GLYCEROL MONOSTEARATE

Glycerol monostearate = Glycerol monostearate = GMS = MGS = Glycerin monostearate = Glycerol ester of stearic acid = Glycerine monostearate = ESTER OF GLYCERIN + STEARIC ACID 

Glycerine = Glycerin = Glycerol (= Glycerol)

Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol


EC / List no.: 250-705-4
CAS no.: 31566-31-1

IUPAC names
1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl stearate
Glycerol monostearate; GMS
Glycerol Monostearate
Glycerol stearate
GMS
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol

EC / List no.: 286-490-9
CAS no.: 85251-77-0

Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods.
Glycerol monostearate takes the form of a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic. 
Chemically it is the glycerol ester of stearic acid.

GMS (Glycerol monostearate) is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes and solvents

GLYCEROL MONOSTEARATE
Glycerol monostearate or monostearin, is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods. 
Chemically it is the monoglycerol ester of stearic acid. 
Glycerol stearate is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anticaking, and preservative agent, an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents a protective coating for hygroscopic powders, a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals, and a resin lubricant. 
Glycerol stearate is also used in cosmetics and hair-care products. 
It is generally a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic.

Functions
Emulsion Stabilisers
Rheology / Viscosity Modifiers
Emulsifiers

Applications
After Sun
Body Care
Eye Colour
Face / Neck Skin Care
Face Colour
Facial Cleansers
Hair Conditioners - Rinse off
Lip Colour
Sun Protection

Glycerol Monostearate, referred to as GMS for short, is a solid, waxy substance carrying a white appearance and minimal to no odor. 
This material is produced by distilling cold-pressed organic flax seed oil or sunflower oil to yield two parts, organic glycerin and organic fatty acids. 
The fatty acid byproduct portion are fractionated to produce saturated fatty acids which will react with the organic glycerin to form Organic Glycerol Monostearate. 
GMS, or organic Glycerol monostearate, is most sought after for its emulsifying properties, the ability to bind water and oil together in a formulation which would naturally separate. 
Emulsifiers are an integral part of product development and formulation, used throughout cosmetic and personal-care manufacturing to food and beverage engineering, along with a wide range of industrial applications. 
In addition to emulsifying properties, GMS is a common food additive to thicken the consistency of a combination of ingredients, prevent caking, or act as an added preservative. 
Its natural emollient characteristics make it suitable for a multitude of topical skincare products.

Glycerol monostearate (GMS), a nonionic amphiphilic monoglyceride of glycerol and stearic acid is widely used as emulsifier in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industry.

Structure, synthesis, and occurrence
Glycerol monostearate exists as three stereoisomers, the enantiomeric pair of 1-glycerol monostearate and 2-glycerol monostearate. 
Typically these are encountered as a mixture as many of their properties are similar.

Commercial material used in foods is produced industrially by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides (from either vegetable or animal fats) and glycerol.

Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase. 
It is present at very low levels in certain seed oils.

Uses
GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anticaking, and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents; a protective coating for hygroscopic powders; a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals; and a resin lubricant. 
Glycerol Monostearate is also used in cosmetics and hair-care products.

GMS is largely used in baking preparations to add "body" to the food. 
Glycerol Monostearate is somewhat responsible for giving ice cream and whipped cream their smooth texture. 
Glycerol Monostearate is sometimes used as an antistaling agent in bread.

Glycerol Monostearate can also be used as an additive in plastic, where GMS works as an antistatic and antifogging agent. This is common in food packaging.


Glycerol Monostearate

A solvent for oral, topical applications, co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant, structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids and a viscosity enhancer. 
It also hardens suppository formulations and adjust their melting points.

Glycerol Monostearate is widely used as a co-emulsifier and consistency building factor. 
On the account of its consistency giving characters it is mainly used for the viscosity adjustment in pharmaceutical O/W emulsions. 
Glycerol Monostearate is a white to slightly yellowish, hydrophilic wax, which is supplied as powder. BASF has in-depth knowledge about how to utilize this material and how best to manage its performance and its stability.

Glycerol Monostearate grades can be used for all kinds of topical pharmaceutical applications such as gels, lotions and creams. 
All Glycerol Monostearate grades act as consistency factors and co-emulsifiers at the same time. With their amphiphilic structure they will stabilize the surface between oil and water and will help to enhance the viscosity with building up a liquid crystalline network in the water-phase (lamellar structure).
Glycerol Monostearate is able to stabilize W/O and O/W emulsion and will help top create a unique softness and creaminess in the end application. 
Glycerol Monostearate acts as co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant. 
It stabilizes the surfactant phases & emulsion droplets. It is suitable for production of emulsions & creams, ointments, gels and foams.

Product Details
Chemical name    Glycerol Monostearate
Former product name: Cutina GMS V PH
CAS No.    85251-77-0

Glycerol Monostearate is used as structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids. It can mitigate stickiness or greasiness in emulsions, ointments and gels.

Glycerol Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. It is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.

As co-emulsifier and viscosity enhancer Glycerol Monostearate is used in capsule fill formulations.

Glycerol Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. It is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.


Suppository formulations can be hardened and adjusted in their melting point by the addition of Glycerol Monostearate.

Glycerol monostearate
Structural formula of 1-glycerol monostearate
1-glycerol monostearate (1-isomer)
Structural formula of 2-glycerol monostearate
2-glycerol monostearate (2-isomer)

Names
IUPAC name: 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate

Other names
Glycerol monostearate
Glycerin monostearate
Monostearin

Identifiers
Compounds
(Mix): Mixture of 1- and 2- isomers
(1-): 1-glycerol monostearate
(2-): 2-glycerol monostearate
CAS Number    
(Mix): 31566-31-1 check
(1-): 123-94-4
(2-): 621-61-4

Properties
Chemical formula: C21H42O4
Molar mass: 358.563 g·mol−1
Appearance: White solid
Density: 1.03 g/cm3

Glycerol 1-stearate (Glycerol monostearate), commonly known as GMS, is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier. 
GMS is a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic. 
Glycerol monostearate is a glycerol ester of stearicacid. 
Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase, and is also found in fatty foods. 
GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking, and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents; a protective coating for hygroscopic powders; a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals; and a resin lubricant. 
Glycerol monostearate is also used in cosmetics and hair care products. 
Glycerol monostearate is used in antiperspirants and deodorants, baby care, body care, facial care, sun care, conditioners, facial make-up, creams and lotions-skin care, sprayable emulsions, feet, hands and nails, self-tanning, nail grooming and color cosmetics. 
GMS is largely used in baking preparations to add "body" to the food. 
Glycerol monostearate is responsible for giving ice cream and whipped cream its smooth texture. 
Glycerol monostearate is sometimes used as an anti-staling agent in bread. Glycerol 1-stearate is affirmed by FDA as GRAS.


Description: A white or yellowish white, hard waxy mass or unctuous powder or flakes; odourless or slight, agreeable, fatty odour. 
Solubility: Practically insoluble in water; soluble in ether R, benzene R, and ethanol (~750 g/l) TS at 60 C. 
Category: Emulsifying agent; cream and ointment base. 
Storage: Glycerol monostearate should be kept in a tightly closed container, protected from light. 
Additional information: Glycerol monostearate may contain a suitable antioxidant. 

Self-emulsifying Glycerol monostearate contains additional emulsifying agents. 
Definition: Glycerol monostearate is a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides of stearic and palmitic acids. 
Glycerol monostearate contains not less than the equivalent of 35.0% of monoglycerides, calculated as C20H40O4, and not morethan the equivalent of 6.0% of free glycerol.

Glycerol Monostearate
Also known as glycerol monostearate or monostearin
What is Glycerol Monostearate?
Glycerol monostearate (GMS) is an effective emulsifier used in the baking industry available in the form of small beads, flakes, or powders. 
In addition to emulsification, GMS is a thickening agent and a  stabilizer.

In baking, it is used to improve dough quality and stabilize fat/protein emulsions.

Composition
GMS is a non-ionic ester of glycerol and stearic acid. It is soluble in ethanol at 122°F (50°C) but immiscible with water. 
It often consists of a mixture of mono, di, and triesters of fatty acids occurring in food oils and fats. They may contain small amounts of free fatty acids and glycerol.

Commercial Production
GMS is produced either through heating oils/fats with excess glycerol or by direct esterification of glycerol (of animal or plant sources) with stearic acid. 
The proportion of monoester formed is dependent on the proportion of glycerol and reaction temperature range of 86-140°F (60-80°C). 
Further purification is carried out by high vacuum distillation.2

Function
The ratio of hydrophilic to lipophilic moieties, called hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is used in classifying emulsions. 
HLB values range from 0-20 with lower values indicating dominant lipophilic character while higher values indicate hydrophilic character. 
GMS has a HLB value of 3.8, making it lipophilic and suitable for uses in w/o emulsions, such as batters and doughs, dairy and other products.

GMS is used in a paste form, i.e. mixed with water and other ingredients to improve gel stability. 
It is an unsaturated monoglyceride and offers better stability than other unsaturated monoglycerides, such as oleic acid.

Glycerol Monostearate is used in the baking industry to:

Help in the formation and maintenance of uniform dispersions of immiscible solvents.
Stabilize emulsions via displacing proteins from oil, wax or solvent surfaces.
Improve bread texture, and retard staling due to its complexation with starch amylopectin4
Improve aeration of doughs and batters.
Applications
GMS has been used in the following applications:2

To improve the physical and rheological properties of the batter and thus better-quality cakes
In breads such as pain courant Français, Friss búzakenyér, naan and roti
In sponge cakes and pancakes for aeration.
Dairy products such as cream, whipped cream, ice cream, cream powder, imitation creams, etc.
Fruit/vegetable spreads, jams, jellies, marmalades

Glycerol monostearate, also known as monostearin, is a mixture of variable proportions of Glycerol monostearate (C21H42O4), and Glycerol esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. 
Glycerol monostearate is prepared by glycerolysis of certain fats or oils that are derived from edible sources or by esterification, with glycerin, of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources.


Chemical Properties    
Glycerol monostearate is waxy to the touch and has a slight, mild fatty odor and taste The USP describes Glycerol monostearate as consisting of not less than 90% of monoglycerides, chiefy Glycerol monostearate and Glycerol monopalmitate.

Chemical Properties    
While the names Glycerol monostearate and mono- and diglycerides are used for a variety of esters of long-chain fatty acids, the esters fall into two distinct grades:
40–55 percent monoglycerides The PhEur 6.0 describes Glycerol monostearate 40–55 as a mixture of monoacylglycerols, mostly monostearoylglycerol, together with quantities of di- and triacylglycerols. It contains 40–55% of monoacylglycerols, 30–45% of diacylglycerols, and 5–15% of triacylglycerols. This PhEur grade corresponds to mono- and di-glycerides USP– NF, which has similar specifications (not less than 40% monoglycerides).
90 percent monoglycerides The USP32–NF27 describes Glycerol monostearate as consisting of not less than 90% of monoglycerides of saturated fatty acids, chiefly Glycerol monostearate (C21H42O4) and Glycerol monopalmitate (C19H38O4).
The commercial products are mixtures of variable proportions of Glycerol monostearate and Glycerol monopalmitate.
Glycerol monostearate is a white to cream-colored, wax-like solid in the form of beads, flakes, or powder. 
It is waxy to the touch and has a slight fatty odor and taste.


Uses    Glycerol stearate is an emulsifier that helps form neutral, stable emulsions. It is also a solvent, humectant, and consistency regulator in water-in-oil and oil-in-water formulations. In addition, it can be used as a skin lubricant and imparts a pleasant skin feel. Glycerol stearate is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids, and is made from glycerin and stearic fatty acids. Derived for cosmetic use from palm kernel or soy oil, it is also found in the human body. It is very mild with a low skin-irritation profile; however, a slight risk of irritation exists if products contain poor quality Glycerol stearate.
Uses    Glycerol monostearate is also known as monostearin, is a mixture of variable proportions of Glycerol monostearate, Glycerol monopalmitate, and Glycerol esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Is prepared by glycerolysis of certain fats or oils that are derived from edible sources or by esterification, with glycerin, of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources.
Uses    Lonzest GMS is a surfactant used in a variety of markets.
Uses    Aldo MS BO KFG is a glycerol ester made from soybean oil derived fatty acid. This product finds uses in both food and cosmetic applications.
Uses    Aldo MSD KFG is a self emulsifying nonionic surfactant, used as a lubricant in confectionery, as a release agent and as a dough softener. 
It is used as a low HLB emulsifier in personal care products where non animal grade products are needed.
Uses    In pharmaceutical dispensing
Uses    Glycerol monostearate (glycerin monostearate; Glycerol stearate) is widely used in cosmetics. It is an emulsifying and solubilizing ingredient, dispersing agent, emollient, formula stabilizer, and surface-action agent. employed in baby creams, face masks, foundation, and hand lotions, it is often derived from hydrogenated soybean oil. Glycerol monostearate has little or no G toxicity.

Definition    
An intermediate chemical.

Production Methods    
Glycerol monostearate is prepared by the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides from animal or vegetable sources, producing a mixture of monoglycerides and diglycerides. 
The diglycerides may be further reacted to produce the 90% monoglyceride grade. 
Another process involves reaction of glycerol with stearoyl chloride.
The starting materials are not pure substances and therefore the products obtained from the processes contain a mixture of esters, including palmitate and oleate. 
Consequently, the composition, and therefore the physical properties, of Glycerol monostearate may vary considerably depending on the manufacturer.

Pharmaceutical Applications    
The many varieties of Glycerol monostearate are used as nonionic emulsifiers, stabilizers, emollients, and plasticizers in a variety of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications. 
It acts as an effective stabilizer, that is, as a mutual solvent for polar and nonpolar compounds that may form water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions.
These properties also make it useful as a dispersing agent for pigments in oils or solids in fats, or as a solvent for phospholipids, such as lecithin.
Glycerol monostearate has also been used in a novel fluidized hot-melt granulation technique for the production of granules and tablets.
Glycerol monostearate is a lubricant for tablet manufacturing and may be used to form sustained-release matrices for solid dosage forms. 
Sustained-release applications include the formulation of pellets for tablets or suppositories, and the preparation of a veterinary bolus. Glycerol monostearate has also been used as a matrix ingredient for a biodegradable, implantable, controlledrelease dosage form.
When using Glycerol monostearate in a formulation, the possibility of polymorph formation should be considered. 
The aform is dispersible and foamy, useful as an emulsifying agent or preservative. 
The denser, more stable, b-form is suitable for wax matrices. 
This application has been used to mask the flavor of clarithromycin in a pediatric formulation.

Safety Profile    
Poison by intraperitoneal route. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ESTERS.

Safety    Glycerol monostearate is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.2 g/kg
storage    

If stored at warm temperatures, Glycerol monostearate increases in acid value upon aging owing to the saponification of the ester with trace amounts of water. 
Effective antioxidants may be added, such as butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate.

Glycerol monostearate should be stored in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry place, and protected from light.

Incompatibilities    
The self-emulsifying grades of Glycerol monostearate are incompatible with acidic substances.


Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) is made with natural vegetable oil and fat, which is the most widely applied food emulsifier. Cardlo’s DM-99 GMS is produced by Germany six-stage distillation equipment. It has higher monostearate content (> 99%), lower impurity content, long-term stable physical-chemical indexes and higher emulsifying properties.

 


Application
Benefit
Suggested Dosage

Protein beverage
Glycerol Monostearate stabilizes the fat and protein, prevent elimination and sedimentation 
0.05%-0.1%

Ice cream 
Glycerol Monostearate avoids forming large ice crystal, improve mouth feels and provide creamy texture, improve stabilization
0.1%-0.2%

Flour products

Breads
Glycerol Monostearate improves crumb softness, provides a fine and uniform crumb structure, reduces staling rate
0.3%-0.8% of flour

Cakes
Glycerol Monostearate enlarges volume, improve texture ,prolong the shelf life
3%-10% of oil

Biscuit
Glycerol Monostearate improves process properties, prevent oil separating out and make the dough easy to off-module
1.5%-2% of oil

Oils and fats

Margarine 
Glycerol Monostearate adjusts the oil crystal, imparts fine and stable water dispersion
Shortening
Glycerol Monostearate adjusts the oil crystal, improve its function properties


Coffee-whitener
Glycerol Monostearate gives a more uniform fat globule size distribution resulting in improved whitening effect

Caramels ,toffees and chocolate
Glycerol Monostearate reduces stickiness and sugar crystallization, thus improve the eating quality
1.5%-2% of oil
Chewing gum

Glycerol Monostearate improves mastication and texture, soften gum base and facilitate mixture, especially for SBR and PVA
0.3%-0.5% of base 

Meats products 
Glycerol Monostearate helps fat disperse and combine with water and starch, prevent starch retrogradation
0.1%-1.0%
Edible antifoaming agent
Glycerol Monostearate decreases or inhibit foaming during production
0.1%-1.0%

Peanut butter
Improve stabilization
0.1%-0.2%

Granular potato products
Ensure uniformity, improve structure and make production easier
0.3%-1.0% of starch

For non-food: Glycerol Monostearate is used in PVC lubricants, cosmetics auxiliary emulsifier and thickener, antifogging agent of agricultural greenhouse plastic film, antistatic agent of packaging film.

 


Glycerol Monostearate is a solvent for oral, topical applications, co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant, structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids and a viscosity enhancer. 
Glycerol Monostearate also hardens suppository formulations and adjust their melting points.

Glycerol Monostearate is widely used as a co-emulsifier and consistency building factor. 
On the account of its consistency giving characters it is mainly used for the viscosity adjustment in pharmaceutical O/W emulsions. 
Glycerol Monostearate is a white to slightly yellowish, hydrophilic wax, which is supplied as powder. BASF has in-depth knowledge about how to utilize this material and how best to manage its performance and its stability.

Glycerol Monostearate grades can be used for all kinds of topical pharmaceutical applications such as gels, lotions and creams. 
All Kolliwax grades act as consistency factors and co-emulsifiers at the same time. With their amphiphilic structure they will stabilize the surface between oil and water and will help to enhance the viscosity with building up a liquid crystalline network in the water-phase (lamellar structure).
Glycerol Monostearate is able to stabilize W/O and O/W emulsion and will help top create a unique softness and creaminess in the end application. Glycerol Monostearate acts as co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant. It stabilizes the surfactant phases & emulsion droplets. It is suitable for production of emulsions & creams, ointments, gels and foams.

Product Details
Chemical name: Glycerol Monostearate
Former product name: Cutina GMS V PH
CAS No.    85251-77-0

Glycerol Monostearate is used as structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids. 
Glycerol Monostearate can mitigate stickiness or greasiness in emulsions, ointments and gels.

Glycerol Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. 
Glycerol Monostearate is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.

As co-emulsifier and viscosity enhancer Glycerol Monostearate is used in capsule fill formulations.

Glycerol Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. 
Glycerol Monostearate is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.


Suppository formulations can be hardened and adjusted in their melting point by the addition of Glycerol Monostearate.

Glycerol Monostearate 40-55 PhEur is Nonionic emulsifier, W/O and O/W emulsion stabiliser, dispersant and emollient used in oral and topical pharmaceutical preparations. 
Glycerol Monostearate is used to form sustained release matrices for solid dosage forms. 
Recommended topical usage levels of 1-10%

Glycerol monostearate (GMS) is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier in food. A glycerol ester of stearic acid, it is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting flaky powder. Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a by-product of the breakdown of fats, and is often found in fatty foods.

GMS is the esterification product of vegetable-derived, high-purity triple-pressed stearic acid with glycerin. 

Glycerol monostearate is one of the most broadly utilized ingredients for personal care products. 
GMS is typically used as the primary emulsifier, in conjunction with a variety of auxiliary emulsifiers. 
The typical use level is 2- 5% in creams and lotions. 


GMS should be stored in sealed containers and kept in a cool, dry 
Prolonged storage above 90°F (32°C) should be avoided. 
Avoid overheating.

Glycerol monostearate is emulsifier for foods, Defoamer of TOFU making process, Antifogging agent for plastic films, Plastic lubricant, Antistatic agent for plastics. 
High-purity mono-glyceride with molecular distillation. 
Food use : Mild flavor. Excellent stability.

Use: Emulsifiers for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics,

Synonyms:
     abracol S.L.G.
     admul
     advawax 140
     aldo HMS
     aldo MS
     arlacel 161
     arlacel 169
     armostat 801
     cefatin
     celinhol - A
     cerasynt 1000-D
     cerasynt S
     cerasynt WM
     citomulgan M
     cyclochem GMS
     dermagine
2,3-    dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
(1)-2,3-    dihydroxypropyl stearate
2,3-    dihydroxypropyl stearate
     drewmulse 200K
     drewmulse TP
     drewmulse V
     drumulse AA
     emcol CA
     emcol MSK
     emerest 2400
     emerest 2401
     emerest 2407
     excel VS-95
     glycerin 1-monostearate
     glycerin 1-stearate
     glycerol 1-monostearate
     glycerol 1-stearate
     glycerol a-monostearate
     glycerol monostearate
     glycerol monostearate finastat 9500
     Glycerol 1-monostearate
     Glycerol monooctadecanoate
1-    Glycerol monooctadecanoate
1-    Glycerol monostearate
     Glycerol monostearate flakes
     Glycerol monostearate N.F. grade
1-    Glycerol stearate
     Glycerol-1-monostearate
     grocor 5500
     grocor 6000
     hallstar GMS pure
     hallstar GMS pure C
     hodag GMS
     imwitor 191
     imwitor 900K
     kessco 40
     lipo GMS 450
     lipo GMS 600
     monelgin
     myvaplex 600
     octadecanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
     octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
     octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
     octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
1-    octadecanoyl-rac-glycerol
1-mono    octadecanoyl-rac-glycerol
     ogeen GRB
     ogeen M
     orbon
     protachem GMS
     sandin EU
     sedetine
     starfol GMS 450
     starfol GMS 600
     starfol GMS 900
     stearic acid 1-monoglyceride
     stearic acid a-monoglyceride
     stearic acid alpha-monoglyceride
     stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
     stearic monoglyceride
1-mono    stearin
alpha-mono-    stearin
mono    stearin
mono-    stearin
     stearin, 1-mono-
1-mono    stearoyl glycerol
3-    stearoyl oxy-1,2-propane diol
1-    stearoyl-rac-glycerol
     stearoylglycerol
1-mono    stearoylglycerol
mono    stearoylglycerol
3-    stearoyloxy-1,2-propanediol
     tegin
     unimate GMS
     witconol MS

Glycerol monostearate is a kind of white wax sheet, pearl or powdery solid, dissolves in the organic solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, acetone or ether, also dissolves in mineral oil and vegetable and animals oils.
Water insoluble, strongly vibrating to mix with hot water can be dispersed in the hot water, also can form gel with hot water.
Mono-glycerides HLB value belongs to water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsifying agent 3~4, because emulsifying property is unique, also can be used as oil-in-water (O/W) type emulsifying agent


Glycerol monostearate is a kind of tensio-active agent of non-ionic type.
It existing hydrophilic have again oleophilic group because of, have the several functions such as wetting, emulsification, foaming.
Glycerol monostearate is emulsifying agent and the additive of food; Be used as emulsifying agent in makeup and the medical paste, make lotion fine and smooth, lubricious; Be used for the emulsifying agent of industrial yarn finish and the lubricant of textiles; 
In plastics film, be used as drip agent and antifogging agent; 
In plastic working, make lubricant and static inhibitor, can be used as in other respects defoamer, dispersion agent, thickening material, wetting agent etc.
Its preparation is generally and is divided into chemical method and biological process, and wherein chemical method has following several approach:
(1) by glycerine and stearic acid esterification and get.
Stearic acid, glycerine and sodium hydroxide are added in the reactor, start stirring behind the heating and melting, pass into nitrogen. 
Reacting by heating.
This process application is the most general, but the control condition is the key of product yield and purity in the technique, needs to continue perfect.
(2) direct esterification
Stearic acid and glycerine are pressed 1:(1.2~1.3) mol ratio, under 0.2% an acidic catalyst effect, at 180~250 ℃: the reaction 2~4h; Reactant speed is chilled to 100 ℃, adds the alkali catalyst neutralisation, must contain the product of monoesters 40%~60% after washing with water.
This process yield is low, and product purity is low, the aftertreatment difficulty, and relative cost is high.
(3) ester-interchange method
Stearin and glycerine are at 0.06%~0.1% Cu (OH) 2Under the existence, at 170~240 ℃ of reaction 1~2h, pass into nitrogen protection in the reaction process, reactant obtains containing the product of monoesters 40%~60% after decompression deodorization, acid neutralize, make with extra care.
This technique can be converted into Glycerol monostearate with many stearins, but scale is limited, and product yield is low, and cost is high.
(4) Racemic glycidol saponification method
Racemic glycidol and stearic acid at 100~130 ℃ of reaction 30~70 min, can contain the product of monoesters 80%~90% after reactant is refining under the catalysis of tetraethyl ammonium iodide.
This technological reaction mild condition, productive rate is high, but cost is higher.
(5) epoxy chloropropane phase transfer catalysis process
Epoxy chloropropane and sodium stearate (2:1, mol ratio) are in toluene, under the catalysis of phase-transfer catalyst Tetrabutyl amonium bromide, at 90~110 ℃ of reaction 2h; 
Reactant washs with sodium chloride solution, divides and gets organic phase, and toluene is removed in distillation and unreacted epoxy chloropropane gets the stearic acid glycidyl ester, with its NaOH solution hydrolysis with 0.1mol/L, through separation, drying, get product with the normal hexane recrystallization, monoester content is more than 90%.
The monoesters product of content 40%~60% can obtain high density product more than 90% through molecular distillation.The productive rate of this technique is low, and cost is high.

Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is a monoglyceride mainly used as an emulsifier in foods
It is produced industrially by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides (from either vegetable or animal fats) and glycerol. 
Chemically it is the glycerol ester of stearic acid
 

Glycerol monostearate is a hygroscopic chemical, meaning it draws in water. 
Glycerol monostearate is commonly used as an emulsifier in foods, and is an ideal ingredient if you want to thicken your favourite shake or pre-workout formula without using fat-heavy ingredients like milk and cream.

Glycerol monostearate is a glycerol ester of stearic acid. 
It’s typically found in foods that are high in fat.

Octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
CAS names
Octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol

IUPAC names
1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl stearate
Glycerol monostearate; GMS
Glycerol Monostearate
Glycerol stearate
GMS
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
Stearic Acid, monoester with glycerol (glycerol monostearate)

Trade names
Dimodan
Ekömul Flex Series
GLYCERIN STEARATE
Grindsted
Kemester 150V
Kemester 84 Vegetable
Kemester 84V
Kemester MST
MASESTER GMS 40-NSE
MASESTER GMS 50
MASESTER GMS 60


Applications:    

Application in plastics industry:
Glycerol monostearate is as a lubricant, anti-static agent, non-toxic plasticizer, anti-aging in the production of polymers plastics, packaging films. 
Glycerol monostearate can improve the flexiblity, plasticity and anti-static properties.
Glycerol monostearate is used e.g. in the manufacturing of polypropylene-caps to provide a slip/lubricant effect in addition to an anti-static effect.
Glycerol monostearate is used in agriculture plastic films as anti fogging agent.
Glycerol monostearate is used as a process aid in production of expanded polyethylene to improve gas exchange.

Product benefits:
Reduces friction during the extrusion process, giving a uniform cell size distribution and is improving the gas exchange.
Glycerol monostearate is compatible with anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants and has exceptional electrolyte tolerance.
Glycerol monostearate has effects of emulsification, dispersion, foaming, defoaming and starch anti-aging.

Product dosing:
We strongly recommend testing of your own system under the actual conditions of processing and end-use prior to full scale testing. 
Exact loading must be determined by composition of the specific polymer system.

Other applications:
Glycerol monostearate is used in Cosmetics as co-emulsifier for emulsions  to improve stability and to modify viscosity.
Glycerol monostearate is an emulsifier in the production of foods, including ice cream, chewing gum, toffee,shortening, margarine, starch etc.
Glycerol monostearate is Anti-aging agent for starch.
Glycerol monostearate is Protective coating for hygroscopic powders.


EC / List no.: 286-490-9
CAS no.: 85251-77-0

Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glycerol mono and dipalmitostearate

CAS names
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-

IUPAC names
(1-hexadecanoyloxy-3-hydroxypropan-2-yl) octadecanoate
(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate 2-hydroxy-3-(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate 3-(hexadecanoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl octadecanoate

GELEOL
Glycerides C16-18, mono and di
Glycerides, C16-18 (even numbered) mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di- (even numbered)
Glycerides, C16-18 mono-and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 monoglycerides and diglycerides
Glycerides, C16-18, mono- and di- 85251-77-0
Glycerides, C16-C18 mono- di-

MDG, Saturated

Mono and diglycerides of fatty acids

Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Mono-(C16-18)-acylglycerol and Di-(C16-18)-acylglycerol

Trade names
BC 130
CHINT: FCE (glycerol)mono/diE C16-18
Cithrol 0795
Cithrol GMS-30
Cithrol GMS-40
DUB GMS
GELEOL
GMS
Imwitor 900 K
Imwitor 900 P
PALMSURF GMS 40
PALMSURF GMS 40SE
PALMSURF GMS 50
PALMSURF GMS 50SE
Phase I REACH Kandidat
RADIAMULS MG 2120K
RADIAMULS MG 2142K
RADIAMULS MG 2143
RADIAMULS MG 2143K
RADIAMULS MG 2146
RADIAMULS MG 2164K
RADIAMULS MG 2165K
RADIAMULS MG 2341
RADIAMULS MG 2342
RADIAMULS MG 2364K
RADIAMULS MG 2542K
RADIAMULS MG 2543K
RADIAMULS MG 2604K
RADIAMULS MG 2642K
RADIAMULS MG 2643
RADIAMULS MG 2643K
RADIAMULS MG 2644K
RADIAMULS MG 2646K
RADIAMULS MG 2655
RADIAMULS MG 2923K
RADIASURF 7140
RADIASURF 7142
RADIASURF 7143
RADIASURF 7340
RADIASURF 7342
RADIASURF 7343
RADIASURF 7344
RADIASURF 7346
RADIASURF 7600
RADIASURF 7601
RADIASURF 7641
RADIASURF 7643
RADIASURF 7644
RADIASURF 7645


Glycerol Stearate. IMWITOR 900 K by IOI Oleo is a non-ionic co-emulsifier for O/W emulsions. 
It is an ester of natural stearic and palmitic acid esterified with glycerol. 
It is 100% natural, vegan and compatible with skin. It does not contain additives, residues of antioxidants, stabilizers, solvents or unsaturated components. 
Because of surface-active properties, it functions as solubilizing and binding agent, dispersing adjuvants, softeners and consistency regulators. 
It is applicable for hot/cold and hot/hot processes. 
IMWITOR 900 K finds application in formulating lotions, creams, powders, skin cleansing products, makeup bases and foundations, mascara, eye shadow, eyeliner, hair conditioners and sun care products. 
It is ECOCERT and COSMOS approved. 
It has a shelf life of 24 months.


Glycerol Stearate. 
Cithrol GMS 40 by Croda acts as a co-emulsifier for w/o & o/w emulsions, moisturizing, nourishing and soothing agent. 
It also functions as an emulsion stabilizer, rheology/ viscosity modifier, calming, hydrating and anti-redness agent. Used for baby care, body care, facial care, sun care, conditioners, facial make-up, sprayable emulsions, eyecare and specific skin care treatments. 
Cithrol GMS 40 is also applicable for feet, hands, nails, shampoos, hair care treatments, roll on deodorants, color cosmetics, lip & face care products and depilatories. 
It is eco-certified and bio/ organic approved.


 

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