GLYCINE


Glycine is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. 
It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. 
Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. 
It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). 
Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. 
For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. 
Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter – interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.


EC / List no.: 200-272-2
CAS no.: 56-40-6
Mol. formula: C2H5NO2


Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. 
It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. 
The acyl radical is glycyl.

Definition: The simplest (and the only achiral) proteinogenic amino acid, with a hydrogen atom as its side chain.


APPLICATIONS

Flavor enhancers and maskers, pH buffers and stabilizers, an ingredient in pharmaceutical products, food and personal care products and as a chemical intermediate.

Glycine is a white, crystalline amino acid.

As also known as aminoacetic acid, it is the simplest amino acid. 
It has acid group as well as amino group which both groups act as a base. 
It is not optically active, i.e., it does not have d- and l-stereoisomers as two hydrogens are bonded to the central carbon atom. 
It is nonessential amino acids for mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from amino acids serine and threonine and from other sources and do not require dietary sources. 
It is commercially synthesis from ammonia. 
It is also prepared from bromoethanoic acid by reaction with potassium phthalimide. 
It helps to improve glycogen storage utilized in the synthesis of hemoglobin, collagen, and glutathione, and facilitates the amelioration of high blood fat and uric acid levels.


Different Uses for Glycine
What is glycine?
 
Glycine is known as amino acetic acid. 
Its chemical formula is C2H5NO2, which is a white solid under normal temperature and pressure. 
It is the simplest amino acid in the amino acid series, which is unnecessary to human body.
 

Physical Properties:
White or almost white crystalline powder. Odorless, has a special sweet taste.
 
Glycine has a unique sweet taste, which can moderate acid and alkali flavors, mask the bitterness of saccharine added to foods and enhance sweetness.
If the amount of glycine ingested by human body is too much, it cannot be absorbed and utilized by human body, and it will break the balance of amino acid absorption by human body and affect the absorption of other amino acids, resulting in nutrition imbalance and affecting health.
Glycine as the main raw material for the production of dairy beverages, teenagers and children's normal growth and development is easy to bring adverse effects.

What glycine used for?
Glycine can use in many aspects such as food, pharma, feed, industry and so on.
 
 

Food industry:
Nutritional supplements. 
Mainly used for seasoning and other aspects.

Flavoring and alanine are used together in alcoholic drinks, adding amount: 0.4% wine, 0.2% whiskey, 1.0% champagne.
Other such as powder soup added about 2%;1% of pickled food.
Because it can be a certain degree of shrimp, cuttlefish flavor, can be used for sauces.

It can inhibit the reproduction of bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli.
Therefore, it can be used as the preservative of minced fish products and peanut butter.

It's a buffer against salt and vinegar.The addition amount is 0.3 % ~ 0. 7% for salted products and 0.05 % ~ 0.5 % for acid products.

Antioxidant action (using its metal chelation) added to cream, cheese and margarine can extend the storage life by 3-4 times.
To stabilize lard in baked foods, 2.5 % glucose and 0.5 % glycine can be added.
Instant noodles with wheat flour add 0.1 % ~ 0.5 %, at the same time can play the role of seasoning.

 

Pharmaceutical
 

Used in medical microbiology and biochemical amino acid metabolism research.

Used as a buffer for aureomycin, anti-parkinson's disease drug .

Used as raw material for cephalosporin;Sulfoxycin intermediate;Synthesis of imidazoacetic acid intermediate and so on;

Used as a cosmetic raw materials.

 

Feed additives
It is mainly used as an additive and attractant to increase amino acids in the feed of poultry, livestock and poultry, especially pets.Used as hydrolyzed protein additive, as hydrolyzed protein synergist.
 

Industry
As a pesticide intermediate, such as the main raw material of herbicide glyphosate; Electroplating bath additive;PH regulator, etc.
 

Storage:
Sealed storage, using plastic bags, outer polypropylene woven bags, sacks or round wooden drums packaging, 25kg a package.
Store in a cool, dry, ventilated place.
Above all, it has many uses in industry.


Aminoacetic acid
H-Gly-OH
Glycine, Free Base
glycocoll
Glycine BP
Gly
L-Glycine

Inactive Ingredients
glycine
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Glycine
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)


What is it?
Glycine, NH2CH2COOH, is an organic amino acid compound used pharmacologically as a urologic irrigating solution, in intravenous solutions, and in lower-grade qualities for industrial uses. 
Glycine is also used as a sweetener, and certain pharmaceutical grade products include glycine to improve gastric absorption of the drug. 
It is also used as an emollient, emulsifying agent, and solubilizing agent.

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
CAS NO.    56-40-6    
GLYCINE

EINECS NO.    200-272-2
FORMULA    H2NCH2COOH
MOL WT.    
75.07

H.S. CODE
2922.49
TOXICITY
Oral rat LD50 7930 mg/kg

SYNONYMS: Aminoacetic Acid; Glycocoll; Athenon; Gly; G salt;
Iconyl; Monazol; glycosthene; p-Hydroxyphenylaminoacetic Acid; Aminoethanoic Acid; p-Hydroxyanilinoacetic Acid; para-Oxyphenyl Glycocoll; Sucre De Gelatine;

Name: 2-aminoacetic acid
Glycine is a nonessential amino acid. 
It is the only amino acid that does not form an L or D optical rotation. 
Glycine is the simplest amino acid and is found in the protein of all life forms.

Glycine EP (Aminoacetic acid, Glycocoll, Aminoethanoic acid)

Glycine is used in Tris-Glycine electrophoresis buffer formulations. 
Synonyms: Aminoacetic acid, Glycocol, Aminoethanoic acid, CAS No: 56-40-6, 
Molecular Formula: C2H5NO2, 
Molecular Weight: 75.07, 
Appearance: White crystalline or powder, 
Purity: >99%, Solubility: Complete solubility in water. 
Slight solubility in alcohol and ether. 
pH (1%): 5.9-6.5, 
Residue on Ignition: < 0.1%, 
Heavy Metals (Pb): < 0.002%, 
Chloride: < 0.007%, Sulfate: < 0.0065%, 
Identity (IR): Conforms to reference USP, 
Loss on Drying (105°C for 2 hrs.): <0.2%, 
Hydrolyzable Substances: Clear and mobile solution, 
Storage and Stability: Glycine is stable at RT. 

Powder may be stored at 4°C for long term storage. 
Stable for 12 months after receipt at 4°C. 

Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological. 
Toxicity and Hazards: All products should be handled by qualified personnel only, trained in laboratory procedures.

Glycine
EC Inventory: glycine
CAS names: Glycine

IUPAC names
2-aminoacetic acid
2-Aminoacetic acid
aminoacetic acid
Aminoacetic acid, Aminoethanoic acid, Glycocoll, Gly
Glycin
Glycine
glycine
Glycine
Glycine2-aminoacetic acidAminoacetic acid
SRL Pharma GmbH

Trade names
Aminoacetic Acid
Glycine
Glycocol

Chemical Properties:
    Aliphatic
(Aliphatic R-group)

 

Physical Properties:     
Nonpolar
   
Glycine is the smallest of the amino acids. 
It is ambivalent, meaning that it can be inside or outside of the protein molecule. 
In aqueous solution at or near neutral pH, glycine will exist predominantly as the zwitterion

The isoelectric point or isoelectric pH of glycine will be centered between the pKas of the two ionizable groups, the amino group and the carboxylic acid group.

In estimating the pKa of a functional group, it is important to consider the molecule as a whole. 
For example, glycine is a derivative of acetic acid, and the pKa of acetic acid is well known. 
Alternatively, glycine could be considered a derivative of aminoethane.

Other names: Acetic acid, amino-; Aciport; Aminoacetic acid; Aminoethanoic acid; Glicoamin; Glycocoll; Glycolixir; Glycosthene; Padil; NH2CH2COOH; Amitone; Glycine, non-medical; Hampshire glycine; Athenon; Gly; Glycine, free base; Gyn-hydralin; 2-Aminoacetic acid; NSC 25936; Corilin (Salt/Mix)

IUPAC Name    2-aminoacetic acid
Alternative Names    glycine

2-Aminoacetic acid

aminoacetic acid


Amino acids are considered to be prime ingredients in chemistry, leading to life. Glycine is the simplest amino acid and most commonly found in animal proteins. It is a glucogenic and non-essential amino acid that is produced naturally by the living body and plays a key role in the creation of several other important bio-compounds and proteins. 

Applications
Food additive
Feed additive
Cosmetic
Intermediate for chemical synthesis


GLYCINE Technical Grade
Technical Grade Glycine
FeaturesUsesTypical PropertiesProduct Applications & Benefits
Improves the efficacy and delivery of nutrients
Chemical synthesis and provide mineral complexing sites for optimal absorption in human/agricultural applications
Rubber foam sponge production
Metal plating baths

PRODUCT DETAILS
Simplest amino acid - used in a range of applications, such as flavor enhancers and maskers, pH buffers and stabilizers, ingredients in pharmaceutical products and as a chemical intermediate


Glycine is a non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid. Glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, triggers chloride ion influx via ionotropic receptors, thereby creating an inhibitory post-synaptic potential. 
In contrast, this agent also acts as a co-agonist, along with glutamate, facilitating an excitatory potential at the glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. 
Glycine is an important component and precursor for many macromolecules in the cells.

Glycine is the other major fast inhibitory neurotransmitter of the inner retina, and approximately one-half of all amacrine cells are glycinergic.

The amino acid glycine plays a key role in maintaining a healthy central nervous system (CNS).
It is considered one of the most important inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord.
Studies show glycine can help improve memory retrieval in individuals with a wide variety of sleep-depriving conditions, such as jet lag and overwork.
The benefits of glycine are not just limited to the CNS. 
Glycine also plays a key role in phase II liver detoxification by having a direct effect on toxin elimination or by increasing the level of glutathione.
Glycine also helps modulate cytokines associated with obesity.*

Glycine is one of three amino acids needed to produce creatine, which in turn supplies energy to muscle and nerve cells.
The other two amino acids are arginine and methionine. High concentrations of glycine are found in the muscles, the skin, and other connective tissues. 
Approximately 30 percent of collagen is composed of glycine.

Glycine plays an important role in supporting a healthy digestive system by helping to regulate the synthesis of bile acid, which the body uses to digest fats.
Glycine also plays a role in regulating the utilization of glucose during energy production.

Glycine is a non-essential amino acid that is produced naturally by the body. 
It is one of 20 amino acids in the human body that synthesize proteins, and it plays a key role in the creation of several other important compounds and proteins.


What is the Role of Glycine in the Body?
The primary function glycine takes on in the body is to synthesize proteins. 
However, it is also essential for the healthy development of the skeleton, muscles, and tissues.

Glycine benefits for bone health
Although the impact of specific amino acids on bone mineral density and the risk of bone diseases such as osteoporosis has not been identified, glycine has been implicated in promoting bone health.

It is thought that glycine (among other non-essential amino acids) helps bone health through the production of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, along with the synthesis of collagen, which is an important protein for bone, tissue, and muscle health throughout the body.

Glycine benefits for muscle health
Glycine can prevent muscles from breaking down through boosting the level of creatine in the body, which is a compound found in the muscle cells and made by glycine and two other amino acids.

Boosting creatine in the muscles can help them to perform better in short, intense bursts of activity such as weightlifting or sprinting. 
Several studies have shown that boosting creatine in the body can lead to increased muscle strength, mass, and power, and it may also help with recovery after exercise and rehabilitation after injury.

One study found that a daily dose of 5 g to 20 g of creatine meant that patients requiring one injured leg to be kept in a cast for 2 weeks experienced less muscle atrophy due to inactivity, and they gained more strength from their rehabilitation exercises than those not taking creatine.

As a result, glycine is a popular supplement for bodybuilders and those wishing to gain muscle mass and strength. However, the body can synthesize creatine itself and can be taken in through the diet, so glycine supplements to boost creatine levels may not always be necessary.

Glycine benefits for tissue health
Glycine is found in high amounts in collagen, which is a structural protein that promotes strength and elasticity in the skin. 
It is the main element that makes up the fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and bones, and is the most abundant protein in the human body.

Glycine supplements have been shown to reduce the levels of bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women, reduce joint deterioration in athletes experiencing joint pain, and increase skin elasticity in older women.

Glycine benefits on sleep
3 g of glycine a day before sleep has been found to improve sleep quality and reduce feelings of fatigue during the day in people with insomnia or those who do not have much time to sleep.

Glycine injections in animal studies have been shown to limit the activity of neurons that are responsible for arousal and energy homeostasis, and glycine injections have also been found to encourage non-REM sleep in mice, although the link between glycine and neuronal activity blocking of this kind is disputed.

Sleep may also be improved with glycine because it decreases the body’s core temperature, and cooler body temperatures are linked with better quality sleep.

It is believed that glycine supplementation activates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and leads to better thermoregulation and circadian rhythm, although the mechanisms through which glycine activates NMDA receptors in the SCN to induce better sleep are not yet understood.


Glycine benefits on neurological health
Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays a role in the processing of motor and sensory information. 
It is found in the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the retina, and can both inhibit and promote excitability in various neurotransmitters.

This can be helpful and dangerous depending on the strength of inhibition or excitation and the dose of glycine.

If a dose of glycine is too high, it can cause fatal hyperexcitability in the brain, but highly inhibited glycine can cause muscular convulsions and asphyxia, causing death. 
This is because glycine receptors can be blocked by strychnine, which in high amounts causes these fatal complications.

However, the inhibitory functions of glycine help manage psychological conditions such as schizophrenia, and glycine has become a potential therapeutic route for the management of schizophrenia symptoms.

Glycine can increase the neurotransmission of NMDA, and low levels of NMDA receptors have been reported as a possible contributing factor to the development of schizophrenia. 
Glycine is safe for short- and long-term use, and as such it is a possible effective treatment for the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Literature reviews have found that creatine supplements may improve short-term memory function and the reasoning capabilities in healthy people, although its benefits on those living with dementia or other degenerative cognitive diseases have not been fully ascertained.

Related to glycine’s role in the creation of creatine, it has been widely documented that creatine has neuroprotective properties. 
Animal studies investigating the benefits of creatine supplementation on traumatic brain injuries (TBI), cerebral ischemia, and spinal cord injuries (SCI) have found that creatine can improve the level of damage to the cortical region from 36 to 50 percent, and in rats with spinal cord injuries, creatine supplementation improved locomotor function.

As it has been proven safe to consume as a supplement, creatine supplementation could, therefore, have potential as a therapeutic agent in humans to treat TBI and SCI.

What Other Sources of Glycine are There?
Although glycine is made naturally by the body, it can also be found in a range of common foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes. 
These protein-rich foods should provide the body with enough glycine to function healthily without the need for glycine supplementation.

Glycine supplements are made in powders or capsules, and powders are often added to food and drinks because of its naturally sweet taste.

Summary
Although glycine is the simplest amino acid, it has a complex array of functions and effects on the body. While it can inhibit certain neurotransmitters that can improve certain psychological conditions, it can also excite neurotransmitters that cause muscular convulsions and potentially fatal brain hyperexcitability.

It is safe to consume as a dietary supplement in appropriate doses, both for short- and long-term use, however, the body will usually receive the right amount of glycine from a varied, healthy diet. 
It has a range of benefits that include the bones, tissues, muscles, and central nervous system, and as such is one of the most important non-essential amino acids in the body.

Glycine and glycine monoethyl ester
Glycine has been used in a number of reduced salt products (Matsumoto et al., 2000; Omura et al., 2001). 
Its function appears to be a combination of reducing water activity as well as acting as a salt enhancer for various types of sausages (Gelabert et al., 2003; Gou et al., 1996). 
Kuramitsu et al. (1997) and Segawa et al. (1995) have investigated the use of glycine ester in soy sauce. 
It should be noted that some confusion between glycine and glycine ester is evident in published papers.

The results obtained from the addition of glycine at 20% to sausages produced a slight reduction of acid and salty taste. 
Results obtained from work on soy sauce indicate that glycine ester elicits adverse taste characteristics, namely sour/acid, at higher concentrations, suggesting that its use at low concentrations is to provide a salty taste.


Glycine is the simplest (and the only achiral) proteinogenic amino acid, with a hydrogen atom as its side chain. 
It has a role as a nutraceutical, a hepatoprotective agent, an EC 2.1.2.1 (glycine hydroxymethyltransferase) inhibitor, a NMDA receptor agonist, a micronutrient, a fundamental metabolite and a neurotransmitter. 
It is an alpha-amino acid, a serine family amino acid and a proteinogenic amino acid. 
It is a conjugate base of a glycinium. 
It is a conjugate acid of a glycinate. It is a tautomer of a glycine zwitterion.

glycine
2-Aminoacetic acid
56-40-6
aminoacetic acid
Glycocoll
Aminoethanoic acid
Glycolixir
Padil
Glycosthene
Aciport
Glicoamin
L-Glycine
H-Gly-OH
Hampshire glycine
Amitone
Leimzucker
Acetic acid, amino-
Aminoazijnzuur
Glycine, non-medical
Sucre de gelatine
Gyn-hydralin
GLY (IUPAC abbrev)
Glycinum
Corilin
Glycinum [INN-Latin]
Glicina [INN-Spanish]
Glycine [INN]
glycyl radical
Glyzin
FEMA No. 3287
gly
Acide aminoacetique [INN-French]
Acido aminoacetico [INN-Spanish]
Acidum aminoaceticum [INN-Latin]
CCRIS 5915
HSDB 495
AI3-04085
amino-Acetic acid
UNII-TE7660XO1C
MFCD00008131
NSC 25936
[14C]glycine
GLYCINE 1.5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER
EINECS 200-272-2
CHEMBL773
AMINOACETIC ACID 1.5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER
Glycine iron sulphate (1:1)
TE7660XO1C
CHEBI:15428
2-aminoaceticacid
AZD-4282
NSC25936
Athenon
NSC-25936
25718-94-9
polyglycine
NCGC00024503-01
Glicina
DSSTox_CID_667
Glycine, free base
Polyglycine II
Acido aminoacetico
Acide aminoacetique
DSSTox_RID_75720
DSSox_GSID_20667
Acidum aminoaceticum
Glycine, 99%, ACS reagent
Glycine, 99+%, for analysis
Glykokoll
Aminoessigsaeure
Hgly
CAS-56-40-6
Glycine, labeled with carbon-14
Glycine [USP:INN]
H2N-CH2-COOH
Glycine, homopolymer (VAN)
Aminoethanoate
amino-Acetate
2-aminoacetate
Glycine;
glycine USP
Glycine Technical
glycine-13c
[3H]glycine
Glycine, EP/USP
H-Gly
L-Gly
Gly-CO
Gly-OH
L-Glycine,(S)
[14C]-glycine
Corilin (Salt/Mix)
Glycine 1 M solution
PubChem18924
Tocris-0219
Glycine (H-Gly-OH)
NH2CH2COOH
Glycine, >=99%
Aminoacetic acid,medicinal
Glycine (JP17/USP)
Glycine, 99%, FCC
Biomol-NT_000195
bmse000089
bmse000977
WLN: Z1VQ
EC 200-272-2
H-[15N]Gly-OH
Gly-253
GTPL727
AB-131/40217813
KSC205S9D
Glycine, Electrophoresis Grade
BPBio1_001222
GTPL4084
GTPL4635
N[C]C(O)=O
DTXSID9020667
BDBM18133
Buffer Concentrate, pH 11.01
CTK1A5991
H-Gly-OH 56-40-6
Glycine, >=99.0% (NT)
Glycine, 98.5-101.5%
Pharmakon1600-01300021
2-Aminoacetic acid;Aminoacetic acid
BCP25965
CS-B1641
HY-Y0966
KS-000002MW
ZINC4658552
Glycine, ACS reagent, >=98.5%
Tox21_113575
2-amino-1-$l^{1}-oxidanylethanone
ANW-32505
Glycine, 99%, natural, FCC, FG
LS-218
NSC760120
s4821
STL194276
Glycine, purum, >=98.5% (NT)
Glycine, tested according to Ph.Eur.
AKOS000119626
Glycine, for electrophoresis, >=99%
Tox21_113575_1
AM81781
CCG-266010
DB00145
MCULE-2415764032
NSC-760120
Glycine, BioUltra, >=99.0% (NT)
Glycine, BioXtra, >=99% (titration)
Glycine, SAJ special grade, >=99.0%
NCGC00024503-02
NCGC00024503-03
18875-39-3
AK-77854
BP-31024
BR-7784
Glycine, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
SC-26884
Glycine, 0.2M buffer solution, pH 2.5
Glycine, 0.2M buffer solution, pH 3.0
Glycine, 0.2M buffer solution, pH 3.5
DB-029870
FT-0600491
FT-0669038
G0099
G0317
Glycine, ReagentPlus(R), >=99% (HPLC)
A20662
C00037
D00011
M-6155
M03001
L001246
Q62073
SR-01000597729
Glycine, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
Q-201300
SR-01000597729-1
Q27115084
B72BA06C-60E9-4A83-A24A-A2D7F465BB65
F2191-0197
Glycine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Z955123660
Glycine, BioUltra, for molecular biology, >=99.0% (NT)
UNII-0O72R8RF8A component DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Glycine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Glycine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Tris-tricine buffer; Tris-glycine buffer;Tris glycine buffer concentrate
Glycine, analytical standard, for nitrogen determination according to Kjeldahl method
Glycine, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, >=98.5%
Glycine, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99-101% (based on anhydrous substance)
Glycine, PharmaGrade, Ajinomoto, EP, JP, USP, manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for Pharma or Biopharmaceutical production, suitable for cell culture
Glycine, puriss. p.a., Reag. Ph. Eur., buffer substance, 99.7-101% (calc. to the dried substance)


History and etymology
Glycine was discovered in 1820 by the French chemist Henri Braconnot when he hydrolyzed gelatin by boiling it with sulfuric acid.[
He originally called it "sugar of gelatin",[8][9] but the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Boussingault showed that it contained nitrogen.
The American scientist Eben Norton Horsford, then a student of the German chemist Justus von Liebig, proposed the name "glycocoll"; however, the Swedish chemist Berzelius suggested the simpler name "glycine".
The name comes from the Greek word γλυκύς "sweet tasting" (which is also related to the prefixes glyco- and gluco-, as in glycoprotein and glucose). 
In 1858, the French chemist Auguste Cahours determined that glycine was an amine of acetic acid.

Production
Although glycine can be isolated from hydrolyzed protein, this is not used for industrial production, as it can be manufactured more conveniently by chemical synthesis.
The two main processes are amination of chloroacetic acid with ammonia, giving glycine and ammonium chloride, and the Strecker amino acid synthesis, which is the main synthetic method in the United States and Japan.
About 15 thousand tonnes are produced annually in this way.

Glycine is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct.

Chemical reactions
Its acid–base properties are most important. 
In aqueous solution, glycine itself is amphoteric: at low pH the molecule can be protonated with a pKa of about 2.4 and at high pH it loses a proton with a pKa of about 9.6 (precise values of pKa depend on temperature and ionic strength).

Glycine-protonation-states-2D-skeletal.png

Glycine functions as a bidentate ligand for many metal ions. 
A typical complex is Cu(glycinate)2, i.e. Cu(H2NCH2CO2)2, which exists both in cis and trans isomers.

As a bifunctional molecule, glycine reacts with many reagents. 
These can be classified into N-centered and carboxylate-center reactions.

The amine undergoes the expected reactions.
 With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid and acetylglycine.
With nitrous acid, one obtains glycolic acid (van Slyke determination). 
With methyl iodide, the amine becomes quaternized to give betaine, a natural product:

H3N+CH2COO− + 3 CH3I → (CH3)3N+CH2COO− + 3 HI
Glycine condenses with itself to give peptides, beginning with the formation of glycylglycine:

2 H3N+CH2COO− → H3N+CH2CONHCH2COO− + H2O
Pyrolysis of glycine or glycylglycine gives 2,5-diketopiperazine, the cyclic diamide.

Metabolism
Biosynthesis
Glycine is not essential to the human diet, as it is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine, which is in turn derived from 3-phosphoglycerate, but the metabolic capacity for glycine biosynthesis does not satisfy the need for collagen synthesis.
In most organisms, the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyses this transformation via the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate:

serine + tetrahydrofolate → glycine + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + H2O
In the liver of vertebrates, glycine synthesis is catalyzed by glycine synthase (also called glycine cleavage enzyme). 
This conversion is readily reversible:

CO2 + NH+
4 + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + NADH + H+ ⇌ Glycine + tetrahydrofolate + NAD+
In addition to being synthesized from serine, glycine can also be derived from threonine, choline or hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism of the liver and kidneys.

Degradation
Glycine is degraded via three pathways. The predominant pathway in animals and plants is the reverse of the glycine synthase pathway mentioned above. 
In this context, the enzyme system involved is usually called the glycine cleavage system:

Glycine + tetrahydrofolate + NAD+ ⇌ CO2 + NH+
4 + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + NADH + H+
In the second pathway, glycine is degraded in two steps. The first step is the reverse of glycine biosynthesis from serine with serine hydroxymethyl transferase. 
Serine is then converted to pyruvate by serine dehydratase.[26]

In the third pathway of its degradation, glycine is converted to glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase.
Glyoxylate is then oxidized by hepatic lactate dehydrogenase to oxalate in an NAD+-dependent reaction.

The half-life of glycine and its elimination from the body varies significantly based on dose.
In one study, the half-life varied between 0.5 and 4.0 hours.

Glycine is extremely sensitive to antibiotics which target folate, and blood Glycine levels drop severely within a minute of antibiotic injections. 
Some antibiotics can deplete more than 90% of Glycine within a few minutes of being administered.[29]

Physiological function
The principal function of glycine is as a precursor to proteins. 
Most proteins incorporate only small quantities of glycine, a notable exception being collagen, which contains about 35% glycine due to its periodically repeated role in the formation of collagen's helix structure in conjunction with hydroxyproline.
In the genetic code, glycine is coded by all codons starting with GG, namely GGU, GGC, GGA and GGG.

As a biosynthetic intermediate
In higher eukaryotes, δ-aminolevulinic acid, the key precursor to porphyrins, is biosynthesized from glycine and succinyl-CoA by the enzyme ALA synthase. 
Glycine provides the central C2N subunit of all purines.[26]

As a neurotransmitter
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina. 
When glycine receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). 
Strychnine is a strong antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors, whereas bicuculline is a weak one. Glycine is a required co-agonist along with glutamate for NMDA receptors. 
In contrast to the inhibitory role of glycine in the spinal cord, this behaviour is facilitated at the (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors which are excitatory.
The LD50 of glycine is 7930 mg/kg in rats (oral),[32] and it usually causes death by hyperexcitability.

Uses
In the US, glycine is typically sold in two grades: United States Pharmacopeia (“USP”), and technical grade. 
USP grade sales account for approximately 80 to 85 percent of the U.S. market for glycine. 
If purity greater than the USP standard is needed, for example for intravenous injections, a more expensive pharmaceutical grade glycine can be used. 
Technical grade glycine, which may or may not meet USP grade standards, is sold at a lower price for use in industrial applications, e.g., as an agent in metal complexing and finishing.

Animal and human foods

Structure of cis-Cu(glycinate)2(H2O).[34]
Glycine is not widely used in foods for its nutritional value, except in infusions. Instead glycine's role in food chemistry is as a flavorant. 
It is mildly sweet, and it counters the aftertaste of saccharine. It also has preservative properties, perhaps owing to its complexation to metal ions. 
Metal glycinate complexes, e.g. copper(II) glycinate are used as supplements for animal feeds.

Chemical feedstock
Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. 
It is used in the manufacture of the herbicides glyphosate, iprodione, glyphosine, imiprothrin, and eglinazine.
It is used as an intermediate of the medicine such as thiamphenicol

Laboratory research
Glycine is a significant component of some solutions used in the SDS-PAGE method of protein analysis. 
It serves as a buffering agent, maintaining pH and preventing sample damage during electrophoresis. 
Glycine is also used to remove protein-labeling antibodies from Western blot membranes to enable the probing of numerous proteins of interest from SDS-PAGE gel. 
This allows more data to be drawn from the same specimen, increasing the reliability of the data, reducing the amount of sample processing, and number of samples required. 
This process is known as stripping.

Presence in space
The presence of glycine outside the earth was confirmed in 2009, based on the analysis of samples that had been taken in 2004 by the NASA spacecraft Stardust from comet Wild 2 and subsequently returned to earth. 
Glycine had previously been identified in the Murchison meteorite in 1970.
The discovery of cometary glycine bolstered the theory of panspermia, which claims that the "building blocks" of life are widespread throughout the Universe.
In 2016, detection of glycine within Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta spacecraft was announced.

The detection of glycine outside the solar system in the interstellar medium has been debated.
In 2008, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy discovered the spectral lines of a glycine-like molecule aminoacetonitrile in the Large Molecule Heimat, a giant gas cloud near the galactic center in the constellation Sagittarius.


Evolution
Several independent evolutionary studies using different types of data have suggested that glycine belongs to a group of amino acids that constituted the early genetic code.
For example, low complexity regions (in proteins), that may resemble the proto-peptides of the early genetic code are highly enriched in glycine.

Presence in foods
Food sources of glycine
Food    g/100g
Snacks, pork skins    11.04
Sesame seeds flour (low fat)    3.43
Beverages, protein powder (soy-based)    2.37
Seeds, safflower seed meal, partially defatted    2.22
Meat, bison, beef and others (various parts)    1.5-2.0
Gelatin desserts    1.96
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels    1.82
Turkey, all classes, back, meat and skin    1.79
Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin    1.74
Pork, ground, 96% lean / 4% fat, cooked, crumbles    1.71
Bacon and beef sticks    1.64
Peanuts    1.63
Crustaceans, spiny lobster    1.59
Spices, mustard seed, ground    1.59
Salami    1.55
Nuts, butternuts, dried    1.51
Fish, salmon, pink, canned, drained solids    1.42
Almonds    1.42
Fish, mackerel    0.93
Cereals ready-to-eat, granola, homemade    0.81
Leeks, (bulb and lower-leaf portion), freeze-dried    0.7
Cheese, parmesan (and others), grated    0.56
Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt    0.51
Bread, protein (includes gluten)    0.47
Egg, whole, cooked, fried    0.47
Beans, white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt    0.38
Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt    0.37


Glycine is an amino acid that your body uses to create proteins, which it needs for the growth and maintenance of tissue and for making important substances, such as hormones and enzymes.

Your body naturally produces glycine from other amino acids, but it’s also found in protein-rich foods and available as a dietary supplement.

Along with being a component of protein, glycine has several other impressive health benefits.

Glycine is one of three amino acids that your body uses to make glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect your cells against oxidative damage caused by free radicals, which are thought to underlie many diseases.

Without enough glycine, your body produces less glutathione, which could negatively affect how your body handles oxidative stress over time.

In addition, because glutathione levels naturally decline with age, ensuring that you get enough glycine as you get older may benefit your health.


Glycine is also one of three amino acids that your body uses to make a compound called creatine.

Creatine provides your muscles with energy to perform quick, short bursts of activity, such as weightlifting and sprinting.

When combined with resistance training, supplementing with creatine has been shown to increase muscle size, strength and power.

It has also been studied for its beneficial effects on bone health, brain function and neurological conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

While your body naturally creates creatine and it can be obtained through your diet, getting too little glycine may reduce how much you produce.

SUMMARY
Glycine is a component of creatine, a compound that provides your muscles with energy and has been associated with other health benefits, such as improved bone health and brain function.


Collagen is a structural protein that contains high amounts of glycine. 
In fact, every third to fourth amino acid in collagen is glycine.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body. 
It provides strength for your muscles, skin, cartilage, blood, bones and ligaments.

Supplementing with collagen has been shown to benefit skin health, relieve joint pain and prevent bone loss.

Therefore, it’s important that you get enough glycine to support your body’s production of collagen.

SUMMARY
Glycine is the most abundant amino acid in collagen, a structural protein that has several health benefits, including for your skin, joints and bones.

While there are several ways you can improve your sleep quality, such as not drinking caffeinated beverages late in the day or avoiding bright screens a few hours before bedtime, glycine may also help.

This amino acid has a calming effect on your brain and could help you fall and stay asleep by lowering your core body temperature.

Research in people with sleep issues has shown that taking 3 grams of glycine before bed decreases how long it takes to fall asleep, enhances sleep quality, lessens daytime sleepiness and improves cognition.

For this reason, glycine may be a good alternative to prescription sleeping pills for improving sleep quality at night and tiredness during the day.

Glycine may promote sleep and enhance the quality of your sleep through its calming effects on the brain and its ability to lower core body temperature


Increasing evidence suggests that glycine offers protection against heart disease.

It prevents the accumulation of a compound that, in high amounts, has been linked to atherosclerosis, the hardening and narrowing of the arteries.

This amino acid may also improve your body’s ability to use nitric oxide, an important molecule that increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure.

In an observational study in over 4,100 people with chest pains, higher levels of glycine were associated with a lower risk of heart disease and heart attacks at a 7.4-year follow-up.

After accounting for cholesterol-lowering medications, the researchers also observed a more favorable blood cholesterol profile in people who had higher glycine levels.

What’s more, glycine has been found to reduce several risk factors of heart disease in rats fed a high-sugar diet.

Eating and drinking too much added sugar can raise blood pressure, increase levels of fat in your blood and promote dangerous fat gain around the belly — all of which can promote heart disease.

While encouraging, clinical studies on the effects of glycine on heart disease risk in humans are needed before it can be recommended.

SUMMARY
Glycine may lower heart disease risk factors by preventing the build-up of a molecule associated with heart disease and by increasing your body’s ability to use nitric oxide.


ype 2 diabetes may lead to low levels of glycine.

It’s a condition characterized by impaired insulin secretion and action, meaning your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or that it doesn’t respond properly to the insulin it makes.

Insulin decreases your blood sugar levels by signaling its uptake into cells for energy or storage.

Interestingly, because glycine has been shown to increase insulin response in people without diabetes, it’s suggested that glycine supplements may improve impaired insulin response in people with type 2 diabetes.

Higher levels of glycine are associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, even after accounting for other factors that are associated with the condition, such as lifestyle.

Therefore, people with type 2 diabetes may benefit from supplementing with glycine, though research is too preliminary to make any specific recommendations.

If you have type 2 diabetes, the best way to reduce your insulin resistance is through weight loss by means of diet and exercise.

SUMMARY
Supplementing with glycine may improve impaired insulin action, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. 
However, research to make any specific recommendations for its use in people with the condition is insufficient.


Glycine may reduce muscle wasting, a condition that occurs with aging, malnutrition and when your body is under stress, such as with cancer or severe burns.

Muscle wasting leads to a harmful reduction in muscle mass and strength, which declines functional status and can complicate other potentially present diseases.

The amino acid leucine has been studied as a treatment for muscle wasting, as it strongly inhibits muscle breakdown and enhances muscle building.

However, several changes in the body during muscle-wasting conditions impair the effectiveness of leucine for stimulating muscle growth.

Interestingly, in mice with muscle wasting conditions, such as cancer, research has shown that glycine was able to stimulate muscle growth whereas leucine was not.

Therefore, glycine holds promise for improving health by protecting muscles from wasting during various wasting conditions.

Still, more research in humans is needed.

SUMMARY
Glycine may preserve muscle mass in wasting conditions, such as cancer, malnutrition and burns, though more research in humans is needed.

Glycine is found in varying amounts in meat, especially in tough cuts like the chuck, round and brisket.

You can also get glycine from gelatin, a substance made from collagen that’s added to various food products to improve consistency.


In fact, the name glycine is derived from the Greek word for “sweet.”

Due to its sweet taste, you can easily incorporate glycine powder into your diet by adding it to:

Coffee and tea
Soups
Oatmeal
Protein shakes
Yogurt
Pudding
Take Collagen Supplements
Glycine is the main amino acid in collagen, the main structural protein of connective tissue, such as bone, skin, ligaments, tendons and cartilage.

Accordingly, you can boost your glycine intake by taking collagen protein supplements.

This is likely more efficient, as glycine competes with other amino acids for absorption and is therefore absorbed less efficiently by itself than when it’s bound to other amino acids, as in the case of collagen.

Is Glycine Safe?
Supplementing with glycine is safe in appropriate amounts.

Studies have used up to 90 grams of glycine per day over several weeks without serious side effects.

For comparison, the standard dose used in studies is about 3–5 grams per day.

SUMMARY
Glycine powder is readily available and can easily be added to your favorite drinks and some foods. 
Collagen supplements are also an efficient way to boost your glycine intake. 
Both methods are a safe way to get more of this important nutrient.
The Bottom Line
Glycine is an amino acid with many impressive health benefits.

Your body needs glycine to make important compounds, such as glutathione, creatine and collagen.

This amino acid may also protect your liver from alcohol-induced damage and improve sleep quality and heart health.

What’s more, glycine may also benefit people with type 2 diabetes and protect against muscle loss that occurs with muscle-wasting conditions.

You can increase your intake of this important nutrient by eating some meat products, by adding the powdered supplement form to drinks and foods or by supplementing with collagen.

Glycine is an amino acid, or a building block for protein. 
The body can make glycine on its own, but it is also consumed in the diet. 
A typical diet contains about 2 grams of glycine daily. 
The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes. 
Glycine can also be taken as a supplement.

Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. 
It is not considered an “essential amino acid” because the body can make it from other chemicals. 
A typical diet contains about 2 grams of glycine daily. 
The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.

Glycine is used for treating schizophrenia, stroke, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and some rare inherited metabolic disorders. 
It is also used to protect kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs used after organ transplantation as well as the liver from harmful effects of alcohol. 
Other uses include cancer prevention and memory enhancement.

Some people apply glycine directly to the skin to treat leg ulcers and heal other wounds.

Sweet-tasting, it was among the earliest amino acids to be isolated from gelatin (1820). 
Especially rich sources include gelatin and silk fibroin. 
Glycine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for mammals; 
i.e., they can synthesize it from the amino acids serine and threonine and from other sources and do not require dietary sources


Glycine (symbol Gly or G; ) is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. 
It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. 
Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. 
It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). 
Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. 
For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. 
Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter – interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction. 
Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. 
It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. 
It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. 
The acyl radical is glycyl.

Roles Classification 
Chemical Role(s): Bronsted acid

A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Bronsted base).
(via oxoacid )

Bronsted base
A molecular entity capable of accepting a hydron from a donor (Bronsted acid).
(via organic amino compound )

Biological Role(s):    micronutrient
Any nutrient required in small quantities by organisms throughout their life in order to orchestrate a range of physiological functions.

EC 2.1.2.1 (glycine hydroxymethyltransferase) inhibitor
An EC 2.1.2.* (hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and related transferases) inhibitor that interferes with the action of glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (EC 2.1.2.1).

NMDA receptor agonist
An excitatory amino acid agonist which binds to NMDA receptors and triggers a response.

fundamental metabolite
Any metabolite produced by all living cells.

neurotransmitter
An endogenous compound that is used to transmit information across the synapse between a neuron and another cell.

Application(s):    nutraceutical
A product in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance.

hepatoprotective agent
Any compound that is able to prevent damage to the liver.

NMDA receptor agonist
An excitatory amino acid agonist which binds to NMDA receptors and triggers a response.

glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role EC 2.1.2.1 (glycine hydroxymethyltransferase) inhibitor (CHEBI:64570)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role fundamental metabolite (CHEBI:78675)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role hepatoprotective agent (CHEBI:62868)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role micronutrient (CHEBI:27027)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role neurotransmitter (CHEBI:25512)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role NMDA receptor agonist (CHEBI:64571)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) has role nutraceutical (CHEBI:50733)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is a α-amino acid (CHEBI:33704)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is a proteinogenic amino acid (CHEBI:83813)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is a serine family amino acid (CHEBI:26650)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is conjugate acid of glycinate (CHEBI:32508)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is conjugate base of glycinium (CHEBI:32507)
glycine (CHEBI:15428) is tautomer of glycine zwitterion (CHEBI:57305)

Incoming    
2,2-dialkylglycine (CHEBI:16228) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
3-methylcrotonyl glycine (CHEBI:68499) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
4-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHEBI:50418) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
4-nitrophenyl phthalimidoacetate (CHEBI:75058) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-carbamoylglycine (CHEBI:133351) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-hydroxyglycine (CHEBI:38049) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-nonanoylglycine (CHEBI:74439) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-octanoylglycine (CHEBI:74099) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-purin-6-oylglycine (CHEBI:63087) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-tridecanoylglycine (CHEBI:74437) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine (CHEBI:39063) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-undecanoylglycine (CHEBI:74438) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-vinylacetylglycine (CHEBI:74435) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Ala-Gly (CHEBI:73318) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Asp-Gly (CHEBI:73341) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Cys-Gly (CHEBI:73345) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Gly-Ala-Gly (CHEBI:143968) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Gly-His (CHEBI:73348) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Gly-Pro (CHEBI:73349) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Gly-Ser (CHEBI:73350) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Gly-Tyr (CHEBI:73351) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Ala-Leu-Asp-Gly (CHEBI:73362) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Arg-Asn-Gly-Ser (CHEBI:73399) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Arg-Lys-Cys-Gly (CHEBI:73401) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Asn-Gly (CHEBI:73422) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Asp-Gly (CHEBI:73450) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Asp-Gly-Pro (CHEBI:73291) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Asp-Val-Gly-Pro (CHEBI:73441) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Cys-Asp-Gly (CHEBI:140231) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Cys-Phe-Phe-Gly (CHEBI:73460) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Glu-Glu-Gly (CHEBI:73494) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Glu-Gly (CHEBI:73505) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Glu-Gly-Arg-chloromethylketone (CHEBI:157651) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Glu-Gly-Trp (CHEBI:73496) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Ala-Ala (CHEBI:144460) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Arg-Pro (CHEBI:144473) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-His (CHEBI:73515) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Hyp (CHEBI:138515) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Leu (CHEBI:73514) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Pro (CHEBI:70744) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Pro-Hyp (CHEBI:74135) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Ser (CHEBI:73516) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Gly-Tyr (CHEBI:73517) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycine derivative (CHEBI:24373) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycyl radical (CHEBI:32721) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycylglycine (CHEBI:17201) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Ala-Gly (CHEBI:73526) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Asp-Gly (CHEBI:73562) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Gly-Pro (CHEBI:6414) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Gly-Ser (CHEBI:138513) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Leu-Gly (CHEBI:73568) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Leu-Val-Gly (CHEBI:73577) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Lys-Gly (CHEBI:73604) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Met-Gly (CHEBI:73611) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
N-(2-anilino-2-oxoethyl)-2-methoxybenzamide (CHEBI:109416) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
norophthalmic acid (CHEBI:143251) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Phe-Ala-Gly (CHEBI:73628) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Phe-Gly (CHEBI:73635) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
poly(glycyl-L-arginine) (CHEBI:142891) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Pro-Trp-Val-Gly (CHEBI:73650) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Pro-Val-Gly-Pro (CHEBI:73649) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
pyroglutamylglycine (CHEBI:83067) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
salicyluric acid (CHEBI:9008) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Thr-Asp-Gly (CHEBI:73658) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
tiglylglycine (CHEBI:73018) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Trp-Ala-Gly (CHEBI:73691) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
Val-Gly (CHEBI:73699) has functional parent glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycine-d5 (CHEBI:132194) is a glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycinium (CHEBI:32507) is conjugate acid of glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycinate (CHEBI:32508) is conjugate base of glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycine residue (CHEBI:29947) is substituent group from glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycino group (CHEBI:46738) is substituent group from glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycyl group (CHEBI:46740) is substituent group from glycine (CHEBI:15428)
glycine zwitterion (CHEBI:57305) is tautomer of glycine (CHEBI:15428)
IUPAC Names 
aminoacetic acid
glycine

Alternate Names:Glycine also known as Aminoacetic acid; Aminoethanoic acid; Glycocoll; glicina; TRIS-TRICINE BUFFER; TRIS-GLYCINE, Amitone; Athenon; Glicoamin; Glykokoll; Glycolixir; Glycosthene; BLOTTING BUFFER


Glycine is widely used as a buffer for a variety of immunological applications. 
Glycine is frequently used in the preparation of TG Buffers (Tris-Glycine; sc-296648) where the buffer is used as a running and/or transfer buffer for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. 
Glycine (100 mM, pH 2.0-2.5; sc-295018) is also used as an eluent in column chromatography. 
Glycine has been reported for use in the enzymatic determination of lactate using lactic dehydrogenase. 
Glycine has also been use for the preparation of gelatin composites scaffold.

Aminoacetic acid    
Aminoessigsäure    ChEBI
aminoethanoic acid    
aminoethanoic acid    
G    
Gly    
Glycin     
Glycine    
GLYCINE    
Glycocoll    
Glykokoll Deutsch    
Glyzin Deutsch    
H2N‒CH2‒COOH    
Hgly    
Leimzucker Deutsch

Glycine is a major neurotransmitter of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. 
In many of these neurons, glycine coexists with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). 
The synaptic availability of glycine is controlled by 2 different transporters, and its postsynaptic effects are mediated by a specific chloride (Cl−) channel receptor

Synonyms
Aminoacetic acid
Aminoessigsäure
Aminoethanoic acid
Glicina
Glycin
Glycine
Glycocoll
Glykokoll
Glyzin
Leimzucker


 

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