GLUTARALDEHYDE

Glutaraldehyde is a disinfectant, medication, preservative, and fixative. As a disinfectant, it is used to sterilize surgical instruments and other areas of hospitals. As a medication, it is used to treat warts on the bottom of the feet. Glutaraldehyde is applied as a liquid.
Side effects include skin irritation. If exposed to large amounts, nausea, headache, and shortness of breath may occur. Protective equipment is recommended when used, especially in high concentrations. Glutaraldehyde is effective against a range of microorganisms including spores. Glutaraldehyde is a dialdehyde. It works by a number of mechanisms.
Glutaraldehyde came into medical use in the 1960s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. There are a number of other commercial uses such as leather tanning.
Glutaraldehyde is a colorless, oily liquid with a sharp, pungent odor. Glutaraldehyde is used for industrial, laboratory, agricultural, medical, and some household purposes, primarily for disinfecting and sterilization of surfaces and equipment. For example, it is used in oil and gas recovery operations and pipelines, waste water treatment, x-ray processing, embalming fluid, leather tanning, paper industry, in fogging and cleaning of poultry houses, and as a chemical intermediate in the production of various materials. It may be used in select goods, such as paint and laundry detergent.
Glutaraldehyde is a dialdehyde comprised of pentane with aldehyde functions at C-1 and C-5. It has a role as a cross-linking reagent, a disinfectant and a fixative.
Glutaraldehyde solution is a light yellow liquid. Mixes with water.

Preferred IUPAC name: Pentanedial. Other names: Glutaraldehyde; Glutardialdehyde; Glutaric acid dialdehyde; Glutaric aldehyde; Glutaric dialdehyde; 1,5-Pentanedial
Other names: Pentanedial; Glutaral; Aldesan; Alhydex; Cidex; Glutardialdehyde; Glutaric acid dialdehyde; Glutaric aldehyde; Glutaric dialdehyde; Hospex; Sonacide; 1,5-Pentanedial; 1,5-Pentanedione; component of Cidex; Glutaraldehyd; Glutarol; NCI-C55425; Ucarcide; Aqucar; Glutarex 28; Relugan GT; Relugan GT 50; Sporicidin; Cidex 7; Ucarcide 250; Relugan GTW; Glutaclean; Sterihyde; 1,3-Diformylpropane; Coldcide-25 microbiocide; Glutaralum; Gluteraldehyde; Novaruca; Pentane-1,5-dial; Potentiated acid glutaraldehyde; Veruca-sep; NSC 13392
CAS No. 111-30-8
EC / List no.: 203-856-5
Mol. formula: C5H8O2
Glutaraldehyde, C5H8O2 or OCH(CH₂)₃CHO, is a transparent oily, liquid with a pungent odor. Exposure to glutaraldehyde may cause the following symptoms: throat and lung irritation, asthma and difficulty breathing, dermatitis, nasal irritation, sneezing, wheezing, burning eyes, and conjunctivitis. Workers may be harmed from exposure to glutaraldehyde.  Workers can be exposed to glutaraldehyde through inhalation or skin contact. 

Glutaraldehyde is used for a number of applications:

Disinfectant for surgical instruments that cannot be heat sterilized
A cross-linking and tanning agent
A biocide in metalworking fluids and in oil and gas pipelines
An antimicrobial in water-treatment systems
A slimicide in paper manufacturing
A preservative in cosmetics
A disinfectant in animal housing
A tissue fixative in histology and pathology labs
A hardening agent in the development of X-rays
In embalming solutions
In the preparation of grafts and bioprostheses
In various clinical applications


Chemical formula: C5H8O2
Molar mass: 100.117
Appearance: Clear liquid
Odor: pungent
Density: 1.06 g/mL
Melting point: −14 °C (7 °F; 259 K)
Boiling point: 187 °C (369 °F; 460 K)
Solubility in water: Miscible, reacts
Vapor pressure: 17 mmHg (20°C)


Uses
Disinfection
Glutaraldehyde is used as a disinfectant and medication.
Usually applied as a solution, it is used to sterilize surgical instruments and other areas.

Fixative
Glutaraldehyde is used in biochemistry applications as an amine-reactive homobifunctional crosslinker and fixative prior to SDS-PAGE, staining, or electron microscopy. It kills cells quickly by crosslinking their proteins. It is usually employed alone or mixed with formaldehyde as the first of two fixative processes to stabilize specimens such as bacteria, plant material, and human cells. A second fixative procedure uses osmium tetroxide to crosslink and stabilize cell and organelle membrane lipids. Fixation is usually followed by dehydration of the tissue in ethanol or acetone, followed by embedding in an epoxy resin or acrylic resin.

Another application for treatment of proteins with glutaraldehyde is the inactivation of bacterial toxins to generate toxoid vaccines, e.g., the pertussis (whooping cough) toxoid component in the Boostrix Tdap vaccine produced by GlaxoSmithKline.

In a related application, glutaraldehyde is sometimes employed in the tanning of leather and in embalming.

Wart treatment
As a medication it is used to treat plantar warts. For this purpose, a 10% w/v solution is used. It dries the skin, facilitating physical removal of the wart.Trade names include Diswart Solution and Glutarol.

Safety
Side effects include skin irritation. If exposed to large amounts, nausea, headache, and shortness of breath may occur. Protective equipment is recommended when used, especially in high concentrations. Glutaraldehyde is effective against a range of microorganisms including spores.

As a strong sterilant, glutaraldehyde is toxic and a strong irritant. There is no strong evidence of carcinogenic activity.Some occupations that work with this chemical have an increased risk of some cancers.

Mechanism of action
A number of mechanisms have been invoked to explain the biocidal properties of glutaraldehyde.Like many other aldehydes, it reacts with amines and thiol groups, which are common functional groups in proteins. Being bi-function, it is also a potential crosslinker.

Production and reactions

Synthesis of glutaraldehyde via the Diels-Alder reaction.
Glutaraldehyde is produced industrially by the oxidation of cyclopentene. Alternatively it can be made by the Diels-Alder reaction of acrolein and vinyl ethers followed by hydrolysis.

Like many other dialdehydes, (e.g., glyoxal) and simple aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde), glutaraldehyde converts in aqueous solution to various hydrates that in turn convert to other equilibrating species

History and culture
Glutaraldehyde came into medical use in the 1960s.It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.There are a number of other commercial uses such as leather tanning.

A glutaraldehyde solution of 0.1% to 1.0% concentration may be used as a biocide for system disinfection and as a preservative for long-term storage. It is a sterilant, killing endospores in addition to many microorganisms and viruses.

As a biocide, glutaraldehyde is a component of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") fluid. It is included in the additive called Alpha 1427. Bacterial growth impairs extraction of oil and gas from these wells. Glutaraldehyde is pumped as a component of the fracturing fluid to inhibit microbial growth

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO.:111-30-8    
GLUTARALDEHYDE EINECS NO.: 203-856-5
FORMULA:     OHC(CH2)3CHO
MOL WT.:    100.12
HS Code: 2912.19.5000
TOXICITY: Oral rat LD50: > 90 ml/kg
SYNONYMS: Glutaric acid dialdehyde; Glutardialdehyde; Glutaral;1,3-Diformylpropane; 1,5-Pentanedial; 1,5-Pentanedione; Glutaric aldehyde; Glutarol; Gluteraldehyde; Pentanedial; Sonacide; Aldehyd glutarowy; Aldesan; Ucarcide; Other RN: 37245-61-7, 79215-57-9, 107950-89-0


Disinfectant, Anti-Infective agent, Fixative
One of the protein cross-linking reagents that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative. 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (50% SOLUTION)

PHYSICAL STATE: Clear to yellowish liquid
MELTING POINT: -14 C
BOILING POINT: 187 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY     
SOLUBILITY IN WATER: soluble
SOLVENT SOLUBILITY: Soluble in alcohol
pH: 3.2 - 4.2
VAPOR DENSITY    
log P: -0.18 (Octanol-water)
VAPOR PRESSURE    0.6 (mmHg at 25 C)
HENRY LAW CONSTANT: 1.10E-07 (atm-m3/mole at 25 C)
OH RATE CONSTANT: 2.38E-11 (cm3/molecule-sec at 25 C Atmospheric)
AUTOIGNITION    
 

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - GLUTARALDEHYDE
Glutaraldehyde is a chemical frequently used as a disinfectant and sterilizing agent against bacteria and viruses (2% solution), an embalming fluid and tissue fixative, a component of leather tanning solutions, and an intermediate in the production of certain sealants, resins, dyes, and electrical products (HSDB, 1996). For commercial purposes, solutions of 99%, 50%, and 20% are available. Glutaraldehyde is also an atmospheric reaction product of cyclohexene. The annual statewide industrial emissions from facilities reporting under the Air Toxics Hot Spots Act in California based on the most recent inventory were estimated to be 29,603 pounds of glutaraldehyde

Glutaraldehyde is a colorless, oily, liquid-chemical with a pungent odor. It is used for a number of applications such as the following:

A cold sterilant in the health care industry
A cross-linking and tanning agent
A biocide in metalworking fluids and in oil and gas pipelines
An antimicrobial in water-treatment systems
A slimicide in paper manufacturing
A preservative in cosmetics
A disinfectant in animal housing
A tissue fixative in histology and pathology labs
A hardening agent in the development of X-rays
In embalming solutions
In the preparation of grafts and bioprostheses
In various clinical applications
In the health care industry, glutaraldehyde is most often used to disinfect equipment that cannot be heat sterilized such as dialysis instruments, surgical instruments, suction bottles, bronchoscopes, endoscopes, and ear, nose, and throat instruments.

Local: Glutaraldehyde containing two aldehyde groups, is used as a disinfectant. It is used in sterilizing medical and dental equipment which cannot be heat sterilized. It is used as a fixative for biological tissues and for leather tanning. It is used as a chemical intermediate to produce other compounds.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF DISINFECTANT: Disinfectant is an agent applied to inanimate objects to destroy, neutralize, or inhibit the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms, (whereas antiseptics are applied primarily to living things). Heat and radiation are also disinfectants. Common ingredients of chemical disinfectant are:

Mercuric Chlorides
Formaldehyde
8-Hydroxyquinoline
Copper Hydroxide
Cresol
Alcohols (Ethyl Alcohol; Isopropyl Alcohol)
Iodines / Iodophors
Chlorine releasing compounds
Gluteraldehyde
Phenolics
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

glutaraldehyde
Pentanedial
Glutaral
111-30-8
Glutaric dialdehyde
Cidex
Glutardialdehyde
1,5-Pentanedial
Sonacide
Pentane-1,5-dial
Glutaric aldehyde
Glutaraldehyd
Glutaralum
Glutarol
Ucarcide
Aldesan
Alhydex
Hospex
Glutaric acid dialdehyde
1,3-Diformylpropane
Gluteraldehyde
1,5-Pentanedione
Aldesen
Novaruca
Sporicidin
Aldehyd glutarowy
Polyglutaraldehyde
Poly(glutaraldehyde)
NCI-C55425
Caswell No. 468
Glutaraldehyd [Czech]
Glutaraldehyde solution
Glutaclean
Sterihyde
Aqucar
Glutaralum [INN-Latin]
Veruca-sep
Relugan GT
Relugan GTW
Aldehyd glutarowy [Polish]
component of Cidex
Glutarex 28
NSC 13392
Glutaral [USAN:INN:JAN]
Sonacide (TN)
Cidex 7
Ucarcide 250
UNII-T3C89M417N
Relugan GT 50
Sterihyde L (TN)
Pentanedial, homopolymer
Coldcide-25 microbiocide
EINECS 203-856-5
Glutaral (JAN/USP/INN)
BRN 0605390
Potentiated acid glutaraldehyde
1, 5-Pentanedial
Glutaraldehyde Solution, 25%
1,3-Diformyl propane
Diswart
Gludesin
Glutarol-1,5-pentanedial
CAS-111-30-8
Glutaric dialdehyde
pentandial
Dioxopentane
Glutural
Ucarset
Cidex
Diswart
Gludesin
Glutaral
Glutaraldehyde
Glutardialdehyde
Glutarol
Korsolex
Novaruca
Sekumatic
Sonacide

Sporicidin
111-30-8 [RN]
203-856-5 [EINECS]
glutaral [Wiki]
Glutaraldehyd [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Glutaraldehyde [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Glutaraldéhyde [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
glutaralum
Glutardialdehyde
Glutaric acid dialdehyde
Glutaric aldehyde
glutaric dialdehyde
Gluteraldehyde
MFCD00007025 [MDL number]
PENTANE-1,5-DIAL
Pentanedial [ACD/Index Name]
[111-30-8]
1,3-Diformyl propane
1,3-Diformylpropane
1,5-Pentanedial
5-Pentanedial
Aldehyd glutarowy [Polish]
Aldehyd glutarowy [Polish]
Aldesan
Aldesen
Alhydex
Aqucar
Bactron K31
Cidex
Cidex 7
Coldcide-25 microbiocide
Dioxopentane
Diswart
GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT
Gludesin
Glutaclean
Glutaral [USAN:INN:JAN] [INN] [JAN] [USAN]
Glutaraldehyd [Czech]
Glutaraldehyde (50per cent in water)
Glutaraldehyde solution, 50% in water
GLUTARALDEHYDE[3H(G)]
Glutaralum [Latin]
Glutaralum [INN-Latin]
Glutarex 28
Glutaricdialdehyde
Glutarol
Glutarol-1,5-pentanedial
Glutural
Hospex
Novaruca
PTD
Relugan GT
Relugan GT 50
Relugan GTW
Sonacide
Sporicidin
Sterihyde
Sterihyde L
STR01121
Ucarcide
Ucarcide 225
Ucarcide 250
Ucarset
Verucasep
Veruca-sep
Virsal
WLN: VH3VH
глутарал
غلوتارال
戊二醛 [Chinese]
戊二醛

1,3-Diformylpropane
Aldehyd glutarowy
Aldesan
Aldesen
Alhydex
Cidex
glutaral; glutaraldehyde; 1,5-pentanedial
Glutaraldehyde
Glutaralum
Glutardialdehyde
Glutaric acid dialdehyde
Glutaric aldehyde
Glutaric dialdehyde
Glutarol
Hospex
Pentane-1,5-dial
Sonacide

Translated names
1,5-pentaandiaal (et)
1,5-pentandial (hr)
1,5-pentandiale (it)
1,5-pentandialis (lt)
1,5-pentanedial (fr)
1,5-pentanodial (es)
1,5-pentándial (hu)
1,5-pentāndiāls (lv)
1,5-пентандиал (bg)
gluraraldeide (it)
Glutaaral (glutaaraldehyde) (nl)
glutaaraldehyd (nl)
glutaaraldehüüd (et)
Glutaraal (et)
Glutaraal (glutaaraldehüüd) (et)
Glutaraali (glutaarialdehydi) (fi)
glutaral (cs)
Glutaral (aldehyd glutarowy) (pl)
Glutaral (glutaraldehid) (hr)
Glutaral (Glutaraldehidă) (ro)
glutaral (glutaraldehyd) (cs)
Glutaral (Glutaraldehyde) (mt)
Glutaral (glutaraldehído) (es)
Glutaral (glutaraldeído) (pt)
Glutaral (glutaraldéhyde) (fr)
glutaraldehid (hr)
glutaraldehida (ro)
glutaraldehyd (cs)
glutaraldehydi (fi)
glutaraldehído (es)
glutaraldeído (pt)
glutaraldéhyde (fr)
glutarale (it)
Glutarale (Glutaraldeide) (it)
glutaralis (lt)
Glutaralis (glutaraldehidas) (lt)
Glutardialdehyd (de)
glutaro aldehidas (lt)
glutarál (sk)
Glutarál (Glutáraldehid) (hu)
glutarāls (lv)
Glutarāls (glutāraldehīds) (lv)
glutáraldehid (hu)
glutáraldehyd (sk)
glutāraldehīds (lv)
pentaanidiaali (fi)
pentandial (cs)
pentano-1,5-dial (pl)
pentándiál (sk)
pentándiál (glutáraldehyd) (sk)
Γλουταράλη (γλουταραλδεΰδη) (el)
γλουταραλδεΰδη (el)
глутарал (bg)
Глутарал (глутаралдехид) (bg)
глутаралалдехид (bg)

CAS names: Pentanedial
Other IUPAC names: 1,5-Pentandiol; Glutar aldehyde; glutaral; glutaraldehyde; 1,5-pentanedial; Glutaraldehyde - Solution (50 %);pentane 1,5 dial

Trade names
1,5-pentanedial (IUPAC and CTPA name)
1,5-Pentanedione
1,5-pentanedione (alternative chemical name)
AQUCAR™ GA 50 MUP Antimicrobial
AQUCAR™ GA 50 Water Treatment Microbiocide
Basolon GDA 50
BIOBAN™ GA 50 Antimicrobial
Common name: glutaraldehyde
Glutaclean
Glutaral (INCI name)
Glutaraldehyde 
GLUTARALDEHYDE 50%
Glutarex 28

IUPAC name: 1,5-Pentanedial
Pentanedial (9CI)
Protectol GA 50 (trade name)
Protectol GDA (trade name)
Relugan 50 GT
Sepacid GA 50
Synonyms: glutardialdehyde, glutaric dialdehyde, glutaral
Tradenames: UCARCIDE(TM) 50 Antimicrobial
UCARCIDE(TM) 250 Antimicrobial

Other identifiers
107950-89-0

CAS number
111-30-8

CAS number
1428979-54-7

CAS number
1497435-71-8

CAS number
37245-61-7

CAS number
605-022-00-X


 

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