LITHIUM HYDROXIDE


Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol and is available commercially in the monohydrate form (LiOH.H2O), which is considered a strong base. 
Lithium hydroxides are used for a variety of applications, including lithium-ion batteries, lithium greases, dyes, resins, coatings, water treatment, and many other specialty chemicals.

EC / List no.: 215-183-4
CAS no.: 1310-65-2
Lithium hydroxide

EC / List no.: 603-454-3
CAS no.: 1310-66-3
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH)), monohydrate

Applications
Greases: Lithium hydroxide is used to produce fatty acid‐based thickener systems that offer excellent stability, higher water resistance than sodium‐based greases, and better high‐temperature resistance than calcium‐based greases.

Dyes, colorants, and inks: Lithium hydroxide increases the brilliance and luminosity of certain pigments and as a fluxing agent in inorganic pigments and glazes. 
Lithium hydroxide is also used in the production of colorimetric analytical reagents often used in pH, water quality, and chlorine content tests. 
In inkjet technology, lithium hydroxide prevents the development of acidic (low pH) conditions during storage, which adversely affects both the viscosity of the ink and the internal components of the printer.

Protective coatings: Lithium hydroxide is used in corrosion‐resistant paints and coatings combined with silicates for enhanced adhesion, extended durability, and excellent chemical resistance. 
In aluminum alloys for aerospace, lithium hydroxide allows low temperature and short time sealing when used in protective anodized coatings. 
Lithium hydroxide also provides self‐healing properties to organic coating systems.

Fine and specialty chemicals: Lithium hydroxide is used to produce specialized resins and polymers for the food and protective clothing industries. 
Lithium hydroxide is also used in the manufacturing of glazing sealants, adhesives, and mastics and the production of agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, flavorings, fragrances, and esterification reactions.

Water Treatment: Lithium hydroxide is used in cooling water systems for corrosion protection.


Related Functions
Building & Construction
Binder
Improved Strength
Lubricant Formulation
Viscosity Modifier, Thickener
Water Treatment
Inhibitor


Related Applications
Building & Construction
Cements
Ceramics
Concrete Adhesives
Coatings
Aerospace Coatings
Industrial Coatings
Marine Coatings
Metal Coatings
Energy
Batteries
Lubricant Formulation
Grease Formulating

Molecular formula: HLiO
Molar mass: 22.940
CAS Registry Number: 1310-65-2
Appearance: Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 99.995% (metals basis); Lithium hydroxide monohydrate, 98%; Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 98%; Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 99.995% (metals basis); Lithium hydroxide monohydrate, 98%; Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 98%; white crystals or pellets
Melting point: 470 °C
Boiling point: 924 to 925
Solubility: Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol


LITHIUM HYDROXIDE
CAS number: 1310-65-2
Other language: Hydroxyde de lithium
INCI name: LITHIUM HYDROXIDE
EINECS/ELINCS number: 215-183-4
Classification: Regulated
Restriction in Europe: The maximum allowable limits and concentrations are dependent on the use of the ingredient in:
a) Products for hair straightening: 2% in general use and 4.5% in professional use.
b) pH regulators for depilatories: pH <12.7.
c) Other uses as pH regulators (only for products to be rinsed): pH <11.

Wording of conditions of employment and warnings:
a) - General use:
Contains an alkaline agent
Avoid contact with eyes
Danger of blindness
Keep out of reach of children
- Professional use :
Avoid contact with eyes
Danger of blindness

b) Contains an alkaline agent
Keep out of reach of children
Avoid contact with eyes
Its functions (INCI)
Buffering : Stabilises the pH of cosmetics
Hair waving or straightening : Modifies the chemical structure of the hair, to style it in the required style


Most of the lithium hydroxide is required for the production of lithium stearates, which are important lubricating greases for cars and aircraft. 
It is also used as an air purifier due to its carbon dioxide binding effect. 
This is particularly important in space travel , on submarines and in pendulum breathing diving equipment ( rebreather ) . 
Lithium hydroxide can be added to cement and is able to suppress the alkali-silica reaction. 
Lithium hydroxide is also a possible additive in nickel-iron batteries .

In pressurized water reactors , lithium hydroxide is added to the primary circuit to neutralize boric acid and achieve a pH of about 7.2.

Further areas of application are photo developers, ceramic products and the production of borates 


Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.(H2O)n. 
Both the anhydrous and hydrated forms are white hygroscopic solids. 
They are soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. 
Both are available commercially. While classified as a strong base, lithium hydroxide is the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.


One of the major applications of lithium hydroxide is in making cathodes for rechargeable batteries, which are used in electric vehicles. 
Lithium hydroxide is the most preferred among all the lithium compounds, as they have extreme electrochemical potential and low density.
The generous subsidies for electric vehicles and stringent regulations regarding the usage of conventional vehicles by the government are some of the key factors that are driving the growth of electric vehicle production in countries, like China, that occupies the majority share of the global electric vehicle market.
The battery application segment of the global lithium hydroxide market is the key application segment. 
It is widely used in the manufacture of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium batteries can be categorized into two segments, namely, disposable and rechargeable. 
Disposable lithium batteries use lithium in the metallic form, as an anode. 
These batteries have a long life (high charge density) compared to other standard batteries. 
These batteries find applications in critical devices with long life, such as pacemakers and other electronic medical devices, which are implanted for many years.
Battery applications are moving toward larger power requirements and lesser costs, which mean that advancements in lithium-ion battery technology will be essential to meet consumer demand. 
As the industry pursues more powerful and inexpensive batteries, step changes in technology are still being pursued. 
Researchers are investigating substitutes for the anode material, to increase the charge capacity. 
Few of the latest battery technologies are: lithium-sulfur, lithium-air, and lithium oxygen.
These growing R&D activities to improve the lithium-ion battery systems are expected to offer numerous opportunities, and fuel the growth of the market in the near future.


Lithium hydroxide is a white hygroscopic crystalline organic compound. 
It is obtained in anhydrous form, as a monohydrate (LiOH.H2O) base. 
These monohydrate bases are termed as strong bases. 
It is soluble in water but not in ethanol and others. 
Moreover, its high energy density, thermal resistance, long durability, and minimal maintenance are the important trends and factors influencing the market confidently. 
Therefore, they are used in various end-use industries such as automotive, electrical & electronics, marine, aerospace, and others.


Lithium hydroxide is manufactured from various sources such as brines, and petroleum hard rocks. 
The brines is the most common source where lithium hydroxide is produced. 
Due to its economic nature, the manufacturers in various countries have developed their own production of lithium hydroxide. 
Among the various segments in lithium hydroxide market, the batteries segment is projected to expand at a significant rate due to extensive consumption of the compound in the production of lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries, hybrid and electric vehicles (H/EVs), energy storage systems, and others. 
It is estimated that the increasing demand for the compound in greases, ceramic glass, and air-conditioning equipment are projected to drive the market due to its reduced weight and enhanced strength offered by the product. 
The market by the end-use is further classified into automotive, electrical & electronics, marine, aerospace, and others. 
Among these, the electrical & electronics segment holds the major portion of the market on account of growing use of the product in the industry. 
Moreover, the increasing use of lithium hydroxide in gas purification systems in various sectors such as marine, aerospace, and others are propelled to drive the market over the assessment period.


The market has been driven by the application of this rule in various segments such as batteries, glass, grease, and air conditioning equipment. 
It is estimated that the growing innovation and technological advancement in lithium-ion batteries, and other products are predicted to propel the growth


Lithium Hydroxide is an inorganic compound that has a white hygroscopic crystalline formation. 
Also, it is a strong base and the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide. Furthermore, we largely use it in organic synthesis to promote reaction due to strong basicity


Lithium Hydroxide Formula and Structure
The chemical formula of lithium hydroxide it’s LiOH and its molar mass is 23.91 g/mol. 
Furthermore, it exists in two forms: An anhydrate form and a monohydrate form (LiOH⋅H2O) that has a molar mass of 41.96 g/mol.

Generally, it from a lithium cation Li + and a hydroxyl group anion OH −. 
Moreover, it is the only alkali hydroxide that does not present polymorphism, and its lattice has a tetragonal structure. 
In common representation that we use for organic molecules we can write it structure as:

Lithium Hydroxide Formula

Occurrence of Lithium Hydroxide
We can’t find it freely in nature because it is highly reactive and in nature, it could easily react with other compounds to form other compounds. Besides, some lithium/aluminum hydroxides form diverse mixtures in minerals ores.

Preparation of Lithium Hydroxide
The maximum quantity of the lithium hydroxide is produced from the reaction between calcium hydroxide and lithium carbonate which produces lithium hydroxide and calcium carbonate:

In laboratories, lithium hydroxide ascends by the reaction of lithium oxide with water. 

Chemical Properties of Lithium Hydroxide
In organic synthesis, it is very versatile like other alkalis hydroxides (Sodium hydroxide, Potassium hydroxide, rubidium hydroxide, and cesium hydroxide) because these stronger bases react easily. 
At room temperature, it may react with water and carbon dioxide.

Besides, it can react with many other metals such as gold, silver, copper, and platinum, so that it has been an important starting material in organometallic synthesis.

Uses of Lithium Hydroxide
We largely use it to produce soaps, greases and lubricating through the esterification of fat promoted by the LiOH basic character. 
In submarines, spacecraft, and in scrubbing equipment they use it to absorb carbon dioxide. 
Most importantly, recently, they developed and studied a new type of batteries consisting of lithium hydroxide.

Primarily, we use it to produce lubricant and a popular lithium grease thickener is lithium 12-hydroxy stearate that general-purpose lubricating grease because of its high resistance to water and usefulness at a range of temperatures.

Moreover, industries use it as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. 
Often industries use them in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. 
In addition, we use isotopically enhanced lithium-7 to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.


Lithium hydroxide is present in lubricating grease and is also used in air conditioners and cooling systems.
Lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries are used increasingly as power sources. 
The use of lithium hydroxide in alkaline batteries increases their capacitance by 22%.
 

Lithium Hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH. 
It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. 
Lithium Hydroxide is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol, and is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH.H2O). 
While lithium hydroxide is a strong base, it is the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.


Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is used in preparation of other lithium salts, as a catalyst in the production of alkyd resins, in esterifications. 
It is also used in the production of lithium soaps, greases, sulfonates and electric storage batteries.


Lithium hydroxide Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Physical Properties
Lithium hydroxide is a white tetragonal crystals; refractive index 1.464; density 1.46 g/cm3; melts at 450°C; decomposes at 924°C; dissolves in water (12.8g/100g at 20°C and 17.5 g/100g at 100°C); slightly soluble in alcohol.
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is white monoclinic crystalline solid; refractive index 1.460; density 1.51 g/cm3; soluble in water, more soluble than the anhydrous salt (22.3g and 26.8g/100g at 10 and 100°C, respectively); slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether.

Uses
Lithium hydroxide is used as an electrolyte in certain alkaline storage batteries; and in the production of lithium soaps. 
Other uses of this compound include its catalytic applications in esterification reactions in the production of alkyd resins; in photographic developer solutions; and as a starting material to prepare other lithium salts.

Preparation
Lithium hydroxide is prepared by the reaction of lithium carbonate with calcium hydroxide:Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2LiOH + CaCO3

Calcium carbonate is filtered out and the solution is evaporated and crystallized.
The product obtained is the monohydrate, LiOH•H2O. 
The anhydrous compound is obtained by heating the hydrate above 100°C in vacuum or carbon dioxide-free air.
The hydroxide also may be prepared by treating lithium oxide with water.

Reaction
Lithium hydroxide is a base. 
However, it is less basic than sodium or potassium hydroxide.

The compound undergoes neutralization reactions with acids:LiOH + HCl → LiCl + H2O

Heating the compound above 800°C in vacuum yields lithium oxide:2LiOH Li2O + H2O

Lithium hydroxide readily absorbs carbon dioxide, forming lithium carbonate:2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

Passing chlorine through a solution of lithium hydroxide yields lithium hypochlorite:LiOH + Cl2 → LiOCl + HCl

Saponification of fatty acids with lithium hydroxide produces lithium soaps.

LiOH + CH3(CH2)16COOH → CH3(CH2)16COOLi + H2O
(stearic acid)        (lithium stearate)

Chemical Properties
lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a white solid made industrially as the monohydrate (LiOH.H2O) by reacting lime with a lithium ore or with a salt made from the ore. 
Lithium hydroxide has a closer resemblance to the group 2 hydroxides than to the group 1 hydroxides.

Physical properties
White tetragonal crystals; refractive index 1.464; density 1.46 g/cm3; melts at 450°C; decomposes at 924°C; dissolves in water (12.8g/100g at 20°C and 17.5 g/100g at 100°C); slightly soluble in alcohol. 
The monohydrate is white monoclinic crystalline solid; refractive index 1.460; density 1.51 g/cm3; soluble in water, more soluble than the anhydrous salt (22.3g and 26.8g/100g at 10 and 100°C, respectively); slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether.

Uses
The compound is soluble in water. 
The compound is used in the formulation of lithium soaps used in multipurpose greases; also in the manufacture of various lithium salts; and as an additive to the electrolyte of alkaline storage batteries. 
LiOH also is an efficient, light-weight absorbent for carbon dioxide.

Uses
Lithium hydroxide is used in storage batteries and soaps and as CO2 absorber in spacecrafts.

Definition
A white crystallinesolid, LiOH, soluble in water,slightly soluble in ethanol and insolublein ether. 
It is known as the monohydrate(monoclinic; r.d. 1.51) and inthe anhydrous form (tetragonal, r.d.1.46; m.p. 450°C; decomposes at924°C). 
The compound is made by reacting lime with lithium salts orlithium ores. 
Lithium hydroxide isbasic but has a closer resemblance togroup 2 hydroxides than to the othergroup 1 hydroxides (an example ofthe first member of a periodic grouphaving atypical properties).

General Description
A clear to water-white liquid which may have a pungent odor. 
Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. 
Lithium hydroxide may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. 
Lithium hydroxide is used to make other chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions
Dilution with water may generate enough heat to cause steaming or spattering.


APPLICATIONS
As a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte.
In ceramics and some Portland cement formulations.
Lithium Hydroxide (Isotopically in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.
Lithium Ion batteries and Solar Panels
Grease and Lubricants
Derived special applications based on above.

Reactivity Profile
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION neutralizes acids exothermically to form salts plus water. 
Reacts with certain metals (such as aluminum and zinc) to form oxides or hydroxides of the metal and generate gaseous hydrogen. 
May initiate polymerization reactions in polymerizable organic compounds, especially epoxides. 
May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with ammonium salts, nitrides, halogenated organics, various metals, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. May serve as a catalyst. 
Reacts when heated above about 84°C with aqueous solutions of reducing sugars other than sucrose, to evolve toxic levels of carbon monoxide [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].

Health Hazard
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. 
Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. 
Avoid any skin contact. 
Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. 
Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. 
Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). 
Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. Mtldly toxic by inhalation. 
A corrosive. 
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Li.

Purification Methods
It crystallises from hot water (3mL/g) as the monohydrate. 
It is dehydrated at 150o in a stream of CO2-free air. It sublimes at 220o with partial decomposition [Cohen Inorg Synth V 3 1957, Bravo Inorg Synth VII 1 1963].
Lithium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Lithium carbonate Calcium hydroxide


IUPAC name: Lithium hydroxide

CAS Number    
1310-65-2 
1310-66-3 (monohydrate) 

CAS #: 1310-65-2    
UN #: 2680
EC Number: 215-183-4


Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is a compound used in the preparation of lithium salts

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH. 
It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. 
It is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH•H2O), both of which are strong bases.


Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
A free-flowing, granular solid used in the production of cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries. 
It is also well suited for use in the production of lithium greases, dyes, resins, coatings, water treatment, and many other specialty chemicals.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems , Industrial , Grease
CAS #: 1310-66-3


Lithium hydroxide is an alkali metal hydroxide.

1310-65-2 [RN]
215-183-4 [EINECS]
Hydroxyde de lithium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Lithium hydroxide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
lithium hydroxide anhydrous
Lithiumhydroxid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MFCD00011095 [MDL number]
[1310-65-2]
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:33979
LiOH
lithium and hydroxide
Lithium deuteroxide
Lithium hydroxide 98%+
Lithium Hydroxide, Anhydrous
Lithium Hydroxide, calcinated
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate, Trace metals grade 99.8%
MFCD00149772 [MDL number]

Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is an alkali metal hydroxide
Lithium chloride solution in water on electrolysis forms LiOH. 
In respiratory apparatus and submarines, it is utilized to uptake carbon dioxide.
A study on the redox mechanism of titanium dioxide (TiO2) using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the aqueous LiOH electrolyte has been reported.

Application
Lithium hydroxide may be used in the following processes:
• Synthesis of lithium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films.[1]
• Preparation of lithium glyceroxide/hydroxide catalysts by reacting with glycerol.[4]
• As a catalyst to generate unsaturated ketones via Michael addition of β-dicarbonyl compounds.[5]


Lithium Hydroxide is a highly water insoluble crystalline Lithium source for uses compatible with higher (basic) pH environments. 
Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. 
Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. 
In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies

Production
The preferred feedstock is hard-rock spodumene, where the lithium content is expressed as % lithium oxide.


Lithium carbonate route
Lithium hydroxide is often produced industrially from lithium carbonate in a metathesis reaction with calcium hydroxide:[5]

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3
The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.

Lithium sulfate route
An alternative route involves the intermediacy of lithium sulfate:[6][7]

α-spodumene → β-spodumene
β-spodumene + CaO → Li2O + ...
Li2O + H2SO4 → Li2SO4 + H2O
Li2SO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2 LiOH.
The main by-products are gypsum and sodium sulphate, which have some market value.

Commercial setting
According to Bloomberg, Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd.[8] (GFL or Ganfeng) and Albemarle were the largest producers in 2020 with around 25kt/y, followed by Livent (FMC) and SQM.
Significant new capacity is planned, to keep pace with demand driven by vehicle electrification. 
Ganfeng are to expand lithium chemical capacity to 85,000 tons, adding the capacity leased from Jiangte, Ganfeng will become the largest lithium hydroxide producer globally in 2021.

Albemarle's Kemerton WA plant, originally planned to deliver 100kt/y has been scaled back to 50kt/yy.

in 2023 AVZ Minerals,[11] an Australian company, are planning to produce the battery-grade high-purity Primary Lithium Sulphate (PLS) containing over 80% Lithium.
PLS is a lithium chemical new to the market in the production of lithium hydroxide (a precursor to lithium-ion battery).

In 2020 Tianqi Lithium's, plant in Kwinana, Western Australia is the largest producer, with a capacity of 48kt/y.

Applications
Lithium ion batteries
Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed in the production of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium iron phosphate.
It is preferred over lithium carbonate as a precursor for lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides.

Grease
A popular lithium grease thickener is Lithium 12-hydroxystearate, which produces a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at a range of temperatures.

Carbon dioxide scrubbing
Further information: carbon dioxide scrubber
Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate and water:

2 LiOH•H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O
or

2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. 
One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. 
The monohydrate loses its water at 100–110 °C.

Precursor
Lithium hydroxide, together with lithium carbonate, is a key intermediates used for the production of other lithium compounds, illustrated by its us in the production of lithium fluoride:

LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.
Other uses
It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.


Lithium hydroxide, solution appears as a clear to water-white liquid which may have a pungent odor. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. It may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. It is used to make other chemicals.


Chemical formula    LiOH
Molar mass    
23.95 g/mol (anhydrous)
41.96 g/mol (monohydrate)

Appearance: Hygroscopic white solid
Odor: none

Density    
1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate)

Melting point: 462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)
Boiling point: 924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) decomposes

Solubility in water    
(anhydrous:)
12.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
12.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
17.5 g/100 mL (100 °C)
(monohydrate:)
22.3 g/100 mL (10 °C)
26.8 g/100 mL (80 °C)

Solubility in methanol    
9.76 g/100 g (anhydrous; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
13.69 g/100 g (monohydrate; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)

Solubility in ethanol    
2.36 g/100 g (anhydrous; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
2.18 g/100 g (monohydrate; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)

Solubility in isopropanol    
0 g/100 g (anhydrous; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
0.11 g/100 g (monohydrate; 20 °C, 48 hours mixing)

Basicity (pKb)    −0.04
Conjugate base    Lithium monoxide anion

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)    −12.3·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)    
1.464 (anhydrous)
1.460 (monohydrate)

Lithium hydroxide
1310-65-2
Lithium hydrate
Lithium hydroxide anhydrous
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH))
LiOH
Lithiumhydroxid
Lithium hydoxide
lithium;hydroxide
UNII-903YL31JAS
Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous
903YL31JAS
MFCD00011095
lithiumhydroxide
Lithium hydroxide, 98%, pure, anhydrous
EINECS 215-183-4
UN2679
UN2680
lithium hydroxid
lithium hyroxide
litium hydroxide
lithium hydorxide
Li.HO
Lithium (2H)hydroxide
EC 215-183-4
Lithium hydroxide, solution
Lithium Hydroxide, calcinated
CHEBI:33979
DTXSID70893845
EINECS 235-287-3
8808AF
ANW-19255
STL185539
AKOS015904130
AKOS025264482
AKOS037479138
DB14506
Lithium hydroxide powder, reagent grade
Lithium hydroxide, reagent grade, 98%
LITHIUM-6 HYDROXIDE MONOHYDRATE
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate or lithium hydroxide, solid [UN2680] [Corrosive]
SC-79761
FT-0627906
L0225
Lithium hydroxide, powder, reagent grade, >=98%
Q407613
Lithium hydroxide, solution [UN2679] [Corrosive]
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate or lithium hydroxide, solid
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate, Trace metals grade 99.8%


General description
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH.H2O) is a lithium source that can be prepared from lithium carbonate by membrane electrolysis.

Application
LiOH.H2O can be used in the preparation of porous cathode films for the fabrication of lithium batteries. 
It can also be used in the development of lithium oxygen batteries.


Lythium hydroxide Formula
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic basic compound. It is largely used in organic synthesis to promote reaction due its strong basicity.

Formula and structure: The lithium hydroxide chemical formula is LiOH and its molar mass is 23.91 g mol-1. 
It exists in two forms: the anhydrous and the monohydrate LiOH.H2O, which has a molar mass of 41.96 g mol-1. 
In general, the lithium hydroxide molecule is formed by the lithium cation Li+ and the hydroxyl group OH-. 
The lithium hydroxide is the only alkali hydroxide that does not present polymorphism, and its lattice has a tetragonal structure. 
Its chemical structure can be written as below, in the common representations used for organic molecules.

Occurrence: Lithium hydroxide is not found freely in nature. 
It is very reactive and if it would be in nature could react easily to form other compounds. 
However, some Lithium/aluminium hydroxides forming diverse mixtures can found in mineral ores.

Preparation: Most of the lithium hydroxide is produced from the reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide. 
This reaction yields lithium hydroxide and also calcium carbonate:

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3

It is also prepared from the reaction of lithium oxide and water:

Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH

Physical properties: Lithium hydroxide is white, hygroscopic solid with a pungent odor. 
Its density is 1.46 g mL-1 in the anhydrous salt and 1.51 g mL-1 in the monohydrate. 
The melting and boiling points are 462 ºC and 924 ºC, respectively. 
It is poorly soluble in water, ethanol and methanol and insoluble isopropanol.

Chemical properties: Lithium hydroxide and the other alkalis hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, RbOH and CsOH) are very versatile to use in organic synthesis because are stronger bases which react easily. 
It may react with water and carbon dioxide at room temperature. 
It can also react with many metals as Ag, Au, Cu and Pt, so that it has been an important starting material in organometalic synthesis.

Uses: Lithium hydroxide is largely used to produce soaps, greases and lubricating through the esterification of fat promoted by the LiOH basic character. 
It has been used to absorb carbon dioxide in submarines, spacecraft and in the scrubbing equipments. 
Lithium hydroxide and other lithium compounds have been used recently to development and studied new type of batteries.

Health effects / safety hazards: Lithium hydroxide contact can cause serious damage to eyes, respiratory system and skin. 
It may be extremely toxic by ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation. It can react violently with water. When heated can produce toxic fumes.


Lithium hydroxide is generated by the reaction of lithium metal or LiH with H2O, and the stable chemical form at room temperature is nondeliquescent monohydrate LiOH.H2O. 
It loses crystalline water to form anhydride LiOH almost over 423 K (150 °C) by heating and then it melts at 735 K (462 °C), which is higher than the melting temperature of NaOH or KOH. 
However, only LiOH decomposes to oxide (Li2O) and H2O by further heating differently from other alkaline hydroxides. 
The overall chemical properties of LiOH are relatively mild and somewhat similar to alkaline earth hydroxides than other alkaline hydroxides. 
Therefore, the handling LiOH is rather not difficult, although it strongly absorbs CO2 in the air.  
Although the values of standard Gibbs free energy changes are different when LiOH is molten or dissolved, the differences are not large and may be not so important for qualitative discussion.


The shift from lithium carbonate to lithium hydroxide
Up until very recently lithium carbonate has been the focus of many producers of EV batteries, because existing battery designs called for cathodes using this raw material. 
However, this is about to change. 
Lithium hydroxide is also a key raw material in the production of battery cathodes, but it is in much shorter supply than lithium carbonate at present. 
While it is a more niche product than lithium carbonate, it is also used by major battery producers, who are competing with the industrial lubricant industry for the same raw material. 
As such, supplies of lithium hydroxide are subsequently expected to become even scarcer.
Key advantages of lithium hydroxide battery cathodes in relation to other chemical compounds include better power density (more battery capacity), longer life cycle and enhanced safety features.
For this reason, the demand from the rechargeable battery industry has displayed strong growth throughout the 2010s, with the increasing use of larger lithium-ion batteries in automotive applications. 
In 2019, rechargeable batteries accounted for 54% of total lithium demand, almost entirely from Li-ion battery technologies. 
Though the rapid rise of hybrid and electric vehicle sales has directed attention to the requirement for lithium compounds, falling sales in the second half of 2019 in China – the largest market for EVs – and a global reduction in sales caused by lockdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the first half of 2020 have put the short-term ‘brakes’ on the growth in lithium demand, by impacting demand from both battery and industrial applications. 
Longer term scenarios continue to show strong growth for lithium demand over the coming decade, however, with Roskill forecasting demand to exceed 1.0Mt LCE in 2027, with growth in excess of 18% per year to 2030.
This reflects the trend to invest more into LiOH production as compared to LiCO3; and this is where the lithium source comes into play: spodumene rock is significantly more flexible in terms of production process. 
It allows for a streamlined production of LiOH while the use of lithium brine normally leads through LiCO3 as an intermediary to produce LiOH. 
Hence, the production cost of LiOH is significantly lower with spodumene as source instead of brine. 
It is clear that, with the sheer quantity of lithium brine available in the world, eventually new process technologies must be developed to efficiently apply this source. 
With various companies investigating new processes we will eventually see this coming, but for now, spodumene is a safer bet.


Discovered in 1817 by Swedish chemist Johan August Arfwedson in the mineral petalite, lithium is also found in brine deposits and as salts in mineral springs; its concentration in seawater is 0.1 part per million (ppm). Lithium is also found in pegmatite ores, such as spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) and lepidolite (of varying structure), or in amblygonite (LiAlFPO4) ores, with Li2O contents ranging between 4 and 8.5 percent. It constitutes about 0.002 percent of Earth’s crust.

Until the 1990s the lithium chemical and metal market was dominated by American production from mineral deposits, but by the turn of the 21st century most production was derived from non-U.S. sources; Australia, Chile, and Portugal were the world’s largest suppliers. (Bolivia has half the world’s lithium deposits but is not a major producer of lithium.) The major commercial form is lithium carbonate, Li2CO3, produced from ores or brines by a number of different processes. 
Addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) produces lithium chloride, which is the compound used to produce lithium metal by electrolysis. 
Lithium metal is produced by electrolysis of a fused mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides. 
The lower melting point of the mixture (400–420 °C, or 750–790 °F) compared with that of pure lithium chloride (610 °C, or 1,130 °F) permits lower-temperature operation of the electrolysis. Since the voltage at which decomposition of lithium chloride takes place is lower than that of potassium chloride, lithium is deposited at a purity level greater than 97 percent. Graphite anodes are used in the electrolytic production of lithium, while the cathodes are made of steel. 
The pure lithium formed at the cathode coalesces at the surface of the electrolyte to form a molten pool, which is protected from reaction with air by a thin film of the electrolyte.
The lithium is ladled from the cell and cast by pouring it into a mold at a temperature only slightly above the melting point, leaving the solidified electrolyte behind. 
The solidified lithium is then remelted, and materials insoluble in the melt either float to the surface or sink to the bottom of the melt pot. 
The remelting step reduces the potassium content to less than 100 parts per million. 
Lithium metal, which can be drawn into wire and rolled into sheets, is softer than lead but harder than the other alkali metals and has the body-centred cubic crystal structure.

Many lithium alloys are produced directly by the electrolysis of molten salts, containing lithium chloride in the presence of a second chloride, or by the use of cathode materials that interact with the deposited lithium, introducing other elements into the melt.


Significant Uses
The principal industrial applications for lithium metal are in metallurgy, where the active element is used as a scavenger (remover of impurities) in the refining of such metals as iron, nickel, copper, and zinc and their alloys. 
A large variety of nonmetallic elements are scavenged by lithium, including oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and the halogens. 
Lithium is utilized to a considerable extent in organic synthesis, both in laboratory reactions and industrially. 
A key reagent that is produced commercially on a large scale is n-butyllithium, C4H9Li. 
Its principal commercial use is as an initiator of polymerization, for example, in the production of synthetic rubber. 
It is also extensively used in the production of other organic chemicals, especially pharmaceuticals. 
Because of its light weight and large negative electrochemical potential, lithium metal, either pure or in the presence of other elements, serves as the anode (negative electrode) in many nonrechargeable lithium primary batteries. 
Since the early 1990s much work has been done on high-power rechargeable lithium storage batteries for electric vehicles and for power storage. 
The most successful of these provides for separation of the anode and a cathode such as LiCoO2 by a solvent-free conducting polymer that permits migration of the lithium cation, Li+. Smaller rechargeable lithium batteries are extensively used for cell phones, cameras, and other electronic devices.

Lightweight lithium-magnesium alloys and tough lithium-aluminum alloys, harder than aluminum alone, have structural applications in the aerospace and other industries. 
Metallic lithium is used in the preparation of compounds such as lithium hydride.

Chemical Properties
In many of its properties, lithium exhibits the same characteristics as do the more common alkali metals sodium and potassium. 
Thus, lithium, which floats on water, is highly reactive with it and forms strong hydroxide solutions, yielding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas. 
Lithium is the only alkali metal that does not form the anion, Li−, in solution or in the solid state.

Lithium is chemically active, readily losing one of its three electrons to form compounds containing the Li+ cation. 
Many of these differ markedly in solubility from the corresponding compounds of the other alkali metals. 
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) exhibits the remarkable property of retrograde solubility; it is less soluble in hot water than in cold.

Lithium and its compounds impart a crimson colour to a flame, which is the basis of a test for its presence. 
It is commonly kept in mineral oil because it reacts with the moisture in the air.

Organolithium compounds, in which the lithium atom is not present as the Li+ ion but is attached directly to a carbon atom, are useful in making other organic compounds. Butyllithium (C4H9Li), which is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is prepared by the reaction of butyl bromide (C4H9Br) with metallic lithium.

In many respects lithium also shows similarities to the elements of the alkaline-earth group, especially magnesium, which has similar atomic and ionic radii. 
This similarity is seen in oxidation properties, the monoxide being normally formed in each case. 
Reactions of organolithium compounds are also similar to the Grignard reactions of organomagnesium compounds, a standard synthetic procedure in organic chemistry.

A number of the lithium compounds have practical applications. 
Lithium hydride (LiH), a gray crystalline solid produced by the direct combination of its constituent elements at elevated temperatures, is a ready source of hydrogen, instantly liberating that gas upon treatment with water. 
It also is used to produce lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), which quickly reduces aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic esters to alcohols.

Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), commonly obtained by the reaction of lithium carbonate with lime, is used in making lithium salts (soaps) of stearic and other fatty acids; these soaps are widely used as thickeners in lubricating greases. 
Lithium hydroxide is also used as an additive in the electrolyte of alkaline storage batteries and as an absorbent for carbon dioxide. Other industrially important compounds include lithium chloride (LiCl) and lithium bromide (LiBr). 
They form concentrated brines capable of absorbing aerial moisture over a wide range of temperatures; these brines are commonly employed in large refrigerating and air-conditioning systems. 
Lithium fluoride (LiF) is used chiefly as a fluxing agent in enamels and glasses.

Production of lithium hydroxide is expected to overtake lithium carbonate in the next five years in response to changes in electric vehicle (EV) battery materials, delegates heard at the Advanced Automotive Batteries Conference (AABC) in Strasbourg, France.

Lithium carbonate accounted for around 60pc of lithium demand in 2018, but battery technology development is increasing demand for lithium hydroxide, which is expected to account for a larger share of the market by 2024, said Bart Vanden Bossche, sales director at Chilean producer SQM. Demand for lithium carbonate is expected to rise at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10-14pc in 2018-27, while lithium hydroxide demand is seen rising at a 25-29pc CAGR.

Consumer concerns about the driving range of EVs have prompted the government in China, the world's largest EV market, to use subsidies to incentivise production of lithium-ion batteries with higher energy densities. That has precipitated a switch to cathode material manufacturers using compounds of lithium nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM) and lithium nickel-cobalt-aluminium (NCA) rather than lithium iron phosphate (LFP).

But the higher nickel content in NCM cathodes can present challenges in terms of chemical stability. If the metals are used in a ratio of six parts nickel to two parts cobalt and two parts manganese (6-2-2), or 8-1-1, rather than 1-1-1 or 5-3-2 as in the past, the chemistry requires lithium hydroxide rather than lithium carbonate. Cathodes using an 8-1-1 ratio are some way from commercial viability, owing to safety problems with the chemistry, delegates heard.

As nickel content approaches 60pc, the higher temperature required to synthesise cathode material with lithium carbonate damages the crystal structure of the cathode and changes the oxidation state of the nickel metal. But lithium hydroxide allows rapid and complete synthesis at lower temperatures, increasing the performance and lifespan of the battery, said Marina Yakovleva, global commercial manager for new product and technology development at lithium producer Livent.

Trade flows reflect the increasing use of lithium NCM cathodes. China imported 20,394t of NCM oxide from South Korea and Japan in 2018, up from 9,142t in 2017 and 2,352t in 2015, data from Global Trade Tracker show.

That change in demand is prompting producers to expand their lithium hydroxide output and shifting mining projects towards developing lithium hydroxide production rather than lithium carbonate.

"The industry has to make the necessary investments," said SQM's Vanden Bossche. "It will be quite a dramatic change for lithium producers." Production of lithium hydroxide has typically been a two-step process, using lithium brines to produce lithium carbonate, then converting the lithium carbonate into lithium hydroxide.

But mining of lithium spodumene from hard rock is increasing, with producers able to use this to process either carbonate or hydroxide for the same cost. "Companies will either look into more direct conversion into hydroxide or be at a disadvantage," Vanden Bossche said.

Brine producers will continue to produce carbonate as a first step, but will look for ways to reduce costs. SQM is expanding its lithium carbonate capacity in stages to 180,000 t/yr from 70,000 t/yr, while it has received permits to expand its lithium hydroxide capacity to 32,000 t/yr from 13,500 t/yr. The company is looking to further diversify its production, having invested in an Australian spodumene project with lithium hydroxide output and begun looking for opportunities to invest in other countries.

Australia-based Infinity Lithium is developing a project in Spain and has shifted its focus to producing lithium hydroxide rather than lithium carbonate. The cost of producing lithium hydroxide from spodumene rock deposits is below the cost of production from brines, and in future hydroxide will account for the majority of lithium produced, said Infinity vice-president of European corporate strategy and business development, Vincent Ledoux Pedailles.


The Lithium Hydroxide [LiOH] is a mineral composite. It is insoluble in water and partially soluble in ethanol. It is existing at a commercial scale as a monohydrate [LiOH.H2O] and in anhydrous condition.

On the source of pureness level, it is existing in technical grade and battery grade. Lithium hydroxide is mass-produced by reaction of metathesis between and lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide. It discovers a wide-ranging usage in the manufacturing of industrial lubricant and battery.

Due to better-quality possessions of lithium hydroxide, as equated to additional distillates, it is frequently favored in the equipment of new battery. Moreover, there is a possible market for lithium hydroxide in the production of rechargeable battery. The lithium hydroxide market on the source of Type of Purity could span Superior-Grade, Standard-Grade, Battery-Grade.

he subdivision of Standard-Grade Lithium Hydroxide is mostly suggested for the consumption in industrialized uses. It takes little mineral contaminations. Yet, it takes small water solubility. Battery-Grade Lithium Hydroxide [LiOH] takes purity beyond 99%. It is consumed as a forerunner of Li-ion battery and also in field uses. It takes small water solubility in water along with solubility in HCl. The subdivision of Superior-Grade LiOH encompasses precisely small i.e. below 0.3% of mineral contaminations.

The lithium hydroxide market on the source of Type of End Use Business could span Aerospace, Electronics & Electricals, Marine, Energy Storage, Transportation, Air Purification, Ceramics and Automobile. The lithium hydroxide industry on the source of Type of Application could span Air-Conditioning, Ceramic Glass, Lubricant & Grease, Batteries, Carbon dioxide Scrubbing, Chemical Synthesis, Glass & Ceramics and Portland Cement.

The Lithium Hydroxide [LiOH] is utilized in the manufacture of lithium salts of stearic and additional fatty acids. These are then and there utilized such as thickeners in lubricating greases. A thickener takes possessions for example effectiveness at an extensive variety of temperatures and greater confrontation to water. Lithium grease is classically used up in manufacturing for example automotive and automobile. The lithium hydroxide market on the source of Area with respect to Trades in terms of intake, Profits, Market stake and Development percentage for the duration of the prediction could span North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa.

By the source of geography, the Asia Pacific holds the most important stake of the market owing to the increasing acceptance of lightweight metal in equipment of air conditioning, glass, grease, batteries and others. The subdivision of batteries grips the most important share and is expected to carry on its supremacy in the market owing to amazing features presented for example greater effectiveness, concentration of energy.

North America is increasing expressively owing to increasing manufacture of lithium-ion batteries in Electronics & Electricals manufacturing. It is projected that increasing funds in the end-use manufacturing for example aerospace, automobile and others are expected to motivate the market for the duration of the prediction.

The Europe has witnessed an extraordinary development owing to strict guidelines and rules applied by the provincial governments to follow lightweight products in end-use businesses. It is expected that the increasing invention and technical progression in lithium-ion batteries, and additional products are expected to push the development, for the duration of the prediction. Latin America is projected to observe an advanced development in the market owing to growing demand for lithium hydroxide in the end-use businesses.

The Middle East & Africa are projected to observe standard growth in the market owing to the increasing ingestion of low-density materials in tablets, smartphones, and additional electronic devices. The statement revises Trades in terms of intake of Lithium Hydroxide in the market; particularly in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America Middle East & Africa.

The solubility of lithium hydroxide in water was determined at 220 to 650 F. The literature furnished data for temperatures below 200 F. A maximum in the curve was found at about 240 and a minimum at 480 F. The variations in solubility, however, were relatlvely small. At 40, the solubility is 12.7 g LiOH per 100 g H/sub 2/O, while at 240, it is 17.7, and at 650 F, it is 16.5. The vapor pressures of 4.76 wt. % (2.09 molal), 8.59 wt.% (3.92 molal), and saturated (approximately 6.25 molal) lithium hydroxide solutions were measured as a function of temperature. At about 685 F, the more dilute solution showed a depression in vapor pressure of about 130 psi, the intermediate 154 psi, and the saturated 158 psi. The more dilute solution showed a greater deviation from Raoult's law than did the other two. Vapor-pressure data for sodium hydroxide solutions were compared with those for lithium hydroxide of similar concentration by weight and molality.


Lithium Hydroxide Production and Establishment of a New Company in Fukushima Prefecture
-Domestic Production and Sales of Lithium Hydroxide Needed due to Increasing Capacity of Rechargeable Batteries-
2019-04-12
Toyota Tsusho Corporation ("Toyota Tsusho") announces that Toyota Tsusho and Australian lithium resource development company Orocobre Limited ("Orocobre"), its partner in the production of lithium carbonate, have decided to start production of lithium hydroxide in Naraha-machi, Futaba District, Fukushima Prefecture and have established a new joint venture company, Toyotsu Lithium Corporation. The company aims to commence production in first half of 2021.

1. Background
Toyota Tsusho, together with Orocobre, began production of lithium carbonate at Argentina’s Salar de Olaroz at the end of 2014, and at the end of November 2018, it was decided to expand the production capacity. In addition to supplying lithium carbonate to meet the increasing demand for automotive rechargeable batteries, as the capacity of rechargeable batteries is expected to increase in conjunction with innovation in lithium battery technology, Toyota Tsusho has also decided to construct a production and supply framework for the raw material, lithium hydroxide.

2. Outline
Toyota Tsusho has established a lithium hydroxide production company in Naraha-machi, Futaba District, Fukushima Prefecture as a joint venture with Orocobre. A production plant will also be established in the same city. Toyota Tsusho plans to procure the raw materials (lithium carbonate) for the lithium hydroxide to be produced from its lithium production base in Argentina, Sales de Jujuy S.A. (“SDJ”), with a production capacity of 10,000 tons/year and a target of commencing production around first half of 2021. Our group company, Toyota Tsusho Material Incorporated will undertake 100 percent of sales and will sell the product not only for automotive rechargeable batteries but also for other industries. This operation is also eligible for subsidies from the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Toyotsu Lithium Corporation plans to hire more than 50 new employees, contributing to revitalization of the local economy and acceleration of reconstruction.

Through increasing the production of lithium carbonate and this project, Toyota Tsusho is working to meet the continually increasing demand for lithium accompanying the shift to electric vehicles.

Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate Technical Grade is a free-flowing Lithium Hydroxide with a minimum of 57% active ingredient. 
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is typically used in lithium-ion batteries, low noise lubricating greases, and many fine chemical formulations.


Industries: Building & Construction , Coatings , Energy , Inks , Lubricant Formulation , Water Treatment

The demand for lithium hydroxide is growing rapidly. 
The market for lithium hydroxide is expanding and the current world production capacity will likely not meet the expected increase in demand. 
For example, lithium hydroxide is used for purification of gases and air (as a carbon dioxide absorbent), as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, as a catalyst for polymerization, in ceramics, in Portland cement formulations, in manufacturing other lithium compounds and in esterification, especially for lithium stearate.
Lithium batteries have become the battery of choice in several existing and proposed new applications due to their high energy density to weight ratio, as well as their relatively long useful life when compared to other types of batteries. 
Lithium batteries are used for several applications such as laptop computers, cell phones, medical devices and implants (for example cardiac pacemakers). 
Lithium batteries are also an interesting option in the development of new automobiles, e.g., hybrid and electric vehicles, which are both environmentally friendly and "green" because of reduced emissions and decreased reliance on hydrocarbon fuels.
High purity can be required for lithium hydroxide that is used, for example, for various battery applications. 
There is a limited number of lithium hydroxide producers. 
As a direct result of increased demand for lithium products, battery manufacturers are looking for additional and reliable sources of high quality lithium products, for example lithium hydroxide.
Few methods have been proposed so far for preparing lithium hydroxide. 
One of them being a method that uses natural brines as a starting material. 
Battery applications can require very low levels of impurities, notably sodium, calcium and chlorides. 
The production of lithium hydroxide product with a low impurities content can be difficult unless one or more purification steps are performed. 
These additional purification steps add to the time and cost of the manufacture of the desired lithium hydroxide product. 
Natural brines are also associated with high concentrations of magnesium or other metals which can make lithium recovery uneconomical. 
Thus, the production of lithium hydroxide monohydrate from natural brines can be a difficult task.

EC / List no.: 215-183-4
CAS no.: 1310-65-2
Lithium hydroxide

LITHIUM HYDROXIDE
Lithium hydroxide
lithium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH))
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

CAS names
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH))


IUPAC names
hydroxyde de lithium
Lithium (1+) Hydroxide
Lithium Hydrokside
Lithium Hydroxid
lithium hydroxid
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE
Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide
lithium hydroxide
Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide
lithium hydroxide
Lithium Hydroxide Anhydrous [for General Organic Chemistry]
Lithium Hydroxide, Monohydrate
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate
Lithium idroxide monohydrate
lithium(1+) hydroxide
lithium(1+) ion hydroxide
lithium(1+) ion oxidanide
lithium;hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
lithium hydroxide monohydrate


EC / List no.: 603-454-3
CAS no.: 1310-66-3
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH)), monohydrate

IUPAC names
Lithium hydroxide
lithium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH)), monohydrate
Lithium hydroxide hydrate
lithium hydroxide hydrate
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE MONOHYDRATE
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
lithium hydroxide monohydrate
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE MONOHYDRATE min. 56 %
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate
lithium hydroxide,monohydrate
lithium(1+) ion hydrate oxidanide
lithium;hydroxide;hydrate

Other names
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate


 

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