of micellization. Absorption of ethylparaben by plastics has not been reported, although it appears probable given the behavior of other parabens. Ethylparaben is coabsorbed on silica in the presence of ethoxylated phenols. Yellow iron oxide, ultramarine blue, and aluminum silicate extensively absorb ethylparaben in simple aqueous systems, thus reducing preservative efficacy.
Ethyl paraben is discolored in the presence of iron and is subject to hydrolysis by weak alkalis and strong acids.

Regulatory Status
Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral, otic, and topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

•    4-Carbethoxyphenol
•    nipaginaa
•    Nipazin A
•    nipazina
•    Para-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
•    p-Carbethoxyphenol
•    p-Hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester
•    p-hydroxy-benzoicaciethylester
•    p-hydroxybenzoicethylester
•    p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester
•    Sobrol A
•    Solbrol A
•    solbrola
•    Tegosept E
•    ETHYLPARABEN,NF
•    4-HYDROXYBENZOICACIDETHYLESTER(ETHYLPARABEN)
•    PARABEN,ETHYL
•    Ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoat
•    Ethyl P-Hdroxybenzoate
•    ETHYLP-HYDROXYBENZOATE/EASEPTOL
•    ETHYL-4-HYDROXYBENZOATE WITH HPLC
•    ETHYLPARABEN (ETHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE)
•    4-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl
•    Aceptin A
•    Sorbrol A
•    Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate,99%
•    Ethyl p-Hydrobenzoate
•    2-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-benzoicacid
•    Ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate 5g [120-47-8]
•    Ethylparaben (200 mg)
•    Of ethyl
•    Of ethyl (Ethylparaben)
•    Ethyl cheMosept
•    Solbro A
•    Ethyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate [for BiocheMical Research]
•    Ethyl Paraben (EP)
•    Ethyl p-Hydroxybenzoate (Ethylparaben)
•    Ethyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate,(S)
•    ETHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE / ETHYLPARABEN
•    Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 99% 100GR
•    Easeptol
•    Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego
•    esteretylowykwasup-hydroksybenzoesowego
•    ethvlparaben
•    Ethyl
•    Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate
•    Ethyl p-oxybenzoate
•    Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove
•    ethylesterkyselinyp-hydroxybenzoove
•    ethylhydroxybenzoate
•    Mekkings E
•    NSC 23514
•    Ethylparaben 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester
•    Methylparaben Impurity 1(Ethylparaben)
•    Compound sodium acetate neper gold
•    Methyldopa impurity 1
•    ETHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE
•    ethyl butex

120-47-8 [RN]
14255EXE39
204-399-4 [EINECS]
2-Ethoxybenzoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
4-Hydroxybenzoate d'éthyle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, ethyl ester [ACD/Index Name]
DH2190000
Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethyl chemosept [Trade name]
ETHYL PARABEN
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate [JP15]
Ethyl parasept [Trade name]
ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
Ethyl p-oxybenzoate
Ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethylparaben [NF] [USAN] [Wiki]
etilparabeno [Portuguese]
Nipagina A [Trade name]
p-Oxybenzoesaurepropylester [German]
Propylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove [Czech]
Solbrol A [Trade name]
02/05/9001
05/02/9001
1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyethanone [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1219795-53-5 [RN]
126070-21-1 [RN]
2-methoxy-N-(3-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolin-6-yl)benzenesulfonamide
4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenol
4-10-00-00367 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) [Beilstein]
4-Carbethoxyphenol
4-Hydroxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester
4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester,99%
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethylester
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid-ethyl ester
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid-ethyl ester 1000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
59593-07-6 [RN]
85403-59-4 [RN]
9001-05-2 [RN]
94-13-3 [RN]
Aseptin A
Aseptine A
Aseptoform E
Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, ethyl ester
Bonomold OE
Bonomold OP
Carbethoxyphenol
CATALASE
catalase from beef liver 2-5 ku/mg protein
catalase from bovine liver
catalase, lyophilized
Chemocide pk
E214
E-214
E4B
Easeptol
EINECS 202-307-7
EINECS 204-399-4
Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego
Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego [Polish]
ethyl 4-hydroxy-benzoate
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (en)
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 99%
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, ??? 99.0%
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, 99%
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate-0.99mg/ml u=2% ???????????????
ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate-ar
Ethyl butex
Ethyl hydroxybenzoate
ETHYL PARA HYDROXY BENZOATE
Ethyl Paraben?
Ethyl paraben|4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester|4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenol
Ethyl Paraben-d4
Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate (JP15)
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate (TN)
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate;Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate 99%
ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate standard
ethyl4-hydroxybenzoate
Ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate
ETHYL-4-HYDROXYBENZOATE with HPLC
Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove
Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove [Czech]
Ethylparaben (NF)
Ethylparaben, INN, USAN
ETHYLPARABEN|ETHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE
ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate
Ethylp-hydroxybenzoate
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/606787/
http://en.atomaxchem.com/120-47-8.html
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:31575
Keloform
Mekkings E
MFCD00081483
Mycocten
Napagin A
NCGC00160654-01
NCGC00160654-02
Ethylparaben
Nipagin P
NIPASEPT
Nipasol
Nipasol M [Trade name]
Nipasol P
Nipazin A
Nipazol
Paraben [Wiki]
Para-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
Parasept
Paseptol
p-Carbethoxyphenol
PFI-1
Pharmakon1600-01400151
p-Hydroxybenzoate ethyl ester
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester
P-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID,ETHYL ESTER
P-Hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester
p-Hydroxypropyl benzoate
p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester
p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester [German]
Preserval P
Propagin
Protaben P
Pulvis conservans
Pulvis conservans (VAN)
QR DVO3 [WLN]
Sobrol A
Solbrol P [Trade name]
ST5210582
Tegosept E
UNII:14255EXE39
UNII-14255EXE39
UNII-AZF98361GV
WLN: QR DVO2

 
Ethylparaben
* A preservative found in skin care products, often used to treat dry skin through essential oils such as eucalyptus and primrose oil * Read the following TIA articles concerning ethylparaben and its link to cancer: Preservatives and Parabens and Are They Safe? and What Is It: Estrogen in my Shampoo
Ethylparaben is a paraben and preservative found in many skin care products, ranging from skin cream to body lotion to deodorant. It can be found in essential oils used to treat dry skin and in primrose oil serving as an anti-septic. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentages (.04% - .08%), a study claimed to have found a link between parabens and breast cancer. According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, however, "the available acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity tests, using a range of exposure routes, demonstrate a low order of parabens' toxicity at concentrations that would be used in cosmetics" (source). After testing different levels of exposure to parabens in women, men, and children, the CIR Expert Panel found that these "determinations are conservative and likely represent an overestimate of the possibility of an adverse effect (e.g., use concentrations may be lower, penetration may be less) and support the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used."

* Ethylparaben is a preservative found in skin care products, often used to treat dry skin through essential oils such as eucalyptus and primrose oil

* Read the following TIA articles concerning ethylparaben and its link to cancer: Preservatives and Parabens and Are They Safe? and What Is It: Estrogen in my Shampoo

Functions:

Ethylparaben is a paraben and preservative found in many skin care products, ranging from skin cream to body lotion to deodorant. It can be found in essential oils used to treat dry skin and in primrose oil serving as an anti-septic. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentages (.04% - .08%), a study claimed to have found a link between parabens and breast cancer. According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, however, "the available acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity tests, using a range of exposure routes, demonstrate a low order of parabens' toxicity at concentrations that would be used in cosmetics" (source). After testing different levels of exposure to parabens in women, men, and children, the CIR Expert Panel found that these "determinations are conservative and likely represent an overestimate of the possibility of an adverse effect (e.g., use concentrations may be lower, penetration may be less) and support the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used."

Ultimately, the cosmetics industry has found the low levels of parabens in cosmetics to be safe and the connection between parabens and breast cancer to be weak. The FDA finds that although parabens can mimic estrogen, the actual effects of this low level of activity on the body do not cause cancer in a higher incidence than naturally occurring estrogen. Nonetheless, many paraben-free products are being created to avoid the possible dangers of ethylparaben and other paraben-based preservatives.

Roles Classification 
Biological Role(s):    antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).
antifungal agent
An antimicrobial agent that destroys fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce.
plant metabolite
Any eukaryotic metabolite produced during a metabolic reaction in plants, the kingdom that include flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms.
phytoestrogen
Any compound produced by a plant that happens to have estrogenic activity.


Application(s):    antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).

Synonyms     
4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester    
E-214    ChEBI
E214    ChEBI
ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate    
ethyl paraben    
Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate    
p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester    
p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester Deutsch


Ethylparaben provides the good performance against Gram positive bacteria exhibited by all the parabens and has the same limitations regarding pH range (acidic only), system compatibility (avoid high levels of ethoxylates) and water solubility (limited). Ethylparaben has been used in combination with Propylparaben in oral preparations for controlling fermentative action. It can be used alone, but is generally used at 0.10 to 0.25% levels with other CoSepts as the antifungal portion of the preservative system.


Use: Ethylparaben is mainly used as antiseptics in cosmetics, food and medicine. It is also can be used as feed preservatives and antiseptic for bacteria.

Use: Preservative, Cosmetics, Feed, Pharmaceutical, Soft Drink, Alcohol Beverage, Beverage Powder, Fruit Juice, Puddings, Sauces, Baking Food, Sauage, Flavoring Agent.


Synonyms:
     benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, ethyl ester
4-    carbethoxyphenol
p-    carbethoxyphenol
para-    carbethoxyphenol
     ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
     ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
     ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate
     ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate
     ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate
     ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate
     ethylparaben
4-    hydroxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester
4-    hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
p-    hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
para-    hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
4-    hydroxybenzoic acid ethylester


Other names: Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, ethyl ester; Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, ethyl ester; p-Carbethoxyphenol; p-Hydroxybenzoate ethyl ester; p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester; Aseptoform E; Bonomold OE; Easeptol; Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Ethyl parasept; Ethyl Butex; Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate; Mycocten; Napagin A; Ethylparaben; Nipazin A; Sobrol A; Solbrol A; Tegosept E; 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester; Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate; Ester etylowykwasu p-hydroksybenzoesowego; Ethylester kyseliny p-hydroxybenzoove; Ethyl p-oxybenzoate; Nipagina A; p-Oxybenzoesaeureaethylester; 4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenol; 4-Carbethoxyphenol; Aseptin A; Aseptine A; Para-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester; Mekkings E; NSC 23514


Ethylparaben (Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate, Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, used as an antifungal preservative and food additive. It is a standardized chemical allergen. The physiologic effect of ethylparaben is by means of Increased Histamine Release, and Cell-mediated Immunity.

    
Ethylparaben is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, used as an antifungal preservative and food additive


Storage instructions
The product must be stored in tighly closed container in a cool, well- ventilated, dry place.
Further information on handling, storage and dispatch isgiven in the EC safety data sheet.

This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. 
It should not therefore be construed as guaranteeing specific properties of the products described on their suitability for a particular application. 
Any existing industrial property rights must be observed. 
The quality of our products is guaranteed under our General Conditions of Sale.

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