FLAVOR ENHANCERS

Flavour enhancers are compounds that are added to a food in order to supplement or enhance its own natural flavour. 
The concept of flavour enhancement originated in Asia, where cooks added seaweed to soup stocks in order to provide a richer flavour to certain foods
Flavour enhancers are used to bring out the flavour in a wide range of foods without adding a flavour of their own.  
For example, monosodium glutamate (E621), known as MSG, is added to processed foods, especially soups, sauces and sausages.
Flavour enhancers are also used in a wide range of other foods including savoury snacks, prepared meals and condiments. 
Salt, although not classed as a food additive, is the most widely used flavour enhancer.

Flavor enhancers amplify and intensify the flavor impact of other flavor compounds in the mouth. 
The most commonly used flavor enhancers are the sodium salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and the nucleotides disodium-5′-inosinate and disodium-5′-guanylate. 
Due to their higher flavor potency and synergistic behavior, nucleotides have increasingly been replacing MSG in foods. 
Flavor enhancers are present naturally in a wide range of foods, especially meat, fish, mushrooms, and cheese. 
Nucleotides in the diet have been associated with a number of health benefits, especially in infants.

Flavour enhancers are used in savoury foods to enhance the existing flavour in the food. 
Food flavour enhancers are commercially produced in the form of instant soups, frozen dinners and snackfoods etc.
Monosodium glutamate is an example of a flavour enhancer. 
Salt is commonly used as a natural flavour enhancer for food and has been identified as one the basic tastes.


1-) DISODIUM RIBONUCLEOTIDES

Disodium Ribonucleotides = Disodium 5-Ribonucleotides = IMP plus GMP = I+G

E number: E635
CAS Number: 4691-65-0 , 5550-12-9
Formula: C10H11N4O8P • 2Na, C10H12N5O8P • 2Na

Disodium 5′-ribonucleotides, also known as I+G, is a flavor enhancer made of disodium inosinate (E631) and disodium guanylate (E627) with the ratio 1:1. 
The European food additive number for Disodium Ribonucleotides is E635. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides can be used in synergy with MSG (E621) to provide umami taste or as a replacement for MSG.

Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides, E number E635, is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a mixture of disodium inosinate (IMP) and disodium guanylate (GMP) and is often used where a food already contains natural glutamates (as in meat extract) or added monosodium glutamate (MSG). 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is primarily used in flavored noodles, snack foods, chips, crackers, sauces and fast foods. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is produced by combining the sodium salts of the natural compounds guanylic acid (E626) and inosinic acid (E630).
A mixture composed of 98% monosodium glutamate and 2% E635 has four times the flavor enhancing power of monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone.

What is disodium 5′-ribonucleotides?
Definition
Disodium 5′-ribonucleotide is a mixture of nucleotides disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate, in the proportion of 50% each.

Disodium Ribonucleotides Uses:
Flavor Enhancer, Instant Noodle, Pizza, Cheese, Snack Foods, Potato Chip, Crackers, Sauces, Fast Food, Baking Food, Ice Cream, Canned Food, Meats, Poultry, Sauces, Soups, Soft Candy, Puddings, Condiments, Seasonings.

How is Disodium Ribonucleotides made?
Both E631 and E627 can be produced from yeast extract or from the fermentation of carbohydrate and then through reaction with sodium hydroxide.
Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides, also known as I+G, E number E635, is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a mixture of disodium inosinate (IMP) and disodium guanylate (GMP) and is often used where a food already contains natural glutamates (as in meat extract) or added monosodium glutamate (MSG). 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is primarily used in flavored noodles, snack foods, chips, crackers, sauces and fast foods. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is produced by combining the sodium salts of the natural compounds guanylic acid (E626) and inosinic acid (E630).
Guanylates and inosinates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.
A mixture of 98% monosodium glutamate and 2% E635 has four times the flavor enhancing power of monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone.

Uses Of Flavor Enhancer 635
-Flavor enhancer 635 is a food additive that does not have any taste or smell of Disodium Ribonucleotidess own. 
-Disodium Ribonucleotides helps in adding a unique taste and texture to food items.
-You can preserve fishes and meats for a very long duration with the help of this enhancer. 
-They not only help in increasing their shelf life but also keeps moisture in Disodium Ribonucleotides.
-As a result, your favorite piece of chicken or nuggets can taste and smell fantastic for a very long time.
-Disodium Ribonucleotides also plays an integral part in Chinese food items. 
-From seasonings to various Chinese sauces, flavor enhancer 635 is in everything.
-You get that distinct tang in savory foods due to this additive.
-Your favorite pack of instant noodles can never taste perfect without Disodium Ribonucleotidess use.
-The food industry has given a long list of food additive that act as artificial or natural preservatives for food items.
-Chips, sauces, soups, puddings, creams, and cheese using this flavor enhancer.

Features Of Flavor Enhancer 635
-Enhancer or INS 635 adds flavor to various food products. 
-You can find Disodium Ribonucleotides as a crystal white powder or off-white crystals.
-Sodium salts with guanylic acid create this preservative. 
-For non-vegetarian foods, natural glutamate of meat extracts adds in. 
-While in vegan foods comprise of added MSG.
-The unique feature of this food additive is that Disodium Ribonucleotides generates a chemical reaction within the food to give a perfect taste and smell.
-The food industry considers flavor enhancer 635 as a flavoring agent.
-Disodium Ribonucleotides is quite expensive in comparison.
 
Appearance
An odourless, white powder or granular. 

What makes E635 so important?
Flavour Enhancer (INS 635) is a food additive that is widely used in food industries to enhance the flavour of foods. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides consists of white or off-white crystals or powder and is produced by adding the sodium salts of guanylic acid (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). 

Avoiding flavor enhancer 635 in your food is very difficult these days, but you can ensure that its intake is restricted to minimal amounts. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides using additives is never a problem but should not become a regular part of your diet. 
This information helps to understand the pros and cons of artificial preservatives. 
The key is to use these additives in limited amounts.

How is E635 prepared?
Flavour Enhancer (INS 635) is produced from gluten or any bacterial fermentation process. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is produced from meat, but commercially it may be obtained from Torula Yeast.

Where do we use Disodium Ribonucleotides?
INS 635 can be used as a flavor enhancer to substitute monosodium glutamate (MSG) in MSG free food. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides can also be used with MSG to provide a synergistic enhancement of umami taste in sauces, seasonings and condiments. 
Be careful and watch what you eat!
Asthmatic people should avoid guanylates and inosinates. 
As guanylates and inosinates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. 
However, the concentrations used are generally so low that no effects are to be expected.

Guanylates and inosinates can be found in animal and also plant. 
While for commercial product, they are produced by fermentation process with raw material from plant origin.
A mixture of 98% monosodium glutamate and 2% E635 has four times the flavor enhancing power of monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone.
Guanylates and inosinates are generally obtained from meat, but they can partly be made by fish. 
They are not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases unsuitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product.
Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

Synonym:    
Disodium Ribonucleotides; Disodium 5-Ribonucleotides; IMP plus GMP; I+G;

Disodium 5-Ribonucleotides E635 is a food additive manufactured through chemical synthesis of sodium salt of guanylic acid and inosinic acid, available as White to light yellow crystalline powder. 
As a synthesized chemical, this food flavouring is general recognized as halal. 
E635 – Disodium 5’-ribonucleotides: Miscellaneous – Flavour Enhancers. 
Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G) is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a mixture of disodium Inosinate (IMP) and disodium guanylate (GMP) and is often used where a food already contains natural glutamates (as in meat extract) or added Monosodium Glutamate (MSG). 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is primarily used in flavored noodles, snack foods, chips, crackers, sauces and fast foods.

Disodium 5 Ribonucleotide can be used in household, catering industry food cooking, convenience food and soup, soy sauce and various snacks, sauces, etc.
Guanylic acid e626 and inosonic acid e630, e627, and 631 act as flavor enhancers. 
Adding monosodium glutamate to them helps in the production of perfect food additives. 
Either Disodium Ribonucleotidess extract or added monosodium acts as a natural flavor. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is either available from gluten or any bacterial fermentation process.

There are other common names used for the trading of natural glutamates like Vetsin, Accent, and Ajinomoto. 
Disodium 5′-ribonucleotides is the original name of flavor enhancer 635. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides’s made by combining tapioca starch, sodium salts, and a mixture of disodium inosinate. 
Disodium guanylate gets added in the required amount and this mixture creates a perfect food additive suitable for all preparations.

Stability
Easy to absorb water in the air, around 20-30% of water.

Flavor enhancer 635 comprises of natural glutamate. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides’s known as meat extract or added mixture of monosodium glutamate msg. 
Almost every snack available in the market contains this food additive. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides’s excellent for taste enhancement. 
All chemical compounds mentioned above create different types of flavoring agents.

Solubility
In Water: soluble in water, 25g in 100ml water in 20 degree.
In Organic Solvents: sparingly soluble in ethanol, practically insoluble in ether.

Disodium 5 Ribonucleotide also known as E number E635, is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami.
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a mixture of disodium inosinate (IMP) and disodium guanylate (GMP) and is often used where a food already contains natural glutamates (as in meat extract) or added monosodium glutamate (MSG).

What are the uses?
I+G is a natural, vegan, and gluten free ingredient that can be used as a flavor enhancer to substitute monosodium glutamate (MSG) in MSG free food. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides can also be used with MSG at the usage level around 2-10% of MSG to provide a synergistic enhancement of umami taste in sauces, seasonings and condiments. 

The following are the common food uses of I+G and the added levels recommended by the manufacturer, Ajinomoto: 
Meat products: ≥ 0.01%
Broths: 0.50 – 1.00%
Soups: 0.20 – 0.30%
Spices (10% salt or higher): 0.25-2.8%
Snacks:0.02 – 0.03%
Tomato sauce: 0.02 – 0.04%
Mustard: 0.02 – 0.04%
Salad dressings: 0.01 – 0.02%
Vegetable preserves, fish byproducts, frozen food, biscuits, pasta / dough: 0.01%

Is disodium 5′-ribonucleotides safe?
Yes, Disodium Ribonucleotides safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),  Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.

Disodium inosinate (E631) is the disodium salt of inosinic acid with the chemical formula C10H11N4Na2O8P. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is used as a food additive and often found in the list of ingredients on the food nutrition label for a great variety of grocery products. 
Disodium inosinate is used as a flavor enhancer, in synergy with monosodium glutamate MSG (E621) to provide the umami taste. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is often added to foods in conjunction with disodium guanylate; the combination is known as disodium 5′-ribonucleotides (E635).

Flavor Enhancer for Instant Noodles, Pizza, Cheese, Snack Foods, Potato Chips, Crackers, Sauces, Fast Food, Baking Foods, Ice Cream, Canned Foods, Meats, Poultry, Sauces, Soups, Soft Candy, Puddings, Condiments, Snack Food, Fish, Seasonings.
As a relatively expensive product, disodium inosinate is usually not used independently of glutamic acid; if disodium inosinate is present in a list of ingredients, but MSG does not appear to be, Disodium Ribonucleotides is possible that glutamic acid is provided as part of another ingredient or is naturally occurring in another ingredient like tomatoes, Parmesan cheese, or yeast extract.

Specification
Other Names
I+G
IMP+GMP
Sodium ribonucleotides
Disodium inosinate and guanylate
CAS Number: NA

Flavor enhancer 635 is a common and important food additive. 
As per the European Food Safety Authority, Disodium Ribonucleotides comprises of a mixture of two essential additives – Disodium guanylate e627 and disodium inosinate e631 get mixed in desired proportions. 
Flavor enhancer 635 includes meat extracts. 
However, to make vegetarian food products, vegan sources are used. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides may be used with MSG (E621) or as a substitute for MSG as well. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is water-soluble but sparingly soluble in alcohol-based liquids.

Many popular instant noodles use flavor enhancer 635 in Disodium Ribonucleotides to enhance taste and aroma. 
In this case, vegetarian sources such as yeast extracts act as an enhancer to get the desired taste. 
Next time you binge on your favorite instant noodles, do not forget to check Disodium Ribonucleotidess ingredients list. 
You will notice this food additive.

Disodium 5 Ribonucleotide also known as E number E635, is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami.
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a mixture of disodium inosinate (IMP) and disodium guanylate (GMP) and is often used where a food already contains natural glutamates (as in meat extract) or added monosodium glutamate (MSG).

-What kinds of certificates can you offer?
Foodchem is an ISO2008 9001 certified company, as for Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G), we can offer HAPPC, KOSHER, HALAL Certificates, ect.

-Is Foodchem a manufacturer or just a trading company?
Foodchem is both manufacturer and trading company, we are Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G) distributor, at the same time, we are manufacturer of other products.

-What is the Min Order Quantity of Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G)?
Different products have different MOQ, for Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G), the MOQ is 500kg.

-What is the price of Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G)?
Foodchem is a famous supplier and manufacturer of Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G) in China, and has been corporate with many Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G) suppliers for several years, we can provide you with cost-effective Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G).

-How long shall we wait for your reply?
We can guarantee to reply your inquiries of Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides(I+G) in less than 24 hours in working days.

-What kinds of transportation types can you provide?
Our main transportation methods include air transportation, land transportation and water transportation.

-What kinds of payment terms can you accept?
The most commonly used payment terms are T/T, L/C, D/P, D/A, etc.

-How long will I receive my good?
Foodchem has its own EDC warehouse in Shanghai, when your purchase order has been confirmed, inventory products will deliver within 1 week, other products delivery in 2 weeks.

E635 may or may not be vegan. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is a food additive used to enhance flavor. 
Also known as Disodium 5′-Ribonucleotides, E635 is made of Sodium Salts of Inosinic Acid and Guanylic Acid. 
These sodium salts are often obtained from the flesh of killed animals but can also come from plants. 
Please check with the manufacturer. 
When you see an “E-number” like E635, Disodium Ribonucleotides refers to an ingredient that has been approved by the European Union for use as a food additive.

Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides are found in instant noodles, potato chips and snacks, savoury rice, tinned vegetables, cured meats, packet soup, and also include flavoured chips, and party pies.

Chemical formula: 
C10H11N4O8P · nH2O
C10H12N5Na2O8P · nH2O
Molecular Weight: NA

Appearance: white crystal or crystaline powder
Purity (IMP+GMP): 99.0%–101.0%
Loss on Drying: ≤25.0%
IMP: 48.0%-52.0%
GMP: 48.0%-52.0%
Transmittance: ≥95.0%
pH: 7.0-8.5
Heavy Metals (as Pb): ≤10 mg/Kg
Arsenic: ≤1 mg/Kg
Lead: ≤1 mg/Kg
NH4 (Ammonium): Color of litmus paper unchanged
Amino Acid: Solution appear colorless
Other related compounds of nucleicacid: Not Detectable
Total aerobic bacteria: ≤1000 cfu/g
Yeast & mould: ≤100 cfu/g
Coliform: Negative/g
E.Coli: Negative/g
Salmonella: Negative/g

Disodium 5-Ribonucleotides, CAS# 4691-65-0, is a food additive manufactured through chemical synthesis of sodium salt of guanylic acid and inosinic acid, available as White to light yellow crystalline powder. 
Disodium 5'-Ribonucleotides is widely used as flavour enhancer as it can increase flavour significantly when using together with monosodium glutamate. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is affirmed by US FDA as GRAS(generally recognized as safe) and widely accepted as safe food additive in many countries with E number E635. 

As Disodium 5'-Ribonucleotides is widely known as safe, there is no limit on dosage of intake. 
However, we still recommend consumers to consult professionals before using large quantity of Disodium 5'-Ribonucleotides for long period. 

Origin:
Mixture of sodium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630).

Function & Characteristics:
Flavour enhancer.
Guanylates and inosinates do not have the specific umami taste but strongly enhance many other flavours, thereby reducing the amounts of salt or other flavour enhancers needed in a product.

Products:
Disodium Ribonucleotides is used in many products. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides is mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

5'-Ribonucleotide products, Disodium Inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), Disodium-5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and their mixture (I+G), are white crystals or crystalline powder. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides are soluble in water and sparingly in alcohols but not in ethers. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides are prepared by sugar fermentation following purification process. 
Disodium Ribonucleotides have very strong flavour enhancing activity. 
The greater benefit of Disodium Ribonucleotides is the synergistic effect on improving the own natural tastes and flavours of almost processed foods when they are used in combination with MSG (Mono Sodium Glutamate). 
The synergistic effect can be recognized by cost savings. 
For example, 500gr of nucleotide (2%) + MSG (98%) have same flavor enhancing quality of 2,000gr MSG alone. 
The use of 5'-Ribonucleotide products in food is approved by FDA.

ITEM: STANDARD
ASSAY(IMP+GMP): 97.0% -102.0%
LOSS ON DRYING: =<25.0%
IMP: 48.0%-52.0%
GMP: 48.0%-52.0%
TRANSMITTANCE: >=95.0%
PH: 7.0-8.5
HEAVY METALS (AS Pb): =<10PPM
ARSENIC (As): =<1.0PPM
NH4(AMMONIUM) Color of litmus paper: unchanged
Amino Acid Solution appear: colorless
Other related compounds of nucleicacid: Not Detectable
Lead: =<1 ppm
Total aerobic bacteria: =<1,000cfu/g
Yeast & mould: =<100cfu/g
Coliform: Negative/g
E.Coli: Negative/g
Salmonella: Negative/g


2-) MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

Monosodium Glutamate = MSG = Chinese Salt

CAS Number: 142-47-2
EC Number: 205-538-1
E number: E621 (flavour enhancer)
Chemical formula: C5H8NO4Na
Molar mass: 169.111 g/mol (anhydrous), 187.127 g/mol (monohydrate)


Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used in cooking as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. 
Sodium glutamate has a strong umami taste of meat, and the umami taste can still be felt when MSG (monosodium glutamate) is diluted to 3000 times with water. 
Monosodium Glutamate is widely used in household cooking, catering industry, food processing industry, etc.
MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, an amino acid found in your body and most foods. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a popular food additive because Monosodium Glutamate enhances flavor.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also known as sodium glutamate, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. 
MSG is found naturally in some foods including tomatoes and cheese.
MSG is used in cooking as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups.
MSG was first prepared in 1908 by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda, who was trying to isolate and duplicate the savory taste of kombu, an edible seaweed used as a base for many Japanese soups. 
MSG balances, blends, and rounds the perception of other tastes.

MSG is commonly used and found in stock (bouillon) cubes, soups, ramen, gravy, stews, condiments, savory snacks, etc.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given MSG, Monosodium Glutamates generally recognized as safe (GRAS) designation.
Monosodium Glutamate is a popular belief that MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort, known as "Chinese restaurant syndrome", but blinded studies show no such effects when MSG is combined with food in normal concentrations, and are inconclusive when MSG is added to broth in large concentrations.
The European Union classifies Monosodium Glutamate as a food additive permitted in certain foods and subject to quantitative limits. 
MSG has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621.

Uses of Monosodium Glutamate:
Pure MSG is reported to not have a highly pleasant taste until Monosodium Glutamate is combined with a savory aroma.
The basic sensory function of MSG is attributed to MSGs ability to enhance savory taste-active compounds when added in the proper concentration.
The optimum concentration varies by food; in clear soup, the "pleasure score" rapidly falls with the addition of more than one gram of MSG per 100 mL.
The sodium content (in mass percent) of MSG, 12%, is about one-third of that in sodium chloride (39%), due to the greater mass of the glutamate counterion.
Although other salts of glutamate have been used in low-salt soups, they are less palatable than MSG.

"MSG might even promote healthy eating, hypothesizes, by not only making kale more delicious but also letting you get away with using less salt."
The ribonucleotide food additives disodium inosinate (E631) and disodium guanylate (E627), as well as conventional salt are usually used with monosodium glutamate-containing ingredients as they seem to have a synergistic effect. 
"Super salt" is a mixture of 9 parts salt, to one part MSG and 0.1 parts disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate.

MSG is short for monosodium glutamate.
Monosodium Glutamate is a common food additive — with the e-number E621 — that is used to enhance flavor.
MSG is derived from the amino acid glutamate, or glutamic acid, which is one of the most abundant amino acids in nature.
Glutamic acid is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that your body can produce Monosodium Glutamate. 
Monosodium Glutamate serves various functions in your body and is found in nearly all foods.
Chemically, MSG is a white crystalline powder that resembles table salt or sugar. 
Monosodium Glutamate combines sodium and glutamic acid, known as a sodium salt.

The glutamic acid in MSG is made by fermenting starches, but there is no chemical difference between the glutamic acid in MSG and that in natural foods.
However, the glutamic acid in MSG may be easier to absorb because Monosodium Glutamate isn’t bound inside big protein molecules that your body needs to break down.
MSG enhances the savory, meaty umami flavor of foods. 
Umami is the fifth basic taste, along with salty, sour, bitter and sweet.
Monosodium Glutamate is popular in Asian cooking and used in various processed foods in the West.
The average daily intake of MSG is 0.55–0.58 grams in the US and UK and 1.2–1.7 grams in Japan and Korea.

MSG, or monosodium glutamate, is a flavor-enhancing food additive used in Asian cooking, fast foods, and commercially packaged food products. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a white powder derived from a natural glutamic acid found in seaweed, sugar beets, and certain vegetables.

Why is MSG used in food preparations?
When used in small quantities, MSG enhances the natural basic flavour in foods such as soups, casseroles, salads, gravies, meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetable dishes. 
Monosodium Glutamate does not add any characteristic flavour of its own. 
Adding excess amounts of MSG does not further improve overall flavour.

Production
MSG has been produced by three methods: hydrolysis of vegetable proteins with hydrochloric acid to disrupt peptide bonds (1909–1962); direct chemical synthesis with acrylonitrile (1962–1973), and bacterial fermentation (the current method).
Wheat gluten was originally used for hydrolysis because Monosodium Glutamate contains more than 30 g of glutamate and glutamine in 100 g of protein. 
As demand for MSG increased, chemical synthesis and fermentation were studied. 
The polyacrylic fiber industry began in Japan during the mid-1950s, and acrylonitrile was adopted as a base material to synthesize MSG.
Currently (2016), most MSG worldwide is produced by bacterial fermentation in a process similar to making vinegar or yogurt. 
Sodium is added later, for neutralization. 
During fermentation, Corynebacterium species, cultured with ammonia and carbohydrates from sugar beets, sugarcane, tapioca or molasses, excrete amino acids into a culture broth from which L-glutamate is isolated. 
The Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company developed industrial fermentation to produce L-glutamate.
The conversion yield and production rate (from sugars to glutamate) continues to improve in the industrial production of MSG, keeping up with demand.
The product, after filtration, concentration, acidification, and crystallization, is glutamate, sodium, and water.

Chemical properties
Monosodium Glutamate is usually available as the monohydrate, a white, odorless, crystalline powder. 
The solid contains separate sodium cations Na+ and glutamate anions in zwitterionic form, −OOC-CH(NH+3)-(CH2)2-COO−.
In solution Monosodium Glutamate dissociates into glutamate and sodium ions.
MSG is freely soluble in water, but Monosodium Glutamate is not hygroscopic and is insoluble in common organic solvents (such as ether).
Monosodium Glutamate is generally stable under food-processing conditions. 
MSG does not break down during cooking and, like other amino acids, will exhibit a Maillard reaction (browning) in the presence of sugars at very high temperatures.

What is MSG?
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of the common amino acid glutamic acid. 
Glutamic acid is naturally present in our bodies, and in many foods and food additives.

How is Monosodium Glutamate made?
MSG occurs naturally in many foods, such as tomatoes and cheeses. 
People around the world have eaten glutamate-rich foods throughout history. 
For example, a historical dish in the Asian community is a glutamate-rich seaweed broth. 
In 1908, a Japanese professor named Kikunae Ikeda was able to extract glutamate from this broth and determined that glutamate provided the savory taste to the soup. 
Professor Ikeda then filed a patent to produce MSG and commercial production started the following year.
Today, instead of extracting and crystallizing MSG from seaweed broth, MSG is produced by the fermentation of starch, sugar beets, sugar cane or molasses. 
This fermentation process is similar to that used to make yogurt, vinegar and wine.

Is MSG safe to eat?
FDA considers the addition of MSG to foods to be “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). 
Although many people identify themselves as sensitive to MSG, in studies with such individuals given MSG or a placebo, scientists have not been able to consistently trigger reactions.

Does “glutamate” in a product mean Monosodium Glutamate contains gluten?
No—glutamate or glutamic acid have nothing to do with gluten. 
A person with Celiac disease may react to the wheat that may be present in soy sauce, but not to the MSG in the product.

What’s the difference between MSG and glutamate in food?
The glutamate in MSG is chemically indistinguishable from glutamate present in food proteins. 
Our bodies ultimately metabolize both sources of glutamate in the same way. 
An average adult consumes approximately 13 grams of glutamate each day from the protein in food, while intake of added MSG is estimates at around 0.55 grams per day.

How can I know if there is MSG in my food?
FDA requires that foods containing added MSG list it in the ingredient panel on the packaging as monosodium glutamate. 
However, MSG occurs naturally in ingredients such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, autolyzed yeast, hydrolyzed yeast, yeast extract, soy extracts, and protein isolate, as well as in tomatoes and cheeses. 
While FDA requires that these products be listed on the ingredient panel, the agency does not require the label to also specify that they naturally contain MSG. 
However, foods with any ingredient that naturally contains MSG cannot claim “No MSG” or “No added MSG” on their packaging.
MSG also cannot be listed as “spices and flavoring.”

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occuring salt that is found in many foods, including seaweed, green teas, cheeses and tomatoes just to name a few. 
As a concentrated flavoring agent, MSG is frequently used in cooking to enhance the flavor of meat, poultry, seafood and vegetables. 
MSG is sold as a white, crystalline powder, similar in appearance to table salt, in shakers or boxes.

Has FDA received any adverse event reports associated with MSG?
Over the years, FDA has received reports of symptoms such as headache and nausea after eating foods containing MSG. 
However, we were never able to confirm that the MSG caused the reported effects.

These adverse event reports helped trigger FDA to ask the independent scientific group Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) to examine the safety of MSG in the 1990s. 
FASEB’s report concluded that MSG is safe. 
The FASEB report identified some short-term, transient, and generally mild symptoms, such as headache, numbness, flushing, tingling, palpitations, and drowsiness that may occur in some sensitive individuals who consume 3 grams or more of MSG without food. 
However, a typical serving of a food with added MSG contains less than 0.5 grams of MSG. 
Consuming more than 3 grams of MSG without food at one time is unlikely.

What is MSG?
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of the common amino acid glutamic acid. 
Glutamic acid is naturally present in our bodies, and in many foods and food additives.

How is Monosodium Glutamate made?
MSG occurs naturally in many foods, such as tomatoes and cheeses. 
People around the world have eaten glutamate-rich foods throughout history. 
For example, a historical dish in the Asian community is a glutamate-rich seaweed broth. 
In 1908, a Japanese professor named Kikunae Ikeda was able to extract glutamate from this broth and determined that glutamate provided the savory taste to the soup. 
Professor Ikeda then filed a patent to produce MSG and commercial production started the following year.
Today, instead of extracting and crystallizing MSG from seaweed broth, MSG is produced by the fermentation of starch, sugar beets, sugar cane or molasses. 
This fermentation process is similar to that used to make yogurt, vinegar and wine.

Monosodium glutamate, also known as MSG, Ve-stin, or E621 is a flavour-enhancing agent, used in many kinds of food products to enhance their original flavour. 
The main aim of this report is to give accurate knowledge about MSG by scrutinizing Monosodium Glutamates scientific literature.

Is MSG safe to eat?
FDA considers the addition of MSG to foods to be “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). 
Although many people identify themselves as sensitive to MSG, in studies with such individuals given MSG or a placebo, scientists have not been able to consistently trigger reactions.

Does “glutamate” in a product mean Monosodium Glutamate contains gluten?
No—glutamate or glutamic acid have nothing to do with gluten. 
A person with Celiac disease may react to the wheat that may be present in soy sauce, but not to the MSG in the product.

According to one 2017 study, people have been using MSG to season their food for over 100 years.
Some people in Japanese cultures consider MSG, or umami, to be one of the five basic tastes. 
Many dishes featured in Japanese, Chinese, and South Asian cuisine use MSG.
According to one 2018 study, the following food products may also contain MSG:
frozen meals and processed meats, such as:
-bacon
-pastrami
-pepperoni
-sausages
-lunch meats
-smoked meat products
-hamburgers
-cold cuts
-salami
sauces and dressings, such as:
-ketchup
-mayonnaise
-barbecue sauce
-salad dressing
-soy sauce
-mustard
-soup bases, such as bouillon cubes and granulated powders
-snacks, such as potato chips
-seasonings
-spices
-bodybuilding protein powder
fast food, such as:
-chicken nuggets
-burgers
-fried chicken

Monosodium glutamate is officially a salt, meaning Monosodium Glutamate is composed of atoms and molecules that have been ionized, or become electrically charged. 
One unit of monosodium glutamate contains five carbon atoms, four oxygen atoms, eight hydrogen atoms and one sodium atom. 
Everything aside from the sodium are combined into one molecule, known as glutamic acid, bonded together with covalent bonds, or electrically neutral bonds. 
The ionic bond in MSG is between this molecule and sodium; sodium "donates" one electron to this molecule.

Fermentation has been used by humans for centuries as a way to preserve foods and enhance their taste. 
MSG (monosodium glutamate) is made of naturally occurring substances through a modern version of that process, with the help of microbes that transform feedstocks like sugarcane into food products. 
First the sugarcane is extracted as glucose and sent to a fermentation tank, to which fermentative microbes are then added. 
These microbes consume the glucose, releasing glutamic acid, which though neutralization is turned into a solution that contains MSG. 
This solution is then decolorized and filtered, resulting in a pure MSG solution. 
This pure solution is crystallized using an evaporator and the crystals dried to produce the final product—MSG. 
The entire process has a very small environmental footprint, as Monosodium Glutamates coproducts can be returned to the soil in the form of fertilizer to help grow more crops like sugarcane, forming a virtuous cycle.

SG stands for monosodium glutamate. 
This is a form of glutamic acid, which is an amino acid that is present in many different natural foods.
Glutamic acid performs many functions in the body, such as forming proteins.

What’s the difference between MSG and glutamate in food?
The glutamate in MSG is chemically indistinguishable from glutamate present in food proteins. 
Our bodies ultimately metabolize both sources of glutamate in the same way. 
An average adult consumes approximately 13 grams of glutamate each day from the protein in food, while intake of added MSG is estimates at around 0.55 grams per day.

Chemistry of Glutamic Acid
The main molecule in monosodium glutamate is glutamic acid, one of the nonessential amino acids. 
The full chemical formula for Monosodium Glutamate in isolation is HOOC-(CH2)2-CH(NH2)-COOH, however one of the end hydrogens is lost when the molecule combines with sodium to form the salt. 
In this formula, O designates oxygen, H designates hydrogen, C carbon and N nitrogen. 
While Monosodium Glutamate is one of the 20 amino acids critical for proper human cell function, Monosodium Glutamate can be generated by the body, and thus is not an "essential" part of the diet.

How can I know if there is MSG in my food?
FDA requires that foods containing added MSG list Monosodium Glutamate in the ingredient panel on the packaging as monosodium glutamate. 
However, MSG occurs naturally in ingredients such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, autolyzed yeast, hydrolyzed yeast, yeast extract, soy extracts, and protein isolate, as well as in tomatoes and cheeses. 
While FDA requires that these products be listed on the ingredient panel, the agency does not require the label to also specify that they naturally contain MSG. 
However, foods with any ingredient that naturally contains MSG cannot claim “No MSG” or “No added MSG” on their packaging. 
MSG also cannot be listed as “spices and flavoring.”

Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally-occurring non-essential amino acids. 
MSG is found in tomatoes, Parmesan, potatoes, mushrooms, and other vegetables and fruits. 
MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. 
This was first prepared by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda, who was seeking to isolate and duplicate the savory taste of kombu, an edible seaweed used as a base for many Japanese soups. 
MSG as a flavor enhancer balances, blends, and rounds the perception of other tastes. 
Monosodium Glutamate is particularly popular in Japanese and Chinese cuisine.

Has FDA received any adverse event reports associated with MSG?
Over the years, FDA has received reports of symptoms such as headache and nausea after eating foods containing MSG. 
However, we were never able to confirm that the MSG caused the reported effects.
These adverse event reports helped trigger FDA to ask the independent scientific group Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) to examine the safety of MSG in the 1990s. 
FASEB’s report concluded that MSG is safe. 
The FASEB report identified some short-term, transient, and generally mild symptoms, such as headache, numbness, flushing, tingling, palpitations, and drowsiness that may occur in some sensitive individuals who consume 3 grams or more of MSG without food. 
However, a typical serving of a food with added MSG contains less than 0.5 grams of MSG. 
Consuming more than 3 grams of MSG without food at one time is unlikely.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is one of the most widely used food-additives in commercial foods. 
Monosodium Glutamates application has increased over time and Monosodium Glutamate is found in many different ingredients and processed foods obtainable in every market or grocery store. 
MSG gives a special aroma to processed foods which is known as umami in Japanese. 
This taste sensation is also called “savoury”. 
In many countries MSG goes by the name “China salt”.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also called monosodium L-glutamate or sodium glutamate, white crystalline substance, a sodium salt of the amino acid glutamic acid, that is used to intensify the natural flavour of certain foods. 
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is an important ingredient in the cuisines of China and Japan and is used commercially in broths, soups, canned and frozen vegetables, flavouring and spice blends, gravies, meats, poultry, and sauces and in other combinations. 
Monosodium Glutamate is also used to enhance the taste of tobacco and has been used medically to treat hepatic coma.

Names
The following are alternative names for MSG:
Chemical names and identifiers
Monosodium glutamate or sodium glutamate
Sodium 2-aminopentanedioate
Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
L-Monosodium glutamate monohydrate
Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate

Properties of Glutamic Acid
Glutamic acid, or glutamate, is found naturally in a variety of proteins, in all animal products and a number of plant proteins, such as those found in tomatoes, soybeans and corn. 
Monosodium Glutamate is necessary for a variety of bodily processes; for example, Monosodium Glutamate has a key role in detoxifying ammonia in the brain. 
Monosodium Glutamate can be combined with other amino acids to form polypeptides and eventually proteins, and on Monosodium Glutamates own performs a variety of functions, especially in its role as an excitatory neurotransmitter.

Monosodium Glutamate Action
Because monosodium glutamate separates into its component ions -- sodium and glutamic acid -- almost instantly when Monosodium Glutamate comes into contact with saliva, it is the actions of these two separate compounds that affect the body. 
Both compounds are naturally present in the body and indeed necessary for function. 
However, due to glutamic acid's role as an excitatory neurotransmitter, high doses could "overexcite" the brain in people more sensitive to the compound. 
According to Katherine Zeratsky, a licensed and registered dietician with the Mayo Clinic, short-term reactions to MSG reported to the FDA have included headaches, nausea, heart palpitations and sweating. 
The FDA thus requires MSG to be labeled if Monosodium Glutamate is present in a food. 
There is little evidence for longer-term neurotoxicity or other dangers, however, and the FDA has declared MSG to be "generally recognized as safe."

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) consists of a sodium ion bound to the amino acid glutamic acid. 
Amino acids of which there are 21 types are the building blocks of all proteins in nature, thus all food containing protein also contains Glutamate. 
Tastewise we can only detect the non-protein bound form of glutamate which naturally occurs at high concentrations in many products including broccoli, mushrooms, tomatoes and some fish. 
Interestingly, aging and fermentation of foods like soya sauce and parmesan cheese, which are also valued for their high savoriness, results in higher concentrations of free glutamate due to protein breakdown during aging and fermentation processes. 
To purify glutamate Monosodium Glutamate needs to be crystallised (as shown in the picture above). 

The monosodium form of glutamates (MSG) crystalizes most easily and is what can be found in shops and pantries across the globe. 
The seaweed, Kombu, produces a high concentration of MSG and was used for Monosodium Glutamates flavor enhancing capability’s as early as 1.500 years ago in the Chinese cousin. 
MSG, is used as food additive predominantly in Asian cooking and commonly found in fast food. 
This unique taste sensation is called umami in Japanese (roughly “delicious”), and is ranked by many scientists as the fifth flavour (besides sweet, salt, sour and bitter). 
Monosodium Glutamate was recently also shown that we carry special receptors for glutamate on our tongue which contribute to our cravings for protein-rich food. 
This savory quality MSG can lend to, or boost in, foods often makes Monosodium Glutamate a versatile ingredient for any pantry.

MSG can be the key to reducing sodium content
Simple table salt, sodium chloride, is one of the biggest contributors to cardiovascular disease. 
Reducing average salt intake by 30% has been adopted as a target by the World Health Organization. 
The use of monosodium glutamate (MSG) can be the key to reducing sodium content without sacrificing taste.
Taste is a major driver of excess salt intake. 
Although MSG is mistakenly thought of as being high in sodium, Monosodium Glutamate contains just one third the sodium of table salt (MSG contains approximately 12 percent sodium while table salt contains 39 percent sodium). 
Monosodium Glutamate can enhance the perception of saltiness while preserving palatability. 

With the addition of MSG, sodium level in the food can be lowered by up to 40 percent while maintaining the flavor.
Research has also shown that umami-eliciting compounds like MSG can be used to reduce sodium 11% in chicken broth and 32.5% in spicy soups. 
Sodium reduction in butter, margarine and cheeses can also be achieved with MSG, and a similar approach could work in meat products. 
MSG could also be used in snack foods and condiments, for example helping reduce the sodium content of Brazilian garlic and salt spice seasonings by up to 50%.
MSG has been classed as safe by the US FDA and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. 
The use of MSG may help food scientists reduce sodium content without sacrificing taste, in addition to creating new, cost-effective, reduced-salt products and menus that will encourage consumers to make healthier choices.

MSG monohydrate
Sodium glutamate monohydrate
UNII-W81N5U6R6U
Flavour enhancer E621
Trade names
Accent, produced by B&G Foods Inc., Parsippany, New Jersey, US
Aji-No-Moto, produced by Ajinomoto, 26 countries, head office Japan
Tasting Powder
Ve-Tsin by Tien Chu Ve-Tsin
Sazón, distributed by Goya Foods, Jersey City, NJ

Origin
A controversy surrounding the safety of MSG began on 4 April 1968, when Dr. Robert Ho Man Kwok wrote a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine, coining the term "Chinese restaurant syndrome".
In his letter, Kwok suggested several possible causes before he nominated MSG for his symptoms.
This letter was initially met with insider satirical responses, some using race as prop for humorous effect, within the medical community.
Some claimed that during the discursive uptake in media, the conversations were recontextualized as legitimate while the supposed race-based motivations of the humor were not parsed.
In January 2018, Dr. Howard Steel claimed that the letter was actually a prank submission by him under the pseudonym, Ho Man Kwok.
However, there was a Dr. Robert Ho Man Kwok who worked at the National Biomedical Research Foundation, both names Steel claimed to have invented.
Kwok's children, his colleague at the research foundation, and the son of his boss there confirmed that Dr. Robert Ho Man Kwok, who had died in 2014, wrote this letter.
After hearing about Kwok's family, Steel's daughter Anna came to believe this claim itself was one of the last pranks by her late father.

IUPAC name
Sodium 2-aminopentanedioate

Generally, MSG can be used to season foods, giving them a savory boost. 
Only use in very small amounts, though, as many people find too much MSG harsh and metallic tasting. 
In a brine or cure, Monosodium Glutamate can be added in an amount that is about 10% of the amount of salt for an umami boost. 
MSG can find Monosodium Glutamates use to reduce salt consumption which is aligned in the occurrence of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. 
The aroma of low spiced (salted) food improves greatly by MSG use even by a reduction of salt by 30%. 
The sodium value of MSG is about 1/3 (12%) as compared to sodium chloride ~ natural salt (39%).

Monosodium glutamate is a salt. 
Much like sodium chloride—AKA table salt—it enhances the flavor of food. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a controversial ingredient because many still believe Monosodium Glutamate leads to troublesome health conditions. 
The origin of Monosodium Glutamates bad PR stemmed from the "Chinese restaurant syndrome" that arose in the 1960s after a certain Dr. Robert Ho Man Kwok wrote a letter to the editor of the New England Journal of Medicine speaking to the sickly side effects he experienced after eating at a Chinese restaurant: “numbness in the back of the neck, gradually radiating to both arms and the back, general weakness, and palpitation.”

History
MSG has been used for more than 100 years to season food. Consumption and manufacture of high-salt and high-glutamate foods, which contain both sodium and glutamate, stretch back far longer, with evidence of cheese manufacture as early as 5,500 BCE.
Glutamic acid was discovered and identified in 1866 by the German chemist Karl Heinrich Ritthausen, who treated wheat gluten (for which it was named) with sulfuric acid.
Kikunae Ikeda of Tokyo Imperial University isolated glutamic acid as a taste substance in 1908 from the seaweed Laminaria japonica (kombu) by aqueous extraction and crystallization, calling its taste umami ("pleasant savory taste").
Ikeda noticed that dashi, the Japanese broth of katsuobushi and kombu, had a unique taste not yet scientifically described (not sweet, salty, sour, or bitter).
To verify that ionized glutamate was responsible for umami, he studied the taste properties of glutamate salts: calcium, potassium, ammonium, and magnesium glutamate. 
All these salts elicited umami and a metallic taste due to the other minerals. 
Of them, sodium glutamate was the most soluble, most palatable, and easiest to crystallize.
Ikeda called his product "monosodium glutamate", and submitted a patent to produce MSG; the Suzuki brothers began commercial production of MSG in 1909 as Ajinomoto ("essence of taste").

CAS Number: 142-47-2
ChemSpider: 76943 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.005.035 
EC Number: 205-538-1
E number: E621 (flavour enhancer)
PubChem CID: 23672308
UNII: C3C196L9FG 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID9020906

Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, might be one of the scariest-looking words you see on ingredients lists. 
Luckily, Monosodium Glutamate's not as unnatural or harmful as Monosodium Glutamates name or reputation might lead you to believe. 
But what is MSG, and why is Monosodium Glutamate added to food?
Food manufacturers and chefs add MSG to food because Monosodium Glutamate enhances flavors. 
The somewhat meaty taste Monosodium Glutamate imparts to food is best described by the Japanese term umami, which means "savory" or "deliciousness." 
MSG doesn't taste like much on Monosodium Glutamates own, achieving maximum umami only when combined with other flavor molecules.
Although Monosodium Glutamate's a common ingredient in a variety of Asian cuisines, MSG is perhaps best known in North America for Monosodium Glutamates once-universal use in restaurant Chinese food.

Monosodium glutamate: MSG, a sodium salt of the amino acid glutamic acid that enhances the flavor of certain foods. 
Originally isolated from seaweed, MSG is now made by fermenting corn, potatoes and rice. 
Monosodium Glutamate does not enhance the four basic tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) but Monosodium Glutamate does enhance the complex flavors of meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetables. 
MSG is an important ingredient in the cuisines of China and Japan and is used commercially worldwide in many types of foods. 
Monosodium Glutamate is naturally present at high levels in tomatoes and Parmesan cheese. 
In China, MSG is known as wei jing, which means flavor essence.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer commonly added to Chinese food, canned vegetables, soups and processed meats. 
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified MSG as a food ingredient that's "generally recognized as safe," but Monosodium Glutamates use remains controversial. 
For this reason, when MSG is added to food, the FDA requires that Monosodium Glutamate be listed on the label.

Monosodium Glutamate is very common to use food additives; one of the most widely used food additive is monosodium glutamate, commonly known as MSG. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a flavour enhancing food additive mostly used in Asian cooking. 
Monosodium Glutamateis commonly found in fast foods and commercially packaged products that may also include chips.
MSG is said to be derived from an amino acid known as glutamic acid that occurs naturally in foods like mushrooms, soy sauce, tomatoes and parmesan cheese, which is why these foods tend to enhance the flavour of various dishes.
MSG, as a food additive has gained quite a controversial reputation, considering the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received many anecdotal reports of adverse reactions to foods containing MSG. 
Some of the hazards that were reported included- headache, sweating, flushing, facial pressure or tightness, numbness, chest pain, nausea, weakness and heart palpitations. 
This is why; FDA requires every packaged food product containing this compound to be listed on the label.
While MSG may have quite a bad reputation, researchers have no definitive evidence of a link between MSG and these symptoms.

Here are some of the foods that may contain Monosodium glutamate or MSG-
-Packaged fried potato chips
-Protein powders
-Popcorns
-Most seasonings
-Packaged meat products
-Canned foods
-Soy sauces
-Parmesan cheese
-Dipping sauces
-Salted snacks
We don't realize but end up consuming Monosodium Glutamate on a daily basis. 
Monosodium Glutamate is often recommended to limit the consumption of such foods to avoid MSG intake.

Chemical formula: C5H8NO4Na
Molar mass: 169.111 g/mol (anhydrous), 187.127 g/mol (monohydrate)
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Melting point: 232 °C (450 °F; 505 K)
Solubility in water: 740 g/L

Glutamate in the body
Your stomach and gut lining are rich in glutamate receptors. 
MSG and other forms of glutamate are absorbed through interaction with these receptors. 
Once in the gut, glutamate is either broken down to act as fuel, or incorporated into other molecules.
Glutamate is also an essential neurotransmitter in the brain. 
However, dietary glutamate is believed to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrierTrusted Source, suggesting that all brain glutamate is created there.
But there is evidenceTrusted Source from studies in mice that the blood-brain barrier in newborns is immature, and that some glutamate can pass into the brain. 
High levels of glutamate injected into newborn mice caused significant brain damage.
A recent studyTrusted Source showed that high levels of MSG also caused severe effects in fruit flies, leading to premature death in a significant number of them.
While the levels used in these studies far exceed normal daily consumption reportedTrusted Source among humans, Monosodium Glutamate is important to point out that restaurants and food manufacturers are not required to declare the levels of MSG added to food.

sodium glutamate(1-);Monosodium glutamate;sodium acid l-glutamate;DL-monosodium glutamate;Monosodium DL-glutamate;UVZZAUIWJCQWEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N;Sodium 5-oxido-5-oxonorvaline;Monosodium glutamate USP/EP/BP;GlutaMic acid, sodiuMsalt (1:1);Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, DL-

What is MSG?
MSG stands for “Monosodium Glutamate” and is made of water, sodium and glutamate. 
Glutamate is an amino acid that is used to make proteins in food and our body.
MSG doesn’t have a specific flavour of its own. 
Instead, MSG is used as an ingredient to enhance the natural flavours of foods such as meat, poultry, soups, stews, casseroles, gravies, seafood, snacks and vegetable dishes.
Glutamate itself if also found naturally in foods such as corn, green peas, mushrooms and tomatoes.

Is MSG the same as salt?
No. MSG is made from water, sodium and glutamate. 
Table salt is made from sodium and chloride.

Is MSG safe to eat?
Yes. According to Health Canada, MSG is not a health hazard.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is composed of sodium and the amino acid glutamate. 
Sodium is an essential mineral, and glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the human brain and the most common neurotransmitter in the body. 
MSG is a popular food additive due to stimulating savory taste receptors and giving food a “meatier” flavor.  
From a purely chemical standpoint, MSG is simply degraded into sodium and glutamate during the digestive process.
The MSG food fears were born from a 1968 article in which a US doctor described “Chinese-restaurant syndrome” — numbness and weakness caused by cooking wine, the high sodium content of the foods, or the added MSG seasoning, all just speculative guesses. 
Sensationalism grew when animal research showed brain damage from unrealistically high doses of MSG being fed to mice or MSG being directly injected into the brains of monkeys. 
Monosodium Glutamate should be noted that glutamate cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. 

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a salt of the amino acid glutamic acid, is used as a flavor enhancer in foods. 
Some individuals experience adverse reactions to this compound, but a 1995 FASEB study found no evidence that Monosodium Glutamate causes neurological damage when consumed in the small amounts typical for food usage.

MSG- E621 is the short form of Monosodium glutamate. 
A typical food flavor enhancer with the e-number E621- used to boost the flavor.
Monosodium Glutamate is gleaned from the amino acids or Glumatic acid, a rare amino acid in nature.

Chemically, MSG E621 is a white crystalline powder that resembles table salt or sugars, a combination of sodium and Glumatic acid, known as a sodium salt. 
Monosodium Glutamate is popular in Asian cooking and used in various processed foods in the west.

MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE
142-47-2
Sodium glutamate
Sodium L-glutamate
L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt
Monosodium L-glutamate
L-Glutamic acid sodium salt
Glutamic acid, sodium salt
Ajinomoto
Glutacyl
Glutavene
L(+) Sodium glutamate
L-Glutamic acid Monosodium salt
Glutamate monosodium salt
Sodium hydrogen glutamate
Natriumglutaminat
Glutamate Sodium
Natrium L-hydrogenglutamat

There are two forms of glutamate one “free,” not bound to protein, or bound to other amino acids as part of proteins. 
The free glutamate is the one that tastes umami and plays a role in the delectable of foods. 
Monosodium Glutamate enhances the natural flavour of many foods, and in most effective when used with savoury foods.

Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is derived from a naturally occurring amino acid in our bodies. 
Amino acids are organic compounds that are essential for bodily functions. 
Monosodium Glutamate is also naturally present in most foods, such as: 
-Cheese
-Tomatoes 
-Mushrooms 
-Seaweed
However, MSG is most commonly known as a popular food additive that has an extra savory, umami flavor. 
Monosodium Glutamate is produced by fermenting starch, sugar beets, sugar cane, or molasses. 

Overall, concerns center around MSG being a neurotoxin, promoting obesity, and causing allergies.
Although there is currently zero evidence that MSG causes neurological damage in humans, Monosodium Glutamate may cause headaches in some people. 
However, the best-controlled human studies that successfully blind participants and administer MSG as a seasoning on food rather than as an isolated addition to drinking water show no relationship.  
Another concern revolves around MSG disrupting hypothalamic signaling, promoting overeating, and causing obesity. 
However, interventions adding MSG to the diet of humans show no effect on food intake or body weight, and the hypothesis of hypothalamic disruption comes from a faulty premise where MSG is injected into the brains of animals.
However, there are concerns over MSG allergies. 

While the effects are rare, some people may react with hives and allergic rhinitis. 
While some people may also react with asthma, the only controlled trials have reported no difference between a MSG challenge and placebo. 
In people who believe themselves to react adversely to MSG, they may experience symptoms above and beyond the nocebo effect only when MSG is given in large doses without food.
On the flip-side of these controversies, MSG may help people reduce sodium intake without negatively impacting the taste of a foods like soups, stocks, seasonings, noodles, meat, and nuts. 
Additionally, although MSG doesn’t promote overeating in general, there may be a small appetite-enhancing effect in older adults who would benefit from eating more due to anorexia of aging. 
However, not all studies support this.

Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is a widely used flavor enhancer. 
Monosodium Glutamate is said to add a 5th flavor to foods, a savoury taste, adding onto the four basic tastes (salt, sweet, sour and bitter). 
Monosodium Glutamate has many names, ranging from accent and vetsin to ajinomoto. 
What is so curious about MSG is that Monosodium Glutamate does not act by adding a specific taste of Monosodium Glutamates own (as does salt or sugar), but instead Monosodium Glutamate seems to serve as a stimulant which increases the sensitivity of taste receptors thus "multiplying" the taste of foods.

But some people may have a sensitivity to MSG. 
Monosodium Glutamate is the glutamate part of MSG that can produce symptoms such as:
-Blurred vision
-Tingling and/or burning sensation
-Chills and shakes
-Feeling of pressure on the face
-Headache
-Increased heartbeat
-Nausea and vomiting
-Pain in the face, back, neck or chest

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. 
Monosodium glutamate is found naturally in tomatoes, cheese and other foods. 
MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. 
MSG as a flavor enhancer balances, blends, and rounds the perception of other tastes.

Monosodioglutammato
Glutammato monosodico
L-Glutamic Acid Monosodium
Vetsin
Zest
Sodium (S)-2-amino-4-carboxybutanoate
Chinese seasoning
UNII-C3C196L9FG
sodium (2S)-2-amino-4-carboxybutanoate
Ancoma
Glutamic acid, monosodium salt
MSG
Accent (food additive)
Glutamat sodny [Czech]
Glutamat sodny
Sodium glutamate (VAN)
Natriumglutaminat [German]
C3C196L9FG

MSG is a sodium salt of commonly known amino acid, that is, glutamic acid. 
MSG has only a bit of flavor and is mainly used to enhance the flavor of savory foods. 
Monosodium Glutamate is also used in meats, condiments, pickles, soups, candy, and baked goods to increase flavor. 
Formerly, the flavor-enhancing property of MSG was achieved by using seaweed broth. 
In a more recent approach, MSG is produced by fermentation process using starch, sugar beets, sugar cane, or molasses. 
The adverse effects of MSG include headaches, serious allergic reactions, nausea, chest pains with heart attack–like symptoms, brain edema, weakness, and so forth. 
Use of MSG increases the chances of reproductive dysfunction in both females and males.

Hydrolyzed proteins, or protein hydrolysates contain a form of MSG. Such proteins are acid- treated or enzymatically treated proteins. 
They contain salts of free amino acids, such as glutamate, at levels of 5 to 20 percent. 
Hydrolyzed proteins are used in the same manner as MSG in many foods, such as canned vegetables, soups, and processed meats. 
Hammer Soy and sustained energy contain soy protein isolates and are essentially MSGfree. 
Monosodium Glutamate [MSG] is not used as an ingredient, processing aid, or additive formulated from the soy protein isolates in either Hammer Soy or Sustained Energy. 
MSG, measured, as free form glutamic acid is negative at the sensitivity to test methodology at the rate of 0.05% in the soy protein isolates used in the Hammer Nutrition product line. 
We have no reports on record from an athlete who has determined negative reaction or sensitivity to the soy protein isolates formulated in either Sustained Energy or Soy. 
Speaking very direct, all of Hammer products are MSG-free from formulation, processing, or as additives.

These common symptoms of MSG sensitivity are generally temporary and can appear about 20 minutes after eating MSG and last for about two hours. 
The symptoms seem to happen faster and are more severe if you eat MSG-containing foods on an empty stomach or drink alcohol at the same time. 

MSG stands for monosodium glutamate (also known as sodium glutamate), a common food ingredient that is a pure form of glutamate, the most common amino acid in our diets. 
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. 
The tongue has taste receptors for glutamate, just as Monosodium Glutamate does for sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes. 
Glutamate is the purest taste of umami. 
When MSG is added to foods, Monosodium Glutamate enhances and enriches their savory (umami) and rich flavors.
Our goal is to provide you with accurate and up-to-date information about glutamate, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and umami. 
Here you will find information about the discovery and taste of glutamate and the role it plays in our food and our bodies. 
Also learn about the nutritional benefits of umami and MSG related to appetite, sodium reduction, and overall health.

Sodium L-glutamate (VAN)
16177-21-2
Monosodioglutammato [Italian]
FEMA No. 2756
CCRIS 3625
HSDB 580
Glutammato monosodico [Italian]
l-Monosodium glutamate
Glutamic acid, L-, sodium salt
RL-50
Glutamate Sodium [JAN]
EINECS 205-538-1
L-Glutamic acid, sodium salt (VAN)
NSC 135529
Monosodium glutamate anhydrous
AI3-18393
EINECS 240-313-1
Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, L-

Note: Do not automatically assume that you have a sensitivity to MSG if you experience any of these symptoms. 
Check with your doctor to make sure that you do not have another condition or allergy that might be causing these symptoms.

Discovery
MSG was first discovered at the turn of the 20th century in Japan. 
In 1907, Professor Kikunae Ikeda (photo, right) of the Tokyo Imperial University first studied the brown crystals left behind after evaporating large amounts of kombu broth (an edible kelp), and identified these as glutamic acid. 
Upon tasting these crystals, he noticed they reminded him of the taste of many foods, especially seaweed. 
As a result he named the crystals unami (savoury). 
The Ajinomoto ("essence of taste") company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan, and Monosodium Glutamate was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavour enhancer.

MSG as a flavour enhancer
As meat ages, the proteins Monosodium Glutamate contains decompose to form a number of other substances, among them MSG and a breakdown product of ATP called inosine monophosphate (IMF). 
These two compounds together have a very pronounced meaty flavour, and are the principal components responsible for the taste of meat.
Different meats contain MSG and IMF in different amounts, and so have different flavours. 
For example, the ratio of beef has two times as much MSG as pork (but about the same amount of IMF). 
Since MSG is much cheaper and more readily available than IMF, Monosodium Glutamate is often added by food manufacturers to bring out the flavour of meat. 
Surprisingly, mushrooms also contain a large number of proteins which are composed of glutamic acid. 
This might account for their slightly meaty flavour and the fact that mushrooms are usually served with meat dishes.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and certain other amino acids, especially when paired with the nucleotide 5′ inosine monophosphate or 5′ guanine monophosphate, elicit a taste termed umami, now recognized as a fifth taste quality independent of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter. 
The human detection threshold for MSG is 0.7–3 mmol−1. 
Umami is a preferred taste, and MSG is a common food additive for animal and human consumption. 
MSG occurs naturally in many foods and is particularly abundant in protein-rich foods, notably cheeses and meats. 
There are multiple molecular receptor mechanisms for detecting sodium glutamate which will be described below.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is a flavour enhancer that is added to food to bring out the savoury taste. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a food additive used commonly in many foods and has been always associated with some or the other controversies.

What exactly is MSG?
MSG is the sodium salt of glutamate which is an amino acid made in the body. 
Glutamate is also a neurotransmitter in the nervous system. 
Glutamate is found naturally in some protein-containing foods like meat, peas, yeast extracts, soy sauce, mushrooms and cheese. 
Monosodium Glutamate is made commercially through fermentation of molasses from sugar beet or sugar cane and starch.

Which foods contain MSG?
Glutamates occur naturally in protein foods such as meat, fish, poultry and vegetables. 
Free glutamates are found in foods like tomatoes, tomato paste, cheese and mushrooms. 
So, many natural foods which we add to dishes to make them tasty are high in free glutamate. 
Glutamates are added to food to enhance its flavour. 
They are added in the form of MSG in hydrolysed vegetable protein, yeast extracts, flavours and fermented soy products such as soy sauce. 
Common foods that can contain added MSG include savoury foods such as stocks, seasonings, soup, sauces and savoury snacks/meals.

Why is MSG added to some food?
MSG does not have a distinct flavour on Monosodium Glutamates own, but Monosodium Glutamate helps to intensify the natural savoury flavour of foods. 
The taste gained from naturally occurring or added MSG in foods is described as ‘ Umami’ – the fifth basic taste after sweet, sour, bitter and salty. 
Umami is the savoury taste that people enjoy in foods.
One of the other reasons that MSG is added to food is to help reduce the sodium content. 
MSG is lower in sodium than table salt. 
Therefore the sodium content of processed foods can be lowered by using MSG to replace some of the salt.

L-Glutamic acid, sodiumsalt (1:1)
H-Glu-OH.Na
sodium;(2S)-2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
L-Glutamic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
6106-04-3
EC 205-538-1
SCHEMBL16336
DTXSID9020906
AKOS027257231
sodium 2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
G0188
J-007661

Is MSG safe?
Over the past 40 years or so, there have been reports of adverse reactions to MSG, notably the so called “Chinese restaurant syndrome”. 
However there is no scientific evidence to suggest that MSG has any adverse effects in general population in the amounts normally consumed as part of the diet.
If you believe that you have experienced problems you may want to limit your intake of foods high in glutamates either as an additive or naturally occurring glutamates. 
Advice from your medical practitioner can help establish if you have food intolerance or sensitivity and if you need to change your diet you may benefit from advice from an accredited practicing dietitian.

What does added MSG mean?
Many products and restaurants claim “no added MSG” due to the consumer demand for products without MSG. 
This claim means that the manufacturer has not added MSG into the food. 
Monosodium Glutamate is important to remember that there may be naturally occurring glutamates in the food even if Monosodium Glutamate has a “no added MSG” claim.

MSG is a flavor enhancer commonly associated with Chinese takeout food, but Monosodium Glutamate's also found in some canned goods and processed meats. 
Once thought to cause adverse side effects like headache and nausea, MSG has become a controversial additive. 
But, the science says Monosodium Glutamate's not all that bad. 

Origin of Mono Sodium Glutamate (E621)
To begin with, the answer to the existence of MSN Mono Sodium Glutamate, chemical name Monosodium L-Glutamate Monohydrate also called E621. 
To know about this flavor-enhancing agent, we need to go back to Japan a century back.
Umami seasoning (component monosodium L-glutamate) universally known as the flavor enhancer in many houses in Japan, was discovered by later prof. 
Kikunae Ikeda, professor at the Department of Chemistry of Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo).
While professor Ikeda was researching various themes related to basic chemistry, he was keen on practical research. 

Since childhood, Kyoto-born professor was interested in seaweed broth. 
To find out the components of broth, he started research on the seaweed broth, which is used for the dish yudofu (boiled tofu).
Starting with a tremendous quantity of kelp soup stock Ikeda succeeded in extracting crystals of glutamic acid, a building block of proteins. 
100 gram of kelp contains 1gm of glutamate and the real identity of Umami. 
The discovery turned the professor’s ‘Eureka!’ movement.  
Kombu led him to the development that will make his fortune change and change the nature of 20th-century food.

Monosodium Glutamate is a flavor enhancer. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a substance that has no striking flavor and that increases the taste and/or smell of a food product, without changing the taste. 
This substance by strengthening the taste of the ingredients present in the food acts as excitement on the taste buds and especially on the brain.
Glutamate works like any other drug on the brain. 
In the opinion of experts, appetite enhancers would act on neurons, preventing the proper functioning of the appetite inhibiting mechanisms.
 
Commonly called glutamate, Monosodium Glutamate is one of the food additives (code E 621) most used in the food industry and in Asian cuisine.
Chemically, MSG (monosodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid (one of the 20 non-essential natural amino acids that make up proteins). 
This explains the name of “MSG (monosodium glutamate)”.
Monosodium Glutamate is a white powder composed of small crystals that dissolve quickly in water or saliva. 
Once dissolved, this substance separates into sodium and glutamate. 
Glutamate is made by fermenting starch and sugar (sugar cane, molasses).
Glutamic acid was isolated primarily from gluten (wheat) and was discovered as the essence of the delicious tastes of good soups prepared in Japan. 
Originally, Monosodium Glutamate was used in Asian cuisine, and particularly Chinese. 
Monosodium Glutamate is now present in many products, including those that leave a smoky taste or “meat juice” like flavored chips, biscuits or broths.

For more than 50 years, industrially produced sodium glutamate has been used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer. 
Monosodium Glutamate is added to a food product to complement or enhance (in the sense of strengthening) Monosodium Glutamates original taste or aroma, without changing the taste of this food product. Another term often used to refer to substances similar to MSG (monosodium glutamate) is “flavor potentiator”.
For food manufacturers, Monosodium Glutamates use has become a commercial necessity because Monosodium Glutamate makes consumers dependent on foods that contain them. 
Consumers choose their products over competitors and eat more than if MSG (monosodium glutamate) was not added.

Other Common Names
Monosodium glutamate
Sodium 2-aminopentanedioate
Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
L-Monosodium glutamate monohydrate
Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate
MSG monohydrate
Sodium glutamate monohydrate

Is there a link between MSG and migraine headaches? What about asthma?
There is not enough research to prove whether MSG triggers migraine headaches. 
If you find that you tend to get a migraine after eating MSG, the best advice is to avoid eating MSG-containing foods.
Some people say they feel symptoms of asthma after eating MSG. 
These symptoms may occur one to two hours after eating MSG or even up to 12 hours after eating Monosodium Glutamate.
If you frequently experience migraines or symptoms of asthma, talk to your doctor.

Some of the products that may contain MSG as an additive include: 
-Cured meats
-Seasoning blends and bouillon cubes
-Frozen meals
-Cookies and crackers 
-Salad dressings
-Mayonnaise 
"It really can be in any packaged or processed food," says Katherine Zeratsky, RD, LD, a registered and licensed dietitian at Mayo Clinic.  
The FDA labels all products with the additive MSG, but does not label products that have naturally occurring MSG. 

The Different Names of MSG (Sodium Glutamate)
MSG (Monosodium glutamate) is a kind of “chameleon poison” that can be hiding under different names according to food manufacturers.
-MSG (Monosodium glutamate)(food additive No. E621), commonly known as glutamate or GMS is used primarily as a flavor enhancer in the diet. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a salt of glutamic acid.
-potassium glutamate,
-calcium glutamate,
-ammonium glutamate,
-magnesium glutamate.
Other names for MSG (monosodium glutamate): natrum glutamate, gelatin, hydrogenated vegetable proteins or oils, some corn oils, yeast extract, seasoning (when not defined), natural flavor, natural meat tenderizer.

Monosodium glutamate is made up of nutritionally indispensable amino acids and used as flavour enhancer worldwide. 
Monosodium glutamate is believed to be associated with different health problems. 
This study is aimed to shed light on the available literature from last 25 years about different clinical trials which had been carried out on animal and human models regarding possible effects of monosodium glutamate. 
Google scholar, NCBI, PUBMED, EMBASE, Wangfang databases, and Web of Science databases were used to retrieve the available studies. 
Literature showed that monosodium glutamate was associated with adverse side-effects particularly in animals including induction of obesity, diabetes, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects. 
Different reports revealed increased hunger, food intake, and obesity in human subjects. 
Limited studies have been carried out on humans to check possible hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and genotoxic effects of monosodium glutamate. 
Available literature showed that increased consumption of monosodium glutamate may be associated with harmful health effects. 
So, Monosodium Glutamate is recommended to use common salt instead of Monosodium Glutamate. 
Furthermore, intensive research is required to explore monosodium glutamate–related molecular and metabolic mechanisms.

Short-term symptoms of MSG include: numbness, tingling, burning sensation, chest pain, difficulty breathing, headaches, nausea, rapid heartbeat, drowsiness or weakness.
When reading labels, the following contain MSG: glutamate, glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, calcium caseinate, sodium caseinate, autolysed yeast, textured protein, yeast nutrient, , yeast extract, gelatin, hydrolyzed protein, yeast food or natural flavor.
MSG is a challenging additive to avoid and takes effort to read labels, plan and prepare foods, but eating foods that are MSG-free will help to decrease your total body burden of toxins and allow your body to function better. 
Choosing fresh, whole foods will help you avoid MSG.

Research has shown that the body uses glutamates as nerve impulse transmitters in the brain, and that every major human organ contains glutamate receptors. 
They are also linked to memory retrieval. 
The main worry with glutamates however is that they are absorbed at a very fast rate into blood by the alimentary canal. 
This can lead to glutamate levels in the blood rising very quickly in a short period of time, and some scientists worry that this may cause irreversable damage to some parts of the human brain, due to overstimulation. 
Monosodium Glutamate has been shown that high blood glutamate levels have caused neurotoxicity in rodents, however there is a firm debate over whether Monosodium Glutamate has the same effect on humans.
MSG is now produced by the large-scale fermentation of starch and is found in many household foods. 
Most snack foods and canned foods will usually contain some concentration of MSG. 
Monosodium Glutamate is also closely linked to Chinese restaurants, and it was once thought that these employed large amounts of MSG in their cooking. 
The link was so strong that the "symptoms" of MSG consumption were referred to as "chinese restaurant symdrome". 
Whilst Monosodium Glutamate may have once had a bad reputation and was considered as a potentially dangerous chemical, this incorrect perception of MSG no longer exists, as research tests have obtained results to show otherwise, leading to chinese restaurants taking down their MSG-free food signs.

Basbaum: MSG stands for monosodium glutamate. 
Monosodium Glutamate is a food additive or flavor enhancer that comes in a crystallized form like salt, and we use it during cooking. 
The basis of MSG is a protein or amino acid called glutamate, which occurs naturally in some foods like: 
-Tomatoes
-Mushrooms
-Parmesan cheese
-Seaweed
-Nuts 
-Legumes
In the 1900s, a Japanese scientist isolated glutamate from seaweed and manufactured Monosodium Glutamate into a chemical to capture that savory flavor profile. 
Monosodium Glutamate could then be added to other foods. 
The scientist named the flavor umami, which became the fifth taste, in addition to salty, sweet, bitter and sour. 

Large amounts of scientific experiments have been aimed at finding out whether or not MSG is a dangerous chemical, but there has been no significant finding stating that it has harmful effects. 
However, there are several minor symptoms thought to be associated with MSG, the most common being headaches, nausea and drowsiness. 
These symptoms are always mild and rarely require medical attention.
In actual fact, MSG is more of a solution than a problem. 

Monosodium glutamate represents the sodium salt of glutamic acid. 
MSG is used in many processed foods in today’s grocery market. 
Glutamate also known as glutamic acid, is a naturally-occurring nonessential amino acid in the body, which serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. 
This is to say – glutamate “turns things on.” 
As a component of MSG, this means that Glutamate triggers the firing of nerve cells in the brain and body. 
Consuming MSG can stimulate the firing of these nerve cells. 
Overstimulation and over firing of these nerve cells can lead to negative health implications.

Using MSG, Monosodium Glutamate is possible to greatly reduce sodium levels in foods (40% less when table salt is replaced with MSG) while at the same time still enjoying the taste. 
The graph on the right shows that with a small addition of MSG, the pleasantness of a food can be greatly increased. 
The study evaluated people's responses to different versions of a clear soup, with and without MSG and with different levels of salt. 
The horizontal line shows the threshold level below which the participants found the soup to be unpalatable. 
Without the addition of MSG, the soup did not become palatable until the salt concentration reached 0.75%. 
With MSG, however, the soup was palatable with a salt concentration of only 0.4%.

MSG, or monosodium glutamate, is a seasoning that was discovered in Japan in 1908 and is the manufactured form of glutamate.
Glutamate is one of the most abundant amino acids in our diets, and Monosodium Glutamate occurs naturally in foods. 
The human body can’t tell the difference between glutamate in MSG and glutamate found naturally in foods.


3-) MALTODEXTRIN

CAS Number: 9050-36-6
EC Number: 232-940-4
MDL number: MFCD00146679

Maltodextrin is a saccharide polymer that can be classified as a carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin can be produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch. 
Maltodextrin formed after purification and spray drying can be used in a variety of food and beverage products. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a good source of energy (16 kJ/g) in food products.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Maltodextrin is produced from vegetable starch by partial hydrolysis and is usually found as a white hygroscopic spray-dried powder.
Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose and may be either moderately sweet or almost flavorless (depending on the degree of polymerisation).
Maltodextrin is commonly used for the production of soft drinks and candy.
Maltodextrin can also be found as an ingredient in a variety of other processed foods.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide used as a food additive and flavor enhancer. 
Maltodextrin is produced from starches in a process called partial hydrolysis, which is the breakdown of starch into smaller units called polymers.

To better understand what maltodextrin is, Maltodextrin’s worth quickly reviewing the three different kinds of sugar molecules:
Monosaccharides (mono- meaning “one”) are carbohydrates entirely composed of a single kind of sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose.
Oligosaccharides (oligo– meaning “few”) are carbohydrates composed of two to ten monosaccharide molecules such as sucrose (glucose + fructose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
Poysaccharides (poly– meaning “many”) are carbohydrates composed of ten or more (and sometimes hundreds or thousands) of sugar molecules such as starch, cellulose, and maltodextrin.

Maltodextrin falls into the last category, as Maltodextrin’s a very long chain of repeating glucose molecules connected together. 
To produce pure maltodextrin, starchy foods such as wheat, corn, potatoes, and rice are cooked in water and then exposed to various acids and enzymes to separate the maltodextrin from other sugars.
This process is referred to as hydrolysis, and Maltodextrin’s used in the production of a number of other products like hydrolyzed whey protein powder, hydrolyzed collagen, and soy sauce. 
After this process, the liquid containing maltodextrin is purified, filtered, and spray-dried to create a white, odorless, and nearly flavorless powder.

Maltodextrin is commonly spotted hiding near the bottom of ingredient lists of packaged or processed foods. 
Maltodextrin is white, powdery, nearly flavorless starch derived from rice, corn, potatoes, or wheat.
Maltodextrin is a fast-digesting carbohydrate, and a versatile additive that preserves flavors in processed foods. 
Maltodextrin also thickens food, mimics fat content, and prolongs shelf life.
To make maltodextrin, starches from these foods are subjected to a process called hydrolysis, in which they’re broken down through chemical reactions with water, aided by additional enzymes and acids.
So, Maltodextrin is used as a preservative or a food thickener — does this mean Maltodextrin should be avoided at all costs?
Maltodextrin is considered generally safe to eat by the FDA. 
In fact, maltodextrins are also produced in the intestine when we digest starchy foods. 
They have the same calorie density as sugars and carbohydrates.
Maltodextrin is hydrolysated starch (corn, potato, or others) by means of less than 20 dextrose equivalence (DE). 
The DE of the maltodextrin is interrelated to the degree of protection. 
Elevated DE systems are less leaky to oxygen and have higher encapsulation efficiencies of powders. 

Maltodextrin is mainly used as a food additive to:
-Thicken or add bulk to processed food.
-Increase the sweetness of certain food products when combined with artificial sweeteners.
-Maximize the shelf life of food products as a preservative.
-Boost the texture of certain food products.
-Serve as a replacement of sugar in sugar-free products.

How is maltodextrin made?
Maltodextrin is a white powder made from corn, rice, potato starch, or wheat.
Even though Maltodextrincomes from plants, Maltodextrin is highly processed. 
To make Maltodextrin, first the starches are cooked, and then acids or enzymes such as heat-stable bacterial alpha-amylase are added to break it down further. 
The resulting white powder is water-soluble and has a neutral taste.
Maltodextrins are closely related to corn syrup solids, with the one difference being their sugar content. 
Both undergo hydrolysis, a chemical process involving the addition of water to further assist breakdown.
However, after hydrolysis, corn syrup solids are at least 20 percent sugar, while maltodextrin is less than 20 percent sugar.

Maltodextrin, which is sometimes listed as "maltrin" on ingredient lists, is a common food additive. 
Maltodextrin is made from starchy foods like rice, corn, potatoes or wheat. 
However, Maltodextrin is certainly not a whole food: Manufacturers turn the starches from these foods into an odorless and nearly tasteless powder to make maltodextrin, per a November 2016 report in ​Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition​.

Uses:
If you are in the habit at looking at the ingredients lists on packaging, you will realize just how many processed foods contain this substance, Maltodextrin's everywhere.
Maltodextrin is not used as a sweetener on Maltodextrin's own - it's not sweet enough. 
Maltodextrin has unique properties that make Maltodextrin very useful in the food industry. 
Maltodextrin is often added as a thickener in sauces and gravy. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a spray drying agent for fruit juice concentrates. 
Maltodextrin is used in soup powders, coffee whiteners and infant formulas. 
Also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a binding agent in pills. 
Helps with the texture of hot cocoa powder mixes.

Benefits:
Appears to be useful for bodybuilders. 
Maltodextrin has certain properties which are useful in food manufacture, i.e. bulk and texture. 
Maltodextrin can be fluffed up to provide bulk to artificial sweeteners, while keeping weight and calories down. 
Regardless of the source, i.e. wheat or corn, Maltodextrin contains no gluten, it is pure carbohydrate. 
Therefore Maltodextrin is suitable for coeliacs.

Maltodextrin is a saccharide polymer that can be classified as a carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin can be produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch. 
The material formed after purification and spray drying can be used in a variety of food and beverage products. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a good source of energy (16 kJ/g) in food products.

Concerns:
Harmful to teeth. High glycemic index. 
Maltodextrin is a sugar and contains calories. 
There have also been reports of some people having allergic reactions including skin rashes etc. 
Why this is in unclear, Maltodextrin's a fairly pure product. 

Safety Guideline:
No issues regarding daily quantities. 
But be aware that Maltodextrin is a highly refined carbohydrate with a high glycemic index, and, like white sugar, devoid of all nutrient.

Maltodextrins are products of partial hydrolysis of starch. 
They are used as:
-Bulking agents
-Carriers for flavors
-Sweetness reducers
-‘Gram by gram’ sugar/fat replacers
They are classified based on their dextrose equivalents (DE) which range from 3-20. 
The higher the DE, the more extensive is the hydrolysis and the shorter is the glucose chain.

Maltodextrin is made from corn, rice, potato starch, or wheat. 
Although Maltodextrin's a powder, maltodextrin is often used in place of sugar. 
In fact, Maltodextrin is the first ingredient listed in many low-calorie sweeteners. 
Unlike fruits with natural sugars, processed foods that contain maltodextrin and similar ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup do not supply any fibre, protein, or healthy fat. 
This means that when you consume these ingredients, sugar absorption is not slowed.

Maltodextrin is a highly processed type of carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin is mostly present in the packaged food extracted from natural sources, such as corn, rice, potato, wheat, and some other plants. 
Starches from these foods undergo a complex chemical process that involves cooking the starch at a very high temperature and mixing it with chemicals until they're broken down into a neutral-tasting powder. 
Maltodextrin is artificially produced and can be found in several different foods, such as artificial sweeteners, baked goods, yogurt, beer, nutrition bars, weight-training supplements, cereals, meal-replacement shakes, low-fat and reduced-calorie products, condiments, sauces, spice mixes, salad dressings, chips, pie fillings, and snack foods. 
Maltodextrin is used to improve the consistency, texture, and taste of the food item. 
Basically, maltodextrins are a group of carbohydrate entities (sugars) resulting from the more or less partial hydrolysis of starch.

Is maltodextrin safe?
If you have diabetes or insulin resistance, or if your doctor has recommended a low-carbohydrate diet, you should include any maltodextrin you eat in your total carbohydrate count for the day.
However, maltodextrin is usually only present in food in small amounts.
Maltodextrin won’t have a significant effect on your overall carbohydrate intake.
Maltodextrin is high on the glycemic index (GI), meaning that Maltodextrin can cause a spike in your blood sugar. 
Maltodextrin is safe to consume in very small amounts, but those with diabetes should be particularly careful.
Maltodextrins are used to replace sugar or fat in many food products such as ice cream, dried instant food formulations, sweets, cereals, snacks, and beverages.
Given that these foods are widely consumed, they may be in your daily diet.
Maltodextrin is considered high on the glycemic index, with a score between 80–120, meaning Maltodextrin raises blood sugar about the same as glucose.

Why is maltodextrin in your food?
Maltodextrin is generally used as a thickener or filler to increase the volume of a processed food. 
Maltodextrin is also a preservative that increases the shelf life of packaged foods.
Maltodextrin is inexpensive and easy to produce, so it’s useful for thickening products such as instant pudding and gelatins, sauces, and salad dressings. 
Maltodextrin can also be combined with artificial sweeteners to sweeten products such as canned fruits, desserts, and powdered drinks.
Maltodextrin is even used as a thickener in personal care items such as lotion and hair care products.

Corn Maltodextrin:
Corn Maltodextrin comes from maize or waxy maize and is the most used maltodextrin among the five types. 

Tapioca Maltodextrin:
Tapioca Maltodextrin is derived from cassava root and Maltodextrins low DE type which has similar properties to those of native starch and is often used as a fat replacer in desserts, ice cream, dressings, and sauces.

Potato Maltodextrin:
Potato Maltodextrin has a higher digestion rate in our body, a higher viscosity and forms a more transparent solution than maize and waxy maize maltodextrin if with the same DE. 
Potato maltodextrin can be used in sports drink as Maltodextrin is absorbed by our body shortly to provide energy. 

Rice Maltodextrin:
Rice maltodextrin consists of more low molecular‐weight saccharides and Maltodextrin has higher protein and lipid contents and exhibits high viscosity compared with other maltodextrin. 

Wheat Maltodextrin:
As you can see, Wheat Maltodextrin is not listed in the plant sources of maltodextrin by the FDA. 
Wheat Maltodextrin may contain gluten but the European Commission has confirmed in Regulation No.1169/2011 that wheat-based maltodextrin is also gluten-free. 

What’s the nutritional value of maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin has 4 calories per gram — the same amount of calories as sucrose, or table sugar.

How Is Maltodextrin Made?
Maltodextrin is a type of carbohydrate, but it undergoes intense processing. 
Maltodextrin comes in the form of a white powder from rice, corn, wheat, or potato starch. 
Maltodextrins makers first cook it, then add acids or enzymes to break it down some more. 
The final product is a water-soluble white powder with a neutral taste. 
Maltodextrin is used as an additive in the foods above to replace sugar and improve their texture, shelf life, and taste.

Maltodextrin is a starch-derived food additive that is commonly used as a thickening or filling agent in a range of commercial foods and beverages. 
Maltodextrin is nearly tasteless but is often described as being slightly sweet. 
Most nutritional experts consider the substance to have basically a “zero sum” content, which means that Maltodextrin contains very little in the way of calories, vitamins, or other nutrients. 
Maltodextrin is mostly used to bulk products up and to improve their texture and appearance.

Many consumers demand texture in foods such as coffee creamers, pudding, infant formula, salad dressing, canned fruits, and protein shakes. 
Maltodextrin creates the bulk and creaminess in these foods that consumers crave, while stabilizing the liquids within them.
As a binder, maltodextrin is used abundantly in artificial sweeteners, where it creates the crystallized form of packaged sweeteners consumers add to coffee and tea.
In the food industry, maltodextrin works to turn an oily substance or a liquid into a powder. 
This drying and anti-caking ability allows foods, such as instant pudding mixes, to remain in a powdery form until a liquid is added, at which time the powder bulks into a highly viscous form.
Maltodextrin inhibits ice formation in frozen foods, ensuring that the original smooth texture keeps over time. 
When added to ice cream or frozen yogurt, maltodextrin also increases the freezing temperature.
Maltodextrin is frequently called upon as a replacement for fats in packaged foods, such as baked goods, frozen desserts, and even sausages. 
With the same mouthfeel as many fats, consumers have the satisfaction of a fatty snack without the added fat.
New research is finding maltodextrin to be a viable carrier for many flavors. 
When oils or concentrated fruit or vegetable juices are spray dried onto maltodextrin, they can be dried into powdered forms.
Many breakfast cereals and snacks are sprayed with maltodextrin to create crispy textures with an appealing, shiny coating.

Maltodextrin powder is a great post-workout supplement to incorporate into your post workout routine because of the many benefits Maltodextrin offers. 
These include:
Replenish Glycogen – Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and the muscles and provides the body with a readily available source of energy if blood glucose levels decrease. 
Maltodextrin powder provides you with the Glycogen you need immediately following a hard workout.
Improve Endurance – With the extra boost of energy, maltodextrin powder gives users the ability to maintain much longer workouts at high levels of intensity and to recover faster after intense workouts.
Fast Digesting – Maltodextrin powder is fast-digesting for those that need the extra boost of energy right away after a workout.
Raises Blood Sugar & Insulin Levels – Maltodextrin powder is an important post workout supplement for those engaging in particularly intensive workouts due to the energy depletion that can occur.

The substitutes for maltodextrin include:
-White or brown sugar
-Coconut sugar
-Agave
-Honey
-Maple syrup
-Fruit juice concentrates
-Molasses
-Corn syrup
-Guar gum
-Pectin

Food Uses of Maltodextrin:
-Soft Drinks 
-Candy
-Baked Goods
-Salad Dressings
-Soups
-Frozen Meals

Why Is Maltodextrin Used?
In cosmetics and skincare products, maltodextrin functions as a moisturizer and a texture enhancer. 
Maltodextrin may also be able to enhance the anti-aging benefits of alpha hydroxy acids or AHAs, which are commonly used in anti-aging products.

Moisture:
Maltodextrin functions as a moisturizing ingredient as Maltodextrin supports the  Natural Moisturizing Factors found within the first few layers of the skin. 
The Natural Moisturizing Factors include amino acids, PCA, lactates, sugars, salts, urea, and peptides that work to keep the skin’s surface intact, supple, and hydrated. 

As we age, the Natural Moisturizing Factors can become depleted. 
Exposure to sensitizing ingredients like harsh cleansing agents and alcohols can also deplete this natural barrier. 
The result is visibly dry, tight-feeling, flaky skin. 
As a polysaccharide, maltodextrin mimics the sugars found in Natural Moisturizing Factors, effectively drawing in moisture to maintain skin hydration.

Flakes and Crunch:
If you like flakes and clusters in your cereal, maltodextrin helps provide them. 
The gel formed by maltodextrin acts as a binding agent that holds molecules together when they are dried. 
According to Amy Brown, author of "Understanding Food Principles and Preparation," Maltodextrin is often used in alternative sweeteners to hold the powder together to form larger crystals. 
In your cereal, maltodextrin helps keep the flakes and clusters crunchy.

Molecular formula: C18H32O16
Molar mass: 504.437
CAS Registry Number: Not available
Appearance: Not available
Melting point: Not available
Boiling point: Not available
Solubility: Not available
Safety sheet: Not available

Texture of Maltodextrin:
Maltodextrin also functions to improve the texture of products. 
Since matlodextrin is constructed with simple sugar building blocks that are soluble in water, Maltodextrin has the ability to create a gel-like texture in formulations. 
This makes the product feel lighter and makes Maltodextrin glide evenly over the skin. 
Maltodextrin also acts as a binding agent, helping to ensure the formulation stays even in texture throughout use.  
As a binder, maltodextrin works to bind other ingredients together and prevent them from coming apart. 
For example, binders are often used in pressed powders to keep them together in the container.

Stabilizer:
As a stabilizer, maltodextrin is often used in products that contain both water and oil components. 
When water and oil are combined in a formulation Maltodextrin can be hard to keep them mixed and will often settle and separate. 
To address this problem, an emulsion stabilizer like maltodextrin can be added to the formulation. 
This helps the two different ingredient types to remain dispersed and produces a stable product.

Anti-aging
Recent research has suggested that Maltodextrin may also have anti-aging and anti-irritation properties. 
In 2002, a patent filed by a company called Unilever presented research on the use of maltodextrin in combination with hydroxy acids. 
Hydroxy acids such as alpha hydroxy acids and beta hydroxy acids are commonly used in skincare products. 
Maltodextrin is due to their ability to improve the appearance of photodamaged or naturally aged skin and help reduce the visible pigmentation caused by hormones, genetics, sun and diet. 

The one major issue with hydroxy acids is that they can cause skin irritation such as redness and stinging. 
Researchers found that while maltodextrin itself was not an anti-aging compound, Maltodextrin enhanced the anti-aging activity of the acids and reduced skin irritation.

Use as a Thickener:
One of the most common uses of maltodextrin is as a food additive, where it's used to thicken products. 
Maltodextrins virtually tasteless and colorless character makes Maltodextrin an easy — and inexpensive — way to “bulk up” foods like oatmeal, salad dressings, and commercial sauces. 
Since Maltodextrin doesn't really have any nutritional value, Maltodextrin is often criticized as being something of an “empty” additive. 
In nearly all cases, the same thickening could be achieved through other, often more wholesome means, but adding the processed powder is a shortcut favored by commercial food preparers all over the world as a way to lessen costs and improve volume.

Use as a Filler:
The compound is also frequently used as a filler in products like sugar substitutes. 
The white powder often blends right in, and it can stretch the quantity of an item without impacting Maltodextrins taste. 
On Maltodextrins own, the powder often looks a lot like sugar, so blending in a few scoops is a common way of selling less for more. 
Maltodextrin is almost always less expensive to produce than more natural sugar substitutes.

What Are the Benefits of Maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a highly refined carbohydrate, so Maltodextrin probably won't benefit the average person. 
If you're not already eating foods with Maltodextrin, you don't need to add Maltodextrin to your diet.
However, here are a few cases in which maltodextrin might have advantages — but more research is needed.

Maltodextrin and Gut Bacteria:
Some research suggests that maltodextrin could negatively affect your gut bacteria. 
The additive has been found to impair cellular anti-bacterial responses and suppress gut antimicrobial defense systems, per a March 2015 study in the journal ​Gut Microbes​.
That said, it's very prevalent in our food system: In one food survey, nearly 99 percent of respondents reported routinely eating foods containing maltodextrin (more than twice a day on average), according to the researchers. 
Meanwhile, about 60 percent of all packaged items in a survey of grocery store food items had "maltodextrin" or "modified (corn, wheat, etc.) starch" included on the ingredients list.
"As food technology has advanced to produce increasingly shelf-stable products through the addition of dietary additives, we are observing a corresponding increase in chronic inflammatory diseases associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial dysbiosis [imbalanced gut bacteria]," note the researchers. 
"Although these additives have been designated as GRAS by the FDA, more and more studies suggest that these agents may not be safe for individuals with other risk factors for chronic disease."
That said, many of the studies on maltodextrin and gut health have been done in labs or animals. 
Large studies in humans are needed to confirm the effects of maltodextrin on chronic disease and gut health.

What is Maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a starch derivative commonly used as a food thickener or in beer brewing to improve mouthfeel. 
Typically, maltodextrin is sourced from corn, but Maltodextrin can also come from other starches such as wheat, rice or potato. 
On Maltodextrin own, maltodextrin is a slightly sweet, nearly flavorless white powder.

What does Maltodextrin do?
Maltodextrin can be used in personal care products in a number of ways: as an absorbent, a binder, or a skin conditioner. 
In our antiperspirant products Maltodextrin is used as the binder which carries the olive leaf extract to our products. 

How is Maltodextrin made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
The maltodextrin used by Tom’s of Maine is derived from non-GMO corn.  
Starch from the corn undergoes partial hydrolysis with exposure to water, heat, and enzymes to break down the starch into the polysaccharide maltodextrin. 
The olive leaf extract is then spray-dried onto the maltodextrin.

Structure:
Maltodextrin consists of D-glucose units connected in chains of variable length. 
The glucose units are primarily linked with α(1→4) glycosidic bonds, like that seen in the linear derivative of glycogen (after the removal of α1,6- branching). 
Maltodextrin is typically composed of a mixture of chains that vary from three to 17 glucose units long.
Maltodextrins are classified by DE (dextrose equivalent) and have a DE between 3 and 20. 
The higher the DE value, the shorter the glucose chains, the higher the sweetness, the higher the solubility, and the lower heat resistance. 
Above DE 20, the European Union's CN code calls Maltodextrin glucose syrup; at DE 10 or lower the customs CN code nomenclature classifies maltodextrins as dextrins.

Production:
Maltodextrin can be enzymatically derived from any starch. 
In the US, this starch is usually corn; in Europe, Maltodextrin is common to use wheat. 
In the European Union, wheat-derived maltodextrin is exempt from labeling, as set out in Annex II of EC Directive No 1169/2011.
In the United States, however, Maltodextrin is not exempt from allergen declaration per the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act, and its effect on a voluntary gluten-free claim must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis per the applicable Food and Drug Administration policy.

Food uses:
Maltodextrin is used to improve the mouthfeel of food and beverage products.
Maltodextrin is also used in some snacks such as potato chips and jerky. 
Maltodextrin is used in "light" peanut butter to reduce the fat content but maintain the texture. 
Maltodextrin is also sometimes taken as a dietary supplement by athletes, in powder form, gel packets, or energy drinks.
Maltodextrin is used as an inexpensive additive to thicken food products such as infant formula.
Maltodextrin is also used as a filler in sugar substitutes and other products.
Maltodextrin has a glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105.
In animal studies, there is evidence to suggest that maltodextrin may exacerbate intestinal inflammation.

Other uses of Maltodextrin:
Maltodextrin is used as a horticultural insecticide both in the field and in greenhouses. 
Maltodextrin has no biochemical action. 
Maltodextrins efficacy is based upon spraying a dilute solution upon the pest insects, whereupon the solution dries, blocks the insects' spiracles and causes death by asphyxiation.

Benefits for Athletes of Maltodextrin:
The body digests maltodextrin as a simple carbohydrate, which means that Maltodextrin is easily converted to quick energy. 
Athletes often love the compound for this reason, and Maltodextrin is an ingredient in many sports drinks. 
Endurance athletes sometimes also purchase Maltodextrin in small packs that they will add to their water bottles mid-workout for a quick boost.

Dextrose Equivalent Values:
Part of what makes the manufacturing process so challenging is how variable Maltodextrin is: chemists can often alter the composition of the powder depending on how long they allow the basic starches to interact with the activating enzymes, as well as how much time they set aside for hydrolysis in the first place. 
Maltodextrins are typically assigned a dextrose equivalency value as a way to distinguish them based on processing time. 
Those that are very highly processed typically have a low equivalency value, while those that are less processed tend to have higher numbers.
Dextrose is a type of sugar, but even high equivalency values do not necessarily lead to sweetness. 
The values are usually related primarily to chemical structure, and manufacturers will seek out compounds with high or low equivalencies depending on what exactly is being produced. 
For example, maltodextrins with high dextrose values are more soluble and freeze better; they are common in products like ice creams and frozen prepared foods. 
Those with low values tend to be stickier, making them a good choice for more gelatinous products like jams and syrups.

To understand maltodextrin, lets understand what are prebiotics. 
Prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides and oligosaccharides that are selectively capable of promoting the growth of beneficial lactic acid producing bacteria in the colon such as bifidobacteria and lactobacillus. 
A prebiotic is fibre, but not all fibres are prebiotics.
Some of the renown prebiotics include:
Inulin
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS)
Trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS)
Lactulose
Polydextrose
Resistant Starches
Whereas there are some upcoming prebiotics:

Applications
Organic maltodextrin is an excellent flow agent/carrier substance, with the added features of improved mouthfeel, increased solubility, and thickening properties

AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is a recommended ingredient for organic and non-GMO products such as:
baby food
spice blends
dry mixes
puddings
condiments
nutritional supplements
spray dried applications
beverages
extruded products
and more
Bulk Packaging

25 kg multi-ply craft paper bag, 30 bags per pallet
Storage and Minimum Shelf Life 60 months from date of manufacture when kept in ambient storage conditions (under 70% humidity at temperatures between 59 and 77°F)

Properties
White, fine powder
Manufacturing Process

Raw organic corn kernels are mashed, washed/separated and dried to produce organic corn starch. 
The corn starch then undergoes saccharification and spray drying, producing organic maltodextrin.

Certifications
AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is:
Certified Organic
Non-GMO Project verified
Kosher
Halal
Suitability

AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is:
Vegetarian
Vegan
Gluten free

Hydrocolloids
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO)
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS)
Arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS)
Glucans
Lactilol
Raffinose
Lactulose
Sorbitol, and
Resistant Maltodextrin
They are industrially produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch, followed by purification and spray drying. 
The resulting commercially available, mostly white, powders are of high purity and microbiological safety and are used in a wide range of food and beverage products, including baked goods and sports drinks.

Manufacturing Process
Making maltodextrin is often a somewhat complex undertaking. 
Chemists usually begin with a natural starch; potato is a common example, but corn, wheat, and barley can also be used. 
The starch must be reduced to Maltodextrins basic components, usually by combining it with water in a process called hydrolysis. 
An enzyme is then used to break Maltodextrin down even further by stripping away proteins and other elements. 
The result is a white powder that is virtually tasteless and will dissolve quickly in water. 

Maltodextrin molecules are composed of short chains of glucose units. 
These chains, or polymers, are generally 3 to 17 glucose units in length. 
Maltodextrin and other short chains of sugars are referred to as oligosaccharides. 
Commonly spray dried and sold as a powder, maltodextrin may also be purchased in a syrup form dissolved in water.
To make maltodextrin, starches are broken down into much smaller pieces through the use of enzymes or acids. 
Although both enzymes and acids can be used to cut starch chains into shorter segments, OMRI considers hydrolysis by acid to produce synthetic maltodextrin that would not be allowed for use in a livestock feed for organic production. 
However, hydrolysis of starch by enzymes is considered to be a natural process creating a nonsynthetic form of maltodextrin.
Not all maltodextrins are identical. 

Maltodextrins have different functional properties depending on the type of starch from which they are made and the degree of hydrolysis. 
If starch hydrolysis is allowed to continue to completion, starches will be completely broken down into glucose. 
Maltodextrins are formed by stopping the hydrolysis reaction at the appropriate time. 
By carefully controlling the hydrolysis reaction, the size and properties of the final maltodextrin can be determined.
The starch used to make maltodextrin may come from a variety of plants. 

Grains such as corn, wheat, and rice are often used, as well as starchy tubers like potato and cassava (tapioca). 
Starch molecules are made of thousands of glucose units linked together into long chains of varying length. 
Starch contains a mixture of both branched (amylopectin) and unbranched (amylose) polymers. 
The variety of lengths and degree of branching give different starches distinct functional properties. 
Likewise, the properties of maltodextrins made from different starches may differ due to the distinct structure of the parent starches from which they are made.
Maltodextrin is commonly used in food processing. 

The Food Chemicals Codex lists maltodextrin as a stabilizer, thickener, anticaking agent and bulking agent. 
Maltodextrin may also be used in livestock feed and health care products to provide an easily digestible energy source intermediate between starches and sugars. 
Maltodextrin may also be used as a carrier, excipient, or microencapsulation agent in formulating probiotics and other health care products. 
Maltodextrin is important to note that although maltodextrin does not have do be certified organic for use in a health care product; Maltodextrin must be certified organic for use as a livestock feed additive. 
Livestock producers that wish to use maltodextrin in their organic operation should check with their certifying agent prior to use.

Maltodextrin Alternatives
You can find products that use additives other than maltodextrin by looking at the ingredients list. 
According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, food thickeners, stabilizers and gelling agents include:
-Starches such as arrowroot, cornstarch, potato starch, sago and tapioca
-Vegetable gums such as guar gum, xanthan gum and locust bean gum
-Pectin (from apples or citrus fruit)
-Proteins such as collagen, egg whites, gelatin or whey
-Sugars like agar (from algae) or carrageenan (from seaweeds and used to avoid separation in dairy products like ice cream)
-Lecithin (found in legumes, egg yolk and corn)
-When cooking at home, you may use thickeners, stabilizers and gelling agents to create stiffness, stabilize emulsions or form gels. 
You can do so with egg yolks, yogurt, gelatin, mustard and vegetable purees, per the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Maltodextrin and genetically modified foods:
Finally, because Maltodextrin’s often used as a cheap thickener or filler, maltodextrin is usually manufactured from genetically modified (GMO) corn.
According to the FDATrusted Source, GMO corn is safe, and Maltodextrin meets all of the same standards as non-genetically modified plants.
But if you choose to avoid GMO, that doesn’t mean you need to avoid all foods that contain maltodextrin. 
Any food that’s labeled organic in the United States must also be GMO-free.

CAS Number: 9050-36-6
EC Number: 232-940-4
MDL number: MFCD00146679
NACRES: NA.23

Is maltodextrin OK for people with diabetes?
Since maltodextrin has the potential to cause fast increases in blood sugar levels, people with diabetes would be better off largely avoiding Maltodextrin.
However, maltodextrin is often safe in small doses. 
You should be fine as long as you’re only consuming maltodextrin in small amounts and counting Maltodextrin in your carbohydrate total for the day.
If you’re unsure how it will affect your blood sugar, check your glucose levels more often when you add maltodextrin into your diet.

Maltodextrin and diabetes:
The glycemic index (GI) in maltodextrin is higher than in table sugar. 
This means that the powder can cause a spike in your blood sugar shortly after eating foods that have Maltodextrin. 
A sudden increase in blood glucose in people with insulin resistance or diabetes can be fatal.

Signs that maltodextrin has caused your blood sugar to spike include:
-sudden headache
-increased thirst
-trouble concentrating
-blurred vision
-fatigue
If you experience any of these symptoms, check your blood sugar levels immediately. 
If they’re too high, contact your doctor.

Maltodextrin, a common food additive, is a type of sugar that’s made by breaking down starch. 
Once manufactured, maltodextrin is a fine white powder, which can be either neutral in taste or slightly sweet-tasting. 
Because of its sweetness and consistency, Maltodextrin is used in a variety of processed food products including sodas and candies.
Dextrin, on the other hand, is a stickier, gummy ingredient, made by heating starch, that is often used to bind things together. 
Different types of dextrins, made from different starting materials, can be used as ingredients in food coatings such as in frozen fried chicken, binders for pharmaceutical products, and even envelope glues.

Maltodextrins are synthesized from chemical treatment (hydrolysis) of carbohydrates or sugars. 
The source carbohydrate may be corn, maize, wheat, rice, or tapioca. Maltodextrin does not taste sweet.
Maltodextrin is used as a thickening or filling agent in puddings, custards, gelatins, sauces, and salad dressings. 
Because Maltodextrin doesn’t have much sweetness, Maltodextrin can be used with artificial sweeteners in canned fruits, desserts, and powdered drinks to increase Maltodextrins sweetness. 
They can also be used as preservatives to maximize the shelf life of the processed foods.
Maltodextrin is a highly processed food additive with a high glycemic index; hence, Maltodextrins consumption can cause an instant spike in the blood sugar level. 
Individuals with diabetes must make a note of this.

If you regularly check the ingredients in your processed or packaged foods, you might have seen maltodextrin in them. 
Food makers add Maltodextrin to a wide variety of foods, like:
-Weight-training supplements
-Yogurt
-Nutrition bars
-Chips
-Sauces
-Spice mixes
-Cereals
-Artificial sweeteners
-Baked goods
-Beer
-Snack foods
-Candies
-Soft drinks

There are a lot of ingredients that go into our foods. 
In this post, we’ll look at one of the most common. 
We’ll answer the question, “What is maltodextrin?”.  
This substance is an innocuous-looking white powder.

Maltodextrin is used extensively in the food industry to:
-Thicken sauces
-Improve the flavour or texture of food
-Prolong the shelf-life of foods
-Substitute for sugar
Is maltodextrin a natural ingredient?
The first thing that people ask after asking, “What is maltodextrin?” is, “Is Maltodextrin a natural product?” Technically, Maltodextrin’s naturally based. 
Manufacturers extract Maltodextrin from starchy foods such as potato, corn, and wheat. 
Maltodextrin is highly processed, though.

Is maltodextrin a sugar?
Maltodextrin consists of several different sugars. 
Maltodextrin is complicated, though. 
The downside is that the body can convert Maltodextrin to glucose much faster than regular table sugar. 
That said, they only add small amounts to food.
If you ate a tablespoon of Maltodextrin, Maltodextrin could cause a spike in your blood sugar. 
There’s not nearly that much in your average food product, though. 
Just keep in mind that Maltodextrin all adds up – if you’re only eating starchy, processed foods, you’re getting a lot more of this substance than you should.

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is most often added during processing of foods and is used as a thickener, filler, to add texture, or to improve the mouth-feel of a food. 
As a processed food additive, many have suggested that maltodextrin in any amount or form is “toxic.”  
However, this review covers the toxicity and properties of the most processed form of maltodextrin, known as resistant maltodextrin (RMD).

Some artificial sweeteners are thought of as better choices for blood sugar management. 
However, new research is dispelling that myth by revealing that artificial sweeteners affect gut bacteria and indirectly affect insulin sensitivity.

Maltodextrin and weight loss:
If you’re trying to lose weight, you will want to avoid maltodextrin.
Maltodextrin is essentially a sweetener and a carbohydrate with no nutritional value, and Maltodextrin causes an increase in blood sugar. 
The levels of sugar in maltodextrin can lead to weight gain.

Like sugar, your body can digest maltodextrin quickly, so Maltodextrin’s useful if you need a quick boost of calories and energy. 
However, maltodextrin’s GI is higher than table sugar, ranging from 106 to 136. 
This means that Maltodextrin can raise your blood sugar level very quickly.

Maltodextrin can sound scary if you are on a gluten-free diet, because Maltodextrin sounds like it would be made from barley malt. 
However, Maltodextrin does not contain barley. Maltodextrin is a type of partially hydrolyzed starch that is often used as a thickener in foods. 
Maltodextrin can be made from wheat, but is almost always derived from corn in the United States. 
If Maltodextrin is made from wheat Maltodextrin has to be declared on the label as an allergen per the Food Allergen Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) either in parenthesis directly after the ingredient containing the wheat or in a “contains statement” following the ingredient listing.
However, even if maltodextrin is derived from wheat, Maltodextrin is generally considered safe for people with celiac disease as gluten is removed during processing.

Functionality:
-Light color
-Mild flavor
-Uniform coating
-Enhanced crispiness

Maltodextrin is a white, starchy powder that manufacturers add into many foods to improve their flavor, thickness, or shelf life.
Maltodextrin is a common ingredient in packaged foods, such as pastries, candies, and soft drinks. 
When it is present, Maltodextrin will usually feature on the food label. Athletes may also use maltodextrin as a carbohydrate supplement.
Many people believe that maltodextrin is harmful to health. 
But how much truth is there to these claims?
Read on to learn about the benefits and dangers of maltodextrin and which foods contain this ingredient.

Maltodextrin is ever-present in workout gels, drinks and bars because of Maltodextrins ability to thicken products without adding a lot of sweetness, and its ease of digestibility. 
“Maltodextrin is one of the fastest-burning carbohydrates on the market making it an excellent option for sports nutrition products,” says sports nutritionist Marie Spano, RD, noting that athletes use it to get energy during a workout and replenish glycogen (sugar) stores in the muscles afterward. 
Maltodextrin is also used to add texture in baked goods, moisture to low-fat products like salad dressings and bulk to artificial sweeteners. 
In recent years, companies have used resistant maltodextrin to bolster fiber content in processed foods.

What is maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a white powder that is relatively tasteless and dissolves in water. 
Maltodextrin is an additive in a wide range of foods, as Maltodextrin can improve their texture, flavor, and shelf life.
Maltodextrin is possible to make maltodextrin from any starchy food, including corn, potato, wheat, tapioca, or rice. 
Although the powder comes from these natural products, Maltodextrin then undergoes processing.
To make maltodextrin, manufacturers put starch through a process called hydrolysis. 
Hydrolysis uses water, enzymes, and acids to break the starch into smaller pieces, resulting in a white powder consisting of sugar molecules.
People with celiac disease should be aware that maltodextrin can contain traces of gluten when wheat is the source of the starch. 
However, according to the Beyond Celiac charity, maltodextrin is gluten-free as long as the ingredients list does not include the word wheat.
In edible products, this powder can help by:
-thickening foods or liquids to help bind the ingredients together
-improving texture or flavor
-helping to preserve foods and increase their shelf life
-replacing sugar or fat in low-calorie, processed foods
Maltodextrin has no nutritional value. 
However, Maltodextrin is a very easy-to-digest carbohydrate and can provide energy rapidly. 
Due to this, manufacturers add this powder to many sports drinks and snacks.

Is maltodextrin the same as MSG?
No, Maltodextrin’s not the same thing. 
In some people, the body breaks Maltodextrin down in a similar way, though. 
As a result, those sensitive to MSG may have a similar reaction to high levels of this substance.

Why is maltodextrin used in energy gels?
Your body needs carbohydrates to function, they are like the fuel in the gas tank of your car – without it, you’re toast. 
For most people, the body will burn carbs until they are no longer available and then switch to burning fat. 
This can cause a lag in energy, which is uncomfortable to say the least (ever heard of ‘hitting the wall’?). 
Eating carbohydrates earlier on in a long run will allow your body to start burning fat earlier, making that transition from burning carbs to burning fat much less painful.

What does maltodextrin do for your run?
Maltodextrin provides you with a steady release of energy so your body can begin to break down fat to use as fuel. 
This essentially helps you avoid ‘bonking’ or ‘hitting the wall’ during your long run.
Maltodextrin is also practically flavorless, making Maltodextrin a good choice for exercise nutrition products. 
Energy gels that include maltodextrin might taste a little less sweet than gels that don’t contain maltodextrin.
Because maltodextrin is a chain of easily-digested glucose molecules, Maltodextrin will result in a slightly slower release of energy compared to if you were to simply eat a spoonful of straight glucose.

Maltodextrins are easily digestible carbohydrates made from natural corn starch. 
The starch is cooked, and then acid and/or enzymes are used to break the starch into smaller polymers (a process similar to that used by the body to digest carbohydrate).

Maltodextrins are generally sold as dried powders.
Maltodextrins are polymers of dextrose (sometimes labeled "glucose polymers").
Maltodextrins do not contain significant quantities of protein, fat or fiber.
Maltodextrins are not produced from and do not contain malt products.
Corn-based Maltodextrins are safe for patients with celiac disease since they do not contain proteins from wheat, barley, oats or rye.
Maltodextrins are not known to contain MSG.
Diabetics should follow the advice of their physicians. 
maltodextrins glycemic index should be considered metabolically equivalent to glucose (dextrose).

The finished product
Is easily digestible
Is a convenient source of energy
Contains approximately 4 calories per gram
Is cold-water soluble
Has low or no sweetness
Helps in producing many liquid and dried nutritional products

Maltodextrins and corn syrup solids are each mixtures of glucose polymers produced by the controlled depolymerization of corn starch. 
They are most often categorized by dextrose equivalence (DE). 
DE is a measure of reducing power compared to a dextrose standard of 100. 
The higher the DE, the greater the extent of starch depolymerization, resulting in a smaller average polymer size.
Maltodextrins are defined by the FDA as products having a DE less than 20. 
They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food ingredients. 
Maltodextrins are excellent solids builders for standard and low-fat products. 
They are effective spray-drying aids for flavors, fruit juices, and other hard-to-dry products. 
They also are easily digestible carbohydrates for nutritional beverages.
Corn syrup solids are defined by the FDA as dried glucose syrup with a DE of 20 or higher. 
They are also considered a GRAS ingredient. 
Corn syrup solids have moderate sweetness and low viscosity. 
They are used to build solids in meat and dairy products, as a nutrition source in infant formulas, and as a drying aid for spray-dried fats.

Maltodextrin is a group of complex sugars, rather than one carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin ranges from more complex to less so and this depends on the method of production.

Maltodextrin is popular among bodybuilders as an aid to recovery after hard workouts, and there appears to be scientific evidence to support it's role in this regard. 
Care needs to be taken, however, regarding quantities used as it has a high glycemic index. 
Excessive consumption may create a load on the blood sugar regulatory mechanism.

Maltodextrin is enzymatically produced from starch. 
The enzymes break the glucose chains in the starch molecules into shorter units, similar to the process of digestion in the human body.
Depending of how far this process is taken the product can vary from a non sweet starch to a sweet sugar composed of glucose molecules in short chains. 
Maltodextrin is not really useful as a sweetener, as Maltodextrin not sweet enough. 
Maltodextrin has a high glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105 so Maltodextrin should not be considered suitable for diabetics.

USES OF CORN SYRUp
SWEETENER
HUMECTANT
BODYING AGENT
pARTICIpANT IN brOWNING
INHIBITOR OF SUGAR CRYSTALliZATION
SOURCE OF FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATES
SOURCE OF COMpLEX CARBOHYDRATES
CALORIE REDUCTION (HFCS)
Malt-dextrin has many applications, including in the:

1) Confectionary industry: used to increase flexibility, prevent granulation and melting, lower sweetness, change taste, improve institutional framework and prolong storage life of sweets. 
Maltodextrin reduces the incidence of toothache, obesity, blood pressure, diabetes etc.
2) Beverage industry: used as a raw material, after reasonable mixing, maltodextrin will increase natural smell, reduce nutritional loss, improve dissolubility, lower sweetness, reduce costs and further increase economic profits.
3) papermaking industry: with high fluidity and good cohesive force, maltodextrin can be used as a surface glue and bonding agent for paint and coatings. 
Maltodextrins good fluidity and transparency not only attach on the surface but also penetrate the paper, raising the fibers' cohesive force, meanwhile improving appearances and physical properties.
4) Other industries: maltodextrin has good stability on emulsification, so can be used as a coverer and absorbent in cosmetics for increasing luster and skin elasticity. 
Maltodextrin can also be used in the production of solvents and powdered insecticides.

Sports and nutrition
For sports, infant and medical beverages - such as oral rehydration and low-residue liquid feeding products - maltodextrins provide complex carbohydrates, and allow the formulation of a product that matches the osmolality of bodily fluids (280 to 300 mOsm/Kg). 
This can eliminate cramping and other undesirable side effects caused by rehydration with water.
To provide a balance of caloric concentration and osmolality, maltodextrins can be used as part of the carbohydrate source. 
The lower DE/higher molecular weight products provide lower osmolality on a weight basis than sugars, such as dextrose, fructose or glucose. 
If the goal is to deliver a certain level of calories, much higher levels of maltodextrins can be used, while still maintaining the body's osmotic balance. 
Because maltodextrins do not contribute sweetness, they are typically combined with sugars for flavor.

"In most sports beverages, you balance the sweeteners, such as fructose, sucrose and dextrose, with maltodextrins to try and optimize the carbohydrate profile and osmolality," Armstrong says. 
"If you just added maltodextrins, even an 18 DE, Maltodextrin would only be slightly sweet, but not as sweet as you'd want Maltodextrin to be. 
If you used only other sweeteners, such as fructose or sucrose, at the same level as the maltodextrins, Maltodextrin would probably be too sweet and the osmolality would be too high."
Maltodextrins can help out in the process, too. 
"For liquid beverages, you normally want to preblend some of the gums and other hard-to-disperse ingredients, such as vitamins, with maltodextrin," Armstrong recommends.

Maltodextrin is also worth mentioning that those with Celiac Disease should check the source of this carb. 
When the source is potatoes, for example, Maltodextrin shouldn’t cause a reaction. 
If Maltodextrin is extracted from wheat, though, Maltodextrin will contain gluten.

Does maltodextrin give you energy?
Companies use Maltodextrin in relatively large quantities in sports drinks and energy drinks. 
They bill Maltodextrin as a constant source of energy for athletes. 
Maltodextrin can provide fuel for your muscles and help you get a better workout.

Maltodextrin wll also give you a quick boost in energy straight away. 
So, Maltodextrin can be useful for athletes. But here we want to stress the word “athletes.” 
That is people who are training hard. 
Unless you’re exercising for an hour at a time, there’s usually no physical need for this much energy.

What is the difference between dextrose and maltodextrin?
Dextrose is composed of one sugar, while maltodextrin is a polysaccharide. 
In other words, the latter is a more complex form of sugar. 
If you’re looking for a quick boost of energy during your workout, dextrose is converted to glucose faster in the body.

Maltodextrin is a plant-based sugar derived from corn, rice or potato that is used in cosmetics and personal care products as a moisturizer, filler, binding agent, and film-forming agent. 
Maltodextrin provides body to creams and lotions, and is very mild and non-irritating, making Maltodextrin ideal for use in products for sensitive skin. 

Applications
-Facial Care
-Body Care
-Hair Care

In the vast world of bodybuilding supplements, there are several powders that have several functions. 
Creatine monohydrate, whey protein, pre-workout, post-workout, etc. – are all common supplements. 
Two common supplements with a hot bit of debate between them are maltodextrin and dextrose.
Although maltodextrin and dextrose are extremely similar, there are a few key differences that could weigh into your decision on taking one over the other.

Commonly found in:
-pudding and gelatins
-salad dressings
-canned fruits
-various desserts
-powdered drinks lotion
-hair care products
-post-workout supplements

corn syrup solids
modified corn starch
modified rice starch
modified tapioca starch
modified wheat starch

Maltodextrin vs. Resistant Maltodextrin
Note: For simplicity, we’ll refer to the regular, digestible maltodextrin simply as “maltodextrin” in the rest of this article while digestion-resistant maltodextrin will be referred to as “resistant maltodextrin”.
Maltodextrin is clear that maltodextrin and resistant maltodextrin only sound similar. 
However, these two sugars are completely different when it comes to their benefits and risks.

What’s the Final Verdict?
We don’t advise mainlining any sugar. 
This one is relatively harmless in small quantities. 
The quantities that you get from food won’t make a noticeable difference to your sugar. 
If your diet is otherwise healthy, Maltodextrin shouldn’t do you any harm to have it occasionally.

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used primarily in foods and beverages as a thickener, sweetener, and/or stabilizer. 
Maltodextrin is a relatively short-chain polymer (some would call it an oligomer); commercial products contain an average of ≈3 to ≈17 glucose units per chain. 
Maltodextrin is manufactured by partially hydrolyzing grain starches, usually corn or wheat.

Allergies or intolerances:
Many food additives can cause allergies or intolerances. 
Side effects may include allergic reactions, weight gain, gas, flatulence, and bloating.
Maltodextrin may also cause a rash or skin irritation, asthma, cramping, or difficulty breathing.
The primary sources of maltodextrin will be corn, rice, and potato, but manufacturers may sometimes use wheat. 
People with celiac disease or gluten intolerance should be aware that, although the production process will remove most of the protein components, maltodextrin derived from wheat may still contain some gluten.

Genetically modified (GM) ingredients:
GM corn, which is a genetically modified organism (GMO), is a common source of maltodextrin.
The World Health Organization (WHO) state that GMOs are safe to consume.
However, GMOs may be harmful to the environment or people's health because of the increased use of herbicides and pesticides on GMO crops. 
There is also a chance that the genetically modified material can get into wild plants and animals, or into the human body through the diet.
Many people believe that there is a link between GMOs and various health conditions, including cancer, kidney problems, Alzheimer's disease, antibiotic resistance, allergies, and reproductive issues.
There is little evidence that this is true, though some believe that the lack of evidence could be partly due to the censorship of GMO research. 
The Environmental Sciences Europe journal published an article in support of this theory.

Digestible maltodextrins are low-sweet saccharide polymers consisting of D-glucose units linked primarily linearly with alpha-1,4 bonds, but can also have a branched structure through alpha-1,6 bonds. 
Often, maltodextrins are classified by the amount of reducing sugars present relative to the total carbohydrate content; between 3 and 20 percent in the case of digestible maltodextrins. 
These relatively small polymers are used as food ingredients derived by hydrolysis from crops naturally rich in starch. 
Through advances in production technology, the application possibilities in food products have improved during the last 20 years. 
However, since glucose from digested maltodextrins is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine, the increased use has raised questions about potential effects on metabolism and health. 
Therefore, up-to-date knowledge concerning production, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of maltodextrins, including potential effects on health, were reviewed. 
Exchanging unprocessed starch with maltodextrins may lead to an increased glycemic load and therefore post meal glycaemia, which are viewed as less desirable for health. 
Apart from beneficial food technological properties, Maltodextrins use should accordingly also be viewed in light of this. 
Finally, this review reflects on regulatory aspects, which differ significantly in Europe and the United States, and, therefore, have implications for communication and marketing.

Maltodextrin is a type of carbohydrate synthesized from grain starch, corn, potatoes or rice that is commonly added to food to enhance sweetness and texture. 
As one of the main components of ‘weight gainer’ used by bodybuilders, maltodextrin has a thick, sweet taste that matches its dense caloric content.
Despite Maltodextrins classification as a complex carbohydrate, maltodextrin is quickly absorbed by the gut and can elevate blood sugar faster than glucose. 
On the glycemic index, a relative scale of how quickly a ingested carbohydrate affects blood sugar, maltodextrin ranges between 85-105, where the standard glucose is set at 100.
Sugars that induce a rapid rise in blood glucose content are typically considered poor sources of energy and nutritionally deficient. 
Though Maltodextrin is generally true that a diet comprised of mostly high glycemic carbohydrates would be unsatisfactory, they do have an important role in athletic performance and recovery.

What is maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive. 
Maltodextrin is produced from vegetable starch by partial hydrolysis and is usually found as a white hygroscopic spray-dried powder. 
Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose and may be either moderately sweet or almost flavorless (depending on the degree of polymerisation). 
Maltodextrin is commonly used for the production of soft drinks and candy. 
Maltodextrin can also be found as an ingredient in a variety of other processed foods.
Used as a thickener in infant formula, milk thickeners, and commercial baby food, maltodextrin has a glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105. 
When we consider that pure glucose has a glycemic order of 100 and the side effects of this are obesity, an increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabeties and cancer, one has to ask, why oh why is this being put into baby formula and commercial baby food?

What do the experts say about maltodextrin?
For further information on this I suggest you start by reading the research from Harvard Medical School2 where they studied the effects of ‘maltodextrin-dominant human infant formula’ on neonatal mice. 
Maltodextrin states that, ‘mice in all M groups demonstrated reduced body weight, increased small intestinal dilatation and increased intestinal injury scores. 
Maltodextrin-dominant infant formula with hypoxia (reduced oxygen levels) led to intestinal injury in neonatal mice accompanied by loss of villi, increased MUC2 production, altered expression of tight junction proteins, enhanced intestinal permeability, increased cell death and higher levels of intestinal inflammatory mediators. 
This robust and highly reproducible model allows for further interrogation of the effects of nutrients on pathogenic factors leading to intestinal injury, and what is known as Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.”

In regards to maltodextrin increasing MUC2 production, a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals, research shows a critical link between imbalance causing many cancers.
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development defines NEC as “infection and inflammation in the child’s gut, which may stem from the growth of dangerous bacteria or the growth of bacteria in parts of the intestine where they do not usually live.”
A recent NICHD-supported study found that a common type of medication, sometimes given to infants for acid reflux and called “H2-blockers,” (e.g. Ranitidine) was associated with a slight increase in the risk of NEC in preterm infants.
Another study “determined that maltodextrin impairs cellular anti-bacterial responses and suppresses intestinal anti-microbial defense mechanisms.”

Chemical formula: C6nH(10n+2)O(5n+1)
Molar mass: Variable
Appearance: White powder
Solubility in water: Free soluble or readily dispersible in water
Solubility: Slightly soluble to insoluble in anhydrous alcohol
CAS Number: 9050-36-6 check
ChemSpider: None
ECHA InfoCard: 100.029.934 
PubChem CID: 62698
UNII: 7CVR7L4A2D check
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5027720 

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