Liquid paraffin = white oil = paraffin oil = White Mineral Oil = liquid petroleum = mineral oil

CAS Number: 8042-47-5
EC Number: 232-455-8

Liquid paraffin or mineral oil is a transparent, colourless, odourless, or almost odourless, oily liquid composed of saturated hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils.
The name 'mineral oil' by itself is imprecise, having been used for many specific oils over the past few centuries. 
Other names, similarly imprecise, include 'white oil', 'paraffin oil', 'liquid paraffin' (a highly refined medical grade), paraffinum liquidum (Latin), and 'liquid petroleum'. 
Baby oil is a perfumed mineral oil.

Most often, mineral oil is a liquid by-product of refining crude oil to make gasoline and other petroleum products. 
This type of mineral oil is a transparent, colorless oil, composed mainly of alkanes and cycloalkanes, related to petroleum jelly. 
Liquid paraffin has a density of around 0.8–0.87 g/cm3 (0.029–0.031 lb/cu in).
White oils, more technically known as pharmaceutical white and technical white mineral oils, are highly refined mineral oils consisting of highly non-polar paraffinic hydrocarbons. 
Due to their colourless, odourless, tasteless and hydrophobic properties, Liquid paraffins are used in many different industries with the cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, chemistry and plastics and rubber industries leading the field in usage.

Liquid paraffin is a common ingredient in a variety of products with a wide-range of uses. 
White Mineral Oil comes in various forms, but pure mineral oil is colorless and odorless. 
Liquid paraffin is also referred to as paraffin oil, liquid paraffin, liquid petroleum, and saturated hydrocarbons.
Liquid paraffin written both with and without the adjectives "light" and "white."
The term mineral oil most often refers to a byproduct of the distillation of petroleum as occurs during the production of gasoline and other petroleum-based substances. 

Mineral oil is not to be confused with 'mineral spirits', as they are very different types of products. 
Liquid paraffin is made up primarily of alkanes and cyclic paraffin, which is related to petroleum jelly. 
Mineral oil typically contains 15 to 40 carbons and has a density of approximately 0.8 grams per centimeter cubed (g/cm3). 
While those three sectors use this element most widely, Liquid paraffin has a variety of other applications. 
Liquid paraffin is a standard household item, but has also found uses in some niche markets. 
The substance is versatile and has many properties making Liquid paraffin useful in a range of applications.

Liquid paraffin can act as a non-conductive coolant, thermal fluid, lubricant, release agent, binder, defoamer, protective coating or float, sealing and polishing agent, dust control agent, and more. 
Liquid paraffin has applications in three main areas:
-The industrial sector
-Food processing

Liquid paraffins are colorless, odorless, tasteless mixtures of saturated paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons which meet or exceed FDA 21 CFR 172.878, 178.3620(a) and NF or USP requirements. 
Liquid paraffins are available in a broad range of viscosities ranging from 55-550 SUS@40°C and are exceptionally suited as ingredients in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, food environments where direct or indirect contact with food may occur and in applications where odor and staining must be minimized. 
Custom formulations of  white mineral oils may be available to meet specific criteria such as smoke, flash and pour points upon request.

Applications of Liquid paraffin:
Liquid paraffin is used as a blending base in a variety of applications, including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and general industry.

While those three sectors use this element most widely, Liquid paraffin has a variety of other applications.
Liquid paraffin is a standard household item, but has also found uses in some niche markets. 
Liquid paraffin is versatile and has many properties making Liquid paraffin useful in a range of applications.

To use mineral oil in food preparation, Liquid paraffin must be classified as a food-grade mineral oil. 
This is vital for health and safety as well as legal compliance. 
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established standards any 'food-grade' substance must meet for both direct additions to foods and uses that may result in incidental contact with food. 
The requirements for purity, amount used, and processes vary based on how one uses mineral oil.

The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and the National Formulary (NF) first created guidelines for the use of mineral oil in manufacturing. 
The FDA requires that food-grade mineral oil meet USP XX test requirements for readily carbonizable substances, which USP released in 1980, and USP XVII test requirements for sulfur compounds. 
Liquid paraffin also needs to meet the specifications in Volume 45 of the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Mineral oil used as a lubricant for food-processing machinery must be registered with NSF International, an independent global food safety organization, as lubricants for incidental food contact to be used in food-processing plants under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 
Liquid paraffin can also receive Kosher certification.

Other organizations oversee mineral oil use in other industries. 
For example, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) governs Liquid paraffins use as a dust control agent for animal feeds. 
This classification is different, however, from food-grade mineral oil. 
Mineral oil used in the production of pharmaceuticals must be considered pharmaceutical-grade. 
The cosmetics and medical industry use highly refined mineral oil to avoid irritating the skin, eyes, and other body parts.

White Mineral Oil Carrier Oil is a multipurpose odourless oil and can be used in aromatherapy/mouldings/butchers block oil/home reed diffusers and many other uses. 
Liquid paraffin absorbs into the skin leaving a very light feeling of oil.

Mineral oils coming from crude petroleum oils vary in their make-up and contain complex structures. 
Liquid paraffin include mixtures of straight and branched-chain paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Alkanes, which are acyclic saturated hydrocarbons, are a significant component. 
Liquid paraffin are made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms in a tree structure where all the carbon-to-carbon bonds are single. 
Mineral oil typically contains between 15 and 40 hydrocarbons.

Boiling point: 218-643°C
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C:
Vapour pressure at 20°C: negligible
Flash point: >115°C o.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 260-371°C
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: >6  

Main article: Liquid paraffin (drug)
Mineral oil is used as a laxative to alleviate constipation by retaining water in stool and the intestines.
Although generally considered safe, as noted above, there is a concern of mist inhalation leading to serious health conditions such as pneumonia.
Mineral oil can be administered either orally or as an enema.
Liquid paraffin is sometimes used as a lubricant in enema preparations as most of the ingested material is excreted in the stool rather than being absorbed by the body.

Personal lubricant
Liquid paraffin is recommended by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine for use as a fertility-preserving vaginal lubrication.
However, Liquid paraffin is known that oils degrade latex condoms.

Cell culture
Mineral oil of special purity is often used as an overlay covering microdrops of culture medium in petri dishes, during the culture of oocytes and embryos in IVF and related procedures. 
The use of oil presents several advantages over the open culture system: Liquid paraffin allows for several oocytes and embryos to be cultured simultaneously, but observed separately, in the same dish; Liquid paraffin minimizes concentration and pH changes by preventing evaporation of the medium; Liquid paraffin allows for a significant reduction of the medium volume used (as few as 20 microlitres (0.0012 cu in) per oocyte instead of several millilitres for the batch culture); and Liquid paraffin serves as a temperature buffer minimizing thermal shock to the cells while the dish is taken out of the incubator for observation.

Over-the-counter veterinarian-use mineral oil is intended as a mild laxative for pets and livestock.
Certain mineral oils are used in livestock vaccines, as an adjuvant to stimulate a cell-mediated immune response to the vaccinating agent.
In the poultry industry, plain mineral oil can also be swabbed onto the feet of chickens infected with scaly mites on the shank, toes, and webs. 
Mineral oil suffocates these tiny parasites.
In beekeeping, food grade mineral oil-saturated paper napkins placed in hives are used as a treatment for tracheal and other mites.
Liquid paraffin is also used along with a cotton swab to remove un-shed skin (ashes) on reptiles such as lizards and snakes.

Mineral oil is a common ingredient in baby lotions, cold creams, ointments, and cosmetics. 
Liquid paraffin is a lightweight inexpensive oil that is odorless and tasteless. 
Liquid paraffin can be used on eyelashes to prevent brittleness and breaking and, in cold cream, is also used to remove creme make-up and temporary tattoos. 
One of the common concerns regarding the use of mineral oil is Liquid paraffins presence on several lists of comedogenic substances. 
These lists of comedogenic substances were developed many years ago and are frequently quoted in the dermatological literature.
The type of highly refined and purified mineral oil found in cosmetic and skincare products is noncomedogenic (does not clog pores).
Pharmaceutical white mineral oils are used in the cosmetics industry to form the basis of many widely used product formulations, including skin care cream, cleaning cream, beauty lotion, baby oil and hair care products.

Mechanical, electrical, and industrial
An electrical radiator that uses mineral oil as a heat transfer fluid
Mineral oil is used in a variety of industrial/mechanical capacities as a non-conductive coolant or thermal fluid in electric components as Liquid paraffin does not conduct electricity and functions to displace air and water. 
Some examples are in transformers, where Liquid paraffin is known as transformer oil, and in high-voltage switchgear, where mineral oil is used as an insulator and as a coolant to disperse switching arcs.
The dielectric constant of mineral oil ranges from 2.3 at 50 °C (122 °F) to 2.1 at 200 °C (392 °F).
Mineral oil is used as a lubricant, a cutting fluid, and as a conditioning oil for jute fibres selected for textile production, a process known as 'jute batching'.

Spindle oils are light mineral oils used as lubricants in textile industries. 
Electric space heaters sometimes use mineral oil as a heat transfer oil. 
Liquid paraffins are used in a variety of applications in the textile industry ranging from fibre lubricant, sewing machine oil and yarn lubrication oil.
Because Liquid paraffin is noncompressible, mineral oil is used as a hydraulic fluid in hydraulic machinery and vehicles.
An often-cited limitation of mineral oil is that Liquid paraffin is poorly biodegradable; in some applications, vegetable oils such as cottonseed oil or rapeseed oil may be used instead.

Pharmaceutical white mineral oils are used as internal lubricants for laxative applications in the pharmaceutical industry. 
In addition, these products are used as bases for ointments and creams, as carriers for solid and semi-solid ingredients and additionally used as a separator on capsules and tablets.

Food preparation
Because of Liquid paraffins properties that prevent water absorption, combined with its lack of flavor and odor, food grade mineral oil is a popular preservative for wooden cutting boards, salad bowls, and utensils. 
Rubbing a small amount of mineral oil into a wooden kitchen item periodically impedes absorption of food liquids, and thereby food odors, easing the process of hygienically cleaning wooden utensils and equipment. 
The use of mineral oil to impede water absorption can also prevent cracks and splits from forming in wooden utensils due to wetting and drying cycles. 
However, some of the mineral oil used on these items, if in contact with food, will be picked up by Liquid paraffin and therefore ingested.

Outside of the European Union, mineral oil is occasionally used in the food industry, particularly for confectionery. 
In this application, Liquid paraffin is typically used for the glossy effect Liquid paraffin produces, and to prevent the candy pieces from adhering to each other. 
Liquid paraffin has been discouraged for use in children's foods, though Liquid paraffin is still found in many confectioneries, including Swedish Fish.
The use of food grade mineral oil is self-limiting because of Liquid paraffins laxative effect. 
The maximum daily intake is calculated to be about 100 mg (1.5 gr), of which some 80 mg (1.2 gr) are contributed from Liquid paraffins use on machines in the baking industry.

Due to Liquid paraffins low toxicity and non-harmful properties making Liquid paraffin safe to use with regards to the environment and human health, white mineral oils are used in the production of spray oils to treat and protect fruit trees.

White Mineral Oils are used in the chemicals sector, particularly in adhesives, hot-melts, the paper industry and in the production of leather and explosives.

Liquid paraffins are used extensively in the plastics and rubber industry to produce different types of plastics and rubber applications. 
Used to control the melt flow rate of input products for Polystyrene (PS), high impact resistance polystyrene (HIPS), polyolefin and thermoplastic elastomer, Liquid paraffins are also used as internal and external lubricant in polymer formulations of PS, PVC, PP, TPE. 
Plasticiser, catalyst carrier and mould release and pigment dispersion agents are other applications of white mineral oils in this industry. 

Liquid paraffins are used in a variety of applications in the textile industry ranging from fibre lubricant, sewing machine oil and yarn lubrication oil.

Other uses of Liquid paraffin:
Mineral oil's ubiquity has led to Liquid paraffins use in some niche applications as well:
-Mineral oil is used for treating and preserving wooden butcher block counter tops.
-Liquid paraffin is commonly used to create a wear effect on new clay poker chips, which can otherwise be accomplished only through prolonged use.
-Either the chips are placed in mineral oil for a short time, or the oil is applied to each chip then rubbed off. 
-This removes any chalky residue left over from manufacture, and also improve the look and feel of the chips.
-Mineral oil is used as the principal fuel in some types of gel-type scented candles.
-Liquid paraffin is used for cooling, such as in the liquid submersion cooling of components in some custom-built computers.
-Veterinarian-grade mineral oil is inexpensive, and is frequently used by amateur radio operators as coolant in RF dummy loads, as mineral oil is typically used as the insulating and cooling fluid in large electrical equipment such as transformers.
-Mineral oil is used as a brake fluid in some cars, such as Citroën models with hydrodynamic suspension, and bicycle disc brakes.
-Mineral oil is burned in specialized machines (both manufactured and home-made) to produce a thick white smoke that is then blown into automotive evaporative emissions (EVAP) systems to find leaks.
-Liquid paraffin is used for polishing alabaster in stonework and lubricating and cleaning pocket knives or food handling tools that use an open bearing, thus needing periodic lubrication. 
-Light mineral oil (paraffinum perliquidum) is used as a honing oil when sharpening edge tools (such as chisels) on abrasive oil stones. 
-Mineral oil USP or light mineral oil can be used as an anti-rust agent for blades.
-Liquid paraffin is an inexpensive alternative for storing reactive metals, such as lithium and sodium.
-Horticultural oil is often made of a combination of mineral oil and detergent. 
-Liquid paraffin is sprayed on plants to control scale, aphid, and other pest populations by suffocation.
-Before the widespread adoption of thermocyclers with heated lids, Liquid paraffin was common practice to use mineral oil to overlay polymerase chain reactions in biotechnology to prevent loss of water during heating cycles. 
-Liquid paraffin is often used to suspend crystals for use in X-ray crystallography.
-Liquid paraffin is used as a transparent collision material for reactions in particle physics, as in the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment.
-As a relatively low heat combustible with no flavor or odor, mineral oil can be used in fire breathing and firedancing for entertainment, but there is a risk of injury.
-Paraffin oil is commonly used to fill Galileo thermometers. 
-Due to paraffin oil's freezing temp being lower than water (approx. 24 °F (−4 °C)), this makes them less susceptible to freezing during shipment or when stored in a cold environment.

Mineral oil is inert, which makes Liquid paraffin easy to use. 
Both consumers and businesses in a range of industries use mineral oil for a variety of applications. 
The three sectors named above primarily use mineral oil, but Liquid paraffin appears across a wide range of industries and applications. 
Here are some of the most common uses in the industrial, personal care, and food production sectors.

A mixture of highly refined paraffinic and naphthenic liquid hydrocarbons with boiling point above 200°; obtained from mineral crude oils through various refining steps (eg. distillation, extraction and crystallisation) and subsequent purification by acid and/or catalytic hydrotreatment; may contain antioxidants approved for food use.
DESCRIPTION Colourless, transparent and odourless oily liquid, without fluorescence in daylight.

Mineral oil serves to assist with various industrial, mechanical, and electrical purposes. 
Liquid paraffin is an effective lubricant for industrial equipment and often functions as a processing aid. 
Liquid paraffin is an element that helps make up various substances used in industrial processes, such as lubricants, greases, dyes, polymers, and surface treatment products.
Mineral oil also acts as a thermal fluid or non-conductive coolant in various electric components. 

In refrigerators and oil-based electric heaters, mineral oil is used as a cooling liquid. 
In switchgear, Liquid paraffin serves as an insulator and a coolant to diffuse switching arcs. 
In the production of plastics, mineral oil is used to control the melt flow rate of finished polymer and act as a release agent.
Automotive equipment frequently uses mineral oil, primarily as a component in hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, as well as in lubricants in brake fluids and motor oil.

You can find mineral oil in many different cosmetics products including baby lotions, ointment, make-up remover, sunscreens, hair conditioner, and even tissues. 
Mineral oil is an ideal base material for many of these products because Liquid paraffin is inert, colorless, and odorless. 
Mineral oils may appear in cosmetics as liquid oils or solid waxes.

Some kinds of mineral oils are comedogenic, meaning they clog pores. 
Because of this, the mineral oil used in skincare and cosmetic products is noncomedogenic and does not clog pores. 
In fact, cosmetics companies often describe mineral oil as having moisturizing, protective, and cleansing properties for the skin. 
Additionally, these oils are used to give cosmetic products film-forming and water-repellent features as well as increased firmness.

Liquid Paraffin is used in the treatment of dry Skin. 
Liquid paraffin relieves dry skin conditions such as eczema, ichthyosis and pruritus of the elderly.

How Liquid Paraffin works
Liquid Paraffin is an emollient (substance that softens or soothes the skin). 
Liquid paraffin works by preventing water loss from the outer layer of skin. 
This relieves dryness and leaves the skin soft and hydrated.

The food processing and preparation industries frequently use mineral oil. 
Sometimes, manufacturers add mineral oil directly to food. 
At other times, mineral oil assists in the production process but is not added to food directly. 
As mentioned earlier, all mineral oil that may come into contact with food must achieve classification as food-grade, and Liquid paraffin must be used in accordance with all relevant laws and regulations.

Food producers use mineral oil as a:
-Binder, release agent, or lubricant in bakery products, dehydrated foods, egg white solids, and in tablets or capsules for adding nutrients, flavoring, spices, or for use as a dietary supplement
-Release agent, sealing agent, and polishing agent in confectioners
-Protective coating on raw fruits and vegetables
-Defoamer in vinegar and beet sugar production
-Dough divider
-Dust control agent for grains.
-Binder, release agent, and lubricant in the manufacturing of yeast

Mineral oil plays a role in some of the non-food products used to prepare, serve, and eat food. 
In these situations, the oil should also be food-grade. 
When applied to cookware, bakeware, and cooking utensils, mineral oil prevents food from sticking to them. 
People rub Liquid paraffin onto the surface of wooden cutting boards, bowls, and utensils to prevent them from absorbing water, which can damage them. 
Mineral oil also prevents wood-based cooking tools from absorbing food liquids and odors, which makes cleaning easier. 
Liquid paraffin acts as a lubricant for food processing equipment as well.

Mineral oil can be found in a variety of other products, or in the actual production processes of other items. 
Mineral oil plays a role in the manufacture of leather, paper, pulp, textiles, fur, plastics, fabricated metal, lubricants, greases, and chemicals. 
Because mineral oil has applications for so many materials, Liquid paraffin is essential for the production of items as varied as tires, shoes, mobile phones, packaging, clothing, cutlery, and jewelry. 
Mineral oil is an element in leather treatment products, textile treatment products and dyes, and paper chemicals and dyes.

In the medical field, mineral oil can be used to relieve constipation and as a lubricant in enema preparation. 
In veterinary medicine, Liquid paraffin is also used as a mild laxative, an ingredient in vaccines, and to remove any unshed skin from reptiles.
In laboratories, researchers may use tiny amounts of the substance to cover culture medium in petri dishes to prevent evaporation and thermal shock. 
In biotechnology, Liquid paraffin overlays polymerase chain reactions to prevent water loss during heating. 
In X-ray crystallography, the study of crystals using X-ray technology, Liquid paraffin is used to suspend crystals.

Understanding the physical and chemical properties of mineral oil will help you to determine how best to use Liquid paraffin in your industrial, food-processing, or other processes. 
These attributes may differ depending on the type of mineral used, how you use Liquid paraffin, and whether any other substances get added to the oil.
Mineral oil is a clear, colorless, and odorless liquid. 
This lack of strong physical qualities helps make Liquid paraffin valuable in a variety of applications. 
Manufacturers can add Liquid paraffin to products without changing their color, scent, flavor, or other crucial aspects. 

Mineral oil is also generally regarded as safe for human consumption, but in limited amounts. 
These features enable Liquid paraffins use in the food processing and pharmaceutical sectors. 
Refined mineral oil does not clog pores, which allows for Liquid paraffins use in cosmetics.
Mineral oil has a density of 0.85 grams per milliliter (g/ml), and its specific gravity is 0.845 - 0.905. 
Liquid paraffins kinematic viscosity is greater than or equal to 38.1 millimeters squared per second (mm2/s). 
Liquid paraffin is insoluble in water.

Liquid paraffin has an initial boiling point of 424.4 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and a boiling range that extends up to 1189.4 °F. 
Liquid paraffins flash point is 275.00 °F closed cup and 380.00 °F open cup. 
Liquid paraffin has an auto-ignition temperature of 500 °F, and Liquid paraffins heat of combustion is 31.5 kilojoules per gram (kJ/g). 
As mentioned above, mineral oil has an NFPA flammability rating of one, a health rating of zero, and a reactivity rating of zero, meaning Liquid paraffin is not a high fire risk.

One of the most beneficial attributes of white mineral oil is Liquid paraffins lubrication capabilities. 
This is the primary reason Liquid paraffin has so many industrial, mechanical, food-processing, and medical applications. 
This property plays a crucial role in many Liquid paraffin manufacturing and food production processes.
Liquid paraffins ability to transfer heat and Liquid paraffins non-conductivity enable mineral oil's use as a coolant in a various electronic and mechanical equipment, as well as in industrial processes. 
Liquid paraffins resistance to water and other liquids, as well as insolubility in water, allow mineral oil to function as a sealant and binder in a variety of products.

Liquid paraffin, also known as paraffinum liquidum or Russian mineral oil, is a very highly refined mineral oil used in cosmetics and medicine. 
Cosmetic or medicinal liquid paraffin should not be confused with the paraffin (or kerosene) used as a fuel. 
Liquid paraffin is a transparent, colorless, nearly odorless, and oily liquid that is composed of saturated hydrocarbons derived from petroleum.
The term paraffinum perliquidum is sometimes used to denote light liquid paraffin, while the term paraffinum subliquidum is sometimes used to denote a thicker mineral oil.

Liquid paraffin (petroleum)
[ACGIH] Slab oil (Obs.)
Mineral oil, white
Liquid paraffin, petroleum
Liquid paraffin, (petroleum)
[ChemIDplus] Paraffinum liquidum
Paraffin oil
Hydrocarbon oils
Mineral oil

Liquid paraffin (petrolatum) is a highly refined distilled fraction of petroleum that contains a mixture of liquid saturated hydrocarbons Sweetman. 
Liquid paraffin is used as a laxative Sharif et al (2001), a lubricant, and as a base for nasal sprays. 
Other paraffins, such as soft white paraffin, are semi-solid mixtures of hydrocarbons and are used as ointment bases and lubricants. 
As a result of Liquid paraffins side effects and the availability of better products, liquid paraffin is not recommended for routine use. 
Liquid paraffin is available without prescription.

White oil
Medicinal white oil
Technical white oil
Liquid paraffin
Pharmacytical White Oil
Marcol 52,82,172
Primol 187,352
Plastol 135
Bayol 82

Some of the imprecision in the definition of the names used for mineral oil (such as 'white oil') reflects usage by consumers and merchants who did not know, and usually had no need of knowing, the oil's precise chemical makeup. 
Merriam-Webster states the first use of the term "mineral oil" as being 1771.
Prior to the late 19th century, the chemical science to determine the makeup of an oil was unavailable in any case. 
A similar lexical situation occurred with the term "white metal".
"Mineral oil", sold widely and cheaply in the US, is not sold as such in Britain. 
Instead, British pharmacologists use the terms "paraffinum perliquidum" for light mineral oil and "paraffinum liquidum" or "paraffinum subliquidum" for somewhat more viscous varieties. 

The term "paraffinum liquidum" is often seen on the ingredient lists of baby oil and cosmetics. 
British aromatherapists commonly use the term "white mineral oil". 
In lubricating oils, mineral oil is termed from groups 1 to 2 worldwide and group 3 in certain regions. 
This is because the high end of group 3 mineral lubricating oils are so pure that they exhibit properties similar to polyalphaolefin – PAO oils (group 4 synthetics)

White Mineral Oil Manufacturer
White oils are highly refined mineral oils that consist of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic nonpolar hydrocarbons. 
They are hydrophobic, colorless, tasteless, odorless, and do not change color over time. 
As a leading white mineral oil manufacturer and supplier to multiple industries, our white oils are chemically and biologically stable, non-comedogenic, and do not support pathogenic bacterial growth. 
These properties make white oils the standard in many industries.

White oils make an ideal blending base for personal care and pharmaceutical products. 
Their inert nature makes them easy to use, as they lubricate, smooth, soften, extend and resist moisture in many formulations. 
You can find our USP and NF grade white oils in products ranging from baby oils and lotions to sunscreens, tissues and antibiotics. 
The plastics industry uses our Hydrobrite line of low-volatility white oils in the production of plastics such as polystyrene, polyolefins, thermoplastic elastomers, and various other polymers to improve and control the melt flow rate of the finished polymer to provide release properties, or change the physical characteristics.

Our food grade mineral oils have proven themselves in food applications as wide ranging as dough divider and pan oils to dust suppression in grain silos. 
They lubricate food-handling equipment, impregnate wrapping paper to keep foods crisp, control foam in beet sugar and vinegar production, and enhance the leather tanning process. 
As one of the leading hot melt adhesive manufacturers, our low pour-point naphthenic grades improve hot melt adhesives and lubricate air conditioner and refrigerator compressors.

Sonneborn supplies USP, NF, and technical white oil grades and will custom-blend to meet customer specifications. 
USP and NF grades meet FDA 21 CFR 172.878 and 21 CFR 178.3620(a) regulations for direct food contact, and USDA H1 food processing lubricant standards. 
Our USP mineral oil grades have viscosities that range from 35cSt to 420cSt, and pour points that range from -10°C to less than -35°C for our naphthenic grades. 
Our NF light food grade mineral oils have lower viscosities, ranging from 7cSt to 30cSt, and pour points as low as -25°C for our 40 oil grain dust suppressor.

What is White Oil?
White oil has a variety of names that correspond towards the intended use of the oil.  
The general, and interchangeable, names are white oil and mineral oil. 
A few other names include paraffinum perliquidum, paraffin oil, liquid paraffin, and liquid petroleum.  
White oil is a colorless and odorless mixture of higher alkanes from a mineral source. 
This mineral source is usually from a distillate of petroleum.

Uses for 70 White Oil
70 White Oil indicates the type of viscosity the oil carries.  
The higher the number, the thicker the product is. 
70 White Oil is mainly used towards consumer products and commodities that interacts with humans.  
The areas the oil can be used in range from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to food productions. 
Within cosmetics, white oil 70 can be used for:
-Baby Oil
-Creams and Lotions
-Suntan Oils
-Makeup removers
-Hair Products  
-And bath oils.

70 White Oil also has several applications within pharmaceuticals as being an ingredient within topical ointments and capsule ointments.  
In the food industry, the product can be applied in egg coatings, coatings for fruit and vegetables, and within food packing materials.

Uses for 220 White Oil
Similar to 70 White oil, 220 White Oil is used in similar cosmetic products such as lotions, baby oil, and suntan oil.  
They are also similar in their applications with the food industry by being found within food packing materials. 
The difference surfaces with the 220 White Oil being used within laxatives rather than topical ointments.  

220 White Oil also plays a key role in the production of plastics and elastomers such as:
-Polystyrene internal lubricants,
-PVC external lubricants,
-Plastic annealing, and
-Catalyst carriers.
-Uses for 350 White Oil

Similar to its other counterparts, 350 White Oil is used within baby oil, creams and lotions, suntan oil, and sunscreen within the personal care industry.   
Just as 220 White Oil was used mainly towards laxatives in pharmaceuticals, 350 White Oil follows suite.
Furthermore, 220 and 350 White Oil share identical applications with plastics and elastomers other than 350 White Oil being used within thermoplastic rubber extender oils.  
Within the food industry, the product is used within bakery pan oils, food packing materials, and food grade lubricants and greasers.

Some other applications for mineral oil in general include:
-Liquid paraffin is being used as a brake fluid
-The use of Liquid paraffin as a principle fuel in some scented candles
-As a honing oil when sharpening edge tools
-Liquid paraffin being an inexpensive alternative for storing reactive metals
-Liquid paraffin being used within adhesives
-And as an anti-rust agent for blades.

Applications of Liquid paraffin:
Pure White Mineral Oil is registered by NSF as been food safe when been in both incidental and direct contact with food, therefore this makes the product an ideal choice for the treatment of wooden chopping boards, food preparation areas, wooden bowls, bread & cheese boards as well as kitchen & dining utensils to protect blades etc. 
The product may also be utilised as a release agent to prevent food from adhering to surfaces and blades on slicing machines. 
Due to Liquid paraffins high pure, non-toxic, odourless characteristics the product may also be used as a skin lotion, in home reed diffusers, hair clipper blades, internal hinges and in aromatherapy.

Liquid paraffins are integral to many applications throughout a breadth of industries. 
Liquid paraffin is also known as white oil, mineral oil, liquid petroleum, paraffin oil, liquid paraffin and paraffinum. 
At a glance, white mineral oils are odorless and colorless. 
These ultra-pure, refined mineral oils are a mixture of paraffinic isoalkanes and naphthenic molecules.

Industry Uses
Liquid paraffins are food- and medical-grade, making them popular in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. 
This type of mineral oil can be safely used as a lubricating agent in food processing plants as Liquid paraffin is approved for food contact. 
This allows manufacturing without concern of contamination of the products that can happen with less pure standard lubricants.

White oils are also popular in the plastics and rubber manufacturing industries. 
They help with the softening of rubber products and are essential in the production of polystyrene, PVC and different types of rubbers. 
This is critical for producing food packaging and utensils out of plastic. 
Liquid paraffin can also be readily found in glues, cleaning products, polishes and plastic toys. 
The range of uses for white mineral oils has only grown in the past couple of decades, and Liquid paraffin is expected to keep growing in the future with the focus on protecting the public.

The process oils commonly found in rubber manufacturing typically have a viscosity between 70 and 1,500 SUS at 100 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Mineral oil distributors typically offer a range of mineral oil products that vary in viscosity, as you’ll see below.

White Oil 
In our white oil, the name specifies the viscosity of the oil and the -W signifies food grade quality. 
The higher the number the more viscous the product. 
Renoil 70-W is typically used in products that will be ingested or used directly on people’s skin. 
This can include pharmaceuticals such as capsules and topical ointments, personal care like baby oil, lotions, sunscreens, cosmetics and hair products, as well as coatings on foods, including egg, fruit, and vegetable coatings as well as grain dust control.

White Oil 
As the number suggests, this product is much more viscous than our 70-W. 
While Liquid paraffin is also used in cosmetics and food packaging, this type of oil can also be found in baking pan oils and food-grade lubricants. 
Some additional applications can include cutting board oil and hotmelt adhesives.

White Oil Renoil 350-W and 500-W
White oil is found readily throughout the personal care industry in baby oils. 
These more viscous oils are used in the production of plastics and as a thermoplastic rubber extender oil. 
These can include PVC lubricants, polystyrene lubricants, plastic annealing and catalyst carriers.

Liquid paraffin is used to relieve dry, irritated eyes. 
Common causes for dry eyes include wind, sun, heating/air conditioning, computer use/reading, and certain medications.
Liquid paraffin may contain 1 or more of the following ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, glycerin, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), polysorbate, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, or propylene glycol, among others.
Eye lubricants keep the eye moist, help to protect the eye from injury and infection, and decrease symptoms of dry eyes such as burning, itching, and feeling as if something is in the eye.

Liquid paraffin Specifications:
SAE Grade 10, ISO Viscosity Grade 32
Meets requirements of USDA H-1 and 21CFR, Paragraphs 178.3570, 178.3620(b) and 573.680 of FDA Regulation
Flash Point: >350°F, COC
Flammable Limits: LEL:0.9 UEL:7.0
Melting Point: N/A
Freezing Point: N/A
Evaporate Rate: N/A
Auto-ignition Temperature: N/D
Boiling Point: N/A
pH: N/A
Specific Gravity: 0.818-0.880 @ 25°C (77°F)
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.): <1.0 mmHg @ 20°C (68°F)
Vapor Density (Air=1): >1
Appearance:Colorless, oily liquid
Odor: Odorless
Water Solubility: Insoluble

coal oil
lamp oil

Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found beneath the earth’s surface that can be refined into fuel. 
Petroleum is a fossil fuel, meaning that Liquid paraffin has been created by the decomposition of organic matter over millions of years. 
Petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms–primarily zooplankton and algae–underneath sedimentary rock are subjected to intense heat and pressure.

Renkert Renoil USP white mineral oils are used in a multitude of applications and industries. 
Available in a range of viscosities, white oil is suitable for medical, food and cosmetic use, as well as in the plastics and rubber manufacturing industries. 
If you’d like an expert opinion on the type that’s right for you, reach out to Renkert Oil and speak to someone on our team. 
The optimum oil for your application helps ensure productivity and the production of quality products.

Liquid paraffins are considered to be the refiner's jewel and are highly refined mineral oils that consist of saturated cycloparaffins as well as straight- and branched-chain hydrocarbons. 
Mineral oils offer superior performance and are the perfect choice for applications requiring colorless and odorless oils of the highest purity and lowest toxicity.

A highly refined petroleum mineral oil consisting of a complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the intensive treatment of a petroleum fraction with sulfuric acid and oleum, or by hydrogenation, or by a combination of hydrogenation and acid treatment. 
Additional washing and treating steps may be included in the processing operation. 
Liquid paraffin consists of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C15 through C50.

c15-50 Alkanes
CAS: 8042-47-5 EC:232-455-8
highly refined and hydrogenated mineral oil
Highly refined base oils
Hydrotreated highly refined base oil
industrial oil
paraffin oil
paraffin oil (C17-C30)
Paraffin oils. Liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum
Renoil (TM) white mineral oil
Saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C15 through C50

Liquid paraffins are highly refined mineral oils, and are composed of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic nonpolar hydrocarbons. 
They are odorless, tasteless, colorless, hydrophobic, and don’t change their color over time. 
Liquid paraffin is biologically and chemically stable, and doesn’t support pathogenic bacterial growth, which makes Liquid paraffin the standard choice of oil in most industries.

The Applications
Liquid paraffins are the best for use as a blending base for pharmaceutical products and personal care, but Liquid paraffin is their inert nature that makes them so beneficial. 
Liquid paraffins resist moisture, extend, soften, smoothen, and lubricate in most formulations. 
You can easily find NF grade and USP grade white mineral oils in most products, typically antibiotics, tissues, sunscreens, lotions, and baby oils.
The plastics industry also uses white mineral oils, typically in the product of polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, polyolefins, and polystyrene. 
This is done to control and improve the melt flow rate of finished polymer for releasing properties or changing Liquid paraffins physical characteristics.
The food grade white mineral oils are used in pan oils and dough dividers to suppress dust in grain silos, and they are also used as lubricants in food-handling equipment, for controlling foam in vinegar production, beet sugar, improving the leather tanning process and in food wrapping paper to keep foods crisp in packaging.

The History
Liquid paraffin was first used in the 1870s when ChesebroughBrooklyin found that Liquid paraffin was very good for healing injuries he had sustains. 
Liquid paraffin then spiraled from there and was used regularly in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Liquid paraffins have been used in petroleum products and in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for years.
The first known white mineral oils where found in Azerbaijan, when they were pumped out of wells in the 11th century and were traded in caravans. 
The famous traveler Marco Polo found Liquid paraffin in the 13th century, and even mentioned Liquid paraffin in texts -- the use of petroleum in pharmacy and medicine. 
In modern times Vaseline has become an essential raw material for skincare products.

Liquid paraffin was Chesebrough Brooklyn who had first found out that the sticky clear material he found in oil wells is great for healing skin injuries. 
He started to produce and sell Liquid paraffin, and that was the first use of Vaseline, which is still used regularly in different skincare and cosmetic products today. 
Most people don’t know that there are more uses of petroleum, instead of Liquid paraffin just being used as fuels in automobiles and machines. 
Liquid paraffin is used heavily in the manufacture of chemical raw materials, cosmetic products, and health products, which impact directly on the health of humans.
Petroleum has also given us white mineral oil, which is one of the most frequent oils that is used and consumed in the daily lives of people all over the world.

White oils are manufactured from a particularly refining process of traditional paraffinic base stocks. 
This process gives particular characteristics of purity, absence of color, smell and taste.
These products satisfy the lubrication requirements of the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. 
They are also suitable for production of perfumes, cosmetics and pesticides.
Technical white oils are used as plasticizers for production of polymers as well.

What is white mineral oil?
Liquid paraffin is tasteless, transparent, colorless, non-fluorescent and oily hydrocarbon blend, which includes saturated hydrocarbons that come from the distillation of light fractions. 
They are used in different ways, which include refining crude petroleum. 
The hydrogeneration methods are also used in distillation, and this process is used to remove the Sulphur compounds, unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, and aromatic compounds from the oil.
The best thing about while mineral oil is that Liquid paraffin doesn’t dissolve in alcohol or water, but dissolves in organic solvents like benzene, and chloroform. 
Liquid paraffin is known as white mineral oil because of Liquid paraffins transparent and colorless structure, and goes by the name of liquid paraffin or paraffin. 
The oil is also labelled as pharma grade or technical based on Liquid paraffins chemical composition.

An indispensable material for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries
There are a lot of industries that use white mineral oil, which includes the plastics, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. 
In the cosmetic industry, the oil is used sole as an auxiliary or primary material in the manufacture of bath oils, depilatories, makeup removers, makeup products, sun protection creams, sun tanning products, baby oil, lotion formulations, and creams.
In the pharmaceutical industry, the oil is used in the manufacture of gelatin capsules, ointment and pomade formulations, and laxatives.

In the veterinary drug industry, the oil is used for the manufacture of animal vaccines.
The white mineral oil that is used in the drug and cosmetics industry can’t contain any hazardous substances that may harm human health and must be pharma grade. 
The raw materials added to the products should meet the international and national cosmetic regulations, along with pharma copies like USP/NF, PH. Eur., since the product is applied directly or indirectly on to the body. 
Liquid paraffin doesn’t stay for long in the body as Liquid paraffin doesn’t have any chemical group, and is therefore removed from the body naturally.

Liquid paraffin is widely used in the food industry
Liquid paraffin is commonly used in the food industry, and is favored in some food processes, especially in the manufacture of lubricating oils used by drink and food producers. 
The lubricating oil used in food manufacturing plants can come in contact with the compressor oils, gear oils, hydraulic system oils, greases, and food product. 

That is why white mineral oils are preferred, since they can minimize serious health risks.
All products that include white mineral oils are strictly monitored, and must obtain the necessary certificates and meet the relevant conditions.
The elastomer and plastics industry also uses white mineral oil heavily, as Liquid paraffin is used in the production of thermoplastic rubber, polystyrene, and PVC. 
Apart from that, white mineral oils also feature heavily in common products like toys, glues, lamp oil, cleaning products, wood products, polishes, and glossing products. 

The range of products that use white mineral oils is expected to increase in the future, with growing human needs and advancing technology playing a major role in that.
There is no denying that white mineral oil is among the most common oils used and consumed on the planet, and its popularity and uses are only going to increase in the future. 
Liquid paraffin is found in everything from a children’s toy, to a sunscreen cream, and is bound to be in everything that you use and consume in your daily life.

Liquid paraffins have a long history of safe use by humans in orally ingested and topically applied products. 
A re-evaluation of the use of certain mineral hydrocarbons in the preparation of food items by regulators in the UK, however, has prompted additional safety studies and a critical assessment of the toxicological effects of white mineral oils. 
As white mineral oils are present in many topically applied drug and non-drug products, Liquid paraffin is of interest to review the toxicological effects of mineral oil produced by this route of exposure.

CAS Number: 8042-47-5
Grade: Technical
Appearance: liquid
Auto Ignition Temperature: 325 - 355 °C (617 - 671 °F)
Boiling Point: > 218 °C (> 424 °F)
Color: Clear, Colorless
Density: 0.81 - 0.89 g/cm3 @ 20 °C (68 °F)
Flash Point: > 112 °C (> 234 °F)
Kinematic Viscosity: 15.73 mm2/s @ 40 °C (104 °F)
Melting Point: -60 - -9 °C (-76 - 16 °F)
Odor: hydrocarbon-like
Partition Coefficient: Pow: > 6
Recommended Use: Industrial chemical
Relative Density: < 1 @ 20 °C (68 °F) Reference Material: (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: insoluble
Vapor Pressure: 0.08 - 0.75 mmHg @ 20 °C (68 °F)

Food Grade Mineral Oil
Liquid paraffins are a part of the daily of people all around the world, and are commonly used in rust inhibitors, laxatives, skincare products, cosmetics, and other products. 
However, Liquid paraffin is the food industry, where concern and caution related to white mineral oil is loudest. 
Most people are still unsure whether white mineral oils should be used in the food industry, and whether Liquid paraffin is safe to consume. 
There are also doubts about the potential health risks Liquid paraffin can cause, and that is why we are going to take a deeper look at food grade white mineral oils:

What can mineral oils be used for?
Liquid paraffins that are low grade are toxic, and the best thing to do is look at the different grades and viscosities of these mineral oils. 
That depends on their purposes, which are different in industrial, electrical, mechanical, cosmetics, and biomedicine uses.

Medical grade white mineral oils are safe to be used as lubricant laxatives, which have been used to ease constipation for people. 
They are great for treating chronic constipation, but the potential side effects should also be considered.

The industrial grade white mineral oils are commonly used in electric power, petroleum chemical, chemical fiber, textile, and the agriculture industries. 
They are used as machine lubricants.
The cosmetic grade white mineral oils are used as makeup removers or are used in skincare and cosmetic products like ointments, creams, or lotions to increase skin health.

Liquid paraffin is a clear liquid carrier that can also be found in a wide variety of cosmetics, personal care and household products. 
A carrier does just what Liquid paraffin sounds like - Liquid paraffin helps carry a product to a surface by thinning or thickening the formula or simply ensuring even distribution of the other ingredients in the formula. 
We use white mineral oil because without a carrier, the product would not work with the same consistency across a surface. 
Liquid paraffin can also be used as a cleaning agent, or "surfactant," that removes dust, dirt and soils, or as a stabilizer that helps maintain a product formula when exposed to air, light or heat, or as a defoaming agent that helps reduce the formation of foam to avoid defects on surface coating post-use.

Applications of food grade mineral oils
There are a lot of different applications where food grade white mineral oils are used, and we are going to take a deeper look at them.

1.Food-handling applications
Food grade white mineral oils have been given the E number of E905a and are commonly used in food-handling applications. 
The reason for that is because they are odorless and flavorless in their properties and nature, Liquid paraffin prevents water absorption. 
Therefore, Liquid paraffin can be used as preservatives for kitchen utensils, and wooden cutting boards to stop the absorption of food odors and food liquids. 
Liquid paraffin is also commonly used to lubricate food-handling equipment, polish stainless steel surfaces, and clean and maintain knives after food contact.

2.Food additives
Food grade white mineral oils are also commonly used in the food industry. 
This is because they have useful properties that make Liquid paraffin excellent food additives. 
Liquid paraffin is generally used as an anti-sticking agent to stop candies sticking to each other, as a lubricating agent in food processing, releasing agent, and a de-foaming agent.

Are food grade mineral oils safe to use?
No report that has openly confirmed or stated that food grade white mineral oils are unsafe for human consumption has been found, released or published. 
The low grade mineral oils are considered toxic, but food grade mineral oils are highly refined and safe for use in the food industry. 
However, there isn’t much information about the potential side effects of white mineral oils on human health, which is why authorities have stated that they should be used and consumed in moderation with food.

The WHO has even stated that the safest dose is of 20mg/kgBW, while the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has made a more conservative safe dose of 12mg/kgBW. 
This clearly indicates that white mineral oils aren’t a major health threat, if you keep your daily intake below 720mg. 
That clearly answers the question of whether food grade white mineral oils are safe for humans. 
They are regularly used as food additives in the food industry, so there shouldn’t be any concern related to their use.

What Is Liquid paraffin?
Mineral oil is a clear odorless liquid that has been used routinely for many decades in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products.  
The mineral oil used in cosmetics and personal care products (also called “white mineral oil”) is a highly purified material obtained from refining petroleum.  
Liquid paraffin is refined to meet specifications appropriate for Liquid paraffins use in pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics and personal care products.

While the source of mineral oil (petroleum) often leads to criticism of its use, one must remember that the white mineral oil used in cosmetic products is extracted from the petroleum and highly purified, not unlike the extraction and purification of vegetable oils. 
The purification of mineral oil results in a liquid of sufficiently high quality that is safe for use in the U.S. as an over-the-counter (OTC) oral laxative and OTC skin protectant.

Why is Liquid paraffin used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Mineral oil has long been recognized as an important part of many cosmetic formulations. 
Liquid paraffins unique feel and properties have enabled Liquid paraffin to be used in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products, from bath oils, hair care products, to skin care cosmetics where Liquid paraffin provides many benefits including moisturizing and skin softening. 
Reported uses for mineral oil include as a hair conditioning agent , skin conditioning agent - emollient, skin conditioning agent-occlusive, skin protectant and as a solvent

Differences between food grade & pharmaceutical grade mineral oil
There are differences between food grade and pharmaceutical grade white mineral oil, which is all down to the processing and refining process of the oil. 
There are different compounds involved, and that means there will be a mixture of different grades and weights of hydrocarbons. 
Liquid paraffins are also subjected to increased distillation to remove any contaminants like vanadium, lead, sulfur, and complex hydrocarbons like benzene to manufacture cosmetic grade, pharmaceutical grade, and food grade white mineral oils.

In Liquid paraffins final form white mineral oils will be opaque waxes, odorless liquids and colorless. 
They go by their common name in the market, which are waxes, petroleum jelly, white oil, liquid paraffin, and paraffin. 
There are a lot of different applications of white mineral oils in different industries such as machinery lubrication, wood conditioning, scientific research, food manufacture, cosmetics, and medicine.

United States Pharmacopeia
Pharmaceutical grade white mineral oil in the United States must meet the standards set by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standards agency. 
All manufacturers must ensure that they have adopted theUSP and National Formulary (NF) standards set for the production ofUSP pharmaceutical-grade drugs and chemicals. 
The USP states that all drugs must be tested thoroughly to ensure compliance with all regulations. 
The USP certification is also needed for food-grade white mineral oil, but that doesn’t extend to all types of food-grade white mineral oils.

How to use White Petrolatum-Mineral Oil Ointment
Follow all directions on the product package. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. 
Do not use a solution that has changed color or is cloudy. 

Certain brands (containing glycerin with polysorbates, among other ingredients) may have a milky appearance. 
This is okay as long as the solution does not change color. 
Some eye drops need to be shaken before use. 
Check the label to see if you should shake your product before using.

Usually, drops may be used as often as needed. 
Ointments are usually used 1 to 2 times daily as needed. 
If using an ointment once a day, Liquid paraffin may be best to use Liquid paraffin at bedtime.

To apply eye ointment/drops/gels: Wash hands first. 
Always replace the cap tightly after each use. 
Tilt your head back, look up, and pull down the lower eyelid to make a pouch. 
For drops/gels, place the dropper directly over the eye and squeeze out 1 or 2 drops as needed. Look down and gently close your eye for 1 or 2 minutes. 

Place one finger at the corner of the eye near the nose and apply gentle pressure. 
This will prevent the medication from draining away from the eye. 
For an ointment, hold the tube directly over the eye and gently squeeze a small strip (one-fourth of an inch or roughly 6 millimeters) of ointment into the pouch. 
Release the eyelid, close the eye, and slowly roll your eye in all directions to spread the medication. 
Blot away any extra ointment from around the eye with a clean tissue.

Chemistry of mineral oil hydrocarbons
Mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) are complex chemical mixtures. 
MOHs are generally derived from crude oil. 
They mainly consist of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). 

MOSH comprise open-chain, often branched hydrocarbons (commonly named paraffins) and cyclic, saturated hydrocarbons (commonly named naphthenes). 
MOAH include mono- or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 
Naphthenes and MOAH are generally highly alkylated. 
Depending on the source of the crude oil and the refining steps, MOAH contents reach up to 35%.

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