ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

Isopropyl Alcohol = IPA = isopropanol = Propan-2-ol = 2-Propanol

Isopropyl alcohol, also called 2-propanol, one of the most common members of the alcohol family of organic compounds. Isopropyl alcohol was the first commercial synthetic alcohol; chemists at the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (later Exxon Mobil) first produced it in 1920 while studying petroleum by-products. It is easily synthesized from the reaction of propylene with sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis.

Synonyms & Trade Names: Dimethyl carbinol, IPA, Isopropanol, 2-Propanol, sec-Propyl alcohol, Rubbing alcohol
CAS No: 67-63-0

Display Name: Propan-2-ol
EC Number: 200-661-7
EC Name: Propan-2-ol
CAS Number: 67-63-0
Molecular formula: C3H8O
IUPAC Name: propan-2-ol

Isopropyl alcohol also referred to as isopropanol, is a flammable colorless liquid with a strong odor. 
Isopropanol is used across a wide range of industries to manufacture several household and industrial chemicals. 
Moreover, isopropanol is a key ingredient in multiple chemical formulations, such as detergents, disinfectants, and antiseptics. 
The typical production processes include indirect hydration, direct hydration, and hydrogenation of acetone.


Isopropyl alcohol is not limited to just sanitizing and cleaning surfaces. It has a host of uses in a variety of industries.

As a solvent, IPA works extremely well because it evaporates almost instantly, is relatively non-toxic compared to other solvents, and leaves no trace oils on a surface.
Computer technicians use IPA to remove thermal paste from CPU heatsinks and clean optical disk lenses. They also use it to clean their eyeglasses.
In the medical field, isopropyl alcohol is a major ingredient in products like rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizer, and surgery wipes. 
It is an essential part of the medical industry.
In laboratory settings, IPA comes in handy as an alternative to formaldehyde, which is used primarily as a specimen preservative. 
In addition, IPA is often used in DNA extraction.
IPA can be combined with acetate to create isopropyl acetate, a powerful solvent. It also reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to make a widely-used herbicide.
In the automotive industry, isopropyl alcohol is a major ingredient in fuel additives, as it works extremely well to “dissolve” any water that may be floating in a fuel tank. It is also used to remove excess brake fluid from braking systems.

Synonyms: Isopropanol; Rubbing alcohol; sec-Propyl alcohol; s-Propanol; iPrOH; dimethyl carbinol;

IPA

Isopropyl alcohol is used in variety of applications. Besides being a solvent and intermediate in the manufacture of many chemicals it is also used as a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives in the automotive sector.

General Industrial applications:
Paint and ink solvents
Material for organic synthetic compounds
Cleaning of electronic materials

I.P.A. 
Isopropyl Alcohol is a water soluble, clear, colorless, fast evaporating solvent for lacquer, lubricants and many gums and resins, including polyester and nitrocellulose resins.

In some cases the hydration of propylene is carried out in one step, using water and a catalyst at high pressure. 
Isopropyl alcohol is mixed with water for use as a rubbing-alcohol antiseptic. 
Isopropyl alcohol is also used in aftershave lotions, hand lotions, and other cosmetics. 
In industry Isopropyl alcohol is used as an inexpensive solvent for cosmetics, drugs, shellacs, and gums, as well as for denaturing ethanol (ethyl alcohol). 
Added to wet gas, Isopropyl alcohol helps to prevent separation and freezing of a water layer. Isopropyl alcohol is easily oxidized to acetone, another important solvent.

Isopropyl alcohol is usually a better and less toxic solvent than EtOH (and is uncontaminated with acetaldehyde), so it is preferable to the more common solvents.

Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is the clear choice for your antiseptic, sanitizing, and disinfectant needs. Whether you’re manufacturing surface disinfectants, hand sanitizers, or alcohol wipes; IPA is fast, safe, and simple as compared with three other common active ingredients.


Isopropyl Alcohol is an isomer of propyl alcohol with antibacterial properties. 
Although the exact mechanism of isopropanol's disinfecting action is not known, it might kill cells by denaturing cell proteins and DNA, interfering with cellular metabolism, and dissolving cell lipo-protein membranes. Isopropanol is used in soaps and lotions as an antiseptic.

Isopropyl alcohol is volatile, colorless liquid with a sharp musty odor like rubbing alcohol. Flash point of 53°F. 
Isopropyl alcohol vapors are heavier than air and mildly irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Density approximately 6.5 lb / gal. 
Isopropyl alcohol is used in making cosmetics, skin and hair preparations, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquer formulations, dye solutions, antifreezes, soaps, window cleaners. 
Isopropyl alcohol is sold in 70% aqueous solution as rubbing alcohol.

Propan-2-ol is a secondary alcohol that is propane in which one of the hydrogens attached to the central carbon is substituted by a hydroxy group. 

Propan-2-ol has a role as a protic solvent.


Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol is a clear, colorless liquid that is a major component of rubbing alcohol as well as regular household items such as cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; it also can be found in pharmaceuticals.

Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), also referred to as isopropanol, is a chemical that’s commonly found in rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizers, and certain cleaning products

Isopropyl alcohol (CAS #67-63-0) is also referred to as IPA, isopropanol, 2-propanol, and even rubbing alcohol (more on that later). 
It dissolves a wide range of polar and non-polar soils, is it is often used to dissolve and remove light oils, fingerprints, cutting fluids, flux residues, carbon deposits, and mold release. 
It is also readily miscible in water, so can be used as a drying agent as well.

For electronic printed circuit board (PCB) assembly, you will find isopropyl alcohol being used to clean flux residues from recently soldered circuit boards or in PCB repair and rework. 
IPA is also used to remove solder paste or adhesive from SMT stencils. 
Maintenance cleaning with isopropyl alcohol is common for removing caked-on and burnt-on flux from SMT reflow ovens, wave soldering fingers, selective soldering nozzles, pallets, and anywhere else flux tends to collect in automated soldering processes.

isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is a clear, colorless and volatile material with a light odor. It possesses physico-chemical and solvency properties similar to those of ethyl alcohol, making it completely miscible with water and soluble in most organic solvents.

Isopropyl alcohol is one of the most used alcohols in cosmetics. Discovered in the 1920s, it is synthesized from a reaction between propylene and sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis. It is used as an antiseptic in cosmetics: it is found for example in aftershave lotions, hand lotions.
Note that the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol produces acetone product

Isopropyl alcohol is one of the most used alcohols in cosmetics. Discovered in the 1920s, it is synthesized from a reaction between propylene and sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis. It is used as an antiseptic in cosmetics: it is found for example in aftershave lotions, hand lotions.
Note that the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol produces acetone product

The chemical, however, has multiple antimicrobial properties, and blending 60% to 90% of the chemical with 10% to 40% water, which is purified, can rapidly work against several viruses, bacteria, and fungi. However, if the concentration of the substance is below the 50% mark, the disinfecting characteristics drop substantially. Moreover, if the concentrations are equal to or more than 91%, the alcohol forms a protective layer by coagulating proteins rapidly, which eventually forms a protective layer, thereby stopping other protein coagulation on the skin.

With the recent outbreak of coronavirus worldwide, one of the most highly used products were sanitizers. 
The ability of the formulation to protect the skin from the penetration of viruses or any other microorganisms led to high sales in the first quarter of 2020. 
The utilization of isopropyl alcohol in the formulation of these sanitizers globally was extremely high and the European market reflected low availability of the chemical towards the end of the first quarter of 2020.


Inactive Ingredients
Print
Isopropyl Alcohol
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 5, 2021.

What is it?

Isopropyl alcohol (C3H8O), also known as rubbing alcohol, is an alcoholic mixture intended for external use as an antiseptic; it usually contains 70% by volume of absolute alcohol or isopropyl alcohol; the remainder consists of water, denaturants, and perfume oils; used as a rubefacient for muscle and joint aches and pains.[1]

Isopropyl alcohol 70% is used as an ingredient in alcohol swabs and alcohol wipes for wound cleaning, it is found in hand sanitizers, and in ear drops to prevent swimmer's ear. It may also be found in oral mouthwash solutions; it is important that isopropyl alcohol is not swallowed as it toxic and may be fatal in high enough quantities. Isopropyl alcohol can also be found in cleaning supplies, paint thinners and perfumes. In the pharmaceutical industry, isopropyl alcohol may be used in small, safe quantities in capsule or tablet manufacturing


IPA is produced by the indirect hydration of propylene in a multistage process that offers very high product purity and consistent quality. 
Diisopropyl ether (IPE) is also produced as a byproduct of this IPA production process. 

Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol), also known as isopropanol or IPA, is the most common and widely used disinfectant within pharmaceutics, hospitals, cleanrooms, and electronics or medical device manufacturing. 
Different solutions, purity grades, concentrations, and alcohol types yield beneficial cleaning and disinfection properties when applied correctly; or dangerous consequences when used improperly. 
This post will help you identify key uses, best practices, and proper disinfection with isopropyl alcohol. 
Likewise you can see our other posts on IPA as a universal cleaner and the importance of high-quality USP IPA.


Why Is 70% the Most Effective Concentration of Isopropyl Alcohol for Disinfection?
Isopropyl alcohol, particularly in solutions between 60% and 90% alcohol with 10 – 40% purified water, is rapidly antimicrobial against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Once alcohol concentrations drop below 50%, usefulness for disinfection drops sharply. Notably, higher concentrations of alcohol don’t generate more desirable bactericidal, virucidal, or fungicidal properties.

The presence of water is a crucial factor in destroying or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganisms with isopropyl alcohol. 
Water acts as a catalyst and plays a key role in denaturing the proteins of vegetative cell membranes. 70% IPA solutions penetrate the cell wall more completely which permeates the entire cell, coagulates all proteins, and therefore the microorganism dies. Extra water content slows evaporation, therefore increasing surface contact time and enhancing effectiveness. Isopropyl alcohol concentrations over 91% coagulate proteins instantly. Consequently, a protective layer is created which protects other proteins from further coagulation.

Solutions > 91% IPA do kill bacteria, but sometimes require longer contact times for disinfection, and enable spores to lie in a dormant state without being killed. 
In this analysis, a 50% isopropyl alcohol solution kills Staphylococcus Aureus in less than 10 seconds (pg. 238), yet a 90% solution with a contact time of over two hours is ineffective. Some disinfectants will kill spores, which are classified as chemical sterilants.


70% isopropyl alcohol upholds key requirements for use as a bactericidal in cleanrooms or medical facilities, but also for general purposes. 
70% IPA/30% water solutions produce less vapor and odor, therefore reducing risks of toxic fumes or combustion.
 When isopropyl alcohol reacts with air, light, and oxygen, it forms unstable peroxides which increase the likeliness of explosion, especially when heated with aluminum. IPA volatility increases with storage time and alcohol concentration, especially when exposed to light over multiple years after opening. 

70% IPA is less flammable but also offers a more economical price point for general wipe down and large-surface disinfection. 
Likewise, high-moisture alcohols evaporate slower and increase contact time without becoming immediately dry. 
If 70% IPA is so effective as both a general-purpose cleaner and disinfectant, why use 99% concentrations?

When Is 99% Isopropyl Alcohol Used?
99% isopropyl alcohol is ideal as a solvent or cleaning agent for industries that produce water sensitive items, therefore rapid evaporation and low water content is favorable. 99% USP IPA provides the lowest presence of water and in some forms is free from denaturants. 
Computer technicians, medical device manufacturers, printed circuit board manufacturers, and soldering and rework technicians prefer immediate evaporation for work with sensitive devices such as integrated circuit adapters, computer chips, and circuit boards. 99% IPA evaporates cleanly and minimizes residual substances. Rapid evaporation reduces shelf life but is more effective against sticky residues, grease, and grime than 70% concentrations. Because isopropanol is hygroscopic, acetone may yield better grime fighting results for inks or oils.

Is Isopropyl Alcohol Effective Against Fungus and Fungal Spores?
Isopropyl alcohol may be intermittently effective against fungus but it is not effective against fungal spores. 
Treatment of mold and fungus is generally considered a problem of moisture and humidity. Applying a surface level cleaner may have little or no effect on fungal removal. Bleach and hydrogen peroxide are more commonly associated with remedying mold and fungus outbreaks.

Officially, government organizations are somewhat conflicted on the use of bleach for mold.

The EPA does not recommend bleach.
The CDC recommends bleach as part of a mold remediation effort.

What’s the Difference Between Types of Isopropyl Alcohol?
What Is USP-Grade Isopropyl and What Is It Used For?
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) is a nonprofit scientific organization that develops and disseminates public quality standards for medicines, food, and supplements. USP-grade isopropyl alcohol certification ensures that both the isopropyl alcohol and any additives are of the highest purity, potency, and accurate concentration. Manufacturing, packaging, and storage must adhere to strict guidelines, and all production facilities must uphold FDA registration and inspection. These specifications improve consistency and safety for industrial, pharmaceutical, flavor & fragrance, or lab use.

What is NSF Grade Isopropyl Alcohol?
The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) is a non-government, nonprofit organization that independently focuses on public health and safety of food industries, water supplies, consumer products, and human environments. Strict standards include product testing and material analyses in every aspect of a product’s development. NSF certification involves regular on-site inspections of manufacturing facilities and regular retesting of products.  If a product fails to meet benchmarks, the NSF enforces actions including recall, public notification, or even de-certification.
What Is Pure Isopropyl Alcohol?
Pure isopropyl alcohol is manufactured and processed without common additives such as denaturants, which make the alcohol unfit for human consumption. 
Pure isopropyl alcohol is not interchangeable with sterile or USP-grade isopropyl alcohol, but misnomers occur frequently because USP-grade alcohol is always in a pure state.

What Is Industrial Grade Alcohol?
Industrial grade isopropyl alcohol, also referred to as technical grade isopropyl alcohol, is used most commonly for non-critical manufacturing and processing purposes such as removing ionic salts from PCBs, thermal paste from heat sinks and IC packages, or dissolving the organic acids in rosin-based soldering fluxes. 
It’s an economic option for sanitation of large surface areas, and mitigation of general contaminants such as dust, debris, grease, and adhesives present from other manufacturing processes.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL
Isopropyl alcohol uses include adhesives & cements, all-purpose cleaners, anti-fungal creams, antifreeze, cleaning compounds, cleaning fluids, cosmetics, coupling agent, degreaser, dehydrating agent, deicing fluid, disinfectant, extraction solvent, glass cleaners, hair care, hair colorants, ink solvent, lacquers, lithographic ink, mascara, nail polish, nitrocellulose lacquers, paint solvent, preservative, printing, solvent.

Pharmaceutical: Isopropyl alcohol is used as rubbing alcohol, hand sanitize and disinfecting pads.
Automotive: It is a major component in gas dryer fuel additives.
Laboratory: It is used to to preserve biological specimen
Personal Care: Isopropyl Alcohol is widely used in cosmetics and personal care products, such as aftershave lotions, bath products, eye and other makeup products, as well as nail, hair, and skin care products.


Isopropyl Alcohol, CAS No. 67-63-0 is also known as Isopropanol among other identifiers. It is a chemical compound with the common formula C3H8O.

The colorless liquid chemical compound is flammable and has a pungent, musty odor. It is a structural isomer of propanol and provides a wide spectrum of industrial and consumer uses, mostly as a solvent and topical antiseptic.


Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) CAS No. 67-63-0 also known as Isopropanol or 2-Propanol  is a clear, colorless, volatile material with a mild odor and a relatively low toxicity compared to alternate solvents.   
As a chemical compound with the common formula C3H8O, its characteristics allow its use for a variety of applications. 
IPA is miscible in water, alcohol, and most organic solvents. It will dissolve substances such as cellulose; natural resins; oils and gums; alkaloids.


Characteristics
Fast evaporation rate
Solvency power
Low impurities
Mild odor
Flammable
Non-HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant)
Low photochemical reactivity


Isopropyl Alcohol is made in various ways.

The indirect hydration process is based on a two-step reaction of propylene and sulfuric acid.  The acid-catalyzed direct hydration of propylene has three basic processes of commercial operation:

Vapor-phase hydration over a fixed-bed catalyst of supported phosphoric acid or silica-supported tungsten oxide with zinc oxide promoter
Mixed vapor-liquid-phase hydration at low temperature and high pressure using a strongly acid cation exchange catalyst
Liquid-phase hydration at high temperature and high pressure in the presence of a soluble tungsten catalyst
Other processes for the manufacturing of isopropyl alcohol include:

Liquid phase oxidation of propane
By the reductive condensation of acetone
Fermentation


Applications
Chemical manufacturing: Chemical intermediates, organic synthesis, dehydrating agent, coupling agent

Coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers: Nitrocellulose lacquers and thinners, printing inks, lithographic printing, adhesives, resins, graffiti remover

Household and industrial cleaning: General-purpose cleaners, detergents, disinfectants, electronics cleaners, polishes

Pharmaceuticals: Carriers, chemical intermediates

Personal care: Cosmetics, hand and body soaps, hand sanitizers, hairspray, sunblock, perfumes

Miscellaneous: De-icing

Applications for industrial-grade isopropyl alcohol include:

Remove ionic salts from PCBs, thermal paste from heatsinks and IC packages, and dissolve the organic acids in rosin-based soldering fluxes.
Wipe down parts to mitigate general contaminants such as dust and debris present from other manufacturing processes.
Strip surfaces of grime, grease, paint, & other coatings faster than low-concentration substitutes.
What is Food Grade Alcohol?
The use of isopropyl alcohol for products fit for human consumption is limited. 
Generally, ethyl alcohol is preferred for consumable products, as it is GRAS (generally regarded as safe). 
For food-grade products, FCC (Food Chemicals Codex) accreditation establishes acceptable levels of purity and ingredient quality for products intended for human consumption. 
Isopropyl alcohol use is most commonly found during the preparation of food flavorings, fragrances, fats, oils, colorants, preservatives, sweeteners, and probiotics.

What is Anhydrous Alcohol? Is Anhydrous Alcohol the Same as 99%?
Anhydrous simply means that a solution contains no water, and generally is of 99%+ concentration. 
Isopropyl alcohol that is 100% free of water is not feasible as it immediately absorbs water after exposure to humid air. 
High quality anhydrous alcohols produce a purity of +99.96%. 

What is Denatured Alcohol?
Denatured alcohol contains an adulterant that renders the solution undrinkable. 
Sometimes the additive is scented which can reduce the nausea and odors associated with alcohol vapors. 
While some online stores may market their products as “100% pure denatured isopropyl alcohol”, this is a misnomer. Pure isopropyl alcohol does not contain any denaturants. 

What Is Sterile Isopropyl Alcohol?
Sterile Isopropyl Alcohol meets the highest standards of purity in aseptic environments. 
Sterile certification ascertains 0.22-micron filtering, gamma irradiation between 25kGy – 50kGy and compliance of modified AAMI/ANSI/ISO 11137:2006 guidelines. 
Sterile IPA is packaged in a cleanroom and commonly used within the same environment for wipe down of pass-throughs, cleanroom furniture, laminar flow hoods, cleanroom furniture, and tables or work surfaces. 
View: MSDS spec sheets for sterile isopropyl alcohol 

Is Isopropyl Alcohol the Same as Rubbing Alcohol?
Rubbing alcohol is an antiseptic, which  contains as not less than 68% and not more than 72% of isopropyl alcohol. 
The remaining volume consists of water, with or without suitable stabilizers, perfume oils, and color additives certified by the FDA for use in drugs. 
The difference between rubbing alcohol and more pure forms of isopropyl alcohol is that rubbing alcohol contains denaturants which make the solution unpalatable for human consumption. 
Technically, all grades of rubbing alcohol containing 68% -72% isopropyl alcohol fall under the “rubbing alcohol” namesake for household use. 
Isopropyl alcohol concentrations >91% volume have limited bactericidal efficiency and are less effective for antiseptic use, thus its distinction as “rubbing alcohol” is not warranted and may cause confusion.

In documents cited by the CDC, “rubbing alcohol” is defined as 70% isopropyl alcohol and 30% water.

What Are the Advantages of Presaturated Isopropyl Alcohol Wipes?
Disposable, saturated isopropyl wipes have some technical benefits for cleaning and sanitation. 
First, the physical mechanism of wiping down a surface does have beneficial impacts on the removal of germs and bacteria.

70% presaturated alcohol wipes allow easier access and apply the appropriate amount of alcohol to the surface without waste or excessive odors. 

99% alcohol wipes are frequently used for the production and assembly of electronics components. 
High purity and low water content alcohol is able to remove resins or  pastes without leaving residual water. 
Because the wipe is manufactured with extremely durable polyesters or nonwoven fabrics, the wipe will not shed particles and lint on to sensitive components.

Finally, prewetted wipes prevent the generation of static energy when wet. 
Polyesters and non-woven wipes are safer for sensitive electronics when presaturated, as they will dissipate static charge. 


Isopropyl alcohol finds diverse applications in several downstream industries like paint and coating, automotive, cosmetic, printing, pharmaceutical, etc. Economic reforms have resulted into a rise in the disposable incomes and changes in lifestyle of the consumers across the globe, thereby catalysing the growth of these industries.

Isopropyl alcohol has been used to remove flux residues after soldering and as a general cleaner to remove oil, grease, and other handling soils. Apart from this, it is also used for purifying and extracting natural products such as animal and vegetable oils, waxes, resins, flavourings, fats, vitamins, etc., which is positively influencing the market growth.

Isopropyl alcohol is stable if it is properly handled and stored in adequate conditions. In addition to this, it has a shelf-life of two years from the manufacturing date. The chemical makeup and potency of isopropyl alcohol remain stable for two years in its original closed container.

isopropanol
2-Propanol
Isopropyl alcohol
Propan-2-ol
67-63-0
2-Hydroxypropane
sec-Propyl alcohol
Alkolave
Avantine
Hartosol
Dimethylcarbinol
i-Propanol
Petrohol
Takineocol
Alcojel
Avantin
1-Methylethanol
2-Propyl alcohol
Alcolo
Isohol
Lavacol
Lutosol
Propol
Alcosolve 2
1-Methylethyl alcohol
Imsol A
Arquad DMCB
Alcosolve
Spectrar
i-Propylalkohol
n-Propan-2-ol
Combi-schutz
i-Propyl alcohol
ISO-PROPANOL
Isopropyl alcohol, rubbing
Iso-propylalkohol
Alcool isopropilico
Iso-propyl alcohol
Visco 1152
Alcool isopropylique
Sterisol hand disinfectant
i-Propanol [German]
sec-Propanol
iPrOH
i-Propylalkohol [German]
Iso-propylalkohol [German]
Alcool isopropilico [Italian]
Alcool isopropylique [French]
FEMA No. 2929
isopropylalcohol
iso-propylalcohol
propanol-2
MFCD00011674
UNII-ND2M416302
Isopropyl alcohol [USP]
CHEBI:17824
ND2M416302
NSC-135801
2-Propanol, anhydrous
NCGC00090917-01
Rubbing alcohol
DSSTox_CID_762
Isopropyl alcohol (USP)
DSSTox_RID_75777
DSSTox_GSID_20762
Isopropanol, 99.5+%, pure
2-Propanol, USP, 99.0%
Caswell No. 507
Isopropanol, 99.5%, for HPLC
Isopropanol, 99.5+%, extra pure
FEMA Number 2929
Isopropanol, 99.5%, for analysis
2-Propanol, ACS reagent, >=99.5%
CAS-67-63-0
Isopropanol, 99.5%, for spectroscopy ACS
CCRIS 2308
HSDB 116
Isopropanol, 99.5%, for HPLC gradient grade
Isopropanol, 99.8%, Extra Dry, AcroSeal(R)
EINECS 200-661-7
UN1219
NSC 135801
BRN 0635639
isoproylalcohol
Virahol
i-propylalcohol
Isopropanol, 99%, for biochemistry and histology, AcroSeal(R)
Isopropanol, 99.8%, for electronic use (MOS), residue free
Lavaco
Isopropylalkohol
2propanol
2-propylalcohol
isopropy alcohol
isoproyl alcohol
AI3-01636
Isopropanol, 99.5%, Extra Dry over Molecular Sieve, AcroSeal(R)
Isopropyl-alcohol
propane-2ol
Isopropanol, 99+%, specified according to the requirements of Ph.Eur.
propan-2ol
2-propano
Isopropryl alcohol
propane-2-ol
2 -propanol
2- propanol
propan 2-ol
iso-PrOH
Isopropyl Alcohol
i-PrOH
(propan-2-ol)
Isopro (TN)
Recovered Isopropanol
Tissue Dry Dehydrant
Isopropyl Alcohol C+
Hibistat (Salt/Mix)
Isopropanol, technical
i-Pr-OH
Propane, 2-hydroxy-
2-Propanol, Ph Eur
iso-C3H7OH
Isopropanol (JP17)
(2R)-propan-2-ol
Isopropanol (Recovered)
Isopropanol ACS reagent
2-Propanol, GC Grade
2-Propanol, for HPLC
Isopropyl Alcohol - GMP
2-Propanol, ACS reagent
2-Propanol, HPLC Grade
ACMC-1BI1R
CHEMBL582
Isopropyl alcohol HPLC/UV
2-Propanol, 99.5%
EC 200-661-7
2-$l^{1}-oxidanylpropane
IPS 1
Isopropanol, 70% in water
Isopropanol, 70% in H2O
4-01-00-01461 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Isopropyl alcohol (manufacture strong-acid process)
Ethyl, 1-hydroxy-1-methyl-
Isopropanol, Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropanol, 99.5% anhydrous
WLN: QY1&1
2-Propanol, analytical standard
Isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol
2-Propanol, LR, >=99%
DTXSID7020762
BDBM36154
Isopropyl alcohol (manufacturing-strong acid process only)
2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5%
ZINC901159
2-Propanol, AR, >=99.5%
2-Propanol, 99.9%, PRA grade
2-Propanol, for HPLC, 99.5%
2-Propanol, for HPLC, 99.9%
2-Propanol, technical grade, 95%
Isopropanol, 99.6%, ACS reagent
Isopropyl Alcohol Reagent Grade ACS
Tox21_111039
Tox21_202475
2-Propanol, 99.5%, HPLC grade
2-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade
ANW-35384
NSC135801
Isopropanol, 99+%, for spectroscopy
2-Propanol, histological grade, 99%
AKOS000121012
2-Propanol, for HPLC, >=99.8%
DB02325
MCULE-6646752234
UN 1219
NCGC00260024-01
2-Propanol, UV HPLC gradient, 99.8%
Isopropyl alcohol (only persons who manufacture by the strong acid process are subject, supplier notification not required)
Isopropyl alcohol, natural, >=98%, FG
Phenolphthalein Solution, Alcoholic 0.5%
2-Propanol 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
Isopropyl alcohol, >=99.7%, FCC, FG
2-Propanol, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%

Isopropyl alcohol is well known to cause ocular surface irritation, epithelial keratitis and occasional corneal abrasion. 
Most commonly, isopropyl alcohol comes into contact with the eye surface during Goldmann applanation tonometry. 
Tonometer tips are frequently cleaned with a wipe saturated in 70% isopropyl alcohol or soaked for at least 5 minutes in a 70% solution (the method recommended by the US Center for Disease Control) and applied to the corneal surface. 
If this is done before the alcohol has completely dried, a familiar round epithelial defect, a burning sensation or frank eye pain may ensue. 
Another potential route of ocular injury includes pre-surgical preparation of the peri-ocular skin with alcohol wipes. 
Occupational exposures to isopropyl alcohol vapors have been reported to cause eye irritation but no significant injury.


Toxic Alcohols
Kevin C. Osterhoudt MD, MSCE, in Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 2008

Isopropanol Poisoning
Isopropyl alcohol, also known as “rubbing alcohol,” is a widely used solvent and is commonly found within the home as the cooling ingredient among topical liniments. 
Over 12,000 isopropanol exposures among children up to 19 years of age were reported to the AAPCC in 2003.1 
Isopropyl alcohol toxicity may occur via the dermal and inhalation routes, such as may result during misguided sponge baths for fever.

Isopropanol is twice as potent as ethanol in terms of CNS depression. 
Altered mental status, when it occurs, typically manifests within 2 hours of ingestion.
Hypotension may occur due to diuresis, peripheral vasodilation, and myocardial depression. 
In addition to an osmolal gap (see Table 134-1), ketonemia or ketonuria may occur. 
Isopropyl alcohol is metabolized to acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase without the production of significant metabolic acidosis but may lead to hypoglycemia in young children, as was described for ethanol. 
Gastritis is common after ingestion. Patient care is supportive. 
The risks and benefits of hemodialysis may be considered for comatose patients with blood isopropanol levels exceeding 500 mg/dl.


Patient Skin Preparation in the Operating Room
Antiseptic solutions containing isopropyl alcohol, povidone-iodine, and/or chlorhexidine gluconate are most commonly used for patient skin preparation. Prior to application of a skin antiseptic, gross contamination around the incision site should be removed (CDC Category IB).5 
A randomized controlled trial and meta-analyses have shown that the use of chlorhexidine significantly reduces the rate of SSIs and results in cost savings compared with povidone-iodine.

For interventional pain procedures, the US Food and Drug Administration has not approved the use of chlorhexidine for neuraxial procedures due to a lack of clinical safety trials. 
However, the use of chlorhexidine for spinal anesthesia has not been shown to increase neurologic complications.
The use of chlorhexidine prior to epidural catheterization has been shown to be superior to povidone-iodine in reducing catheter colonization rates.79 
Although there are no studies directly comparing infection rates with the use of chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone-iodine for interventional pain procedures, based on extrapolation of data from other surgical subspecialties, chlorhexidine-based products may offer improvement in infection control rates.


What household or commercial products commonly contain toxic alcohols?
▪Isopropanol (or isopropyl alcohol) is most commonly sold as rubbing alcohol, in a 70% solution. 
It can also be found in antifreezes, glass cleaners, jewelry cleaner, stain removers, deicers, household disinfectants, and hand sanitizers.

Pharmacology
Isopropanol (i.e., isopropyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless, bitter liquid commonly found in “rubbing alcohol,” skin lotion, hair tonics, aftershave lotion, denatured alcohol, solvents, cements, cleaning products, and de-icers. 
Intoxication may occur through ingestion or inhalation of vapors, especially in infants. 
Isopropanol is rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal system and reaches a peak serum concentration 15 to 30 minutes after ingestion with an elimination half-life of 3 to 7 hours. 
Isopropanol is directly responsible for the toxic effects observed, and delaying the metabolism of isopropanol therefore is not considered a beneficial method of treatment. 
It is converted to acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase, which is then excreted in the urine and breath. 
The lethal dose ranges from 150 to 240 mL, although patients may become symptomatic with doses as low as 20 mL.

Alcohols
Alcohols, especially ethylene and isopropyl alcohol, are perhaps the most commonly used disinfectants. 
Alcohols as a chemical family have many desirable characteristics needed in disinfectants. 
They are generally bactericidal and accomplish their bactericidal activity by damaging the cell wall membrane. 
They also have the ability to denature proteins, particularly enzymes called dehydrogenases. 
For alcohol to coagulate microbial proteins, water must be present. 
For this reason, 70% has been considered the critical dilution for alcohol, with a rapid loss of bactericidal activity with dilutions less than 50%. 
Both ethyl and isopropyl alcohols are rapidly effective against vegetative bacteria and tubercle bacilli but are not sporicidal.

To be sure that the current infection control practice is effective in each institution, random microbiological cultures should be done whenever a problem is suspected or to test the reliability of the disinfection or sterilization techniques.

Ethyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol and n-propyl alcohol possess very good disinfectant properties in the range of 60–90% solutions with water. 
They are considered intermediate-level disinfectants, effective against vegetative bacteria, enveloped viruses, and some fungi and mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis. 
Alcohols are believed to function by denaturing proteins, which is dependent on the relative amounts of alcohol and water [22].

Commercial formulations with high levels of alcohol are typically in the form of aerosol sprays, and are in combination with other disinfectants for greater efficacy. 
Phenolics or quaternary ammonium compounds are added at levels under 1% in this application. 
Alcohols can also be used as cosolvents in pine oil or phenolic formulations that bloom, or emulsify rapidly, upon dilution in water.


Whole animals can be preserved in ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. 
Formalin should never be used, as it will dissolve the shells. 
Empty shells can be kept dry. 
A bit of cotton stuffed carefully in the aperture and daubed with glue will hold the operculum in place. 
Shells that have had the animal removed should be cleaned with alcohol inside and let air dry to reduce odors.

Preserving and Fixing Specimens
The best preservative is ethyl alcohol (sometimes abbreviated as ethanol or EtOH), diluted no more than 70% with water. 
Isopropyl alcohol (isopropynol) will work, but ethyl alcohol is required for any later genetic studies. 
Specimens needed for genetic studies should be preserved in 90% or stronger ethyl alcohol. 
Glycerin can also be used (and may prevent desiccation if a container lid is loose), but it tends to make most arthropod specimens brittle. 
Formalin is a fixative, not a preservative, and in general it is not recommended for use due to its carcinogenic properties. 
Formalin also fixes proteins, making it impossible to get genetic data from your specimens.

Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) is a solvent, antiseptic, and disinfectant often found in the home as a 70% solution (rubbing alcohol). 
It is sometimes used by alcohol abusers as a cheap substitute for ethanol. Unlike methanol and propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol is not metabolized to toxic organic acids


Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is the clear choice for your antiseptic, sanitizing, and disinfectant needs. Whether you’re manufacturing surface disinfectants, hand sanitizers, or alcohol wipes; IPA is fast, safe, and simple as compared with three other common active ingredients.


70% Isopropyl Alcohol
Between the concentrations of 60% and 90%, Isopropyl alcohol is a very effective agent against microbial bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Higher concentrations don’t generate a much more desirable effectiveness against bacteria, fungi and viruses. 
This is because, there has to be a significant enough presence of water with the Isopropyl alcohol in order to be effective. 
And this percentage of water needs to be at least more than 10% within the solution. And the mixture of 30% water with 70% Isopropyl alcohol works best. 

The reason water is so important is because it acts as a catalyst and has a major role in denaturing the proteins of cell membranes of vegetative cells. 70% IPA solutions are very effective in breaching the cell wall fully. Also, the presence of water slows down evaporation and increases the surface contact time with the membrane. With 91% IPA, the evaporation is instant and protein coagulates, rendering the effect of the IPA greatly reduced.

This means that 91% IPA takes a greater time to act and doesn’t kill as much bacteria as 70% IPA. The latter is also cheaper.

99% Isopropyl Alcohol
This concentration of IPA is not as commonly used as a disinfectant, but as a solvent or cleaning agent for industries that produce products that are sensitive to water. 
Hence, it makes sense to use a hydrophobic solvent. It also has a very low flash point and hence, evaporates rapidly. 

This is useful in computer and electronics manufacturing industries that prefer immediate evaporation of cleaning agents for their work. 
During the design work for chips and circuit boards and integrated circuits, there needs to be a quick clean up if something is spilled and the work area needs to be devoid of any contaminants or obstructions as soon as possible; 99% IPA ensures that happens.

Rapid evaporation has a downside to it since it reduces shelf life, but on the other hand, it ensures little to no dilution in alcohol content, and hence it is preferred for great consistency. 

Both these materials are non corrosive to metals and are plastic safe as well. 
They are ozone safe and have a low impact on the climate. They are both flammable, the 99% variant much more so because of its high flash point so they need to be stored in places without any danger of fire. 

Note: These chemicals are meant to be used for research, industrial work, cleaning or disinfecting, hence they shouldn’t be toyed with or kept near young children or infants. 


2-Propanol

2-propanol
isopropanol
ISOPROPANOL (ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL)
Isopropyl alcohol
isopropyl alcohol
Propan-2-ol
propan-2-ol; isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol

Translated names
2-Propanol (de)
2-propanol (no)
2-пропанол (bg)
alcohol isopropílico (es)
alcool isopropilico (it)
alcool isopropylique (fr)
alcool izopropilic (mt)
alcool izopropilic (ro)
alkohol izopropylu (pl)
isopropanol (cs)
isopropanol (da)
Isopropanol (de)
isopropanol (es)
isopropanol (fr)
isopropanol (nl)
isopropanol (no)
isopropanol (pt)
isopropanol (sv)
isopropanoli (fi)
isopropanolo (it)
isopropanool (et)
isopropyl-alkohol (cs)
isopropylalcohol (nl)
isopropylalkohol (da)
Isopropylalkohol (de)
isopropylalkohol (sv)
isopropyylialkoholi (fi)
isopropüülalkohol (et)
izopropanol (hr)
izopropanol (hu)
izopropanol (mt)
izopropanol (pl)
izopropanol (ro)
izopropanol (sk)
izopropanol (sl)
izopropanolis (lt)
izopropanols (lv)
izopropil alkohol (sl)
izopropil-alkohol (hr)
izopropil-alkohol (hu)
izopropilo alkoholis (lt)
izopropilspirts (lv)
izopropylalkohol (sk)
Propaan-2-ol (nl)
propaan-2-ol (nl)
Propaan-2-ool (et)
propaan-2-ool (et)
propan-2-ol (cs) 
propan-2-ol (da) 
Propan-2-ol (de)
Propan-2-ol (es) 
propan-2-ol (es)
Propan-2-ol (hr) 
propan-2-ol (hr)
Propan-2-ol (mt)
propan-2-ol (mt)
Propan-2-ol (no)
propan-2-ol (no)
Propan-2-ol (pl) 
propan-2-ol (pl)
Propan-2-ol (pt)
propan-2-ol (pt)
Propan-2-ol (ro)
propan-2-ol (ro)
Propan-2-ol (sl)
propan-2-ol (sl)
Propan-2-ol (sv) 
propan-2-ol (sv)
propan-2-ol; alcool isopropylique; isopropanol (fr)
Propan-2-oli (fi) 
Propan-2-olis (lt)
propan-2-olis (lt)
Propan-2-olo (it)
propan-2-olo (it)
Propane-2-ol (fr)
Propán-2-ol (hu) 
propán-2-ol (hu)
propán-2-ol (sk)
Propān-2-ols (lv)

propān-2-ols (lv)
álcool isopropílico (pt)
ισοπροπανόλη (el)
ισοπροπυλική αλκοόλη (el)
Προπαν-2-όλη (el)
προπαν-2-όλη (el)
изопропанoл (bg)
изопропилов алкохол (bg)
Пропан-2-ол (bg)

CAS names
2-Propanol


IUPAC names 
2-Propanol
2-Propyl alcohol
CH3CHOHCH3
IPA
IPOL
Iso propyl alcohol
iso-Propyl alcohol
iso-propyl alcohol
Iso-propyl Alcohol
iso-propylalcohol
Isoppropyl alcohol
ISOPROPANOL 
Isopropanol
isopropanol
Isopropanol 
isopropanol
isopropanol; Isopropyl alcohol; 2-Propanol ...
ISOPROPANOLI
isopropanolIPA
Isopropopanol
Isopropyl Alcohol-IPA
isopropyl alkohol
Isopropylalcohol
Isopropylalcohol
isopropylalcohol
isopropylalcohol, IPA
Propaan-2-ol
Propan -2- ol
propan-1-ol
propan-2 olo
PROPAN-2-OL
Propan-2-ol
propan-2-ol
Propan-2-ol
propan-2-ol
Propan-2-ol (Isopropyl Alcohol)
Propan-2-ol (isopropyl alcohol)
Propan-2-ol, Isopropanol
Propan-2-ol, isopropanol
propan-2-ol, isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol
propan-2-ol/isopropyl alcohol/isopropanol
propan-2-ol; isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol
propan-2-olo
propan-2ol
propane-2-ol
propanolo
sec-Propyl alcohol, IPA, Isopropanol, Isopropyl alcohol
TRI
UPV15
Trade names
2-Propanol
2-propanol
HP-IPA
IPA
IPPAA
ISO PROPYL ALCOHOL
Isopropanol
isopropanol
Isopropyl alcohol
isopropyl alcohol
Propan-2-ol
Silicone resin MPSi500
Silver nanoparticles in IPA


Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol, 2-propanol, propan-2-ol) is commonly used as a disinfectant, hand sanitizer, antifreeze, and solvent, and typically comprises 70 percent of "rubbing alcohol." People ingest isopropyl alcohol either unintentionally or intentionally to become intoxicated (ie, ethanol substitute) or to harm themselves. Isopropyl alcohol functions primarily as a central nervous system (CNS) inebriant and depressant, and its toxicity and treatment resemble that of ethanol.


Other names: 2-Propanol; sec-Propyl Alcohol; Alcojel; Alcosolve 2; Avantin; Avantine; Combi-Schutz; Dimethylcarbinol; Hartosol; Imsol A; Isohol; Isopropanol; Lutosol; Petrohol; Propol; PRO; Takineocol; 1-Methylethyl Alcohol; iso-C3H7OH; 2-Hydroxypropane; Propane, 2-hydroxy-; sec-Propanol; Propan-2-ol; i-Propylalkohol; Alcolo; Alcool isopropilico; Alcool isopropylique; Alkolave; Arquad DMCB; iso-Propylalkohol; Isopropyl alcohol, rubbing; IPA; Lavacol; Visco 1152; Alcosolve; i-Propanol; 2-Propyl alcohol; Spectrar; Sterisol hand disinfectant; UN 1219; n-Propan-2-ol; 1-methylethanol; Propanol-2; Virahol; IPS 1

Application Insights
Astringent and antiseptic held the largest share of 40.4% based on revenue in 2019. The recent pandemic in 2020 has resulted in rapidly growing demand for the product as an astringent and antiseptic. The outbreak of virus shall directly lead to regular consumption of sanitizers, personal care products, and other pharmaceutical formulations to maintain personal hygiene worldwide. This is projected to reflect high demand in pharmaceutical as well as personal care product formulation.

Formulation of antiseptics is one of the major applications of the compound since it exhibits excellent disinfectant properties. The concentration of ideally 70% of IPA is used in producing hand sanitizers globally. The chemical also finds application in cleaning agent production, wherein it is utilized as a surface disinfectant, household solvent, and electronic component cleaner. Furthermore, isopropyl alcohol is broadly utilized as an astringent, which enables skin pores to minimize, thereby making skin tone smoother.

The major applications of isopropyl alcohol include its utility as a solvent. Its direct applications include formulation of herbicides and pesticides, inks, surface coatings, and resin production. The substance is also used to dilute essential oils due to lower density, low boiling point, and toxicity. High demand for the product from solvent manufacturers due to these properties is expected to remain a major factor driving the product demand in the foreseeable future.

Isopropyl Alcohol is an isomer of propyl alcohol with antibacterial properties. 
Isopropanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol or IPA, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as secondary alcohols. Isopropanol has been found in human epidermis, skin and pancreas tissues, and has also been detected in most biofluids, including saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and feces.

Synonyms: · 1 – Methylethanol, 1 - Methylethyl Alcohol, 2 – Hydroxypropane, 2 – Propanol, 2 - Propyl Alcohol, Dimethyl Carbinol, IPA, Isopropanol, Isopropyl Alcohol, Propan - 2 – ol, Propyl Alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol – also known as isopropanol – is commonly known as rubbing alcohol. 
Typically, isopropyl alcohol sold for consumer use is blended with water and is sold as an antiseptic or cleaning solution. When blended with water, isopropyl alcohol is often sold at 70% (seven parts isopropol alcohol mixed with three parts water) or 91% (91 parts isopropyl alcohol with 9 parts water) concentration. The chemical formula for isopropyl alcohol is C3H8O.


Isopropanol and isopropyl alcohol are different names for the same chemical compound. 
The confusion comes from mixing two standards for naming chemicals. The suffix "ol" is part of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) naming system, whereas the prefix "iso" comes from the common naming system, rather than the IUPUC convention of naming chemical compunds. The correct name under the IUPAC system is Propan-2-ol; however, isopropyl alcohol is the most commonly-used name for this chemical.

Physical & Chemical Properties
Isopropyl alcohol is a clear flammable liquid at room temperature, and is capable of being mixed with water. 
Isopropyl alcohol has an odor which is similar to that of ethyl alcohol (commonly known as drinking alcohol). 
The melting point of isopropyl alcohol is -88 °C (-124 °F) and its boiling point is 108 °C (219 °F).

Applications and Usage
In addition to being used as a cleaning solution or antiseptic, isopropyl alcohol is commonly used as a solvent. 
Alcohols such as isopropanol mix together well with other chemicals that have similar chemical structures, such as some types of ink and paint. This property of isopropyl alcohol allows it to be used to dissolve many organic compounds that other solvents, such as water, cannot dissolve. Isopropyl alcohol may also be used for dissolving some types of plastics, such as acrylic and epoxy resins.

Safety & Toxicology
It is important to use caution when working with isopropyl alcohol, since it is flammable and can have some negative health effects. 
For example, inhaling isopropyl alcohol vapors may irritate your respiratory tract, and high concentrations of isopropyl alcohol vapor can cause dizziness, drowsiness, headache, staggering and unconsciousness. Ingestion of isopropyl alcohol can cause gastrointestinal issues such as cramps, vomiting and nausea. Isopropyl alcohol can also irritate your skin and eyes, as well as cause eye damage. To avoid accidental overexposure to isopropyl alcohol, you may wish to take precautions such as wearing protective equipment – such as lab goggles and protective gloves – as well as working with isopropyl alcohol in a well-ventilated area.

What Is It?
Isopropyl Alcohol, also called isopropanol or 2-propanol, is most commonly known as rubbing alcohol. 
Isopropyl Alcohol is widely used in cosmetics and personal care products, such as aftershave lotions, bath products, eye and other makeup products, as well as nail, hair, and skin care products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
In products designed for consumers, Isopropyl Alcohol functions as an antifoaming agent, cosmetic astringent, solvent, and viscosity decreasing agent.

In products designed for healthcare professionals, Isopropyl Alcohol is an antiseptic found in health care personnel hand washes, health care personnel hand rubs, surgical hand scrubs, surgical hand rubs, and patient antiseptic skin preparations.

Scientific Facts: 
Isopropyl Alcohol has an odor resembling ethanol, is volatile, and produces a cooling effect upon evaporation. 
When used in OTC antiseptic drug products intended for use by health care professionals, Isopropyl Alcohol kills and prevents the growth of microorganisms.

Isopropyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid having a low order of toxicity and a mild odor. 
Its main uses are as a chemical intermediate and in solvent applications in medicine and industry. 
The majority of the isopropyl alcohol in the United States is produced by indirect hydration of propylene in the weak sulfuric acid process. 
Outside the United States, several acid‐catalyzed direct hydration of propylene processes are also used. 
The indirect process can use refinery‐grade propylene streams and lower operating pressures than the direct process, but suffers from higher corrosion and maintenance costs. 
These processes and the various catalysts employed are described. Isopropyl alcohol demand in the United States has been declining slowly since 1983. 
Demand is expected to grow slightly owing to increasing use as a chemical intermediate. 
In addition to its use in the production of acetone, isoproyl alcohol is consumed in the production of higher ketones, amines, esters, and other chemicals. 
The use of diisopropyl ether as a fuel oxygenate may become a significant outlet for isopropyl alcohol.


Trade name of the product: isopropanol; 2-propanol

Chemical name of the compound: propan-2-ol

Synonyms: 2-hydroxypropan; dimethyl carbinol; sec-propyl alcohol; rubbing alcohol; pseudo propyl alcohol; persprit; alcohol isopropoylicus; petrohol; 1-methylehanol; 1-methylethyl alcohol

Chemical and physical properties: A volatile colorless or lightly amber colored liquid with an acid lightly mouldy odor of denaturated alcohol (ethanol and acetone mixture), mixes well with water.

Application of the substance: Isopropyl alcohol has multiple applications. It can serve as a solvent: it can dissolve a whole range of non-polar compounds. 
Owing to its ability to quickly evaporate it is an ideal solvent used in detergents, specifically to dissolve oil – for instance in cleaning fine electronic and electrical parts, and also cotton fabrics and elements made of wood. Isopropanol can be used to produce isopropyl acetate, and in the reaction with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide it is the component of sodium isopropyl xanthan (herbicide). It is also used as a disinfectant: due to the lowering of the surface tension it shows a higher antibacterial activity. This substance is also added to fuels to prevent the formation of ice crystals from the water found there. Finally, it is used as one of the components of such products as cosmetics and body care products, paints and resins, pharmaceutical tablets, in extraction and purification processes, as a coolant in the brewing industry, a coupling agent, de-icer, polymerization modifier and synthetic flavor improver in the food industry.

Health safety: The vapors can cause light irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory passages, and can have in a high concentration an anesthetic effect. It has an irritating effect for mucous membranes and eyes – it can cause such an injury as cornea abrasion. It is harmless for the skin, however a prolonged contact (above 4 hours) can damage the central nervous system. If consumed, it causes intoxication and vomiting. A prolonged contact with that substance can damage the liver, stomach and the cardiovascular system.

Isopropyl Alcohol Anhydrous and USP grades are colorless, volatile, flammable liquids with a very slight odor.
 Unlike ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol has a bitter taste, some undesirable side effects and little ability to produce exhilaration. 
As a result, the U.S. government does not regulate or tax its manufacture or sale.

Xi - Irritant
R 11 - Highly flammable.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
R 67 - Vapours may cause frowsiness and dizziness.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Isopropyl Alcohol 100%

Key features:

Higher strength
Will evaporate off the surface quickly
Useful for cleaning applications
The higher percentages of Isopropyl Alcohol are used for cleaning purposes like disinfecting, window cleaning, stainless steel cleaner, killing bacteria, as well as many other uses. The higher the percentage, the greater the evaporation rate, meaning that it dries faster. The high grades of Isopropyl Alcohol 100% are suitable for the majority of IPA uses and is commonly used by industrial users and cleaners.

Great for:

Disinfecting hard surfaces - kitchen, bathroom and laundry
Sanitising and cleaning makeup brushes
Cleaning glass and windows
Cleaning computer, mobile and tablet screens

Isopropyl Alcohol 99%

Key features:

Higher strength
Perfect for 99% Isopropyl formulations
Great for cleaning
What’s the difference between 99% and 100%? We get asked this question a lot. The difference is just the 1% of added moisture content. 
This is of importance for specific chemical formulations which specifically require 99%. 
It is often recommended that you use 100% instead of 99% unless it is specified otherwise. 
However, 99% has similar features and functions to 100% in the fact that it cleans and disinfects a variety of surfaces, evaporating off quickly.

Great for:

Specific chemical formulations
Laboratory use


Isopropyl Alcohol 70%

Key features:

Higher moisture content
Stays on surfaces longer, so it has time to kill bacteria
Used as a rubbing alcohol for skin
Another common percentage is Isopropyl Alcohol 70%, which is the grade recommended for rubbing alcohol when applying it to the skin. 
The lower grade of Isopropyl Alcohol 70% means that it is not as harsh to the skin, but it is still effective. 
The lower grade is also great for getting rid of bugs on plants as well as disinfecting as the water content mixed with the alcohol fights against growing viruses and fungus.

The reason you would choose 70% over 100% when it comes to killing mealy bugs is that the higher moisture content in the rubbing alcohol means that it will stay on the bugs for longer, allowing it to work over time and kill the bugs. 


No matter what the percentage, Isopropyl Alcohol 100%, Isopropyl Alcohol 99% or Isopropyl Alcohol 70% are beneficial products to have in any workplace or household. 
The amazing variety of uses it has makes it a handy product to have around. 
If you’re cleaning electronics, cleaning hard surfaces or disinfecting medical equipment get either 100% or 99%. 
If you’re using it as rubbing alcohol for the skin or spraying plants, use 70%. 
The required percentage will depend on your application, if you need help or have any questions feel free to give us a call on 02 4722 5060, and we will be happy to help out.

Isopropyl alcohol (C 3H 8O) is a flammable, colorless liquid with a slightly pleasant odor. 

Isopropyl alcohol is used in manufacturing acetone, glycerol and isopropyl acetate. A solvent for many oils, alkaloids, gums and resins, it also serves as a deicing agent for liquid fuels.

The chemical compound is used in extraction processes, as a dehydrating agent, a preservative, in lotions and as a laboratory reagent. Common names for it include IPA, rubbing alcohol, dimethyl carbinol, isopropanol, 2-propanol and sec-propyl alcohol.

Common Routes, Effects and First Aid 

Inhalation: Leave the contaminated area immediately and take deep breaths of fresh air. 
If symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat or chest develop, call a doctor.
Contact with Skin: Flood the skin with water. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing. 
Gently and thoroughly wash all affected skin areas with soap and water. Call a doctor if symptoms such as redness or irritation develop.
Contact with Eyes: Check the victim for contact lenses; remove if present. 
Flush eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20-30 minutes and call a hospital or the poison control center (1-800-848-6946). Do not put any ointments, oils or medication in the victim’s eyes without instructions from a doctor. Transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms such as redness or irritation develop.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting; volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the lungs during vomiting. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1-2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical. Call a hospital or the poison control center. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim’s airway is open and lay the victim on his or her side with the head lower than the body. Refer to a material safety data sheet (MSDS).
Proper Handling and Storage Procedures 

Before working with isopropyl alcohol, individuals should be trained in its proper handling and storage and know how to use proper personal protective equipment. Store the compound in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from heat, sparks, flames and other sources of ignition, as well as strong oxidizers, acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, acids and isocyanates. A flammable safety cabinet is the best storage option.

Isopropyl alcohol is highly flammable and can easily ignite. 
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air, traveling to a source of ignition and flash back. Use of water spray to fight fires may be inefficient.

Personal Protective Equipment 

Clothing: Avoid skin contact with isopropyl alcohol. 
Wear chemical-resistant clothing and protective gloves compatible with isopropyl alcohol. Nitrile gloves are best suited for prolonged contact, but Silvershield/4H gloves are also acceptable. 
Check with the glove manufacturer for recommended use and duration guidelines.
Eye Protection: Employees should use indirect vented splash goggles when there is any possibility of isopropyl alcohol exposure. A gravity-feed eyewash or plumbed eyewash should be located within 10 seconds of the hazard location.
Respiratory Protection: Engineering controls should be implemented to reduce environmental concentrations to the OSHA time weighted average (400 ppm). Use respirators when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or are being installed. Respiratory protection should be NIOSH approved for isopropyl alcohol and used in accordance with the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 1910.134. The appropriate cartridge for isopropyl alcohol protection is organic vapor. Any exposure over the allowed exposure for the cartridge style used or of unknown concentrations, such as uncontrolled releases, the user must don a supplied air respirator, such as an airline respirator, an ambient air pump system or a pressure-demand SCBA. Limit respirator use to those who have been medically cleared, adequately trained and fitted for the respirator face piece.

Chemical-induced ocular side effects
Devin Gattey MD, in Clinical Ocular Toxicology, 2008

Clinical significance
Isopropyl alcohol is well known to cause ocular surface irritation, epithelial keratitis and occasional corneal abrasion. Most commonly, isopropyl alcohol comes into contact with the eye surface during Goldmann applanation tonometry. Tonometer tips are frequently cleaned with a wipe saturated in 70% isopropyl alcohol or soaked for at least 5 minutes in a 70% solution (the method recommended by the US Center for Disease Control) and applied to the corneal surface. If this is done before the alcohol has completely dried, a familiar round epithelial defect, a burning sensation or frank eye pain may ensue. Another potential route of ocular injury includes pre-surgical preparation of the peri-ocular skin with alcohol wipes. Occupational exposures to isopropyl alcohol vapors have been reported to cause eye irritation but no significant injury.

Toxic Alcohols
Kevin C. Osterhoudt MD, MSCE, in Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 2008

Isopropanol Poisoning
Isopropyl alcohol, also known as “rubbing alcohol,” is a widely used solvent and is commonly found within the home as the cooling ingredient among topical liniments. 
Over 12,000 isopropanol exposures among children up to 19 years of age were reported to the AAPCC in 2003.1 
Isopropyl alcohol toxicity may occur via the dermal and inhalation routes, such as may result during misguided sponge baths for fever.

Isopropanol is twice as potent as ethanol in terms of CNS depression. 
Altered mental status, when it occurs, typically manifests within 2 hours of ingestion.4 
Hypotension may occur due to diuresis, peripheral vasodilation, and myocardial depression. 
In addition to an osmolal gap (see Table 134-1), ketonemia or ketonuria may occur. Isopropyl alcohol is metabolized to acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase without the production of significant metabolic acidosis but may lead to hypoglycemia in young children, as was described for ethanol. Gastritis is common after ingestion. Patient care is supportive. The risks and benefits of hemodialysis may be considered for comatose patients with blood isopropanol levels exceeding 500 mg/dl.

Iatrogenic and Poison-Derived Acid Base Disorders
Ivan N. Co, Kyle J. Gunnerson, in Critical Care Nephrology (Third Edition), 2019
 

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