FORMIC ACID

EC / List no.: 200-579-1
CAS no.: 64-18-6
Mol. formula: CH2O2

Formic acid (HCO2H), also called methanoic acid, the simplest of the carboxylic acids, used in processing textiles and leather. 
Formic acid was first isolated from certain ants and was named after the Latin formica, meaning “ant.”
Formic Acid is made by the action of sulfuric acid upon sodium formate, which is produced from carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide.
Formic acid is also prepared in the form of Formic acids esters by treatment of carbon monoxide with an alcohol such as methanol (methyl alcohol) in the presence of a catalyst.

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula H2CO2. 
Formic acid is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. 
The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to Formic acids early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. 
Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. 
Industrially, formic acid is produced from methanol.

Uses    
Preservative of silage; reducer in dyeing wool; lime descaler; pH adjustor in cosmetic products.
Formic acid has a number of commercial uses. 
Formic acid is used in the leather industry to degreaseand remove hair from hides and as an ingredient in tanning formulations. 
Formic acid is used as alatex coagulant in natural rubber production. 
Formic acid and its formulations are used aspreservatives of silage. 

Formic acid is especially valued in Europe where laws require the use of naturalantibacterial agents rather than synthetic antibiotics. 
Silage is fermented grass and crops thatare stored in silos and used for winter feed. 
Silage is produced during anaerobic fermentationwhen bacteria produce acids that lower the pH, preventing further bacterial action. 
Acetic acidand lactic acid are the desired acids during silage fermentation. 
Formic acid is used in silageprocessing to reduce undesirable bacteria and mold growth. 
Formic acid reduces Clostridiabacteria that would produce butyric acid causing spoilage. 

In addition to preventing silagespoilage, formic acid helps preserve protein content, improves compaction, and preservessugar content. 
Formic acid is used as a miticide by beekeepers.
Formic acid occurs in the stings of ants andbees. 
Formic acid is used in the manufacture of estersand salts, dyeing and finishing of textiles andpapers, electroplating, treatment of leather,and coagulating rubber latex, and also as areducing agent.
Formic Acid is a flavoring substance that is liquid and colorless, and possesses a pungent odor. 
Formic Acid is miscible in water, alcohol, ether, and glycerin, and is obtained by chemical synthesis or oxidation of methanol or formaldehyde.

Properties
Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, comparable to the related acetic acid. 
Formic acid is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, and is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. 
In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, Formic acid consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules.
Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law.
Solid formic acid, which can exist in either of two polymorphs, consists of an effectively endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules. 
Formic acid forms a high-boiling azeotrope with water (22.4%). 
Liquid formic acid tends to supercool.

Formic acid is a reagent used for formylation, hydrolysis, and cyclocondensations. 
Formic Acid has also been used in the dyeing of natural and synthetic fibers, feed and fodder preservation, leather tanning, the production of commercial cleaning products and in rubber coagulation. 
In organic synthesis, Formic acid has been used in the synthesis of such classes of compounds as coumarins, optically active styrene oxides, and polyamide oligomers based on 14-amino - 3,6,9,12 - tetraoxatetradecanoic acid. 
Formic Acid can be used in the mobile phase for various LC-MS analytical methods, such as an LC-MS study of spiroketal stereoisomers of pectenotoxins and an LC/ESI-MS/UV photodiode arrary method for the analysis of flavonoid glycosides. 
A method to measure internal nucleoside triphosphate pools of lactococci that uses formic acid in the chromatographic separation has been described. 
The use of formic acid in the separation and detection of intact proteins by reversed-phase LC/ESI-MS by flow injection analysis has been reported.

A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. 
Formic Acid is also significantly used in the production of leather, including tanning, and in dyeing and finishing textiles.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR FORMIC ACID
INDUSTRIES
-Pharma
-Lubricants
-Water Treatment
-Oil & Gas
-Cleaning
-Animal Nutrition
-Coatings & Construction
-Food and Nutrition
-Agriculture
-Cosmetics
-Solvents
-Polymers
-Rubber

Formic acid Uses
A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. 
In Europe, Formic acid is applied on silage, including fresh hay, to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid; it also allows fermentation to occur quickly, and at a lower temperature, reducing the loss of nutritional value.
Formic acid arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer, and so Formic acid is widely used to preserve winter feed for cattle.
In the poultry industry, Formic acid is sometimes added to feed to kill E. coli bacteria.
Use as a preservative for silage and (other) animal feed constituted 30% of the global consumption in 2009.

Formic acid is also significantly used in the production of leather, including tanning (23% of the global consumption in 2009), and in dyeing and finishing textiles (9% of the global consumption in 2009) because of its acidic nature.
Use as a coagulant in the production of rubber consumed 6% of the global production in 2009.

Formic acid is also used in place of mineral acids for various cleaning products, such as limescale remover and toilet bowl cleaner. 
Some formate esters are artificial flavorings and perfumes.

Beekeepers use formic acid as a miticide against the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) and the Varroa destructor mite and Varroa jacobsoni mite.
Formic acid application has been reported to be an effective treatment for warts.
Formic acid can be used in a fuel cell (it can be used directly in formic acid fuel cells and indirectly in hydrogen fuel cells).
Formic acid is possible to use formic acid as an intermediary to produce isobutanol from CO2 using microbes
Formic acid has a potential application in soldering, due to Formic acids capacity to reduce oxide layers, formic acid gas can be blasted at an oxide surface in order to increase solder wettability.

Chemical reactions
Formic acid is about ten times stronger than acetic acid. 
Formic acid is used as a volatile pH modifier in HPLC and capillary electrophoresis.

Formic acid is a source for a formyl group for example in the formylation of methylaniline to N-methylformanilide in toluene.
In synthetic organic chemistry, formic acid is often used as a source of hydride ion. 
The Eschweiler-Clarke reaction and the Leuckart-Wallach reaction are examples of this application. 
Formic acid, or more commonly Formic acids azeotrope with triethylamine, is also used as a source of hydrogen in transfer hydrogenation.
As mentioned below, formic acid readily decomposes with concentrated sulfuric acid to form carbon monoxide.
CH2O2 + H2SO4 → H2SO4 + H2O + CO

Reactions
Formic acid shares most of the chemical properties of other carboxylic acids. Because of Formic acids high acidity, solutions in alcohols form esters spontaneously. 
Formic acid shares some of the reducing properties of aldehydes, reducing solutions of metal oxides to their respective metal.

Decomposition
Heat and especially acids cause formic acid to decompose to carbon monoxide (CO) and water (dehydration). 
Treatment of formic acid with sulfuric acid is a convenient laboratory source of CO.
In the presence of platinum, Formic acid decomposes with a release of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

CH2O2 → H2 + CO2
Soluble ruthenium catalysts are also effective.
Carbon monoxide free hydrogen has been generated in a very wide pressure range (1–600 bar).
Formic acid has been considered as a means of hydrogen storage.
The co-product of this decomposition, carbon dioxide, can be rehydrogenated back to formic acid in a second step. 
Formic acid contains 53 g/L hydrogen at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, which is three and a half times as much as compressed hydrogen gas can attain at 350 bar pressure (14.7 g/L). 
Pure formic acid is a liquid with a flash point of +69 °C, much higher than that of gasoline (−40 °C) or ethanol (+13 °C).

Addition to alkenes
Formic acid is unique among the carboxylic acids in Formic acids ability to participate in addition reactions with alkenes. 
Formic acids and alkenes readily react to form formate esters. 
In the presence of certain acids, including sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, however, a variant of the Koch reaction occurs instead, and formic acid adds to the alkene to produce a larger carboxylic acid.

Formic acid anhydride
An unstable formic anhydride, H(C=O)−O−(C=O)H, can be obtained by dehydration of formic acid with N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in ether at low temperature.

Formic acid History
Some alchemists and naturalists were aware that ant hills give off an acidic vapor as early as the 15th century. 
The first person to describe the isolation of Formic acid (by the distillation of large numbers of ants) was the English naturalist John Ray, in 1671.
Ants secrete the formic acid for attack and defense purposes. 
Formic acid was first synthesized from hydrocyanic acid by the French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac. 
In 1855, another French chemist, Marcellin Berthelot, developed a synthesis from carbon monoxide similar to the process used today.

Formic acid was long considered a chemical compound of only minor interest in the chemical industry. 
In the late 1960s, however, significant quantities became available as a byproduct of acetic acid production.
Formic acid now finds increasing use as a preservative and antibacterial in livestock feed.

Formic Acid is a reagent comprised of the organic chemical formic acid that cleaves proteins into peptides at the C- or N-terminal side of an aspartate residue.

Formic acid appears as a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. 
Flash point 156°F. 
Density 10.2 lb / gal. 
Corrosive to metals and tissue.

Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid, containing a single carbon. 
Occurs naturally in various sources including the venom of bee and ant stings, and is a useful organic synthetic reagent. 
Principally used as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. 
Induces severe metabolic acidosis and ocular injury in human subjects. 
Formic acid has a role as an antibacterial agent, a protic solvent, a metabolite, a solvent and an astringent. 
Formic acid is a conjugate acid of a formate.

Uses at Household & Commercial/Institutional Products
• Auto Products
• Home Maintenance
• Inside the Home
• Personal Care

Uses of Formic Acid
Both oil base and water base fracturing fluids are being used in the fracturing industry. 
Water base, which includes alcohol-water mixtures and low strength acids, make up the majority of treating fluids. 
The common chemicals added to these fluids are polymers for viscosity development, crosslinkers for viscosity enhancement, pH control chemicals, gel breakers for polymer degradation following the treatment, surfactants, clay stabilizers, alcohol, bactericides, fluid loss additives and friction reducer.

Hydraulic fracturing uses a specially blended liquid which is pumped into a well under extreme pressure causing cracks in rock formations underground. 
These cracks in the rock then allow oil and natural gas to flow, increasing resource production.
Chemical Name: Formic acid; Chemical Purpose: Prevents the corrosion of the pipe; Product Function: Corrosion inhibitor.

Industry Uses of Formic acid
-Adhesives and sealant chemicals
-Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
-Bleaching agents
-Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents
-Intermediates
-Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
-Plating agents and surface treating agents
-Preservative
-Process regulators
-Processing aids, not otherwise listed
-Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
-Solids separation agents
-Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)
-Surface active agents

Consumer Uses of Formic acid
-Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
-Apparel and footwear care products
-Automotive care products
-Building/construction materials - wood and engineered wood products
-Electrical and electronic products
-Explosive materials
-Fabric, textile, and leather products not covered elsewhere
-Fuels and related products
-Laundry and dishwashing products
-Metal products not covered elsewhere
-Non-TSCA use
-Paper products
-Personal care products
-Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere
-Water treatment products
-industrial
-urethane intermediate

Methods of Manufacturing
Synthesis of formic acid by hydrolysis of methyl formate is based on a two-stage process: in the first stage, methanol is carbonylated with carbon monoxide; in the second stage, methyl formate is hydrolyzed to formic acid and methanol.

Formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons to acetic acid. 
In the United States, butane is used as the hydrocarbon, and ca. 50 kg of formic acid is produced per ton of acetic acid. 
In Europe, the oxidation of naphtha is preferred, and up to 250 kg of formic acid is produced per ton of acetic acid in this process.

The reaction of sodium formate or calcium formate with strong mineral acids, such as sulfuric and nitric acids, is the oldest known process for producing formic acid commercially. 
If formates or sodium hydroxide are available cheaply or occur as byproducts in other processes, formic acid can still be produced economically in this manner.

General Manufacturing Information
Industry Processing Sectors
-Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting
-All other basic organic chemical manufacturing
-All other chemical product and preparation manufacturing
-Computer and electronic product manufacturing
-Construction
-Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing
-Fabricated metal product manufacturing
-Food, beverage, and tobacco product manufacturing
-Mining (except oil and gas) and support activities
-Miscellaneous manufacturing
-Oil and gas drilling, extraction, and support activities
-Paint and coating manufacturing
-Paper manufacturing
-Pesticide, fertilizer, and other agricultural chemical manufacturing
-Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing
-Plastic material and resin manufacturing
-Soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing
-Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing
-Utilities
-Wholesale and retail trade
-Wood product manufacturing
-resale of chemicals

About Formic acid
Helpful information
Formic acid is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.

Formic acid is used by consumers, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Biocidal Uses
Formic acid is being reviewed for use as a biocide in the EEA and/or Switzerland, for: disinfection, veterinary hygiene, food and animals feeds, drinking water, product preservation.

Consumer Uses
Formic acid is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, leather treatment products, polymers, textile treatment products and dyes, biocides (e.g. disinfectants, pest control products), coating products, metal surface treatment products, pH regulators and water treatment products and plant protection products. Other release to the environment of Formic acid is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).

Article service life
ECHA has no public registered data on the routes by which Formic acid is most likely to be released to the environment. 
ECHA has no public registered data indicating whether or into which articles the substance might have been processed.

Widespread uses by professional workers
Formic acid is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals and pH regulators and water treatment products.
Formic acid is used in the following areas: scientific research and development and health services.
Other release to the environment of Formic acid is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).

Formulation or re-packing
Formic acid is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals.
Release to the environment of Formic acid can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in processing aids at industrial sites, in the production of articles and as processing aid.

Uses at industrial sites
Formic acid is used in the following products: polymers.
Formic acid is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Formic acid is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, textile, leather or fur and plastic products.
Release to the environment of Formic acid can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), for thermoplastic manufacture, in the production of articles, as processing aid and formulation of mixtures.

Manufacture
Release to the environment of Formic acid can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

General Description    
Formic acid (HCO2H), also called methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. 
Formic acid was first isolated by the distillation of ant bodies and was named after the Latin formica, meaning “ant.” 
Formic acids proper IUPAC name is now methanoic acid. Industrially, formic acid is produced by treatment of carbon monoxide with an alcohol such as methanol (methyl alcohol) in the presence of a catalyst.
Formic acid is found both naturally occurring and frequently synthesized in laboratories. 
Formic acid is most naturally found in the stings and bites of many insects, including bees and ants, as a chemical defense mechanism.

Properties    
FORMIC ACID is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. 
Formic acid is a stable corrosive, combustible, and hygroscopic chemical substance. 
Formic acid is incompatible with H2SO4, strong caustics, furfuryl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, strong oxidisers, and bases and reacts with strong explosion on contact with oxidising agents.
Due to the −CHO group, Formic acid imparts some of the character of an aldehyde. 

Formic acid can form salt and ester; can react with amine to form amide and to form ester by addition reaction with unsaturated hydrocarbon addition. 
Formic acid can reduce the silver ammonia solution to produce a silver mirror, and make the potassium permanganate solution fade, which can be used for the qualitative identification of formic acid.
As a carboxylic acid, formic acid shares most of the same chemical properties in reacting with alkalis to form water soluble formate. 
But formic acid is not a typical carboxylic acid as Formic acid can react with alkenes to form formate esters.

Production    
Since 1896, Formic acid is made in European countries by the action of sulfuric acid upon sodium formate, which is produced from carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide.
In 1980, the United States Science and Design Corporation developed a carbonylation of methanol to produce formic acid with an annual output of 20,000 tons. 

The reaction formula is:
The mixture of liquid ammonia and methanol is used to absorb carbon monoxide at 70 ° C and 32.5 MPa to form formamide, which is then hydrolyzed in an aqueous acid solution.
Use oxalic acid and glycerol as raw materials being co-heated at 110 ° C to generate oxalic acid monoglyceride. 
Heat it to decarboxylate and form Monoglycerides formate, then hydrolyze it to obtain formic acid.
After the formic acid aqueous solution is obtained, a dehydrating agent (for anhydrous magnesium sulfate, anhydrous copper sulfate, etc.), extractive distillation (extracting agent may be trimethylamine, picoline, etc.) may be used for dehydration and purification, and anhydrous formic aic can be obtained.

Description    
Formic acid is a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. 
Formic acid was first isolated from certain ants and was named after the Latin formica, meaning ant. 
Formic acid is made by the action of sulfuric acid on sodium formate, which is produced from carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide. 
Formic acid is also produced as a by-product in the manufacture of other chemicals such as acetic acid.
Formic acid can be anticipated that use of formic acid will continuously increase as Formic acid replaces inorganic acids and has a potential role in new energy technology. 
Formic acid toxicity is of a special interest as the acid is the toxic metabolite of methanol.

Chemical Properties    
Formic acid, or methanoic acid, is the first member of the homologous series identified as fatty acids with the general formula RCOOH. 
Formic acid was obtained first from the red ant; Formic acids common name is derived from the family name for ants, Formi- cidae. 
This substance also occurs naturally in bees and wasps, and is presumed to be responsible for the "sting" of these insects.
Formic acid has a pungent, penetrating odor. 
Formic acid may be synthesized from anhydrous sodium formate and concentrated H2S04 at low temperature followed by distillation.
    
Formic acid has a pungent, penetrating odor Formic acid is the first member of the homologous series identifed as fatty acids with general formula RCOOH This acid was obtained frst from the red ants; its common name is derived from the family name for ants, Formicidae. 
Formic acid also occurs naturally in bees and wasps and is presumed to be responsible for the sting of these insects.

Occurrence    
Widespread in a large variety of plants; reported identifed in Cistus labdanum and the oil of Artemisia trans- iliensis; also found among the constituents of petit grain lemon and bitter orange essential oil; reported found in strawberry aroma Reported found in apple, sweet cherry, papaya, pear, raspberry, strawberry, peas, cheeses, breads, yogurt, milk, cream, buttermilk, raw fsh, cognac, rum, whiskey, cider, white wine, tea, coffee and roasted chicory root

Formic acid is manufactured as a by-product of the liquidphase oxidation of hydrocarbons to acetic acid. 
Formic acid is also produced by :
(a) treating sodium formate and sodium acid formate with sulfuric acid at low temperatures followed by distillation or 
(b) direct synthesis from water and CO2 under pressure and in the presence of catalysts.

Biotechnological Production    
Formic acid is generally produced by chemical synthesis . 
However, biotechnological routes are described in literature. 
First, formic acid could be produced from hydrogen and bicarbonate by whole-cell catalysis using a methanogen. 
Concentrations up to 1.02 mol.L-1 (47 g.L-1) have been reached within 50 h. 
Another example is the formation of formic acid and ethanol as co-products by microbial fermentation of glycerol with genetically modified organisms. 
In small-scale experiments, 10 g.L-1 glycerol has been converted to 4.8 g.L-1 formate with a volumetric productivity of 3.18 mmol.L-1.h-1 and a yield of 0.92 mol formate per mole glycerol using an engineered E. coli strain.

Purification Methods    
Anhydrous formic acid can be obtained by direct fractional distillation under reduced pressure, the receiver being cooled in ice-water. 
The use of P2O5 or CaCl2 as dehydrating agents is unsatisfactory. 
Reagent grade 88% formic acid can be satisfactorily dried by refluxing with phthalic anhydride for 6hours and then distilling Formic acid. 
Alternatively, if Formic acid is left in contact with freshly prepared anhydrous CuSO4 for several days about one half of the water is removed from 88% formic acid; distillation then removes the remainder. 
Boric anhydride (prepared by melting boric acid in an oven at a high temperature, cooling in a desiccator, and powdering) is a suitable dehydrating agent for 98% formic acid; after prolonged stirring with the anhydride the formic acid is distilled under vacuum. 
Formic acid can be further purified by fractional crystallisation using partial freezing.

Formic acid is not a typical carboxylic acid; it is distinguished by its acid strength, Formic acids failure to form an anhydride, and Formic acids reactivity as a reducing agent—a property due to the ―CHO group, which imparts some of the character of an aldehyde. 
The methyl and ethyl esters of formic acid are commercially produced. 
Concentrated sulfuric acid dehydrates formic acid to carbon monoxide.

Pure formic acid is a colourless, fuming liquid with a pungent odour; it irritates the mucous membranes and blisters the skin. 
Formic Acid freezes at 8.4 °C (47.1 °F) and boils at 100.7 °C (213.3 °F).

Methanoic acid, better known as formic acid [64-18-6], HCOOH, M r 46.03, is a colorless, corrosive liquid with a pungent odor. 
Formic Acid is completely miscible with water and many polar solvents but only partially miscible with hydrocarbons.

Formic acid derives Formic acids name from ants (lat. Formica) from which Formic acid was first obtained by dry distillation. 
The first scientific study on its properties, “Concerning Some Un-Common Observations and Experiments Made with an Acid Juyce to be Found in Ants” was published as early as 1670 (1).

Formic acid and Formic acids salts are used primarily in the feed industry, grass silage, leather tanning, and anti-icing. 
Other applications include textile dyeing and finishing, food additives, natural rubber, drilling fluids, and various chemical processes.

The worldwide production of formic acid was about 621 000 t/a in 2012. 
Formic Acid is produced mainly by hydrolysis of methyl formate. 
The other important method is acidolysis of formate salts.

Physical Properties
Formic acid, mp 8.3°C, bp 100.8°C (at 101.3 kPa), is a colorless, clear, corrosive liquid with a pungent odor. 
Formic Acid is the strongest unsubstituted alkyl carboxylic acid (pK a 3.74).

Production
The formic acid processes practiced today are based mainly on two main routes: methyl formate hydrolysis and preparation of free formic acid from formates.

The methyl formate based process route is currently dominant. 
Approximately 90% of the installed capacity is based on this on-purpose process. 
The economic disadvantages of the methods earlier practiced led to the development of a process specifically dedicated to the production of formic acid with no undesirable byproducts. 
In the 1970s, the hydrolysis of methyl formate to methanol and formic acid was developed commercially by various companies into an economically feasible method. 

This process involves carbonylation of methanol and subsequent hydrolysis of the methyl formate produced. 
The methanol resulting from this process is returned to the first stage. 
Formic acid plants based on this process were started up at BASF (Federal Republic of Germany) in 1981 and Kemira (Finland) in 1982. 
More recent large-scale producers using this route are the Chinese companies Feicheng Acid Chemicals and Luxi Chemical Group.

The other current production method involves formation of the free acid from its salts. 
Mainly sodium formate [141-53-7] and calcium formate [544-17-2] are used for this purpose. 
The acidolysis is normally carried out with sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid. 
Sulfate or phosphate salts are produced as byproducts. 

Formic acid used to be a byproduct in the production of acetic acid [64-19-7] by liquid-phase oxidation of butane or naphtha (→ Acetic Acid). 
For many years, oxidation of hydrocarbons was the most important method of producing acetic acid. However, the preferred process today is carbonylation of methanol , in which formic acid is not formed.

The production of formic acid by hydrolysis of formamide [75-12-7] played an important role in Europe until the 1970s.; 
However, the consumption of ammonia and sulfuric acid, along with the unavoidable production of ammonium sulfate, has made this process economically inferior.
Although other methods for producing formic acid have been patented, they do not appear to have been implemented industrially.

Uses
Because of Formic acids acidity, aldehydic nature, and reducing properties, formic acid is used in a variety of fields. 
In contrast to mineral acids, formic acid evaporates without leaving any residue.

Silage
The term silage traditionally refers to ensilation of forage crops (mainly grasses) for feeding bovines on farms. 
Consumption is dependent on climate; formic acid based ensiling is especially suitable for wet conditions. 
Northern Europe is the main consumption area.

Ensiling is based on fermentation under anaerobic conditions, whereby lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria preserve the silage. 
Lactic acid lowers the pH and thus prevents unwanted microbial growth. 
Addition of formic acid results in a rapid initial drop in pH, which promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria and suppresses the growth of bacteria that produce undesirable compounds such as butyric acid. When the pH drop is enhanced with formic acid, spontaneous fermentation is restricted. 
Advantages include more residual sugars and protein. 
Restriction of fermentation is known to have a positive effect on voluntary intake in dairy cow feeding and thus enhances milk production.

Forage crops such as grass, corn, clover, and alfalfa are cut, chopped, and then fermented in silos or bales covered with airtight film. 
Formic acid is excellently suited to ensiling difficult-to-ensile materials, especially wet or low-sugar fodder plants, which may also have high buffering capacity.
Formic acid is also used to restrict fermentation when ensiling crimped high-moisture grain.
Food and beverage industry byproducts, such as spent mash from breweries, can be preserved with formic acid solutions to give long-shelf-life animal feed.
Formic acid is used in different formulations, sometimes as mixtures with other short-chain organic acids such as propionic acid and often buffered with a formate salt for handling safety and reduced corrosion.

Leather
One of the biggest users of formic acid globally is the tanning industry. 
As the tanning industry has moved to lower-cost countries, the growth figures in Asia have been very high, compensating the decline in Europe and North America. 
China is the largest producer of leather, accounting for about 30% of world production.

Pretreatment of hides leaves them in a slightly alkaline state, but tanning requires acidic conditions.
Therefore, the hides are treated with acid (typically sulfuric and formic acids) prior to tanning in a process called pickling. 
Without this conditioning, the tanning agents would quickly become fixed at the surface of the hide, while Formic acids inner layer would remain raw. 
Sulfuric acid reduces the pH of the liquor, while formic acid is capable of penetrating through the collagen fibers rapidly and homogeneously. 
Formic Acid ensures that the tanning agent (usually basic chromium sulfate) will penetrate the entire thickness of the hide.
In leather dyeing, formic acid is used as a leveling agent to aid in moving the dye from one area of the leather to another, resulting in more uniform and smoother dye distribution.

Textiles
In the textile industry, formic acid is used as a pH-regulating agent in dyeing wool, nylon, and other natural and synthetic fibers with acid and chrome dyes. 
In addition, formic acid is used to neutralize alkaline solutions and facilitate rinsing during laundering.

Improving living standards and increased fiber production, especially for export markets, are expected to increase demand for formic acid in textile dyeing and finishing in Asia.

Feed Additives
Organic acids and salts have a long history in the feed industry, which commonly uses them as preservatives and for acidification of piglet diets. 
Since 2006 when the EU banned antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), the use of organic acids in feed has increased.

Formic acid has a strong acidification effect but also antimicrobial effects, which are used to protect feed and drinking water against bacterial contamination. 
Formic acid is very effective against Salmonella, Escherichia, and Campylobacter at pH 4.0. 
Formic Acid acts positively on the gut flora of animals and can improve both the apparent digestibility of energy and protein and the absorption and retention of some minerals. 
Formic Acid seems to enhance the growth performance of weaned piglets and fattening pigs at lower dosages than other organic acids and salts. 
For the effect of organic acids in pig feed, see, for example.

In the poultry industry formic acid has long been used for to prevent growth of pathogens in feed and feed materials.
Blends of formic acid with propionic acid, lactic acid or medium-chain fatty acids have broader antimicrobial effects than formic acid alone.

Pharmaceuticals and Food Additives
Pharmaceuticals and food chemicals have been estimated to be the largest single sector of formic acid use in Asia (mainly in China).

Formic acid is used as a synthetic intermediate for various pharmaceuticals and food chemicals, including synthetic insulin (purification of recombinant insulin), caffeine, aspartame, and vitamin B1.
Formic Acid is also used widely for pH adjustment during the manufacturing of various chemicals. 
Other applications in food include Salmonella decontamination and use as a preservative (E236, allowed in the USA but not in the EU, Australia, and New Zeeland), and as flavoring agent.

The use of formic acid in food preservation includes fumigation of fruit such as apples and cherries to reduce post-harvest decay. 
Formic acid is especially effective in destroying fungal spores on surfaces and containers in which fruits are stored. 
In some food preservation applications, formic acid is blended with lactic and/or propionic acid. 
The mixture is minimally corrosive, but due to Formic acids low pH, Formic acid helps destroy harmful microorganisms and prevents their propagation, thus prolonging the shelf life of the product.

Other Uses
Rubber Coagulation
Formic acid is the preferred choice for coagulating latex, which is a suspension of microscopic natural rubber particles (polyisoprene) in an aqueous medium. 
The surfaces of the latex particles are charged, which creates repulsion between them preventing coagulation. 
In the coagulation process, formic acid neutralizes these charges, eliminating the repulsion. 
The process results in a consistent high-quality natural rubber product. 
The use of stronger acids makes the pH drop too fast and inhomogeneously. 
As a result, the latex coagulates unevenly, which may affect Formic acids mechanical properties. 
Weaker acids, such as acetic acid, are less efficient than formic acid and result in much higher acid consumption.

Gas Desulfurization
Formic acid is used as a desulfurization catalyst in flue gas desulfurization for coal-fired power plants. 
Sulfur, whose content in coal can be as high as 5%, is released as sulfur dioxide in the firing process. 
Capturing sulfur dioxide by passing the flue gas through an aqueous limestone slurry results in gypsum (calcium sulfate). 
Adding formic acid to the desulfurization cycle increases the efficiency of sulfur separation.

10.6.3 Well Acidifiers
Formic acid is used in the stimulation of high-temperature wells in oil and gas fields when the conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl) systems cannot be adequately inhibited. 
Well acidizing is achieved by pumping acid into the well to dissolve limestone, dolomite, and calcite cement between the sediment grains of the reservoir rocks. 
Formic acid has the advantage of good inhibition against pipe corrosion at temperatures as high as 200°C (possibly caused by a protective layer of decomposition products).

Mixed HCl–formic acid can offer further advantages. 
Formic acid does not dissociate in the presence of HCl, so there is no reaction with the carbonate until the HCl is virtually spent. 
HCl/formic mixtures can thus achieve greater penetration.

Cleaning Agents
Formic acid has some use as an active ingredient in commercial cleaning products such as descalers, rust removers, multipurpose cleaners and degreasers, and institutional laundry products. 
In descaling, calcium salt forms when calcium carbonate is dissolved by an acid. 
The more readily soluble this salt is, the lower is the risk of salt deposits that reduce acid effectiveness. 
In bathroom cleaners Formic acid is claimed to combine the properties of an efficient descaling agent with those of a biodegradable biocide.

Solvent Use
Formic acid can be used to dissolve polyamides (e.g., nylon 66 and nylon 46) or silk to prepare fibers and membranes. 
Formic Acid is also a useful component in semiconductor cleaning solutions.

Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. 
Formic Acid is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most famously in the venom of bee and ant stings. 
Formic Acid is commonly used as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed.

Key Points
-formic acid is a clear, colourless liquid with a pungent odour
-Formic acid is used as a pesticide in hay and animal feed, in wart removal, as a preservative and in household descalers
-formic acid may be found at very low levels in the environment
-the stings of some ants and nettles may contain a small amount of formic acid
-ingestion causes immediate burning of the mouth and throat, breathing difficulty, drooling, difficulty swallowing, stomach pain and vomiting
-skin contact with formic acid can cause pain, burns and ulcers
-eye contact causes pain, twitching of the eyelids, watering eyes, inflammation, sensitivity to light and burns
-individuals with breathing problems such as asthmatics may be more sensitive to the effects of inhaling formic acid 

What is formic acid?
Formic acid is a clear, colourless liquid with a pungent odour.

What is formic acid used for?
Formic acid is mainly used as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. 
Formic Acid is sprayed on animal feed or fresh hay to reduce the rate of decay and is used as a pesticide to treat and control mites that infest honey bee hives. 
Formic Acid is also used to manufacture other chemicals, in wart removal treatments and may be found in household descalers.

How does formic acid get into the environment?
Formic acid can enter the environment during its production and use in industry. 
Formic Acid may leach into water and soil where Formic acid biodegrades and vapours in the air will be degraded by sunlight.
As a result, there are very low levels of formic acid in the environment. 

Formic acid is a common component of reverse-phase mobile phases that provide protons for LC/MS analysis. 
The presence of a low concentration of formic acid in the mobile phase is also known to improve the peak shapes of the resulting separation. 
Unlike trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), formic acid is not an ion-pairing agent and Formic acid does not suppress MS ionization of polypeptides when used as a mobile-phase component.

Roles Classification 
Chemical Role(s):
solvent
A liquid that can dissolve other substances (solutes) without any change in their chemical composition.
protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.
Bronsted acid
A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Bronsted base).
(via oxoacid )

Biological Role(s):
antibacterial agent
A substance (or active part thereof) that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.
metabolite
Any intermediate or product resulting from metabolism. 
The term 'metabolite' subsumes the classes commonly known as primary and secondary metabolites.

Application(s):
solvent
A liquid that can dissolve other substances (solutes) without any change in their chemical composition.
astringent
A compound that causes the contraction of body tissues, typically used to reduce bleeding from minor abrasions.
protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.

Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. Formate is an intermediate in normal metabolism. 
Formic Acid takes part in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds and Formic acids carbon may appear in methyl groups undergoing transmethylation. 
Formic Acid is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. 
Formate is typically produced as a byproduct in the production of acetate. 
Formic Acid is responsible for both metabolic acidosis and disrupting mitochondrial electron transport and energy production by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity, the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. 
Cell death from cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate is believed to result partly from depletion of ATP, reducing energy concentrations so that essential cell functions cannot be maintained. 

Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by formate may also cause cell death by increased production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to the blockade of the electron transport chain. 
In nature, formic acid is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees and ants. 
The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. 
When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, Formic acid arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain Formic acids nutritive value longer. 
Urinary formate is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter frundii, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Formic Acid has one carboxylic group. 
Formic Acid is a colorless liquid. 
Formic Acid is used in the leather tanning process, in feed for preservation and acidification, as intermediate in various pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals and as active ingredient in cleaning agents.

Formic Acid Uses 
Animal Feed Additive
The majority of formic acid used worldwide is within the agriculture sector. 
Here, Formic acid is used as an additive in animal feed and harvested silage where, in silage, Formic acid works to provide antibacterial protection as well as to support fermentation at lower temperatures. 
This reduces the time Formic acid takes to produce the finished product whilst also preserving the nutritional value of the feed.

Cleaning Products
Formic acid provides an alternative to the many traditional acids used in cleaning products, such as phosphoric and citric acid, offering a reduced cost with highly effective descaling capabilities and a low environmental impact. 
Formic Acid can be found in de-scalers (kettle, coffee machines, brewery descalers etc), and bathroom cleaners to name a few. 

Fish Silage
Fish silage is a valuable feed input for livestock and fertiliser in crop production. 

The silage consists of minced fish by-products or minced whole fish not suitable for human consumption with an added organic acid for preservation. 
The formic acid lowers the pH and inhibits mold growth (other acids such as phosphoric acid will only lower the pH so a separate inhibitor, such as propionic acid needs to be added if not using Formic).

Leather Processing
The leather industry uses formic acid for tanning and dye fixing. 
Tanning is the process of treating animal skins and hides to produce leather, this involves a process which permanently alters the protein structure of skin, making Formic acid more durable and less susceptible to decomposition.

Pharmaceuticals
The pharmaceuticals industry uses formic acid in the production of various active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Rubber Industry
Formic acid is used as a coagulant (turn a liquid into a solid or semi solid state) in the rubber industry to shape the product and create different products.

Textile Processing
After an alkaline textile processing step formic acid is added to neutralise the excess of sodium hydroxide and adjust the pH back to neutral. 
Formic Acid is used in cotton pre-treatment, bleaching, mercerizing (a process to help fibers absorb more water/dye to increase vibrancy), dyeing and cleaning.

Water Treatment
Formic Acid is used as a pH adjuster to treat wastewater and sewage in water treatment plants. 
Formic Acid is a more cost-effective option over phosphoric and sulphuric acid because Formic acid degrades in effluents without producing emissions/leaving behind phosphates resulting in a reduction of waste-water charges.
Other uses for formic acid include use in adhesives, corrosion inhibitors, surface agents, antifreeze products, construction materials, paints, inks and plastics.

Product description
Formic acid is abundant in nature and has been used for many years as an environmentally friendly alternative in industries such as textiles, natural rubber and leather processing. 
Formic Acid is also used in agriculture, as well as in the production of medicines, cosmetics, detergents and disinfectants. 
Formic Acid has excellent properties in controlling acidity, while at the same time effectively restricting microbial growth.

Formic acid is the strongest of the simple, unsaturated carboxylic acids. 
Furthermore, unlike other organic acids, formic acid has the advantage of being both a carboxylic acid and an aldehyde. 
Formic Acid acts, therefore, both as an acidifying and a reducing agent, which clearly gives formic acid enhanced potential for use in industry.

Applications/uses
Hard surface care
HTF - pharmaceutical processing
Industrial cleaners
Institutional cleaners
Tannery
Textile

Formic Acid is used for decalcifier; reducer in dyeing for wool fast colours; dehairing and plumping hides; tanning; electroplating; coagulating rubber latex; silage and grain preservation;aidditive in regenerating old rubber; solvents of perfume; lacquers;  alkylating agent for alcohols; carboxylating agent for tertiary compounds.
Formic acid, also called methanoic acid), is the simplest and has the lowest mole weight of the carboxylic acids, in which a single hydrogen atom is attached to the carboxyl group (HCOOH). 
If a methyl group is attached to the carboxyl group, the compound is acetic acid. 
Formic Acid occurs naturally in the body of ants and in the stingers of bees. 
Functionally, Formic acid is not only an acid but also analdehyde; Formic acid reacts with alcohols to form esters as an acid and Formic acid is easily oxidized which imparts some of the character of an aldehyde. 
Pure formic acid is a colorless, toxic, corrosive and fuming liquid, freezing at 8.4 C and boiling at 100.7 C.

Formic Acid is soluble in water, ether, and alcohol. 
Formic Acid irritates the mucous membranes and blisters the skin. 
Formic Acid is prepared commercially from sodiumformate with the reaction of condensed sulfuric acid.
Formic acid is used as a chemical intermediate and solvent, and as a disinfectant. 
Formic Acid is also in processing textiles and leathers, electroplating and coagulating latex rubber.

APPLICATIONS
Formic Acid is used for decalcifier; reducer in dyeing for wool fast colours; dehairing and plumping hides; tanning; electroplating; coagulating rubber latex; silage and grain preservation;aidditive in regenerating old rubber; solvents of perfume; lacquers;  alkylating agent for alcohols; carboxylating agent for tertiary compounds. 
Formic Acid is also used as an intermediate for the production of a wide variety of products in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. 
Formic acid is abundant in nature and has been used for many years as an environmentally friendly alternative in industries such as textiles, natural rubber and leather processing. 
Formic Acid is also used in agriculture, as well as in the production of medicines, cosmetics, detergents and disinfectants. 
Formic Acid has excellent properties in controlling acidity, while at the same time effectively restricting microbial growth.
Formic Acid is used in dyeing and finishing of textiles, leather treatment, manufacture of fumigants, insecticides, refrigerants, solvents for perfumes, lacquers, electroplating, antiseptic in brewing, natural latex coagulant, ore flotation, and vinyl resin plasticizers.

What Does Formic Acid Mean?
Formic acid is the simple form of carboxylic acid, and is also known by the systematic IUPAC name as methanoic acid. 
Formic acid has the chemical formula HCOOH. 
Formic Acid is formed naturally in the venom of bees and ants, and is considered an important intermediate in chemical synthesis. 
For commercial purposes formic acid is primarily used as a preservative and antibacterial agent.

Chemical Structure and Properties
Formic acid is the simplest member of the carboxylic acid family. 
Formic acid's also known as methanoic acid. 
The chemical's molecular formula is HCOOH. 
The molecule is composed of a carboxyl group (COOH) with a hydrogen atom attached. 
In the carboxyl group, the carbon atom has a double bond joining Formic acid to the oxygen atom and a single bond joining Formic acid to the hydroxyl (OH) group, as shown in the illustration above.

Formic acid can be made synthetically in laboratories. 
In nature, Formic acid usually exists in the form of a colorless liquid. 
This liquid freezes at 8.3 degrees Celsius (46.9 degrees Fahrenheit) and boils at 100.7 degrees Celsius. (213.3 degrees Fahrenheit). 
Formic Acid has a strong odor and is often described as having a "pungent" smell.

Formula and structure: The chemical formula of formic acid is HCOOH or HCO2H. 
Formic acids molecular formula is CH2O2 and its molar mass is 46.02 g/mol. 
Formic acids chemical structure is shown below. 
Formic Acid consists of a single carboxylic acid group (COOH) attached to a hydrogen atom.

Preparation: Formic acid is prepared through several routes. 
Formic Acid is commonly prepared by reacting sodium formate with sulfuric acid. 
Formic Acid is also prepared by the reaction of formamide (HCONH2) with sulfuric acid or by the hydrolysis of methyl formate (HCO2CH3), as shown below:
2 HCONH2 + 2H2O + H2SO4 → 2HCO2H + (NH4)2SO4
HCO2CH3 + H2O → HCO2H + CH3OH

Physical properties: Pure formic acid is a colorless liquid with a corrosive and pungent odor. 
Formic acids density is 1.22 g/mL, melting point is 8.4 °C and boiling point is 101 °C. 
Formic Acid is completely miscible with water

Chemical properties: Formic acid is a weak acid which behaves as a typical carboxylic acid and also has some aldehyde-like properties. 
Formic Acid readily reacts with alcohols to form esters. 
Formic acid decomposes in the presence of acids or heat to give carbon monoxide (CO) and water. 
In the presence of platinum, Formic acid decomposes to give carbon dioxide and hydrogen instead.

Uses: Formic acid is mainly used as a preservative, antibacterial agent, artificial flavoring agent, and in household and industrial cleaning products. 
Formic Acid is also used in leather tanning, dyeing, textile finishing, and rubber production.

Natural Formic acid occurrence
In nature, formic acid is found in most ants and in stingless bees of the genus Oxytrigona.
The wood ants from the genus Formica can spray formic acid on their prey or to defend the nest. 
The puss moth caterpillar (Cerura vinula) will spray Formic acid as well when threatened by predators. 
Formic acid is also found in the trichomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).
Formic acid is a naturally occurring component of the atmosphere primarily due to forest emissions.
From methyl formate and formamide
When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation:

CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3
In industry, this reaction is performed in the liquid phase at elevated pressure. 
Typical reaction conditions are 80 °C and 40 atm. 
The most widely used base is sodium methoxide. 
Hydrolysis of the methyl formate produces formic acid:

HCO2CH3 + H2O → HCOOH + CH3OH
Efficient hydrolysis of methyl formate requires a large excess of water. 
Some routes proceed indirectly by first treating the methyl formate with ammonia to give formamide, which is then hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid:

HCO2CH3 + NH3 → HC(O)NH2 + CH3OH
2 HC(O)NH2 + 2H2O + H2SO4 → 2HCO2H + (NH4)2SO4
A disadvantage of this approach is the need to dispose of the ammonium sulfate byproduct. 
This problem has led some manufacturers to develop energy-efficient methods of separating formic acid from the excess water used in direct hydrolysis. 
In one of these processes, used by BASF, the formic acid is removed from the water by liquid-liquid extraction with an organic base.

Niche and obsolete chemical routes
By-product of acetic acid production
A significant amount of formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the manufacture of other chemicals. 
At one time, acetic acid was produced on a large scale by oxidation of alkanes, by a process that cogenerates significant formic acid.
This oxidative route to acetic acid has declined in importance so that the aforementioned dedicated routes to formic acid have become more important.

Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide
The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid has long been studied. 
This reaction can be conducted homogeneously.

Formic acid Oxidation of biomass
Formic acid can also be obtained by aqueous catalytic partial oxidation of wet biomass by the OxFA process.
A Keggin-type polyoxometalate (H5PV2Mo10O40) is used as the homogeneous catalyst to convert sugars, wood, waste paper, or cyanobacteria to formic acid and CO2 as the sole byproduct. 
Yields of up to 53% formic acid can be achieved.

Formic acid Laboratory methods
In the laboratory, formic acid can be obtained by heating oxalic acid in glycerol and extraction by steam distillation.
Glycerol acts as a catalyst, as the reaction proceeds through a glyceryl oxalate intermediate. 
If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results. 
The net reaction is thus:
C2O4H2 → CO2H2 + CO2

Another illustrative method involves the reaction between lead formate and hydrogen sulfide, driven by the formation of lead sulfide.
Pb(HCOO)2 + H2S → 2HCOOH + PbS

Formic acid Electrochemical production
Formic acid has been reported that formate can be formed by the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (in the form of bicarbonate) at a lead cathode at pH 8.6:
HCO−3 + H2O + 2e− → HCO−2 + 2OH− or CO2 + H2O + 2e− → HCO−2 + OH−
If the feed is CO2 and oxygen is evolved at the anode, the total reaction is:
CO2 + OH− → HCO−2 + 1/2 O2

This has been proposed as a large-scale source of formate by various groups.
The formate could be used as feed to modified E. coli bacteria for producing biomass.
There exist natural microbes that can feed on formic acid or formate (see Methylotroph).

Formic acid Biosynthesis
Formic acid is named after ants which have high concentrations of the compound in their venom. 
In ants, formic acid is derived from serine through a 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate intermediate. 
The conjugate base of formic acid, formate, also occurs widely in nature. 
An assay for formic acid in body fluids, designed for determination of formate after methanol poisoning, is based on the reaction of formate with bacterial formate dehydrogenase.

Formic acid Artificial photosynthesis
In August 2020 researchers at Cambridge University announced a stand-alone advanced ‘photosheet’ technology that converts sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and formic acid with no other inputs.

IUPAC names
Ameisensäure
Ameisensäure
carboxylic acid
CH202
Ester
FORMIC ACID
Formic Acid
Formic acid
formic acid
Formic Acid
Formic acid
formic acid
formic acid 85 %
Formic Acid 85%
formic acid 90-100%
Formic Acid [for General Organic Chemistry]
formic acid … %
formic acid...%
Formira ,Formisoton , Formylic acid
Hydrogen carboxylic acid
kwas metanowy
METANOIC ACID
Methanoic Acid
Methanoic acid
methanoic acid
Methansäure
methansäure
Acide formique
acideformique
acideformique(french)
Acido formico
acidoformico
Add-F
Kwas metaniowy
kwasmetaniowy
kwasmetaniowy(polish)
Kyselina mravenci
kyselinamravenci
kyselinamravenci(czech)
Methanoicacidmonomer
Methansαure
Mierenzuur
Myrmicyl
Rcra waste number U123
Formic acid about 85%
FormicacidAmeisensure
FORMOL
FORMALDE-FRESH
FORMALDE-FRESH SOLUTION
FORMALDE-FRESH SOLUTION, BUFFERED
FORMALDEHYDE, BUFFERED
FORMALDEHYDE, CARSON-MILLON
METHANONE
METHYL ALDEHYDE
Formate Ion Chromatography Standard Solution Fluka
FORMIC ACID 98-100 %, EXTRA PURE, DAC, F
FORMIC ACID FCC
FORMIC ACID, >=96%, A.C.S. REAGENT
FORMIC ACID, 95-97%
FORMIC ACID SOLUTION, 1.0 M IN WATER
FORMIC ACID DIST. 1 L
FORMIC ACID APPROX. 85% TECHNICAL 5 L
FORMIC ACID 85 %, PURE
AGILENT FORMIC ACID-REAGENT GRADE 1X5ML
FORMIC ACID, 88%, A.C.S. REAGENT
FORMIC ACID, FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY
Formicacid,97%
Formic acid, for analysis ACS, 88%
Formic acid, for analysis, 99+%
Formic acid, pure, 99%
FORMIC ACID, 88% ENVIRONMENTAL GRADE
FORMIC ACID, 88% REAGENT (ACS)
FORMIC ACID, 88% SUPERIOR REAGENT (ACS)
FORMIC ACID, 88% VERITASDOUBLE DISTILLED
formate standard for ic
FORMICACID,90%,REAGENT,ACS(BULK
FORMICACID,96%,REAGENT,ACS
FORMICACID,TECHNICAL
FORMIC ACID, ACS, 88-91%
FORMIC ACID 98-100 %, PURISS. P.A.,REAG. ACS, REAG. PH. EUR.
FORMIC ACID FREE ACID
FORMIC ACID 98 - 100% GR ACS
FORMIC ACID PESTICIDE GRADE 98-100%
FORMIC ACID 98 - 100% EXTRA PURE, FCC DAC
FORMIC ACID (ANHYDROUS ) GC STANDARD

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