HALAMID

HALAMID = CHLORAMIN T = Tosylchloramide sodium = Sodium N-chloro-para-toluenesulfonamide =Sodium para-toluensulfonchloramide


Tosylchloramide sodium trihydrate (Chloramine T sodium trihydrate) is a disinfectant agent widely used in laboratories, kitchens and hospitals. It is also used as a biocide in air fresheners and deodorants.


Synonyms: Tosylchloramide sodium, N-Chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt, Chlorine bleaching solution

CAS Number    
127-65-1 
7080-50-4 (trihydrate) 

Chloramine-T is the organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO2NClNa. Both the anhydrous salt and its trihydrate are known. Both are white powders. Chloramine-T is used as a reagent in organic synthesis.

Chloramine T is an organic sodium salt derivative of toluene-4-sulfonamide with a chloro substituent in place of an amino hydrogen. 
Chloramine T has a role as an antifouling biocide and disinfectant . Chloramine T contains a chloro(p-tolylsulfonyl)azanide

HALAMID DISINFECTANT
SULFONAMIDE CHEMISTRY

APPLICATIONS
Halamid is the Universal Disinfectant which is widely used as a biocide in veterinary and sanitary applications. Powerfully active against bacteria (Gram positive and Gram negative), viruses (naked as well as enveloped) and fungi, Halamid is also active at low and elevated temperatures. It is safe to handle, in both powder and solution form. It is mild to the environment and readily biodegradable. The product has good storage stability. Halamid is the Universal Disinfectant which is used in numerous branches of industry including:


Halamid-D is the best-known disinfectant in the animal sector, such as intensive livestock farming, but also for hobby farmers.


Halamid is an active chlorine compound, (but not a hypochlorite releasing compound), thus you can easily determine Halamid concentration in water by measuring the active chlorine content in solution. 


Preferred IUPAC name
Sodium chloro(4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl)azanide
Other names
N-Chloro para-toluenesulfonylamide
Sodium N-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulphonomite
Chloraseptin
Chlorazol
Clorina
Disifin
Halamid
Hydroclonazone
Trichlorol
Minachlor
Tosylchloramide Sodium
N-chloro tosylamide, sodium salt
Identifiers
CAS Number    
127-65-1 check
7080-50-4 (trihydrate) check

Intensive farming
Hospitals
Slaughterhouses
Breweries and soft drink industry
Dairy and margarine industry
Food industry including canning
Aquaculture
Veterinary practice
Water disinfection
Drinking water disinfection
Waste water treatment
Disinfecting washing powder


BENEFITS OF HALAMID:
Broad spectrum
Gentle action
Effective against bacteria and viruses
Stable active substance
No build-up of resistance
Non-corrosive to metals and other materials

Application Concentration: 
Tank and pond disinfection: 1% - 2%
Equipment disinfection : 1%
Net disinfection:  1%
Well boat disinfection:  1%-2%
Footbath : 2 % Renew as often as needed
Water treatment - Fresh water raceway ponds 10-20 mg for 1 hr Can be repeated up to 4 times of consecutive or alternate days
Water treatment - Stagnant water ponds 3 ppm once a week 


Halamid is well known at livestock and fish farms as a universal disinfectant preventing diseases by killing harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. Please visit our dedicated Halamid site for more application information.
Halamid is A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including EOSINOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; MONOCYTES; AND PLATELETS.

In the professional cattle farming and handling of many animals increases the risk of diseases. Stables, equipment and trucks that have not been properly cleaned and disinfected are the cause of the transmission of the pathogenic microorganisms.

The excellent efficacy of  Halamid  against bacteria and viruses in cattle farming has been tested and approved by several laboratories and experiments in the field.

Halamid  covers all areas of cattle farming where you need to disinfect such as. stables, equipment, vehicles and foot baths. Halamid  is used by spraying or spraying and to remove biofilm. In cattle farming,  Halamid is  used to disinfect the cow's teats as well as the milking equipment. In dairy herds, Halamid is used to disinfect udders and milking equipment. 


Halamid 
The excellent effect of Halamid against unwanted bacteria and viruses has been confirmed by numerous laboratory and field trials for all animal groups.

No risk of developing resistant microorganisms.
No corrosion on materials.
Can be used for all types of disinfection.
Can be added to drinking water in per mille.
Wide range of application.
Simple and versatile in use.
Stable.
Readily biodegradable.
Infection protection and good hygiene are important for all parties in the entire "soil to table" chain and start with an effective disinfection in the barn. Halamid is a disinfectant that can be used on all areas that need to be disinfected, such as. stables, equipment, vehicles and hoof baths. Halamid is used by spraying and atomizing.

Halamid is used for all disinfection, whether in the farm or clinic. There can be no resistance to Halamid

No risk of resistance
Disinfectants are widely used in the food industry. Several studies have shown that certain bacteria are capable of developing resistance to certain quaternary ammonium compounds, a phenomenon called acquired resistance. This results in a number of resistant bacterial strains, which is of course a major problem in terms of hygiene and safety.

This risk does not exist with Halamid, which reacts via irreversible oxidation, so the microorganisms do not have the opportunity to adapt or become resistant. Therefore, Haiamid can be used all year round in connection with food production.

Application
After prior cleaning, disinfect work tables, equipment and knives with a 0.3 - 0.5% Halamid solution. The product should work for 5 minutes.

According to international regulations, surfaces that come into contact with food must be cleaned with clean water after the use of detergents and disinfectants. Halamid is easy to rinse off and leaves no residue due to its good solubility in water.

Halamid-d is a Veip disinfectant with the active ingredient chlorine. The product is very effective in disinfecting floors, walls and cages of animal enclosures.

Effective against all major problematic microorganisms, Halamid is widely used as a professional disinfectant in veterinary hygiene, aquaculture, food processing, institutional and health care areas, cooling towers and many other applications. A truly versatile product, Halamid is the universal disinfectant.

Combine the unique Halamid properties with our extensive application knowledge gained over 60 years in the market. Discover why Halamid is your professional disinfectant everywhere where hygiene is required.

Some of the reasons why Halamid is a unique professional disinfectant :

Large activity spectrum
Non corrosive in solution for materials
Easy to use and versatile
Stable
Readily biodegradable
No risk of building up resistant microorganisms
The use of Halamid as a professional disinfectant may be submitted to local legislation and a registration may be required. Please check with your local authorities or contact us to check about the registration status in your country.

The excellent efficacy of Halamid against problematic bacteria and viruses in farm and veterinary disinfection is confirmed by numerous laboratory tests and field trials.

Biosecurity is relevant all along the ‘farm to fork’ chain and starts by effective farm disinfection. Halamid is a livestock disinfectant that can be used in all areas that possibly need disinfection - animal houses, equipment, vehicles and footbaths. Farmers successfully apply this livestock disinfectant by spraying, nebulisation or (thermo) fogging. Veterinary disinfection whether on-farm or in the clinic is done with Halamid. In the dairy industry, Halamid is used to disinfect cow teats as well as milking equipment. And in poultry farming, hatching eggs are disinfected with Halamid


Halamid
®
 is a universal, readily biodegradable disinfectant which is widely used as a germicide in sanitary
practices, because of the following properties:
• Active against bacteria (Gram positive and Gram negative), viruses (naked as well as enveloped) and
fungi.
• Stable and active at low as well as elevated temperatures.
• Safe to handle, both powder and aqueous solution.
• Safe to nature, readily biodegradable and none of the chlorine disadvantages.
• Superior storage stability.
• No risk of building up resistant microorganisms.


Halamid® is the Universal Disinfectant which is used in numerous branches of industry like:
Intensive farming Aquaculture
Hospitals Veterinary practice
Slaughterhouses Water disinfection
Meat-packers and butcheries Personal hygiene
Breweries and soft drink industry Swimming pools
Dairy and margarine industry Drinking water disinfection
Sugar and potato industry Wastewater treatment
Food industry including canning Disinfecting washing powders
Ice-cream industry

Halamid is also used as a mild oxidizer in various applications like:
Washing powder (as a bleaching agent) Gas deodorisation
Textile dyeing Wastewater deodorisation
Radio-labelling techniques Textile bleaching
Reagent in analytical chemistry

CHEMICAL NAME
Sodium N-chloro-para-toluenesulfonamide
(CAS-NO: 127-65-1) ; (EEC-NO.: 2048547)

MODE OF ACTION
Halamid if dissolved in water ionises. The Halamid ion formed, reacts with microorganisms, with which it comes into contact. 
The reaction is based on an oxidation of cell material, killing the microorganism quickly even though the solution may be very dilute. 
The high stability of the Halamid ion gives Halamid a kind of
"reservoir capacity", so its activity is not spent at once but remains present over a longer period. 
Since the mechanism of the microbial destruction is basically an oxidation, there is no risk of building up of resistant organisms.

For dosage recommendations we refer to the separate Technical Bulletins available on request.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
Appearance White crystalline powder
Solubility in water 150 g/l (25 °C)
Apparent bulk density 540-680 g/ml
Flash point 192 °C (Pensky-Martens, closed cup)

Powerful against viruses and bacteria, delicate with surfaces and equipment
 

Halamid is an effective disinfectant eliminating the main pathogenic microorganisms. It easily dissolves in water, Halamid widely used in animal hygiene, aquaculture, agri-food industry, drinking water systems and many more applications.

Halamid combines the essential properties of a good disinfectant (broad spectrum of action and absence of corrosion), with a limited environmental impact. Our customers (agrifood industries, hospitals, clinics and medicalized residences, veterinarians, livestock and fish farms) use Halamid as it meets their needs. Many specialists consider Halamid as a unique, highly effective and universal disinfectant. Since its first commercialization in 1947, Halamid has contributed significantly to hygiene. Use biocides with caution. Carefully read the label and other information described on the product before any use.


HALAMID PHARMA GRADE
APPLICATIONS
Halamid Pharma Grade is used as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in various pharmaceutical formulations focused at eliminating micro organisms. 
Such pharmaceutical products prevent or cure various bacterial diseases for use with humans and animals. Each of these formulations has its own medicinal registration.

Halamid is a global disinfectant brand widely used by professionals thanks to its long lasting proven efficacy.


Halamid has been widely used in laboratories and veterinary facilities to control pathogens by surface disinfection and soaking equipment.  Halamid is a biocide which has been tested against a number of bacteria, virus, and parasites specific to aquaculture.

Halamid has many benefits such as being non-corrosive to equipment (once diluted), easy to use, biodegradable, long term storage stability and no risk of possible disease resistance.  Halamid is non-toxic and does not leave residues that can adversely affect animals after disinfection.

Halamid is a universal, readily biodegradable disinfectant which is widely used as a germicide in sanitary practices, because of the following properties: Active against bacteria (Gram positive and Gram negative), viruses (naked as well as enveloped) and fungi. Stable and active at low as well as elevated temperatures. Safe to handle, both powder and aqueous solution. Safe to nature, readily biodegradable and none of the chlorine disadvantages. Superior storage stability. No risk of building up resistant microorganisms.

Halamid is the Universal Disinfectant which is used in numerous branches of industry like:

Intensive farming, hospitals, slaughterhouses, meat-packers and butcheries, breweries and soft drink industry, dairy and margarine industry, sugar and potato industry, food industry including canning, ice-cream industry, aquaculture, veterinary practice, water disinfection, personal hygiene, swimming pools, drinking water disinfection, waste water treatment, disinfecting washing powders

Halamid® is effective against all major, dangerous microorganisms and is widely used as a professional disinfectant in animal hygiene, aquaculture, food processing, in public and medical facilities, cooling towers and many other areas of application. Halamid® is a truly versatile product and a universal disinfectant.

This disinfectant product has been approved for disinfection where an approved product is required to be used under the control legislation for the following specific disease(s) orders;

Poultry diseases including avian influenza, influenza of avian origin in mammals, Newcastle disease, paramyxovirus at a dilution rate of this preparation plus 150 parts of water;
This disinfectant product has also been approved at a dilution of 1 part of this preparation plus 300 parts water for disinfection where General orders require the use of an approved disinfectant, but this approval does not apply to disinfection required under the specific control legislation relating to Swine Vesicular disease or Tuberculosis disease.

This approval is granted under the Diseases of Animals (Approved Disinfectants) Orders made by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England, Scottish ministers in Scotland and Welsh Ministers in Wales.  For confirmation of continuing approval refer to the Defra list of approved disinfectants at
http://disinfectants.defra.gov.uk


Clorina
Euclorina
Halamid
Gyneclorina
Berkendyl
Clorosan
Mianine
Anexol
Gansil
Chloramin Heyden
Cloramine T
Kloramine-T
Chloramin Dr. Fahlberg
N-Chlorotoluenesulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzylsulfonamide sodium salt
p-Toluenesulfonamide, sodium salt
Pharmakon1600-01504506
NSC36959
NSC-36959


Halamid is a very effective disinfectant for surfaces that come into contact with food and beverages and the ingredients used. The disinfectant powder is used in the food-industry and healthcare for the disinfection of floors, walls and other surfaces. Halamid is a mild disinfectant with high stability for reliable disinfection results.

Halamid is a disinfectant that derives its efficacy to bound chlorine and oxygen. The product is characterized by a high percentage of stable and active substance. Halamid causes a chemical reaction (in fact, a combustion reaction) with microorganisms. Resistance is therefore not possible. The strength of Halamid is the broad working spectrum  and the relative mildness for the user, the materials and the environment.

Halamid is packed in buckets and supplied including a scoop which dose easily and accurately. The disinfectant dissolves easily in water (maximum concentration of 10% at 15 ° C). Because of the mild nature Halamid is non-corrosive to metals and other materials. Use biocides safely. Before use, read the label and product information.

Halamid and Halamid-d is the same substance but with a different admission text.

Halamid has been regarded as an essential and reliable product for aquaculture for many years. Its unique formula is designed to combat diseases and yet it is safe for fish, shrimp and aquatic environments.

BENEFITS IOF HALAMID:
Non-corrosive to metals and other materials
Fights bacteria and viruses
Dissolves readily in cold water (maximum concentration of 10% at 15 ° C)
Resistance is not possible

Halamid-D: The universal disinfectant, a strong virucide and bactericide.

Halamid-D
HALAMID-D     

THE PROFESSIONAL DISINFECTANT WITH OVER 60 YEARS PROVEN EFFICACY
Effective against all major problematic microorganisms, Halamid is widely used as a professional disinfectant in veterinary hygiene, aquaculture, food processing, institutional and health care areas, cooling towers and many other applications.

Halamid efficacy against the influenza A virus
The influenza A virus is again making the headlines : after the H5N1 virus strain responsible for the last avian influenza epidemic, the H1N1 strain is now responsible for the deadly outbreak currently observed.
Halamid has been tested against the influenza A virus and proved to be very effective : a 0.1% Halamid solution was enough to destroy the virus according to the norm EN 14675.
Halamid was tested against the H7N1 strain, not against the H1N1 strain.
However the experts (including the US Environmental Protection Agency) are convinced that a disinfectant effective against one specific strain of influenza A virus is also effective against the other strains of this virus (differences in strain and pathogenicity are not related to disinfectant activity).
Thus Halamid is also effective against the H1N1 strain.
Halamid is effective against the influenza A virus.
The recommended standard concentration of use will ensure killing of the virus.

Applications :
Aquaculture
Health care and public areas
Food and beverage industry
Farm and vetenary hygiene
Allround universal disinfectant
 

Aquaculture disinfection
Halamid is the perfect solution for aquaculture disinfection.
Very effective against fish and shrimp pathogenic microorganisms, fish farmers know it as an indispensable product in any aquaculture disinfection need, from the nursery and growing tanks to the fish processing plant.
Trout farm disinfection with Halamid is a traditional operating procedure.
With the expansion of land-based aquaculture operations, Halamid is applied more and more as disinfectant for other aquaculture species.
Disinfection of tanks and ponds, nets, equipment, well boats and in the fish processing industry with Halamid ensures that pathogenic microorganisms are rapidly and effectively destroyed.
In trout farm disinfection, fish farmers have since long trusted Halamid against pathogenic bacteria, such as the ones responsible for Bacterial Gill Disease (BGD) or external columnaris.
Halamid is also a highly efficient disinfectant for aquaculture against many parasites, for example Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (white spot disease), Gyrodactylus and Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease) parasites.
 
Disinfection of public areas
Surfaces, equipment and air conditioning systems in public areas such as swimming pools, hospitals, medical centers, and residential care homes are potential risk carriers and require a regular disinfection.
Halamid is an excellent and efficacious disinfectant for residence care, hospitals, clinics and public areas in general. 
Apart its efficacy, a disinfectant for public areas needs to be safe.
A disinfectant for clinics and hospitals should not harm equipment or particular surfaces.
Finally the development of resistant strains by employing the wrong disinfectant for public areas would be a major risk for public health.
Halamid is meeting these requirements that every operator responsible for disinfection of public areas should pose.

The use of Halamid is however not limited to general disinfection : it can also be used for disinfection of hands, helping to reduce skin contamination and prevent bacteria and viruses spreading.
Halamid is also of interest in hydrotherapy where it reduces the bacterial load in water.


Disinfection in food and beverage industry
Listeria, Salmonella, E. coli and many other bacteria are a major concern in the food processing and beverage industry.
Halamid effectively and rapidly kills those microorganisms.
Halamid is especially suitable for disinfection in food and beverage industry as it does not induce bacterial resistance (acquired resistance), contrary to many products commonly used in the food industry.
You can safely use Halamid all year long without the need to rotate disinfectants.
It is the product of choice for daily disinfection in the food and beverage industry.

Halamid is an effective disinfectant against many bacteria related to food industry :
Salmonella sp.
Campylobacter jejuni
Enterococcus hirae
Escherichia coli
Listeria monocytogenes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Stapylococcus aureus
Streptococcus sp.

FARM AND VETENARY DISINFECTION
The excellent efficacy of Halamid against problematic bacteria and viruses in farm and veterinary disinfection is confirmed by numerous laboratory tests and field trials.
Biosecurity is relevant all along the ‘farm to fork’ chain and starts by effective farm disinfection.
Halamid is a livestock disinfectant that can be used in all areas that possibly need disinfection - animal houses, equipment, vehicles and footbaths.
Farmers successfully apply this livestock disinfectant by spraying, nebulisation or (thermo) fogging.
Veterinary disinfection whether on-farm or in the clinic is done with Halamid.
In the dairy industry, Halamid is used to disinfect cow teats as well as milking equipment.
And in poultry farming, hatching eggs are disinfected with Halamid.

ALLROUND UNIVERSAL DISINFECTANT
Halamid is an allround universal disinfectant and goes even beyond that.

The unique properties of this product can serve many more markets :
Halamid also covers special applications such as ion exchange resin disinfection or greenhouses disinfection.
Its Chloramine-T oxidizing properties play also a role in restoring old book prints, in deodorization applications, in preservating water for cut flowers,in analytical chemistry...

Analytical chemistry and radio labelling
Numerous reactions in analytic chemistry use Halamid for its Chloramine-T oxidizing properties, for example to determine concentration of cyanide in various matrices.
Another application is the labelling of molecules with radioactive isotopes.

Formulations
Because of its excellent stability together with the wide range of compatible products, you can formulate Halamid in both liquid and solid formulations.

DIRECTIONS OF USE:
10 gr. to 10 ltr. water.
Clean the materials and surfaces to disinfect thoroughly.
WHen a cleaningproduct is used rinse with clean water.
Remove excess water.
Use so much liquid to disinfection that the surfaces during the exposure time (minimum 20 minutes) remain wet.
If the product is sprayed, it should be done under low pressure and with a coarse droplet.
With regular use on floors and walls a dried layer of the product should be avoided .
Rinse the surface after the exposure time with water.
Do not let animals have direct contact with halamid-d.
The product should not be fogged in the air.


Product Data
Halamid has proven to be effective against:
– 94 bacteria
– 49 viruses
– 22 mushrooms
– 6 algae
– 4 yeasts
– 4 parasites
Extremely concentrated powder
Broad spectrum of activity against viruses, bacteria and fungi
The solution used does not corrode the materials (unlike many other disinfectants based on chlorine, peroxide or peracetic acid)
It can be used for the foot bath and the disinfection of transport vehicles.
Effective at low temperature.
Easily biodegradable
No aldehydes or phenols
Without risk of creating resistance, it can be used without having to alternate with other disinfectants.


Veterinary Hygiene
Halamid is useful in the disinfection of buildings, vehicles and equipment, as well as foot baths. It can be added to the water that the animals drink, as well as to use for the disinfection of the udders of the cows. Halamid also has numerous applications in aquaculture.

Halamid offers a unique solution for any type of application. A solution of 0.5-1% (5-10 grams per liter) is used for the disinfection of buildings. For vaporization disinfection a higher concentration is recommended but with a lower total volume of solution. You can consult the use of Halamid in other applications on our website www.halamid.com.

Breeding
Halamid can be sprayed with the aid of a common spray / atomizer, but vaporization also gives excellent results at a similar or even lower cost. Halamid can be used with a foaming agent.

In any case dissolve the required amount of Halamid in the water. A concentrated solution prepared with clean water and not exposed to sunlight can be stored for several days.

A thorough cleaning before disinfection is essential to obtain good results.

Aquaculture
A solution of Halamid 1-2% (10-20 grams per liter) can be sprayed with the help of standard material to disinfect the ponds.

For any type of material, including nets, a concentration of 0.5-1% is recommended and a 1-2% solution should be used in vehicle disinfection, including well-boats. To control external microorganisms that affect aquatic organisms, a concentration of Halamid of 10-20 mg per liter is added to the water and left for one hour.

Biological aquaculture
The Organic Food Federation in the United Kingdom, as well as the French Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries have authorized the use of Halamid in organic aquaculture.


Agrifood Industry
After a complete cleaning a solution of Halamid of 0.3-0.5% (3-5 grams per liter) is used.

How to use
Halamid can be sprayed on any standard equipment, or applied with a sponge or mop. In any case, you must dissolve the necessary amount of Halamid in water (if possible lukewarm) and stir the mixture until the product dissolves completely.

Halamid can be used in CIP systems (on-site cleaning). You can keep a concentrated solution prepared with clean water and not exposed to sunlight for several days.

Halamid destroys microorganisms by irreversible oxidation, which prevents the formation of resistance, contrary to what happens with certain quaternary ammoniums. Halamid has a slight odor and clears easily on any surface.

Public and Private Sectors
Depending on the property of the surfaces, a solution of 0.3-1% (3-10 grams of Halamid per liter) is used. On porous surfaces (such as wood or cement), a higher concentration should be used.

How to use
Halamid can be sprayed on any standard equipment, or applied with a sponge or mop. In any case, you must dissolve the necessary amount of Halamid in water (if possible) and remove the mixture until the product dissolves completely.

If you plan to use Halamid to disinfect residences, clinics or hospitals, you should know that the product is effective against the main pathogenic microorganisms, such as MRSA, Coronavirus (SARS), Legionella, HIV and hepatitis viruses.

Drinking Water
The dose to make drinking water is 20 mg per liter (20 g / m3). You have to wait an hour before consuming that water. The water should be colorless, transparent and contain no product residues.

Epidemics
Halamid is approved in the Netherlands, France and Belgium as a disinfectant in cases of epidemics, such as foot-and-mouth disease, swine fever or bird flu, among other contagious diseases. If an epidemic appears it is essential that farmers can use their traditional disinfectant, with its usual mode of application and source of supply. This is the case of Halamid.

European Scope
Within the scope of the European Biocidal Products Directive (Directive 98/8 / EC) we have submitted the Halamid dossier to the competent European authorities for consultation. While waiting for the final authorization, the different existing national approvals must be consulted, which prove the efficacy and safety of the product.

Some Approvals Examples
Veterinary Hygiene

Can Halamid be used in salt water/seawater?
Yes, Halamid can be used in seawater, brackish water and fresh water under the same conditions.

Can Halamid be used in the presence of fish?
Yes, Halamid has the unique feature that it can be used as disinfectant in presence of fish.

Fresh water raceway set up:

Halamid is added at a concentration of approximately 10-20 ppm (10-20 g/m3). After 1 hour, flush with fresh water to remove residual Halamid. This can be repeated up to 4 times on consecutive or alternate days.

Stagnant fresh water ponds:

Halamid is added at a concentration of 3 ppm (3 g/m3) once a week. Water pH and hardness are two important parameters to consider in order to optimize the Halamid concentration. As a general rule, with acidic pH, a lower concentration should be used and with increasing water hardness, a higher Halamid concentration is recommended. Also, if using a biofilter in a recirculated water system, special attention must be taken. Please contact Axcentive or your distributor for more detailed information.

Can Halamid replace formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde?
Aldehyde products are posing health risks to the operators using them for disinfection by spraying, fogging, etc. Halamid replaces formaldehydes or glutaraldehydes without any problem. Follow the standard guidelines in our documentation to obtain excellent disinfection results. After proper cleaning one disinfection step with Halamid suffice. Should you prefer to keep an additional fogging step in place, then Halamid in combination with an aerosol can be applied here as well.

Can I use Halamid for equipement disinfection?
Yes Halamid is the perfect disinfectant for:

Tanks and equipment
Net disinfection
Vehicle disinfection
Well boat disinfection
Footbath
Processing plants
Artemia
Fish eggs
How can Halamid be effective against the Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS)?
On EMS or also mentioned acute hepatopancreatic degenerative necrosis syndrome (AHDNS) the cause has been found, just recently. In fact a bacteriophage (= virus that only infect bacteria) infects the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and in the body of the shrimp the Vibrio starts to produce toxins (toxic excretions) which causes the animal to die. This cause would indicate that shrimp can be protected, either by destroying the bacteriophage or by killing the host bacterium (the Vibrio). Probably it is more practical to keep Vibrio under control as bacteriophages are smaller and more difficult to control to a level where they do no longer harm and they are generally present in all kinds of waters (oceans/lakes, etc). Vibrio parahaemolyticus is efficiently killed by Halamid.

What is the difference between probiotics and Halamid?
Halamid is a disinfectant with the sole purpose to kill micro organisms. Probiotics do not kill micro organisms but try to create an overall better water quality. In this sense probiotics and Halamid are complementary.

Can Probiotics and Halamid be used together?
There is not much practical experience on this. A Halamid residue may not have much effect on probiotics. This means Probiotics can safely be added a few days after Halamid was added. However we advise at this stage against dosing Halamid to a pond where probiotics have been added.

How long can Halamid be active in a shrimp pond?
In a shrimp pond, two days after Halamid was added to the pond, about 50 % of the dosed Halamid is still available. By then the concentration has gone back to a level where activity is limited, unless initial concentration was relatively high ( > 3 ppm).

Is Halamid effective against protozoa?
Yes, for example ciliates and Ichthyobodo necator are effectively killed.

Is Halamid anywhere approved for use in aquaculture?
The European medicinal agency has reviewed Halamid for fin fish use and concluded no MRL was necessary (Annex II); in the United States the FDA is reviewing Halamid and given it the so-called MUMS status in 2006. This status allows use of products with pending registration on species that are not a major food source. In the United States Halamid has a full NADA status as an aquaculture drug by the FDA since May 2014.

Does a Halamid treatment cause residues in the fish or shrimps?
For fish, extensive trials in the USA on salmonids have shown that Halamid, or its break down residue, para toluene sulfonamide do not accumulate in fish tissues and leave the body completely.

Is Halamid when used in water with fish considered as a drug or a biocide?
In Europe, biocides used in aquaculture are not considered drugs, even when used in the presence of fish. In this case no claim for treatment against a disease or curing of the fish can be made. The function is to reduce pathogen levels in the water. It has been shown that this is preventing diseases and is improving welfare of healthy and diseased animals.

Do you have any supportive data on the percentage of killing when Halamid was applied in 3ppm in water with aquatic living in the water during any disease challange? example Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
In order to achieve a complete killing of Vibrio (from a high level e.g. > 1000000) you need at least 5 ppm Halamid (and probably even more when in dirty water). In the lab, without fish at 25 oC, 17 degrees DH (water hardness) and 25 ppt salinity, 2.5 ppm (> 24 hr contact time) or 5 ppm (less than 24 hr) Halamid were required or a complete kill (log 6 reduction) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

What is the effect of Halamid on zooplankton
Zooplankton is a broad collection of small aquatic organisms, in terms of cell number, larger than bacteria, viruses or fungi. These more complex organisms are less susceptible to the effect of oxidative disinfectants than bacteria, but higher concentrations over an extended time period will have a killing effect. This means that raceways treated with (10 – 20 ppm) Halamid should not be released without dilution into surface waters in order to protect natural zooplankton. Stagnant pond systems treated with 1 – 3 ppm with zooplankton present should not show significant negative effect on the proliferation of this zooplankton. This advice has not been lab-tested but is based on practical experience.

How can I measure the chlorine content?
To determine the residual Halamid concentration in water one can do Halamid ion testing in which you measure the chlorine content:


Halamid-d derives its efficacy from bound chlorine and oxygen. The product is characterized by a very high content of stable active ingredient. Halamid-d enters into a chemical reaction (oxidation, actually a combustion reaction) with micro-organisms, as a result of which resistance formation is not possible. Halamid-d is therefore very suitable for killing bacteria, fungi and viruses.

INDICATIONS    
▸ Halamid D is a disinfectant that derives its efficacy from bound chlorine and oxygen. It is the best-known disinfectant in the animal sector, such as intensive livestock farming, but also for hobby farmers. A very effective means of disinfecting surfaces of means of transportation and places of residence of animals.
▸ Halamid-D is used in the agricultural and veterinary sector for the decontamination of boots, walls, floors, cages, etc. The product has a high content of stable active substance.

COMPOSITION    
▸ The active chlorine content is around 25%. At a dosage of 0.5%, a Halamid D solution has an active chlorine content of 1250 ppm.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE    
▸ Read the leaflet and safety data sheet before use 
▸ Remove loose dirt
▸ Clean surfaces and machines thoroughly with, for example, a solution with 3% Vuilbreker (30 ml per liter of water).
▸ Rinse with (hot) water.
▸ Apply Halamid-D solution (eg with mop, brush or spray acon) or using low pressure equipment (max 5 atu). For most applications, a 1% Halamid-D solution (100 grams per 10 liters of water) is sufficient. Duration of action: at least 20 minutes.
▸ Rinse surfaces that come into contact with food and drinks thoroughly with clean tap water.

The effectiveness of Halamid-d is due to a 100% content of the stable active ingredient chloramine-t. Dissolved in water, chloramine-t undergoes an oxidation reaction with microorganisms, causing them to be completely destroyed. Resistance formation is therefore also not possible. In addition, Halamid-d retains a long-lasting effect compared to other disinfectants (see graph). Where persulphate-based disinfectants lose virtually all efficacy within 1 day, Halamid-d continues to work for 12 days.


Safe for humans, animals and materials
Halamid-d has the pleasant property of not releasing more active substances than is necessary. This ensures that Halamid-d can work for a long time. This also means that Halamid-d is much less corrosive to materials. With the correct application, dosage and protective measures, as applies to any professional disinfectant, Halamid-d is a safe alternative. Due to its relative mildness, disinfection continues with
Halamid-d safe for yourself, your employees, your animals and your materials.

Environmentally Friendly
The burden of disinfectants on our environment is important to take into account. Regular disinfection with Halamid-d is good for the future. Halamid-d is easily biodegradable. Extensive studies have shown that Halamid-d is 70% biodegradable within 4 days and 90% within 28 days. This makes Halamid-d a positive exception in the group of disinfectants.


Halamid-d
Halamid-d contains chlorine and oxygen for effective cleaning. The product has a very high percentage of stable and active substances. Halamid-d causes a chemical reaction (oxidation, actually a combustion reaction) to micro-organisms, which makes the development of resistance impossible. Halamid-d is therefore effective in killing bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Key features:
Halamid-d has a high percentage of stable and active substances.
Halamid-d has the ideal amount of chlorine needed for maximum disinfection. Halamid-d solution maintains its full effectiveness for a long period of time.
It is not damaging to metal and other materials.
It does not adhere to surfaces, so it is easy to rinse off.
It dissolves easily in cold water (maximum concentration is 10% at 15 ºC).
Instructions:
First, disinfect surfaces thoroughly. After cleaning, rinse with clean water. Remove excess water. When disinfecting, use as much liquid as required for the surfaces stay wet during the application time (a minimum of 20 minutes). If spraying, do so with low pressure, and ensure spray is not too fine. If used regularly on floors and walls, it is recommended to rinse with water afterwards to prevent a film forming.

Please note: Avoid contact with animals. Must not be sprayed near animals.

To prevent health problems, it is important that you allow cleaned surfaces to dry fully and ventilate rooms before the animals return to them. Avoid oral intake.

Measures to avoid contact between wild birds and poultry, duck and geese are being implemented and enforced. Still outbreaks keep on occurring as wild birds are very difficult to control. The next crucial step therefore is to limit the consequences of an outbreak and here biosecurity comes in first!

Poultry farmers everywhere are seeking reassurance that their usual disinfectants and biosecurity protocols are indeed effective enough. This implies:

Proper cleaning and disinfection of clothing, footwear, equipment and vehicles before and after any activity in relation to the birds.
Thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting the poultry house at the end of a production cycle.
Keeping fresh disinfectant solution at the right concentration at all points where people should use it, such as farm entrances and before entering a barn, storage room and so on.
As for the disinfectant of choice, independent testing by the respected Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibia & Fish at Giessen University (Germany) has shown that even 0.1 % concentration of Halamid is able to reduce the avian flu virus loading by more than 6 log10 (99.9999 %).

Halamid, particularly suited to poultry growing and widely used in this sector, also completely inactivates avian influenza A virus in the liquid phase at low and high levels of organic soiling, and at lower temperatures (10°C) as well as standard temperatures.

And how about the susceptibility of the various subtypes to Halamid?

Different subtypes of avian flu have different numbers of haemagglutinin & neuramidinase proteins on the exterior (denoted by the H and N numbers) but they have the same fundamental structure and lipid envelope. The biocidal mode of action of Halamid is based on strong oxidative destruction of the whole virus structure and is therefore non-selective for small variations in composition. As such, the disinfection activity of Halamid is comparable for every strain of avian flu.


HALAMID IN AQUACULTURE


Aquaculture requires strict hygiene rules to prevent diseases resulting in fish welfare problems and heavy economical damages. 
Halamid, also known under its generic name chloramine-T in this market, is the perfect product for hygiene in the aquaculture farm. 
Very effective against fish and shrimp pathogenic microorganisms, it has proven already for many years to be an indispensable product in any aquaculture operation, from the nursery and growing tanks to the fish processing plant. 
The safety margin between the concentration effective against microorganisms and the one toxic for fish makes Halamid of special interest in aquaculture. 
Well known applications of Halamid include use against pathogenic bacteria, such as the ones responsible for Bacterial Gill Disease (BGD) or external columnaris. 
Halamid is also useful against many parasites related to the aquaculture industry, for example the Gyrodactylus and Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease) parasites. 
Aquaculture needs a universal and versatile disinfectant in order to ensure the best health and hygiene status. 
Disinfection with Halamid of tanks and ponds, nets, equipment, well boats and in the fish processing industry ensures that pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) are rapidly and effectively destroyed.

EFFICACY
Halamid is effective against many microorganisms related to aquaculture applications. 
A few of them are indicated below, but the complete activity spectrum of Halamid is much wider.

Bacteria
Aeromonas salmonicida (Furunculosis)
Flexibacter maritimus (Marine columnaris)
Flavobacterium branchiophilum (BGD)
Flavobacterium columnaris (Columnaris)
Vibrio anguillarum (Vibriosis)
Vibrio harveyi
Vibrio salmonicida
Yersinia ruckeri (Redmouth disease)

Viruses
Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)
Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA)

Fungi
Saprolegnia
Parasites
Gyrodactylus salaris
Ichthyobodo necator (Costia)
Ichthyophthirius multifilis (White spot)
Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease)

Trematodes
Halamid is recommended by the OIE to disinfect equipment against Gyrodactylus salaris at 1% and is also recognized by the same organization to be effective against IPN and ISA viruses.


General disinfection in the aquaculture farm 
Always remember that cleaning is a required preliminary step before disinfection to ensure the best results. Without proper cleaning, dirt and organic matter protect microorganisms against the killing effect of the disinfectant, resulting in an incomplete operation. 
Start by dry cleaning to remove most of the organic matter, followed by cleaning with water or a detergent solution. 
Once it is done, disinfect with Halamid. 
Halamid is always applied as an aqueous solution: simply dissolve the Halamid in clean water at the required concentration. 
Tanks and equipment disinfection 
Tank disinfection 
During the production stops, it is of major importance to thoroughly clean and disinfect the tanks and ponds when they are empty to avoid contamination of the next production lot. 
Start by cleaning to remove the organic matter and then disinfect by spraying or rinsing with a 1% Halamid solution (or with a 2% in case of heavy contamination). Equipment disinfection Spray all equipment used in the aquaculture farm with a 1% Halamid solution or dipped the equipment into the Halamid solution for 30 min. 

Net disinfection 
Aquaculture nets should not only be cleaned between each production cycles but also disinfected. Compatibility of aquaculture net made of Polyamide 6 with a Halamid solution was tested by a polyamide manufacturer and the results indicate that Halamid does not have any negative effect on the net properties. A 1-2% Halamid solution is used for net disinfection, with a contact time of 30 min. 

Vehicle disinfection 
Vehicles are an important way of disease transmission from farm to farm. Make sure all vehicles are well disinfected (not only the wheels) with a 1% Halamid solution prior entrance to the farm. Well boat disinfection Insufficient well boat disinfection is believed to be responsible for spreading of several pathogenic microorganisms, including the IPN virus in Norway. This underlines the need to apply a strict hygiene management on well boats. Well boats must be disinfected with a 1-2% Halamid solution between each transport. Rinsing with water may be required to remove residual Halamid.

Footbath 
A footbath should be placed at the entrance of each building and you should make sure everybody is using it. 
A 2% Halamid solution must be prepared and refresh as often as needed.

Water treatment 
Halamid reduces the pathogenic microorganisms level in ponds water and is especially useful against bacteria and parasites. 
Fresh water raceway set up Halamid is added at a concentration of approximately 10-20 ppm (10-20 g/m3). 
After 1 hour, flush with fresh water to remove residual Halamid. 
This can be repeated up to 4 times on consecutive or alternate days. Stagnant fresh water ponds Halamid is added at a concentration of 3 ppm (3 g/m3) once a week. 
Water pH and hardness are two important parameters to consider in order to optimize the Halamid concentration. 
As a general rule, with acidic pH, a lower concentration should be used and with increasing water hardness, a higher Halamid concentration is recommended. 
Also, if using a biofilter in a recirculated water system, special attention must be taken. 


General disinfection in the fish processing plants 
Halamid is very useful for disinfection in the fish processing plants. For more information about this application, please refer to the specific bulletin on Halamid in the food industry. 

Artemia disinfection 
Halamid is recommended by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) for disinfection of Artemia nauplii at the concentration of 60 ppm with a contact time of 3 min followed by rinsing with clean water. (Health management and biosecurity maintenance in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) hatcheries in Latin America, FAO, 2003) 

Fish egg disinfection 
To reduce surface contamination, fish eggs can be dipped in a 1 g/l Halamid solution for 10 min followed by a clean water wash. 

Fish hobbyists 
Halamid is widely used by fish hobbyists against external bacteria and parasites. 
It is for example particularly useful against external flukes in koi fish. 
Here again water hardness as well as pH are two important parameters to consider in order to adapt the concentration to your own conditions

Halamid-d is a disinfectant that derives its effectiveness from combined chlorine and oxygen. 
It is the best-known disinfectant in the animal sector, such as intensive livestock farming, but also among hobby animal keepers. 
A very effective means of disinfecting surfaces of means of transport and animal enclosures. 
Halamid  -d is used in the agricultural and veterinary sector for disinfecting boots, walls, floors, cages, etc. 
The product has a high content of stable active ingredient.

Halamid-d enters into a chemical reaction (actually a combustion reaction) with micro-organisms. 
Resistance formation is therefore not possible. The agent fights bacteria, yeasts and viruses. 
The strength of Halamid  -d is the broad spectrum of action on the one hand and the gentleness for the user, for materials and for the animals and the environment on the other.
Halamid-d is supplied in powder form per bucket and includes a measuring spoon, making it easy and accurate to dose. 
The disinfectant dissolves easily in water (maximum concentration 10% at 15 ° C).

Due to its mild character, Halamid  -d is non-corrosive on metals and other materials. Use biocides safely.


Tosylchloramide or N-chloro tosylamide, sodium salt, sold as chloramine-T, is an investigational animal drug used in the aquaculture industry and also is a very effective odor control compound. 
It has other applications that include: algaecide, bactericide, germicide, parasite control, and for drinking water disinfection. 
It is also highly effective against bacteria, viruses, and spores. 
In the aquaculture and aquafarming industries, Chloramine -T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is used to treat external bacterial infections in salmonid fish such as koi, salmon, trout, and whitefish. I
n the personal care industry, it is used in hydrotherapy treatments to revitalize, maintain, and restore health. 
Hydrotherapeutic applications include whirlpools, saunas, steam baths, foot baths, and sitz baths. 
Chloramine-T is also used for disinfection in saunas, solariums, gyms, sport centres, kitchens, sanitary facilities, and air conditioning units. 
As an anti-microbial agent,Chloramine-T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) it has had widespread use in a broad range of practices, including medical, dental, verterinary food processing and agricultural. 
It also has been used in direct contact with tissues because it has a low degree of cytotoxicity.  
Disifin (Tosylchloramide) destroys DNA and thereby prevents microbes from. DISIFIN® Tablets are effective against a whole series of microorganisms, including grampositive and gram-negative bacteria, enveloped and non-en reproducing.


Aquaculture requires strict hygiene rules to prevent diseases resulting in fish welfare problems and heavy economical damages. Halamid®, also known under its generic name chloramine-T in this market, is the internationally accepted product for hygiene in the aquaculture farm. Very effective against fish and shrimp pathogenic microorganisms, it has proven already for many years to be an indispensable product in any aquaculture operation, from the nursery and growing tanks to the fish processing plant.

The safety margin between the concentration effective against microorganisms and the one toxic for fish makes Halamid® of special interest in aquaculture. Well known applications of Halamid® include use against pathogenic bacteria, such as the ones responsible for Bacterial Gill Disease (BGD) or external columnaris. Halamid® is also useful against many parasites related to the aquaculture industry, for example the Gyrodactylus and Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease) parasites.

Aquaculture needs a universal and versatile disinfectant in order to ensure the best health and hygiene status. Disinfection with Halamid® of tanks and ponds, nets, equipment, well boats and in the fish processing industry ensures that pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) are rapidly and effectively destroyed.

Chloramine-T
Halamid

ingredient: Sodium p-toluenesulfon chloramide
treatment:
use: Bacteria, bacterial gill disease, gill fluke, protozoa, white spot
dosage: 30mg/l (30 grams per 1000 liters)
duration: 30 minutes
comment :  
formula: Sodium p-toluenesulfon chloramide
reference : www.koinet.net
Fish with parasites, bacteria or blockages of the gills will distend their gill covers out wider and breathe more rapidly than normal to obtain oxygen, before dying. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, in contrast, usually cause the fish to sip repeatedly at the surface.

Careful examination of a few sick or very recently dead fish will help identify the case. If well-defined segments of the normally red gills are white or off-white and slimy, the most likely cause is Bacterial Gill Disease. This is due to an overgrowth of common water bacteria and flexibacteria, which usually occurs following cold snaps or temperature stress, and in crowded unhygienic conditions. These stressful conditions should be removed, then the fish can be treated with Halamid / Chloramine, at 10 mg of active ingredient per litre of water, for 24 hours (ref).

EFFICACY
Halamid® is effective against many microorganisms related to aquaculture applications. A few of them are indicated below, but the complete activity spectrum of Halamid® is much wider.

Bacteria
Aeromonas salmonicida (Furunculosis)
Flexibacter maritimus (Marine columnaris)
Flavobacterium branchiophilum (BGD)
Flavobacterium columnaris (Columnaris)
Vibrio anguillarum (Vibriosis)
Vibrio harveyi
Vibrio salmonicida
Yersinia ruckeri (Redmouth disease)

Viruses
Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)
Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA)

Fungi
Saprolegnia
Parasites
Gyrodactylus salaris
Ichthyobodo necator (Costia)
Ichthyophthirius multifilis (White spot)
Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease)

Trematodes
Halamid® is recommended by the OIE to disinfect equipment against Gyrodactylus salaris at 1% and is also recognized by the same organization to be effective against IPN and ISA viruses.

SAFETY
Toxicity of Halamid® to numerous aquatic species (fish and shrimp) has been established, to ensure safety of Halamid® applications.

ANALYSIS
Typical:

Chloramine-T (C7H7CINNa02S. 3H20)

98% w/w (minimum)

Calculations and additional data
For Static Bath Treatment:

HALAMID® needed (grams) = Volume of water to be treated (liters) (gallons) X Treatment Concentration (ppm or mg/L) (X 0.0038 (gallon correction factor1))

e.g. 10ppm in 1000 liters = 10 grams per 1000 liters. (10 x 1000 = 10,000 mg; divide by 1000 = 10g)

For Constant Flow (flow-through) Treatment:

HALAMID® needed (grams) = Water Flow liters per minute (Gallons per minute) X Treatment Duration (minutes) X Treatment Concentration (ppm or mg/L) (X 0.0038 (gallons correction factor1)

e.g. 10 x lpm x 60 minutes x 10 ppm = 6000, divide by 1000 = 6g additional for duration to compensate for additional water (see below explanation)

1Correction (or conversion) factor is equal to:

3.785 L/gal

__________

1000 mg/g

DIRECTIONS FOR STATIC AND CONTINUOUS FLOW (FLOW THROUGH) TREATMENTS

1. STATIC TREATMENT: Shut off water flow to culture unit before adding drug. Completely dissolve HALAMID in a separate container of culture water and thoroughly mix into  the culture unit. The drug solution should be used immediately and not  stored. End treatment by flushing system with fresh water. Resume normal flow.

2. CONTINUOUS FLOW TREATMENT: Determine flow rate for culture  unit. Pre-charge culture unit by administering the amount of drug needed for a static treatment. Meter additional drug solution into culture  unit at a concentration and rate necessary to maintain the target dose  in the culture unit for the duration of the treatment period (see above for calculations).


Content    Tosylchloramide sodium
PVET Classification    Disinfectants
Drug Class    Non-Rx
Indication    Disinfectant against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other harmful microorganisms present in farm buildings and premises. Replaces traditional, more hazardous products while preserving full broad spectrum efficacy.
Dosage    For disinfection by spraying, misting and scrubbing: it is recommended to use 0.3 L/m2 of tosylchloramide sodium solution. For disinfection of farming buildings and equipment, a concentration of 0.5% is usually recommended with a contact time of 30 minutes. For disinfection of vehicles, a 1% concentration is recommended and for foot baths, 2% solution should be used. Non-corrosive in solution and safe for the farm equipment.

Halamid® is one of the best known disinfectants for aquaculture uses, improving water quality and preventing health problems with fish and shrimp. It is commonly used in fresh water environments (with trout for example) and is progressively making its way into salt water fish and shrimp farms.
People ask us what is the difference between fresh water and sea (or brackish) water from a disinfection point of view. When using Halamid®, there is no significant difference as long as you follow proper protocols. Other oxidative disinfectants like for example peracetic acid, break down faster in sea water than they do in fresh water. Halamid® remains effective in salt water.

There are reasons related to the setup of marine farming that may make disinfection as a whole more complicated. Sea water farming is still largely operated in open sea cages. Due to the stocking density in such cages and the exchange with wild fish, diseases can still proliferate rapidly. In this set up, there are different ways to use Halamid®. The farmer can bath the fishes by transferring them temporarily into a well boat for example, or he can limit water exchange from the cage by applying a tarpaulin.

These are costly and labour intensive procedures but they pay out because Halamid® is efficacious, for example against Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD).
High value marine species are farmed more and more on land for what concerns the whole rearing process. Environmental aspects also play a role leading to the use of recirculation systems. In that case, water quality is easier to control as external diseases can effectively be blocked. Halamid® is used to a large extent for preventive reasons. Its toxicity is low towards most fishes and shrimps and therefore it can be applied without the risk of adverse effects (following proper protocols).
In a next press release more information about Halamid® and the biological filter in a recirculation system.

Chloramine-T is the organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO2NClNa. Both the anhydrous salt and its trihydrate are known. Both are white powders. Chloramine-T is used as a reagent in organic synthesis

Chloramine-T contains active (electrophilic) chlorine. Its reactivity is similar to that of sodium hypochlorite. Aqueous solutions of chloramine-T are slightly basic (pH typically 8.5). The pKa of the closely related N-chlorophenylsulfonamide C6H5SO2NCl(H) is 9.5.[2]

It is prepared by oxidation of toluenesulfonamide with sodium hypochlorite, with the latter being produced in situ from sodium hydroxide and chlorine (Cl2)


Oxidant
Chloramine-T is a strong oxidant. It oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and mustard gas to yield a harmless crystalline sulfimide.[4]

It converts iodide to iodine monochloride (ICl). ICl rapidly undergoes electrophilic substitution predominantly with activated aromatic rings, such as those of the amino acid tyrosine. Thus, chloramine-T is used to incorporate iodine into peptides and proteins. Chloramine-T together with iodogen or lactoperoxidase is commonly used for labeling peptides and proteins with radioiodine isotopes.

Translated names
Chloramin T (Natriumsalz) (de)

chloramin T, natrium salt (da)

chloramina T (sól sodowa) (pl)

chloramine T (sel de sodium) (fr)

cloramina T (sale di sodio) (it)

kloramin T, natriumsalt (no)

kloramin T, natriumsalt (sv)

N-chlor-4-methylbenzen-1-sulfonamid, sodná sůl (cs)

N-chlorotolueno-4-sulfonoamid sodu (pl)

N-chlórtozylazanid sodný (sk)

Naatriumtosüülklooramiid (kloramiin T) (et)
Biocidal active substances
Natrijev tosilkloramid (natrijev tosilkloramid - kloramin T) (hr)
Biocidal active substances
natrijev tozilkloroamid (sl)

natrio tozilchloramidas (lt)

Natrio tozilchloramidas (natrio tozilchloramidas – chloraminas T) (lt)
Biocidal active substances
nátrium-tozylchloramid (chloramín T) (sk)
Biocidal active substances
nātrija tozilhloramīds (lv)

Nātrija tozilhloramīds (tozilhloramīdnātrijs – hloramīns T) (lv)
Biocidal active substances
sodio tosilcloramida (pt)

Tosilcloramida de sodio (cloramina T) (es)
Biocidal active substances
tosilcloramida sodica (ro)

tosilcloramida sódica (es)

Tosilcloramida sódica (tosilcloramida de sódio — Cloramina T) (pt)
Biocidal active substances
tosilcloramide sodica (it)

Tosilcloramide sodica (Tosilcloramide sodica- Cloramina T) (it)
Biocidal active substances
Tosilcloramidă sodică (Tosilcloramidă sodică — Cloramină T) (ro)
Biocidal active substances
tosilkloramid natrij (hr)

Tosylchlooramide-natrium (tosylchlooramide-natrium — chloramine-T) (nl)
Biocidal active substances
tosylchloramid, sodná sůl (sodná sůl tosylchloramidu – chloramin T) – (N-chlor-4-methylbenzen-1-sulfonamid (cs)
Biocidal active substances
Tosylchloramid-Natrium (Tosylchloramid-Natrium — Chloramin T) (de)
Biocidal active substances
tosylchloramide sodique (fr)

Tosylchloramide sodique (tosylchloramide sodique — chloramine T) (fr)
Biocidal active substances
Tosylchloramide sodium (Tosylchloramide sodium — Chloramin T) (mt)
Biocidal active substances
Tosylchloramide sodium (Tosylchloramide sodium — Chloramin T) (no)
Biocidal active substances
tosylchloramidenatrium (nl)

tosylchloramidnatrium (da)

Tosylchloramidnatrium (de)

tosylchloramidnatrium (chloramin T) (da)
Biocidal active substances
tosylkloramidnatrium (no)

tosylkloramidnatrium (sv)

Tosylkloramidnatrium (Tosylkloramidnatrium – Kloramin T) (sv)
Biocidal active substances
tosylochloramid sodu (pl)

Tosylochloramid sodu (sól sodowa tosylchloramidu — chloramina T) (pl)
Biocidal active substances
tosyyliklooriamidinatrium (fi)

Tosyyliklooriamidinatrium (Tosyyliklooriamidinatrium — klooriamiini T) (fi)
Biocidal active substances
tosüülnaatriumklooramiid (et)

Tozilkloramid natrij (tozilkloramid natrij – kloramin T) (sl)
Biocidal active substances
tozilklóramid-nátrium (hu)

Tozilklóramid-nátrium (Tozilklóramid-nátrium – Kloramin T) (hu)
Biocidal active substances
Νατριούχο χλωροτολουολοσουλφοναμίδιο (νατριούχο τοσυλοχλωραμίδιο — χλωραμίνη Τ) (el)
Τοσυλχλωραμίδιο του νατρίου (el)
натриев тoзилхлорамид (bg)
Натриев тосилхлорамид (натриев тосилхлорамид — хлорамин Т) (bg)

CAS names
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt (1:1)

IUPAC names
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt
benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt
N-chloro 4-methylbenzenesulfonamide, sodium salt 
N-chloro-4-methyl-N-sodiobenzene-1-sulfonamide trihydrate
sodium chloro(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)azanide
sodium chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide
sodium chloro[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide, trihydrate
sodium;chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide
Tosylchloramide sodium
tosylchloramide sodium


Trade names
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt (CA Index 9CI)
Halamid 
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzylsulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
p-Toluenesulfonamide, N-chloro-, sodium salt
p-Toluenesulfonylchloramide sodium
Sodium chloramine T
Sodium N-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide
Sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide
Sodium p-toluenesulfochloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonylchloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulphonchloramide
Sodium tosylchloramide
Tosylchloramide sodium


1.    Tosylchloramide sodium (synonyms: chloramine T, N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) is an organic chlorine compound with an available chlorine content of 28 to 30% and is intended for use in fish farming for prevention and control of bacterial gill disease. Recommended treatment schedules are as follows: 10 mg/l in water of flow-through basin for one hour for preventive purposes, which may be repeated every 15 to 30 days; 10 mg/l in water of flow-through basin for one hour for therapeutic purposes, which may be repeated up to 3 times within one week.
2.    Tosylchloramide sodium is a biocidal agent, acting on the affected gills against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. The biocidal effect results from the separation of chlorine, which reacts with bacterial proteins and nucleic acids and from an irreversible binding of the tosylchloramide ion itself to organic material such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Due to the mechanism of the biocidal action, is unlikely that any microbial resistance will develop.
    No studies have been presented that show other pharmacodynamic effects of tosylchloramide sodium.
3.    No pharmacokinetic studies in mammals are available concerning either tosylchloramide sodium or para-toluenesulfonamide.
4.    A set of toxicological studies is available concerning tosylchloramide sodium, para- toluenesulfonamide, the major metabolite in fish, another closely related substance, ortho- toluenesulfonamide, and defined mixtures of para- and ortho-toluenesulfonamide.
    The ortho-toluenesulfonamide is not formed either in water solutions of tosylchloramide sodium or as a metabolite in fish. Thus, the results of the studies with ortho-toluenesulfonamide are not relevant for the safety evaluation of tosylchloramide sodium.
5.    The oral LD50 of tosylchloramide sodium is 935 and 1100 mg/kg bw in the rat and mouse, respectively. Gastric inflammation, apathy and gastric bleeding as well as intestinal haemorrhage were observed in animals which died.
    Para-toluenesulfonamide has an oral LD50 in the rat of 2330 mg/kg bw.
    LD50-values for a mixture of ortho- and para-toluenesulfonamide (41% and 51%, respectively) in rats was approximately 2400 mg/kg bw.
    Tosylchloramide sodium is corrosive to skin and an extreme irritant for the ocular mucosa, wheras para-toluenesulfonamide has no significant irritation potential.
6.    In a 28-day feeding study, rats were exposed to diets containing tosylchloramide sodium at doses of 0, 3000, 10 000 or 30 000 mg/kg feed, equivalent to approximately 150, 500 or 1500 mg/kg bw/day. Significantly reduced weight gain, slightly increased leukocyte count and pale discoloration of liver were present at doses equal to or higher than 10 000 mg/kg. Relative kidney and liver weight were increased in all treated groups. No significant treatment-related histological alterations were present. A NOEL was not identified.

    EMEA 1999 Reproduction and/or distribution of this document is authorised for non commercial purposes only provided the EMEA is acknowledged
 
    In a 90-day feeding study, Wistar rats (10/sex/group) were exposed to diets containing 0, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 mg/kg feed of tosylchloramide sodium, equivalent to approximately 5, 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. A slight reduction of weight gain and food efficiency was present in females at 3000 mg/kg feed. Relative kidney weight was significantly increased in both sexes at doses equal to or higher than 1000 mg/kg feed. In females at 1000 and 3000 mg/kg feed an increased severity and frequency of calcareous deposits in kidneys was observed. The NOEL was 300 mg/kg feed, equivalent to approximately 15 mg/kg bw.
    In a 90-day feeding study, rats were exposed to diets containing 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 mg/kg feed of a mixture of para-toluenesulfonamide (68%) and ortho-toluenesulfonamide (32%), equivalent to approximately 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. A slight reduction of weight gain and food consumption was present at 3000 mg/kg feed as the only treatment-related effect. As no haematological, biochemical urinalysis and histopathological parameters were studied in the 1000 and 3000 mg/kg feed groups, no NOEL can be derived from this study.
    No treatment-related effects were observed in a 90-day feeding study on dogs exposed to doses up to 3000 mg/kg feed of a mixture of para-toluenesulfonamide (68%) and ortho- toluenesulfonamide (32%), equivalent to 75 mg/kg bw/day.
7.    In a two-generation lifetime feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats with the related substance ortho-toluenesulfonamide, weanlings (50/sex/group) were exposed to diets containing 0, 2.5, 25 or 250 mg/kg feed, or 250 mg/kg feed combined with 1% NH4Cl in drinking water. The dietary levels were equivalent to approximately 0.125, 1.25, 12.5 and 12.5 mg/kg bw/day. After three months the F0 animals were mated. From each group, 50 F1 pups of each sex were randomly selected and kept on the the same dietary levels as the parental generation. F0 animals were terminated after 142 weeks of test, while F1 rats were terminated after 127 weeks.
    Systemic toxicity was observed only in F0 and F1 at the top dose level (either with and without NH4Cl); signs included reduced weight gain and dose-related increases of several histological alterations such as reactive hyperplasia and haemosiderosis of the spleen, and centrilobular foci of basophilic cells and peliosis in liver. However, no histological alterations were consistently present in both sexes of both generations. The NOEL for systemic toxicity was 25 mg/kg feed, equivalent to 1.25 mg/kg bw/day.
    No impaired fertility or indication of teratogenic effects were seen. A significant reduction of average litter size and neonatal weight were observed at 250 mg/kg feed. No effects were seen at 25 mg/kg feed, equivalent to approximately 1.25 mg/kg bw.
8.    A repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test on para- toluenesulfonamide was performed according to the relevant OECD guideline. Rats were treated by gavage with 0, 120, 300 or 750 mg/kg bw, males for 42 days before mating and females for 14 days before mating up to day 3 of lactation. Dams and litters were examined on post-natal day 4.
    Dose-related hypersalivation was evident in all treated groups. In the males of the highest dose group dark coloured livers were seen at gross pathology and thickening of the urinary bladder epithelium at histopathological examination. In addition, blood chemistry analyses demonstrated increased levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum aspartate aminotransferase and chloride in both sexes of the two highest groups and increased serum alanin aminotransferase levels in the high dose males. Reduced weight gain and food consumption were present in adults at the high and the medium dose level. No teratogenic effect or impaired fertility were observed. At 750 mg/kg bw a significant reduction of neonatal survival and body weight were present. No effect on litter size or survival were seen at 300 mg/kg bw. As no raw data and no complete report were provided for this study, no conclusion could be reached.
    In a GLP compliant embryotoxicity/teratogenicity study, pregnant rats were treated by gavage on gestational days 6 to 15 with 0, 50, 250 or 500 mg/kg bw of a mixture of para-toluenesulfonamide (68%) and ortho-toluenesulfonamide (32%). At 250 and 500 mg/kg bw maternal weight gain was significantly reduced during the treatment period. At the same dose levels, postimplantation loss showed a dose-related increase and foetal weight was reduced. No teratogenic effect was observed. The NOELs for maternal toxicity and embryotoxicity/fetotoxicity were 50 mg/kg bw.
 
9.    The genotoxicity of tosylchloramide sodium was assayed in a set of test, including: a non-GLP Salmonella-microsomal test (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA 1537 and TA 1538 with and without metabolic activation); a non-GLP DNA-repair test on Escherichia coli, with and without metabolic activation; a GLP compliant gene mutation assay in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells with and without metabolic activation; a GLP compliant micronucleus assay in mice treated by gavage with 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg bw/day for 2 days. All tests provided negative results.
    In a non-GLP Salmonella-microsomal test para-toluenesulfonamide was evaluated in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA 1537 and TA 1538 with and without metabolic activation. No mutagenicity was observed.
    It is concluded that tosylchloramide sodium and the metabolite para-toluenesulfonamide are devoid of genotoxic potential.
10.    No carcinogenicity studies were performed on tosylchloramide sodium or para- toluenesulfonamide. Considering also the lack of genotoxicity shown by tosylchloramide sodium, no further testing for carcinogenicity is deemed necessary.
11.    No specific studies on immunotoxicity are available.
    In repeated dose toxicity studies, neither tosylchloramide sodium nor para- or ortho- toluenesulfonamide induced significant alterations on haematological parameters and tissues involved in the immune response.
12.    No specific studies on human gut microbes have been presented.
    The bacterial toxicity of tosylchloramide sodium has been determined using the inhibition of oxygen uptake of Pseudomonas putida in water: an EC10 of 10 mg/l. was determined. The type of study and the species used are not relevant to bacteria of the human intestinal flora.
    Chloramine acts on bacterial and fungal cells as a disinfectant, not as an antibiotic. Moreover, any resistance is unlikely to develop, due to the biocidal mechanism of action. Therefore, studies on antibacterial effects in order to determine a microbiological ADI are not needed.
    Since tosylchloramide sodium is intended for use only in aquaculture, no data are needed with regard to microorganisms used in industrial food processing.
13.    No data are available concerning the human effects of tosylchloramide sodium or related compounds.
14.    An ADI could not be established from the available data. Nevertheless the presented toxicity studies and the fact that very low residues of tosylchloramide sodium and para- toluenesulfonamide are found in fish during and immediately after the bath treatment demonstrate that the residues likely to be ingested are of no toxicological concern to the consumer.
15.    Fingerlings and juvenile trouts were exposed to 20 mg/l (twice the therapeutic concentration) of ring UL-14C tosylchloramide sodium (purity 93.7%, specific activity 1.2 Ci/M) for up to 1 hour and then transferred to fresh water for recovery to assess tissue accumulation and distribution of resulting residues. The temperature of the well water was 11.6 to 12.2 °C.
    The estimated half-life of para-toluenesulfonamide equivalents in fingerlings was 27.3 hours whereas determined by HPLC the half-life of para-toluenesulfonamide residues in whole-body homogenates was 36.3 hours. The estimated half-life of residues in juvenile fish was 32.6 hours, based on radiometric data, while determined by HPLC the half-life for para-toluenesulfonamide residues in whole body samples was 40.3 hours.
    Elimination of total tosylchloramide sodium residues from fingerlings and juvenile whole-body homogenates, based on radiometric counts, was rapid but significantly faster from fingerlings  (t1/2 of 27.3 hours) than from juveniles (t1/2 of 32.6 hours).
 
16.    Fifteen adult rainbow trout were exposed to water solution of 14C tosylchloramide sodium (purity 93.7%, specific activity 1.2 Ci/M) at a concentration of 20 mg/l (twice the proposed treatment concentration) for a period of 1 hour and then transferred to fresh water. The temperature of the well water was 11 to 13°C. Samples of muscle fillet, residual carcass and gall bladder bile will be collected, frozen and stored for subsequent analyses. Residues of tosylchloramide sodium were not observed in any of the fish tissues analysed for this study. Tosylchloramide sodium was rapidly reduced to the primary metabolite para-toluenesulfonamide, but the levels were not quantified.
    In the above decribed study in fingerling and juvenile trouts tissue concentrations of tosylchloramide sodium residues were assessed by oxidation-liquid scintillation counting and by HPLC (limit of detection: 10 g/kg para-toluenesulfonamide). Isolation and purification of a suspected metabolite of tosylchloramide sodium from whole body homogenates and fillet tissue was accomplished by gel permeation chromatography and HPLC.
    Tosylchloramide sodium was poorly absorbed from the bath by both fingerling and juvenile trout. No residues of tosylchloramide sodium, only of the primary metabolite para-toluenesulfonamide, were found in any of the fish tissues in this study therefore, all tissue residues determined either by radiometric or by HPLC methods were reported on the basis of equivalent concentrations of para-toluenesulfonamide. The para-toluenesulfonamide equivalents concentration in whole body homogenates after 1 hour, based on radiometric analysis, was 980 g/kg, a value about 5% of that in the exposure water, in fingerlings. In juveniles, this value was 570 g/kg or about 3% of the concentration in the exposure bath. The exposure of para-toluenesulfonamide in whole body homogenates, after 1 hour, based on HPLC analyses was 360 g/kg in fingerlings and 170 g/kg in juveniles.
    Differences in the concentration estimates of para-toluenesulfonamide equivalent residues between the radiometric and HPLC data and differences in the rates of clearance of the residues suggested the presence of a second unidentified tosylchloramide sodium metabolite in the tissues. However, 24 hours after termination of the treatment the radiometric data and HPLC analyses indicate that all activity was consistent with para-toluenesulfonamide. Therefore the occurence of a small amount of the unknown metabolite is not considered of relevance to the safety of the consumer.
    Conclusions and recommendation
    Having considered the criteria laid down by the Committee for the inclusion of substances in Annex II to Council Regulation (EEC) No 2377/90 and in particular that:
•    the animals are unlikely to be sent for slaughter during or immediately after treatment,
•    tosylchloramide sodium is poorly absorbed and rapidly and extensively metabolised and excreted,
•    the amount of residues likely to be ingested by the consumer is very low and of no toxicological concern;
    the Committee concludes that there is no need to establish an MRL for tosylchloramide sodium and recommends its inclusion in Annex II to Council Regulation (EEC) No 2377/90 in accordance with the following table:

    Pharmacologically active substance(s)    Animal species    Other provisions
    Tosylchloramide sodium    Fin fish    For water borne use only

Chloramine-T

CHLORAMINE T

127-65-1

Tosylchloramide sodium

Chloralone

Chlorasan

Chlorozone

Acti-chlore

Chloraseptine

Chlorazene

Chlorazone

Chlorseptol

Multichlor

Tochlorine

Aktivin

Chlorazan

Chlorosol

Heliogen

Mannolite

Tampules

Tolamine

Sodium chloramine T

Chlorina Aktivin

Monochloramine T

Sodium tosylchloramide

Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide

Tosilcloramida sodica

Sodium chloro(tosyl)amide

Tosylchloramide sodique

Tosylchloramidum natricum

Berkendyl

Anexol

(N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamido)sodium

Sodium p-toluenesulfonylchloramide

Cloramine T

N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium

Sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide

Gyneclorina

Clorosan

Mianine

Gansil

Chloramin Heyden

Kloramine-T

Chloramin Dr. Fahlberg

UNII-328AS34YM6

Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt

CHEBI:53767

N-Chlorotoluenesulfonamide sodium salt

Tosylchloramide sodium [INN]

N-Chloro-4-methylbenzylsulfonamide sodium salt

328AS34YM6

[chloro(p-tolylsulfonyl)amino]sodium

Aseptoclean

Desinfect

Tosylchloramid-natrium

Tosylchloramide sodium (INN)

Caswell No. 170

Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt (1:1)

7080-50-4

Sodium derivative of N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide trihydrate

Chloramine-t [NF]

HSDB 4303

SR-01000872612

EINECS 204-854-7

Tosilcloramida sodica [INN-Spanish]

N-Chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide sodium salt

NSC 36959

Tosylchloramide sodique [INN-French]

Tosylchloramidum natricum [INN-Latin]

AI3-18426C

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076502

Chloramin T

p-Toluenesulfonamide, N-chloro-, sodium salt

sodium chloro(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)azanide

Epitope ID:116223

SCHEMBL19335

CHEMBL1697734

DTXSID6040321

HMS3264N19

AMY37206

BCP12015

HY-B0959

p-Toluenesulfonchloramide Sodium Salt

s6403

AKOS015890257

CCG-213937

CS-4435

Chloramine T (Tosyl Chloramide Sodium Salt)

FT-0654742

sodium;chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide

EN300-75322

sodium chloro[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanide

D02445

Z-0571

Q420695

J-008582

SR-01000872612-2

SR-01000872612-3

W-108379

Chloramine (T) N-Chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide,sodium salt


Applications
Chloramine-T trihydrate is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemical substances such as pharmaceuticals. It combines with iodogen or lactoperoxidase and is commonly used for labeling peptides and proteins with radioiodine isotopes. Hypochlorite released from chloramine-T acts as an effective oxidizing agent for iodide to form iodine monochloride (ICl).

Notes
Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids and ammonia.


Tosylchloramide or N-chloro tosylamide, sodium salt, sold as chloramine-T, is an investigational animal drug used in the aquaculture industry and also is a very effective odor control compound. It has other applications that include: algaecide, bactericide, germicide, parasite control, and for drinking water disinfection. It is also highly effective against bacteria, viruses, and spores. In the aquaculture and aquafarming industries, Chloramine -T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is used to treat external bacterial infections in salmonid fish such as koi, salmon, trout, and whitefish. In the personal care industry, it is used in hydrotherapy treatments to revitalize, maintain, and restore health. Hydrotherapeutic applications include whirlpools, saunas, steam baths, foot baths, and sitz baths. Chloramine-T is also used for disinfection in saunas, solariums, gyms, sport centres, kitchens, sanitary facilities, and air conditioning units. As an anti-microbial agent,Chloramine-T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) it has had widespread use in a broad range of practices, including medical, dental, verterinary food processing and agricultural. It also has been used in direct contact with tissues because it has a low degree of cytotoxicity. Within the United States of America, the use of Chloramine-T is more restricted. Disifin (Tosylchloramide) destroys DNA and thereby prevents microbes from. DISIFIN® Tablets are effective against a whole series of microorganisms, including grampositive and gram-negative bacteria, enveloped and non-en reproducing.

Tosylchloramide or N-chloro tosylamide, sodium salt, sold as chloramine-T, is a N-chlorinated and N-deprotonated sulfonamide used as a biocide and a mild disinfectant. It is a white powder that gives unstable solutions with water. Trade names of chloramine-T products include Chloraseptin, Chlorazol, Clorina, Disifin, Halamid, Hydroclonazone, Trichlorol, Minachlor, and generic Chloramin T or Tosylchloramide Sodium, among others.

Uses
Iodination and radioiodination
Hypochlorite released from chloramine-T acts as an effective oxidizing agent for iodide to form iodine monochloride (ICl). ICl rapidly undergoes electrophilic substitution predominantly with activated aromatic rings, such as those of the amino acid tyrosine. Thus, chloramine-T is widely used for the incorporation of iodine to peptides and proteins. Chloramine-T together with iodogen or lactoperoxidase is commonly used for labeling peptides and proteins with radioiodine isotopes (123I, 125I or 131I).[1]

Biocide
Chloramine-T is available in tablet or powder form and has to be dissolved before use. It is sprayed on a surface and allowed to stand for at least 15 minutes before being wiped off or allowed to dry. It used in areas such as hospitals, laboratories, nursing homes, funeral homes, medical, dental and veterinary facilities, where control of pathogens is required, for disinfecting surfaces and soaking medical and dental equipment. The substance is also used for parasite control and for drinking water disinfection.

Chloramine-T is as an algicide, bactericide, virucide, fungicide (including spores), germicide. It is also effective against mycobacteria such as tuberculosis, foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza. The molecular structure of toluenesulfonylamide is similar to para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in bacterial metabolism, which is disrupted by this sulfonamide (in the same way as by a sulfa drug). Therefore, chloramine-T is capable of inhibiting with bacterial growth with two mechanisms, with the phenylsulfonamide moiety and the hypochlorite, which destroys the DNA structure via oxidation and thereby prevents microbes from reproducing and reforming.

Protective agent
Chloramine-T reacts readily with mustard gas to yield a harmless crystalline sulfimide; chloramine-T derivatives are being studied as protective agents against poison gas.


Chloramine -T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is an investigational animal drug used in the aquaculture industry and also is a very effective odor control compound. It has other applications that include: algaecide, bactericide, germicide, parasite control, and for drinking water disinfection. It is also highly effective against bacteria, viruses, and spores.

In the aquaculture and aquafarming industries, Chloramine -T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) is used to treat external bacterial infections in salmonid fish such as koi, salmon, trout, and whitefish. In the personal care industry, it is used in hydrotherapy treatments to revitalize, maintain, and restore health.

Hydrotherapeutic applications include whirlpools, saunas, steam baths, foot baths, and sitz baths. Chloramine-T is also used for disinfection in saunas, solariums, gyms, sport centres, kitchens, sanitary facilities, and air conditioning units.

Chloramine-T is simple and safe to use, dissolves in water (warm) and immediately produces a ready-to-use, highly effective and long-lasting disinfectant solution that lasts up to eight weeks in special UV protected spray bottles.

As an anti-microbial agent,Chloramine-T (Tosylchloramide Sodium Salt) it has had widespread use in a broad range of practices, including medical, dental, verterinary food processing and agricultural. It also has been used in direct contact with tissues because it has a low degree of cytotoxicity. 

CAS NO    127-65-1 (Anhydrous)
7080-50-4 (Trihydrate)    
CHLORAMINE T

EINECS NO.    204-854-7
FORMULA    C7H7ClNO2S·Na
MOL WT.    227.64
H.S. CODE

 
TOXICITY

 
SYNONYMS    Tosylchloramide sodium; Tosilcloramida sodica (Spanish);
Aktiven; Chloraseptine; Tochlorine; tolamine; Chlorazene; Chlorazone; Clorina; Halamid; Mianine; (N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamido) sodium; Sodium p-Toluenesulfonchloramide; p-Toluenesulfonchloramide Sodium Salt; N-Chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide sodium salt; Tosylchloramidnatrium (German); Tosylchloramide sodique (French); N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide, sodium salt; Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramine; Sodium N-chloro-para-toluenesulfonamidate;
SMILES    
 

CLASSIFICATION

DISINFECTANTS /

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE    White crystalline powder
MELTING POINT    167 - 169 C (freeing chlorine violently above 130 C)
BOILING POINT    
 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY    
1.43

SOLUBILITY IN WATER    Reacts
SOLVENT SOLUBILITY

Soluble in alcohol, Insoluble in benzene and ethers)
pH    7 - 9
VAPOR DENSITY    
 

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

AUTOIGNITION    
 

NFPA RATINGS    Health: 3; Flammability: 1; Reactivity: 0
FLASH POINT    
192 C

STABILITY    
Stable under ordinary conditions. Decomposes slowly in air.

APPLICATIONS

Chloramine refers to a group of compounds with formulas R2NCl or RNCl2 (R is an organic group), including monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2) and trichloramine (NCl3). Chloramine also refers to a combination of chlorine and ammonia, is used as a disinfect in water supplies to prevent  waterborne diseases. Examples of organic chloramines are:
Chloramine    
CAS RN.

Chloramine B

80-16-0

Chloramine B sodium    127-52-6
Chloramine T    127-65-1
Dichloramine B    473-29-0
Dichloramine T    473-34-7
N-Chlorodimethylamine    1585-74-6
Chlorimide    3400-09-7
Methyldichloramine    7651-91-4
Chloramine    10599-90-3
2-(Dichloroamino)ethanol    36996-97-1
N-Chlorotaurine    51036-13-6
Taurine dichloramine    80638-45-5
Chloramine hemisuccinate    82224-87-1
N-Chlorophenylalanine    106984-40-1
Histamine dichloramine    109241-52-3
Putrescine-di-dichloramine    109241-53-4
Chloramine-B and Chloramine-T are antiseptic agents derived from combining chloramine and benzenesulfonamide or p-toluenesulfonamide repectively. Chloramine  is one of the most widely used chemical disinfectants in drinking water system. Sulfonamide molecular structure is similar to p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) which is needed in bacteria organisms as a substrate of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). Sulfonamides are capable of interfering with the metabolic processes in bacteria that require PABA. They act as antimicrobial agents by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity. Chloramine B and Chloramine B are used as an oxidizing agent, an antiseptic, a germicide as well as a chlorinating agent in organic synthesis. Its ions resulting from dissolving in water involve in interfering with micro-organisms' cell process by oxidations of proteins or enzyms.

SALES SPECIFICATION
BP93

APPEARANCE

White crystalline powder
ASSAY

99.5%

pH

7 - 9


IUPAC Name 
sodium chloro[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanide
INN     Source
Tosylchloramide sodium    KEGG DRUG
Synonyms     Sources
(N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamido)sodium    
Acti-chlore    
Chloralone    
Chloramine-t    NIST Chemistry WebBook
Chloramine-T    
Chlorasan    
Chloraseptine    
Chlorazan    
Chlorazene    
Chlorazone    
Chlorina Aktivin    
Chlorosol    
Chlorozone    
Chlorseptol    
Heliogen    
Mannolite    
Monochloramine T    
Multichlor    
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium    
Sodium chloramine T    
Sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide    
Sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide    
Sodium p-toluenesulfonylchloramide    
Sodium tosylchloramide    
Tampules    
Tochlorine    
Tolamine    
Tosilcloramida sodica Español    
Tosylchloramide sodique Français    
Tosylchloramidum natricum LINGUA LATINA    

Use of tosylchloramide(s) for treating disease of the skin, mucous membrane, organs and tissues
Abstract
The invention concerns the use of tosylchloramide(s), tosylchloramide salt(s), their derivatives and/or the decomposition products for treating diseases of the skin, mucous membranes, organs and tissues, excluding treatment of retroviral diseases (HIV) and disinfecting processes. 
It has been shown that tosylchloramide compounds can be used even for all diseases of the skin and viral mucosa causing formation of vesicles and itching, and they can lead to similar results as those obtained when they are used to treat corresponding diseases in tissues and organs. 
They not only provide quick relief of the acute symptoms and cure, but they also reduce frequency of recurrence. 
The inventive use is characterised in that it leads to very good treatment results, entirely independently of the form of preparation used, and it does not have to be administered in one specific manner. Relatively low amounts of tosylchloramide active principle can provide complete cure.


The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products


EMEA/MRL/570/99-FINAL
February 1999


COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

TOSYLCHLORAMIDE SODIUM SUMMARY REPORT (1)
Description
The invention concerns the use of tosylchloramide(s) as effective substance for treating diseases of the skin, the mucous membranes, organs and tissues.
Today, as in the past, there are numerous diseases whose treatment is only possible to a sub-ordinated extent, since appropriate drugs for treatment do not yet exist. This is true, for example, with respect to viral diseases, such as herpes simplex, herpes labialis, herpes zoster, varicella as well as other vesicle-forming skin diseases. With the exception of local anesthesia, there are currently no effective medicines which will alleviate the itching.
In addition, several viral statica against herpes are known, which, however, primarily present strong side effect. Thus, until now, neurodermitis or psoriasis are only treatable with corticoid preparations. Furthermore, several diseases, such as acne and aphthae pose treatment problems and most of the substances obtainable in pharmacies produce more or less successful results with respect to healing and rarely afford relief.
According to the state of the art, several suggestions have been submitted relative to chloramine T, the tosylchloramide-sodium salt, which is specifically employed as disinfecting means. Disclosure of DE 39 13 391 A1 relates to a disinfecting- and medicinal means, containing a combination of chloramine T only in combination with a reduction means. Said means is employed specifically for fighting fish diseases in aquariums and commercially raised fish, for disinfection of fish hatcheries and swimming pool water, but also for disinfection of wounds in humans, mammals and birds. The object, on which said teaching is based, consists of elimination of toxic side effects of chloramine T, in particular in fish. For said purpose, a reduction means is added, such as, for example, sodium thiosulfate or similar.
According to the teaching of DE 41 37 544 C2, an anti-microbial combination of effective substances is described as an antiseptic and for disinfection of skin, mucous membranes and wounds, containing a multi-substance mixture of 0.025 to 3% of an oxygen-splitting and 0.01 to 3% chlorine-splitting compound, plus urea, allantoin, panthenol and/or lactic acid. The oxygen-splitting compound may be an inorganic or organic peroxide, hydroperoxide, a peroxy acid or its salt, whereas the chlorine-splitting compound constitutes sodium hypochlorite or tosylchloramide salt. The object of said technical teaching consists, in particular, in raising the low disinfecting effectiveness of the oxygen-splitting compounds, such as for example hydrogen peroxide, which is obtained by adding the above compounds.
The above described prior art is disadvantageous to the extent that combination preparations from different compounds must be employed, whereby the quantities and modes of effectiveness of the different components need to be adjusted to each other. Also, for all practically purposes, effective disinfection of the preparations ranks first, which is frequently combined with skin irritation. The state of the art discloses, according to WO 91/07876 A1, a remedy against retroviruses, in particular against the HIV-virus. Said means is applied onto objects, such as plastic equipment, medical instruments and similar in order to prevent transmission of infection. Moreover, utilization of a therapeutic compound against retro-viruses is also made available. Said means may contain chloramine T. The provided therapeutic compound prevents the activation of lymphocytic cells, where replication of the virus takes place, —in other words, there is no multiplication of HIV-viruses. Retro-viruses basically differ from the DNA-viruses which are to be treated according to the invention, such as, for example, the herpes viruses. Retro-viruses are encased viruses, having a diameter of 80 to 120 nm, whereby their genome comprises 2 RNA molecules, single stranded, and strand-positive oriented—with varied length between 8 to 11 kB. In addition, the genome of these viruses presents specific peculiarities, due to which there is a basic distinction between these viruses and other viruses.
Accordingly, the invention is based on the object of further developing the preparations of the initially described state of the art, so that additional treatment possibilities are made available for diseases, in particular skin- and mucous membrane diseases, which are practically free from side effect. Treatment method should be simple and be employed by means of as many application modes as possible. Moreover, treatment should have a broad spectrum of effectiveness and cover the largest possible range of diseases. There should be no restriction in the treatment with respect to a given application mode. Furthermore, the provided preparation should directly alleviate the occurring diseases and then cure them.
According to the invention, the above object is solved by the utilization of tosylchloramide(s), salts of tosylchloramide(s) and their derivatives and/or decomposition products for the treatment of diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as organs and tissues, with the exception of treatment of retro-viral (HIV) diseases and disinfection.
Thus, it is possible to employ tosylchloramide, its salts, derivatives and decomposition products either individually or also in combination. The treatable diseases include, for example, viral diseases, such as herpes genitalis: the most widely spread venereal disease, herpes simplex, herpes labialis, chickenpox: zoster varicella-virus, shingles and herpes facialis: herpes zoster, itching of the skin, such as mosquito bites and also vesicle-forming skin, mucous membrane and tissue diseases, such as neurodermatitis, psoriasis, acne, aphtae, stomatitis aphthosa and stomatitis herpetica.
In a particularly preferred, specific embodiment of the invention, it is possible to treat skin and mucous membrane diseases, in particular such diseases which lead or may lead to “efflorescences”. The term “efflorescences” stands for forms of morbid changes of the skin. These may be, for example, so-called primary efflorescences, which are directly caused by a disease. These are, for example: spots, nodules, superficial or more deeply located knots, tubera, tumors, swellings, skin eruptions, dilated, superficially extending blood vessels, pustulas, such as pus pustulas, blisters, cysts. So-called secondary efflorescences develop after the primary efflorescences and manifest themselves by scales, crusts, erosions, scrapings, cracks, tumors, scars, shrinkage and thickening of the skin.
By means of the inventive composition, such aspects of disease can, surprisingly, be directly alleviated and, as a rule, cured. Mitigation can, for example, consist in that the intensive itching disappears which is associated with diseases of the skin, mucous membranes, tissues or organs.
The diseases which are to be treated, presenting efflorescences or without efflorescences, may be caused by micro-organisms and/or accompanied by micro-organisms or may be due to parasitic effects. The term “micro-organism”, within the framework of the invention, stands for both, bacteria, viruses (with the exception of retro-viruses), mycetes as well as zooparasites, which are likewise included here. This includes, for example, diseases like scabies, pediculosis or creeping eruption. With the inventively employed preparation, treatment can be specifically provided to the following: a) the eye, in particular eye lid, cornea or conjunctiva of the eye; b) the ear, in particular the exterior of the ear; c) the nose, in particular the nasal cavity; d) lips and mucous membranes of the mouth, and/or the tongue; e) vulva and/or vagina; f) penis, in particular the glans penis and the prepuce; g) anus; h) nails, in particular the body and the wall and fold of the nail as well as root of the nail; i) hair, in particular hair follicles and sebaceous glands and j) hands and feet, in particular the spaces between fingers and toes.
According to a preferred specific embodiment of the invention, tosylchloramide salts are particularly employed as alkali and alkaline earth. Preferential employment of sodium- and calcium- as well as potash salt leads to outstanding results in treatment. Particularly preferred is sodium salt which is marketed under the trade name “chloramine T” by Synopharm of Barsbuettel (22882).
Depending upon the employed base, the active tosylchloramide ingredient is applied in the form of tosylchloramide, salt, derivative and/or decomposition product—singly or in combination—in an amount of approximately 0.1 to 20% by weight, preferably approximately 5 to 15% by weight, specifically approximately 8 to 12% by weight. “Base” within the framework of the present invention signifies the presentation form of the preparation, which is not particularly limited according to the invention. The preparation may be liquid, semi-solid, solid, be in the form of water-containing or water-free galenical preparations, such as ointments, gels, creams, pastes, suppositories, tablets, effervescent tablets, capsules, sticks, such as lipsticks, in pulverized form, powders, solutions, adhesive bandages, aerosols, two-compartment systems or suspensions, such as for example shaking mixtures/dry suspensions.
If the base is a gel, the active tosylchloramide ingredient is present in an amount of approximately 0.1 to 5% by weight, specifically approximately 0.1 to 2% by weight. With respect to gels, these may involve hydrocarbon gels. Hydrocarbon gels are water-free bases which distinguish themselves by appreciable chemical indifference and long keeping quality. Addition of preservatives is not required. Vaseline is preferably employed as base, its consistency can optionally be modified by solid or liquid paraffins, waxes and fatty alcohols. Hydrocarbon gels cover the treated areas of the skin in moisture-permeable fashion, resulting in the maceration of the stratum corneum. Consequently, the contained medicaments are generally able to penetrate into deeper layers of the skin. Therefore, application is indicated in the chronic stage of various dermatoses. Known bases for gels are also high-polymer polyethylenes and liquid paraffin, which differ in their melting behavior from Vaseline and which have a clearly higher dropping point.
Hydrogels are also suitable as base. Hydrogels are fat-free, washable bases, which are manufactured by gel formation of organic or inorganic auxiliary substances with high percentages of water (approximately 90 to 98%). Generally, they also contain moisturizing agents and preservatives. By way of organic gel developers, anionic compounds can be used, such as carboxy-methyl cellulose and alginate, or non-ionic macro-molecules such as methyl cellulose and hydroxy-ethyl cellulose. Such type of hydro-gels have initially a cooling effect and, after evaporation of the water, form a coating of dried-on film on the surface of the skin. In contrast thereto, with anionic poly-acrylates of the carbopol-type, hydro gels are obtained which can be rubbed into the skin and which therefore possess a certain depth effect. By neutralizing poly-acrylic acid with certain amines, alcohol-containing gels can be prepared with ethanol or isopropanol, which are capable of increasing the cooling as well as the depth effect. Hydrogels are preferably suited for treatment of neurodermatitis, psoriasis, acne, mosquito bites and apthae.
W/O emulsion ointments are preferably employed by way of ointments, such as adhesive- or eye ointments. Based on their lipophile outer phase, W/O emulsion ointments lubricate the skin and cannot be washed off with water. They contain one or several W/O emulsifiers, such as for example degras, degras alcohol, higher fatty alcohols or glycerin fatty acid ester. W/O emulsion ointments can be preserved; they frequently contain antioxidants. Their skin spreading property is excellent. In contrast to the O/W emulsions, the flow direction of the moisture of the skin is directed toward the interior of the skin under the influence of the lipophile outer phase of this type of ointment. This increases swelling and penetration. These basic characteristics are preferably suited for dry skin.
Another suitable ointment type are the O/W-emulsion ointments. O/W-emulsion ointments (creams) can be washed off, based on their watery outer phase. They generally contain complex emulsifiers whose hydrophilic component is formed by fatty alcohol sulfates or non-ionic polyethylene-glycol containing tensides. By way of lipophile stabilizers, use is made of fatty alcohols, sorbitan fatty acid ester or glycerin fatty acid ester. O/W-emulsions frequently contain moisturizing agents and, as a rule, need to be stabilized with preservatives. Because of their watery outer phase, creams can generally be easily distributed over the skin and have a cooling effect. O/W-emulsions are used in the treatment of sub-acute and sub-chronic dermatoses and are preferably suited primarily for the seborrheic type of skin. The O/W- or W/O-emulsion ointments are particularly appropriate in the treatment of herpes simplex, herpes labialis, herpes zoster, varicells and other vesicle-forming skin diseases. The active ingredient, tosylchloramide is contained in O/W- or W/O ointments in volume of preferably 0.1 to 20% by weight, particularly preferred approximately 5 to 15% by weight and most particularly preferred approximately 8 to 12% by weight.
A particularly preferred preparation contains 10% by weight of active tosylchloramide ingredient in a cortisone-containing adhesive ointment (0.001% by weight corticoid) such as Volon A, a brand name of Messrs. Squibb-Heyden GmbH. In said preparation, the active tosylchloramide ingredient is particularly effective, preferably with herpes simplex, herpes labialis, herpes zoster, varicells and other vesicle-forming diseases of the skin, including aphthae, stomatitis aphthosa and stomatitis herpetica.
Further possible bases are solid galenic preparations, such as pulverized substances, powders or pastes, which may be employed, for example, as bath water additives for hand-, foot- or full baths, and which contain the active tosylchloramide ingredient in an amount of approximately 0.1 to 20% by weight. When employed in form of powder, for use as an additive to bath water, it preferably contains a concentration of approximately 0.1 to 1% by weight (particularly with neurodermatitis). Solid preparations further comprise suppositories or vaginal beads—which dissolve and form a foam lining,—sticks for treating areas of the lips, skin or mucous membranes (in particular with herpes labialis), adhesive bandages, for example with tissue of natural or artificial origin, or both, either porous, or air- and moisture-tight, tablets, such as capsules of soft or hard gelatin, effervescent tablets and similar.
In addition, aerosols, such as sprays, can also be employed in gas-tight containers, which must be operated mechanically or are operated with FCKW-free propelling gas, such as spray mist, foam, gel or adhesive coating, which is generated on the areas of the skin or mucous membranes which are to be treated. Particular consideration is given in this regard to dosing aerosols or dosing solutions which release a defined volume of substance with each stroke or push. Two-component systems in gas-tight vessels may likewise be employed, in which the effective tosylchloramide substances are stored alone or with an inert carrier material and/or propellant in two separate chambers and are mixed only with each application.
The benefits related to the invention are multifold. It has been demonstrated that tosylchloramide compounds can be employed with all vesicle-forming, itching, viral-caused skin and mucous membrane diseases and lead to the same results—the same is true of corresponding diseases of tissues and organs. Not only is there attained rapid alleviation of the acute symptomatic, but as well a decline in the recidivism rate.
It is particularly surprising that the inventive employment of the active tosylchloramide ingredient leads to excellent treatment results, completely independent from the utilized base. One is not restricted to a given application mode. It is possible that already relatively low amounts of the active tosylchloramide ingredient will lead to full healing. In addition, as indicated above, the application form can be adapted to the specific requirements, so that ample variability is given with respect to presentation form.
The direct or local application, for example, in form of gels, salves, sticks or as a bath additive has the advantage that the affected location can be directly treated, that good adhesion is obtained, even with moist mucous membranes and—at the same time—it is possible to achieve long dwell and adsorption time. Of particular benefit is the galenic form of the spray, whereby with spraying on the painful or itching portions of the skin, application of the active ingredient can take place pain-free and without contact, in contrast to application of a salve, which is something which will surely increase patient's compliance. The local application initially leads to noticeable burning after a use and then to rapid mitigation of the acute complaints—healing of any efflorescenses occurs, as a rule, within just a few days. Treatment can already take place before development of possible efflorescenses, which are formed only in the last stage of a skin disease. It is precisely in the case of herpes that such efflorescenses are prevented through treatment, thus lending itself to preventive treatment as well.
Tosylchloramide compounds, such as chloramine T have long been known as disinfectants, which may also be employed for disinfection of drinking water and they are thus thoroughly tested with respect to their effectiveness, their elimination behavior, unwelcome effects, counter-indications, reciprocal interactions, toxicological properties, as well as mutative propensity, etc.
Therefore, the inventive applications seem to raise no inherent concern regarding compatibility upon direct contact with the skin and potential sensibilisation, such as for example the local application in appropriate concentration in combination with an ointment.
Additional properties and benefits of the present invention are apparent from the following exemplary embodiments, which are not intended to limit the invention-specific teaching. To the person skilled in the art, additional exemplary embodiments are obvious within the framework of the inventive disclosure.
EXAMPLES
The following examples 1-3 demonstrate, in detail, the preparation of some inventively applied bases. After that, treatment with the active tosylchloramide ingredient is described in Examples 4 to 7.
Example 1Preparation of a W/O-Emulsion Ointment in Form of a Wool Wax Alcohol Salve
The wool wax alcohol salve was composed as follows:
    
    wool wax alcohols    6.0    parts    
    cetyl stearyl alcohol    0.5    parts    
    white Vaseline    93.5    parts    
    
The substances were melted in a water bath and stirred until cooled. Up to 12 parts of Vaseline can be substituted by viscous paraffin. A preparation having the following composition was then prepared:
    
    Wool wax alcohol salve    1    part    
    water    1    part    
    tosylchloramide-sodium    0.2    parts    
    
Into the wool wax alcohol salve, which had been heated to approximately 60° C., water was incorporated that had been heated to the same temperature. The salve was stirred until cooled and the tosylchloramide-sodium was then incorporated.
Example 2Preparation of an O/W-Emulsion Salve in Form of a Hydrophilic Ointment
The hydrophilic ointment had the following composition:
    
    emulsifying cetyl-stearyl alcohol    30 parts    
    viscous paraffin    35 parts    
    white Vaseline    35 parts    
    
The substances were melted in a water bath and stirred until cool. In the event that no easily spreadable ointment is obtained according to the cited prescription, viscous paraffin and white Vaseline may be exchanged with each other, as needed, by up to 10 percent. This salve was then used to prepare the following composition:
    
    hydrophilic salve    30 parts    
    water    70 parts    
    tosylchloramide-sodium    14 parts    
    
The hydrophilic salve was melted in a water-bath at approximately 70° C. and mixed with small portions of water that had been heated to the same temperature. The salve was stirred until cool and the evaporated water replaced. Tosylchloramide-sodium was incorporated.
Example 3Preparation of a Hydro-Gel Having the Following Composition
    
    hydroxy-ethylene cellulose 300    4.5 g    
    glycerol 85%    30.5 g     
    purified water    65.5 g     
    tosylchloramide-sodium    2.0 g    
    
The hydroxy-ethylene cellulose was uniformly suspended, under stirring, in the freshly boiled and cooled-down water, in which the tosylchloramide has been dissolved. The mixture had to expand until clear gel had developed. After that, glycerol was stirred in. Evaporated water was replaced, if necessary.
Example 4
The hydrogel which had been obtained in Example 3 was applied onto mosquito bites. This resulted in rapid decline of itching. Blisters dried up within 24 to 36 hours, with healing of the skin after additional 24 to 36 hours.
Example 5
Chloramine T was mixed into the known adhesive ointment “Volon A”, which contains corticosteroids and the following treatments were undertaken:
a) Aphtha:
An ointment, containing the inventively employed tosylchloramide substance, was applied on the aphthae. Following application, there occurred a brief burning sensation, after that one barely noted any sensitivity of the treated aphthae, whereupon rapid healing took place of the ulcus within a matter of 1 to 2 days. The apththae therapy also demonstrated that, contrary to the traditionally employed Zovirax ointment, application onto mucous membrane (mouth, region of genitalia) is possible and successful.
b) Herpes Labialis:
The broken-out herpes healed off in the shortest possible time, which made itself known by means of prickling or tingling. With timely recognition, as a rule, there will not be a break-out.
c) Rhagades in the Corner of the Mouth:
The course of the treatment corresponds to what was described under “herpes labialis”. Here again, notice was taken of rapid and lasting healing. Generally, with herpes infection in the oral cavity, in particular at the hard palate, one obtains excellent treatment results with the inventively employed adhesive salve.
d) Neurodermatitis with Herpes Superinfection:
Instant decline in the unbearable itching was attained with concurrently amazingly rapid healing of the skin. For persons suffering from neurodermatitis, the elimination of itching is of utmost importance, since it does away with the irresistible urge to scratch, which frequently leads to further worsening and further spreading of the rash. Relief can be achieved with the inventively employed effective substance.
Example 6
Instead of adhesive salve Volon A with added chloramine T, a normal cooling salve was prepared—“unguentum leniens” which merely contained chloramine T-powder (2% by weight) as active ingredient, but no corticoid. The success described under Example 5 was the same. The utilization of a hydrolotion containing only chloramine T as active ingredient resulted in the above represented results. Even addition of the powder to the bath water brought comparable results.
Example 7
15 test patients with different aspects of disease were treated under control of a physician. After treatment over a period of several days, the physician made an evaluation with respect to effect and overall results of the treatment. For evaluation of effect, the following assessment grades could be assigned: “none”—“minor”—“good”—“very good”—“outstanding”. For assessment of overall application results, it was possible to select from the following:
“no improvement”—“moderate improvement”—“good improvement”—“excellent improvement”. The executed examinations with respective the various disease aspects and the obtained results are summarized in the Table which is shown below:
TABLE

                    Overall Result of
Test Patient    Disease Aspect    Base    Period of Application    Evaluation of Effect    Application

                    
1    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    5 days    very good    excellent
        Volon A with    2 times per day        improvement
        Chloramine T            
2    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    3 days    excellent    excellent
        Volon A with    1-3 times per day        improvement
        Chloramine T            
3    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    2 days    excellent    excellent
        Volon A with    1-2 times per day        improvement
        Chloramine T            
4    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    6 days    good    good improvement
        Volon A with    1-4 times per day        
        Chloramine T            
5    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    4 days    very good    good improvement
        Volon A with    1-3 times per day        
        Chloramine T            
6    herpes labialis    Adh. ointment    2 days    excellent    excellent improvement
        Volon A with    1-2 times per day        
        Chloramine T            
7    Aphthae    Adh. ointment    2 days    excellent    excellent improvement
        Volon A with    2-3 times per day        
        Chloramine T            
8.    Psoriasis    Ointment with    7 days    insignificant    moderate improvement
        2% by wt. of    2-3 times per day        
        chloramine T            
9    vesicles with    ointment with    7 days    insignificant    moderate improvement
    watery liquid    2% by wt. of    3-4 times per day        
        chloramine T            
10    psoriasis of    ointment with    7 days    excellent    excellent improvement
    the scalp    2% by wt. of    3 times per day        
        chloramine T            
11    lip rhagade    ointment with    4 days    excellent    excellent improvement
        2% by wt. of    1-3 times per day        
        chloramine T            
12    lip rhagade    ointment with    5 days    good    excellent improvement
        2% by wt. of    2 times per day        
        chloramine T            
13    stomatitis    ointment with    5 days    excellent    excellent improvement
    herpetica    2% by wt. of    1-4 times per day        
        chloramine T            
14    neuroderma-    ointment with    6 days    excellent    excellent improvement
    titis with    2% by wt. of    1-2 times per day        
    herpes super-    chloramine T            
    infection                
15    Shingles    ointment with    20 days    excellent    excellent improvement
        3% by wt. of    1 time per day        
        chloramine T            

The preceding results clearly demonstrate the surprisingly high effectiveness with utilization of the tosylchloramide compound according to the invention. Even psoriasis disappeared completely after a 7 day treatment. In just two cases of probably chronic disease aspect was it possible to achieve only moderate improvement.

Chloramine T [Wiki]
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzenesulphonamide, sodium salt
127-65-1 [RN]
204-854-7 [EINECS]
434
Aktiven
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
Chloramine-T
CHLORAMINE-T ANHYDROUS
Chlorazene [Trade name]
Chloro[(4-méthylphényl)sulfonyl]azanide de sodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Clorina [Trade name]
Euclorina [Trade name]
Halamid [Trade name]
Kloramin (VAN)
Natriumchlor[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sodium chloro[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
tosilcloramida de sodio [Spanish] [INN]
Tosylchloramide sodium [INN]
tosylchloramidum natricum [Latin] [INN]
тозилхлорамид натрия [Russian] [INN]
توسيل كلوراميد صوديوم [Arabic] [INN]
氯胺T钠 [Chinese] [INN]
(N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamido)sodium
144-86-5 [RN]
1576-40-5 [RN]
1976057-59-6 [RN]
3599375
72793-59-0 [RN]
75532-46-6 [RN]
8045-11-2 [RN]
Acti-chlore
AI3-18426C
AKTIVIN
Anexol
Aseptoclean
Benzenesulfonamide, N-chloro-4-methyl-, sodium salt
Berkendyl
Chloralone
Chloramin Dr. Fahlberg
Chloramin Heyden
Chloramine (T)
Chloramine (T);N-Chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide,sodium salt
Chloramine-T, sodium salt
Chlorasan
Chloraseptine
Chlorazan
Chlorazone
Chlorina Aktivin
Chlorosol
Chlorozone
Chlorseptol
Cloramine T
Clorosan
Desinfect
EINECS 204-854-7
Gansil
Gyneclorina
HELIOGEN
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:53767
Kloramin
KLORAMINE-T
Mannolite
MFCD00000522 [MDL number]
Mianine
Monochloramine T
Multichlor
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide sodium salt
N-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide; sodium
N-Chloro-4-methylbenzylsulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide,sodium salt
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt
N-Chloro-p-toluenesulfonamidesodium salt
N-Chlorotoluenesulfonamide sodium salt
p-Toluenesulfonamide, N-chloro-, sodium salt
Sodium chloramine T
SODIUM CHLORAMINE T ANION
sodium chloro(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)azanide
sodium chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide
sodium chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl-azanide
Sodium chloro(tosyl)amide
sodium chloro[(4-methylbenzene)sulfonyl]azanide
sodium N-chloro-4-methyl-benzenesulfonimidate
Sodium N-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonimidate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide
sodium p-toluenesulfonchloramide
Sodium p-toluenesulfonylchloramide
Sodium tosylchloramide
sodium;chloro-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylazanide
ST5406800
Tampules
Tochlorine
Tolamine
tosilcloramida de sodio
Tosilcloramida sodica
Tosilcloramida sodica [INN-Spanish]
Tosylchloramide sodique
Tosylchloramide sodique [INN-French]
Tosylchloramide sodium (INN)
Tosylchloramid-natrium
Tosylchloramidum natricum
Tosylchloramidum natricum [INN-Latin]
тозилхлорамид натрия
クロラミンT [Japanese]
توسيل كلوراميد صوديوم
氯胺T钠

C7H7ClNNaO2S,3H2O Mr 281.7
DEFINITION
Sodium N-chloro-4-methylbenzene-sulfonimidate trihydrate.
Content: 98.0 per cent to 103.0 per cent of C7H7ClNNaO2S,3H2O.
CHARACTERS
Appearance: white or slightly yellow, crystalline powder.


Uses
antiseptic, disinfestant, antiproliferative
Uses
This disinfectant is for external use only, it can exterminate bacteria, viruses, fungi, spore. The action principle is that chlorine can sterilize slowly and lastingly, and also can dissolve necrotic tissue, chlorine come from hypochlorous acid which is produced by Chloramine-T solution. Apply to disinfect drinking water container,food,all kind of tableware, fruits and vegetables,and cleaning wound, mucous membrane.
Uses
sterilizer, antiseptic, disinfectant, and chemical reagent in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.
Definition
ChEBI: An organic sodium salt derivative of toluene-4-sulfonamide with a chloro substituent in place of an amino hydrogen.

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