MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

Magnesium hydroxide = Milk of Magnesia

CAS Number: 1309-42-8 
EC Number: 215-170-3
E number: E528 (acidity regulators, ...)
Chemical formula: Mg(OH)2
Molar mass: 58.3197 g/mol

Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. 
Magnesium hydroxide occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a white solid with low solubility in water (Ksp = 5.61×10−12).
Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia.
Magnesium Hydroxide is a solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. 
Milk of magnesium exerts Magnesium hydroxides antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. 
This agent exerts Magnesium hydroxides laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate.

Magnesium dihydroxide is a magnesium hydroxide in which the magnesium atom is bound to two hydroxide groups. 
Magnesium hydroxide has a role as an antacid and a flame retardant.
Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. 
Magnesium hydroxide reduces stomach acid, and increases water in the intestines which may induce bowel movements.
Magnesium hydroxide is used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.
Magnesium hydroxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound. 
Magnesium hydroxide is naturally found as the mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide can be used as an antacid or a laxative in either an oral liquid suspension or chewable tablet form. 
Additionally, magnesium hydroxide has smoke suppressing and flame retardant properties and is thus used commercially as a fire retardant. 
Magnesium hydroxide can also be used topically as a deodorant or for the relief of canker sores (aphthous ulcers).
Magnesium hydroxide is used to produce high-purity magnesium-containing derivatives for both technical and pharmaceutical end-uses, where use of magnesium oxide is not indicated because of undesired generation of heat.

Uses of Magnesium hydroxide:
Precursor to MgO
Most Mg(OH)2 that is produced industrially, as well as the small amount that is mined, is converted to fused magnesia (MgO). 
Magnesia is valuable because Magnesium hydroxide is both a poor electrical conductor and an excellent thermal conductor.

Magnesium hydroxide (milk or cream of magnesia) is one of many salts of magnesium used clinically. 
The hydroxide and other salts such as carbonate, trisilicate, citrate, oxide and sulfate are used widely for relief of gastrointestinal symptoms of dyspepsia, heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease and constipation by acting as antacids and laxatives. 
They also have other indicative uses as described in records for the individual salts. 
The sulfate salt in particular has many additional medical uses and the reader is referred particularly to the record for magnesium sulfate. 
Like several other magnesium salts, the hydroxide is rarely given alone and is usually combined with other antacids. 
Magnesium hydroxide, when used as an antacid, is often combined with aluminum hydroxide

Uses Magnesium hydroxide 
Magnesium hydroxide is used for a short time to treat occasional constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a laxative (osmotic-type) that is thought to work by drawing water into the intestines, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines.
Magnesium hydroxide is also used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. 
Magnesium hydroxide is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic salt, which means Magnesium hydroxide's not carbon based like the molecules of life, and Magnesium hydroxide's made up of positively and negatively charged particles. 
The chemical formula is Mg(OH)2, where the magnesium particles are positively charged, and the OH particles—called hydroxide groups—are negatively charged. 
You'll often find magnesium hydroxide in the pharmacy as a liquid, though Magnesium hydroxide's a solid if not mixed with water. 
Mixed with water, Magnesium hydroxide's called milk of magnesia.

Uses of Magnesium Hydroxide
According to PubMed Health, magnesium hydroxide is most often used to relieve symptoms of acid stomach, and to help relieve constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide's a weak base, meaning Magnesium hydroxide can react with acids, which are the chemical opposites of bases. 
If you have acid stomach or acid reflux, taking magnesium hydroxide helps because the compound neutralizes the excess acid and relieves symptoms. 
Because Magnesium hydroxide's also a laxative, taking large quantities to treat acid stomach can give you diarrhea.

Magnesium hydroxide is a white chemical compound that can be found in nature as the mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide’s utilised as an antacid to treat gastrointestinal issues like constipation, indigestion, sour stomach, and gastric formation. 
Magnesium hydroxide possesses smoke-suppressing and flame-retardant qualities, making Magnesium hydroxide useful in a variety of fire-retardant applications. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also utilised in the treatment of wastewater and the desulfurization of flue gases. 
Magnesium hydroxide’s also utilised as a cellulose protector and alternative neutralising agent in the pulp and paper sector.

How To Use Magnesium hydroxide
Take this product by mouth as directed. For the chewable form, chew thoroughly before swallowing. 
For the liquid form, shake the bottle well before each dose. 
Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. 
Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. 

If you are taking this medication for constipation, drink a full glass of water (8 ounces or 240 milliliters) with each dose. 
Follow all directions on the product package, or use as directed by your doctor. 
If you are uncertain about any of the information, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Extended use or overuse of this medication for constipation may result in dependence on laxatives and ongoing constipation. 
Overuse may also cause persistent diarrhea, loss of too much body water (dehydration), and mineral imbalances (e.g., high magnesium).

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. 
For constipation problems, Magnesium hydroxide may take 30 minutes to 6 hours to produce a bowel movement. 
Tell your doctor if this product does not produce a bowel movement, if you need to use Magnesium hydroxide or other laxative products regularly for more than 1 week, or if you have rectal bleeding. 
For stomach acid problems, do not take the maximum dose of this medication for more than 2 weeks unless directed by your doctor. 
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. 
As a suspension in water, Magnesium hydroxide is often called milk of magnesia because of Magnesium hydroxides milk-like appearance. 
The solid mineral form of magnesium hydroxide is known as brucite.
Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids and laxatives; Magnesium hydroxide interferes with the absorption of folic acid and iron.

Magnesium hydroxide has low solubility in water, with a K sp  of 1.5×10−11; all of magnesium hydroxide that does dissolve does dissociate. 
Since the dissociation of this small amount of dissolved magnesium hydroxide is complete, magnesium hydroxide is considered a strong electrolyte. 
Magnesium hydroxides low solubility makes it a weak base.

Health
Metabolism
Magnesium hydroxide is used in suspension as either an antacid or a laxative, depending on concentration.

As an antacid, magnesium hydroxide is dosed at approximately 0.5–1.5 g in adults and works by simple neutralization, by which the hydroxide ions from the Mg(OH)2 combine with acidic H+ ions produced in the form of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach, to produce water.
As a laxative, magnesium hydroxide is dosed at 2–5 g, and works in a number of ways. 
First, Mg2+ is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, so Magnesium hydroxide draws water from the surrounding tissue by osmosis. 
Not only does this increase in water content soften the feces, Magnesium hydroxide also increases the volume of feces in the intestine (intraluminal volume) which naturally stimulates intestinal motility. 
Furthermore, Mg2+ ions cause the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), which results in intraluminal accumulation of water, electrolytes, and increased intestinal motility. 

Some sources claim that the hydroxide ions themselves do not play a significant role in the laxative effects of milk of magnesia, as basic solutions (i.e., solutions of hydroxide ions) are not strongly laxative, and non-basic Mg2+ solutions, like MgSO4, are equally strong laxatives, mole for mole.
Only a small amount of the magnesium from magnesium hydroxide is usually absorbed by the intestine (unless one is deficient in magnesium).
However, magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys so long-term, daily consumption of milk of magnesia by someone suffering from kidney failure could lead in theory to hypermagnesemia. 
Unabsorbed drug is excreted in feces; absorbed drug is excreted rapidly in urine.

History of milk of magnesia
On May 4, 1818, American inventor John Callen received a patent (No. X2952) for magnesium hydroxide.
In 1829, Sir James Murray used a "condensed solution of fluid magnesia" preparation of his own design to treat the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Marquis of Anglesey, of stomach pain. 
This was so successful (advertised in Australia and approved by the Royal College of Surgeons in 1838) that he was appointed resident physician to Anglesey and two subsequent Lords Lieutenant, and knighted. 
His fluid magnesia product was patented two years after his death in 1873.

The term milk of magnesia was first used by Charles Henry Phillips in 1872 for a suspension of magnesium hydroxide formulated at about 8%w/v.
Magnesium hydroxide was sold under the brand name Phillips' Milk of Magnesia for medicinal usage.

Although the name may at some point have been owned by GlaxoSmithKline, USPTO registrations show "Milk of Magnesia" and "Phillips' Milk of Magnesia" have both been assigned to Bayer since 1995. 
In the UK, the non-brand (generic) name of "Milk of Magnesia" and "Phillips' Milk of Magnesia" is "Cream of Magnesia" (Magnesium Hydroxide Mixture, BP).
Magnesium hydroxide was used in Steven Spielberg's first short movie called Amblin'.

As food additive
Magnesium hydroxide is added directly to human food, and is affirmed as generally recognized as safe by the FDA.
Magnesium hydroxide is known as E number E528.

Magnesium hydroxide is marketed for medical use as chewable tablets, as capsules, powder, and as liquid suspensions, sometimes flavored. 
These products are sold as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve indigestion and heartburn. 
Magnesium hydroxide also is a laxative to alleviate constipation. 
As a laxative, the osmotic force of the magnesia acts to draw fluids from the body. 
High doses can lead to diarrhea, and can deplete the body's supply of potassium, sometimes leading to muscle cramps.

Some magnesium hydroxide products sold for antacid use (such as Maalox) are formulated to minimize unwanted laxative effects through the inclusion of aluminum hydroxide, which inhibits the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby counterbalancing the contractions induced by the osmotic effects of the magnesium hydroxide.
A solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. 
Milk of magnesium exerts Magnesium hydroxides antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. 
This agent exerts Magnesium hydroxides laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate.

Other niche uses
Magnesium hydroxide is also a component of antiperspirant.
Magnesium hydroxide is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) when used topically.

Waste water treatment
Magnesium hydroxide powder is used industrially to neutralize acidic wastewaters.
Magnesium hydroxide is also a component of the Biorock method of building artificial reefs.

Fire retardant
Natural magnesium hydroxide (brucite) is used commercially as a fire retardant. 
Most industrially used magnesium hydroxide is produced synthetically.
Like aluminium hydroxide, solid magnesium hydroxide has smoke suppressing and flame retardant properties. 
This property is attributable to the endothermic decomposition Magnesium hydroxide undergoes at 332 °C (630 °F):
Mg(OH)2 → MgO + H2O

The heat absorbed by the reaction retards the fire by delaying ignition of the associated substance. 
The water released dilutes combustible gases. 
Common uses of magnesium hydroxide as a flame retardant include additives to cable insulation (i.e. cables for high quality cars, submarines, the Airbus A380, Bugatti Veyron and the PlayStation 4, PlayStation 2, etc.), insulation plastics, roofing (e.g. London Olympic Stadium), and various flame retardant coatings. 
Other mineral mixtures that are used in similar fire retardant applications are natural mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite.

Preparation
Combining a solution of many magnesium salts with alkaline water induces precipitation of solid Mg(OH)2:
Mg2+ + 2OH− → Mg(OH)2

On a commercial scale, Mg(OH)2 is produced by treating seawater with lime (Ca(OH)2). 
600 m3 (158,503 US gallons) of seawater gives about one ton of Mg(OH)2. 
Ca(OH)2 is far more soluble than Mg(OH)2, so the latter precipitates as a solid:
MgO + H2O -> Mg(OH)2

Pharmacodynamics
As an antacid, magnesium hydroxide suspension neutralizes gastric acid by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form magnesium chloride and water. 
Magnesium hydroxide is practically insoluble in water and does not have any effect until Magnesium hydroxide reacts with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. 
There, Magnesium hydroxide decreases the direct acid irritant effect and increases the pH in the stomach leading to inactivation of pepsin.
Magnesium hydroxide enhances the integrity of the mucosal barrier of the stomach as well as improving the tone of both the gastric and esophageal sphincters.
As a laxative, the magnesium hydroxide works by increasing the osmotic effect in the intestinal tract and drawing water in. 
This creates distension of the colon which results in an increase in peristaltic movement and bowel evacuation.

Mechanism of action
The suspension of magnesium hydroxide is ingested and enters the stomach. 
According to the amount ingested, the magnesium hydroxide will either act as an antacid or a laxative.
Through the ingestion of 0.5-1.5 grams (in adults) the magnesium hydroxide will act by simple acid neutralization in the stomach. 
The hydroxide ions from the magnesium hydroxide suspension will combine with the acidic H+ ions of the hydrochloric acid made by the stomachs parietal cells. 
This neutralization reaction will result in the formation of magnesium chloride and water.
Through the ingestion of 2-5 grams (in adults) the magnesium hydroxide acts as a laxative in the colon. 
The majority of the suspension is not absorbed in the intestinal tract and will create an osmotic effect to draw water into the gut from surrounding tissues. 
With this increase of water in the intestines, the feces will soften and the intraluminal volume of the feces will increase. 
These effects still stimulate intestinal motility and induce the urge to defecate. 
Magnesium hydroxide will also release cholecystokinin (CKK) in the intestines which will accumulate water and electrolytes in the lumen and furthermore increase intestinal motility.

Absorption
About 15%-50% of magnesium hydroxide is absorbed very slowly through the small intestine.

Volume of distribution
The peak action and distribution of magnesium hydroxide are variable.

Protein binding
Magnesium hydroxide does not have any protein binding properties.
Magnesium hydroxide (active substance) is indicated as a laxative, for the treatment of occasional constipation , and as an antacid, for relief of heartburn , poor digestion, gastric hyperacidity and flatulence.

Metabolism
Unless a patient is deficient in magnesium, very little is absorbed by the intestine. 
Overall, about 15%-50% of the magnesium hydroxide suspension is absorbed systemically. 
However, Magnesium hydroxide does not undergo any metabolism as Magnesium hydroxide is rapidly excreted in the urine.

Route of elimination
After oral administration, up to 50% of the magnesium hydroxide suspension may be absorbed as magnesium ions through the small intestines and then rapidly excreted in the urine through the kidneys. 
The unabsorbed drug is mainly excreted in the feces and saliva.

Uses
Suspensions of magnesium hydroxide in water (milk of magnesia) are used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and a laxative. 
The diarrhea caused by magnesium hydroxide carries away much of the body's supply of potassium, and failure to take extra potassium may lead to muscle cramps.
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antiperspirant armpit deodorant.
Milk of magnesia is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) when used topically.
Milk of magnesia is sold for medical use as chewable tablets, capsules, and as liquids having various added flavors. 

Magnesium hydroxide is primarily used to alleviate constipation, but also to relieve indigestion and heartburn.
When taken orally as a laxative, the osmotic force of the magnesia suspension acts to draw fluids from the body and to retain those already within the lumen of the intestine, serving to distend the bowel, thus stimulating nerves within the colon wall, inducing peristalsis and resulting in evacuation of colonic contents. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antacid, though more modern formulations combine the antimotility effects of equal concentrations of aluminum hydroxide to avoid unwanted laxative effects.
Milk of magnesia is also used as a folk remedy, applied and massaged in (a few minutes before washing), to relieve symptoms of seborrhea and dandruff. 
The mechanism for its effectiveness in this application, like the causes of seborrhea itself, are unknown. 

An additional folk use is for the treatment of acne or oily skin by applying topically, allowing to dry, and then washing Magnesium hydroxide off the face (or other body part). 
Magnesium hydroxide is also said to be used for seborrheic dermatitis, which is a drying and flaking of the skin similar to dandruff but often occurring on the face.
Magnesium hydroxide powder is used industrially as a non-hazardous alkali to neutralise acidic wastewaters.
Magnesium hydroxide also takes part in the Biorock method of building artificial reefs.
Solid magnesium hydroxide has also smoke suppressing and fire retarding properties. 
This is due to the endothermic decomposition Magnesium hydroxide undergoes at 332 °C (630 °F) :
Mg(OH)2 → MgO + H2O

The heat absorbed by the reaction acts as a retardant by delaying ignition of the associated substance. 
The water released dilutes any combustible gases and inhibits oxygen from aiding the combustion. 
Uses of magnesium hydroxide as a fire retardant include plastics, roofing, and coatings. 
Another mineral that is used in similar fire retardant applications is hydromagnesite.

Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2]. 
Also commonly referred to as mag, this chemical is effective in neutralizing acids and has been pushed by some chemical companies. 
Despite some attempts to advertise Magnesium hydroxide as such, mag is no treatment panacea. 
As with lime, magnesium hydroxide is more economical to use than caustic (NaOH), however, the difference is not significant unless substantial volumes are in use. 
As with lime, magnesium hydroxide is also much more difficult to handle than caustic (NaOH).

Magnesium hydroxide is relatively insoluble in water at neutral pH values and higher. 
Given this, mag has little or no effect on water alkalinity above a pH of 7.0. 
This means that even in a poorly designed system mag will not raise the pH above a pH of 7.0, rendering this chemical safe to use from a control point of view. 
Additionally, magnesium hydroxide, also known as milk of magnesia, is quite safe to handle and is not normally toxic.

The characteristic that limits mag’s ability to raise the pH above 7.0 (solubility) also contributes to very long reaction times. 
Typical reaction times for complete neutralization are in the order of 90 minutes. 
This means that a single reactor tank must have the capacity of  90 minutes of flow. 
In a 100 gpm system, for example, the first stage reactor must be approximately 9,000 gallons in volume. 
The alternative is to discharge with an incomplete reaction. 
This means that the pH will continue to change as the effluent is discharged (never favorable) and an excessive amount of mag must be used. 
Also as a result if solubility the use of magnesium hydroxide will significantly increase solids loading in the effluent.

Also as a result of solubility, magnesium hydroxide is difficult to handle. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a slurry that will rapidly separate from solution. 
The storage tank must be constantly agitated and chemical delivery lines must be kept in motion.
Typically recirculation loops are employed with a metering valve, inline, for chemical delivery. 
Static lines are not acceptable because the slurry will separate, and lines will plug, over time.

Magnesium Hydroxide is used in the treatment of:
-Constipation
-Duodenal Ulcer
-Dyspepsia
-Esophagitis, Peptic
-Gastroesophageal Reflux
-Heartburn
-Kidney Failure, Chronic
-Metabolic Diseases
-Stomach Ulcer

Magnesium Hydroxide is used in the prevention of:
-Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
-Magnesium Deficiency
This medication may be prescribed for other uses. 
Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Biological metabolism
When the patient drinks the milk of magnesia, the suspension enters the stomach. 
Depending on how much was taken, one of two possible outcomes will occur.
As an antacid, milk of magnesia is dosed at approximately 0.5–1.5g in adults and works by simple neutralization, where the hydroxide ions from the Mg(OH)2 combine with acidic H+ ions produced in the form of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach to produce water.
As a laxative, milk of magnesia is dosed at 2–5 g, and works in a number of ways. 
First, Mg2+ is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, so Magnesium hydroxide draws water from the surrounding tissue by osmosis. 

Not only does this increase in water content soften the feces, Magnesium hydroxide also increases the volume of feces in the intestine (intraluminal volume) which naturally stimulates intestinal motility. 
Furthermore, Mg2+ ions cause the release of CCK, which results in intraluminal accumulation of water, electrolytes, and increased intestinal motility. 
Although Magnesium hydroxide has been stated in some sources, the hydroxide ions themselves do not play a significant role in the laxative effects of milk of magnesia, as basic solutions (i.e. solutions of hydroxide ions) are not strongly laxative, and non-basic Mg2+ solutions, like MgSO4, are equally strong laxatives mole for mole.
Only a small amount of the magnesium from milk of magnesia is usually absorbed from a person's intestine (unless the person is deficient in magnesium). 
However, magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys so longterm, daily consumption of milk of magnesia by someone suffering from renal failure could lead in theory to hypermagnesemia.
As with any other medication, some people may have adverse reactions to milk of magnesia. 

These can include weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. 
High doses increase the likelihood of these reactions.
Patients with severe chronic kidney disease are advised to avoid overconsumption of milk of magnesia.
Because the kidney functions to excrete magnesium, taking too much would wear out the kidney and lead to toxic levels of magnesium in the blood. 
Healthy individuals should not use this type of medication continuously for longer than one week, or an excessively harsh laxative effect may result.

Magnesium hydroxide Uses:
Magnesium hydroxide is used for a short time to treat occasional constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a laxative (osmotic type) that is thought to work by drawing water into the intestines, an effect that helps to cause bowel movements. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid, such as heartburn, stomach upset, or indigestion. 
Magnesium hydroxide's an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.
Constipation- Taking magnesium by mouth is helpful as a laxative for constipation and for preparing the intestine for medical treatment.

Indigestion- Taking magnesium as an antacid by mouth reduces the symptoms of heartburn. 
Various magnesium compounds may be used, but magnesium hydroxide appears to work fastest.
Deficiency of magnesium- Taking magnesium is helpful in the treatment and prevention of magnesium deficiency. 
Magnesium deficiency usually occurs when people have liver disorders, heart failure, vomiting or diarrhoea, kidney dysfunction, and other conditions.
High blood pressure in pregnancy- (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). 
Administering magnesium intravenously (via IV) or as a shot is considered the treatment of choice for the reduction of high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) and for the treatment of eclampsia, including the development of seizures. 
Research suggests that the use of magnesium reduces the risk of seizures.

Magnesium hydroxide occurs naturally as the mineral brucite and is commonly found in antacids (like milk of magnesia) and laxatives.
This 30 g bottle is reagent grade magnesium hydroxide powder; take a look at the chart below to discover the magnesium hydroxide formula, density, DOT classification, and more!

Formula: Mg(OH)2 
Formula: Weight    58.32 
Grade: Reagent 
Form: Powder 
Density: 2.34 g/cm³ 
CAS #: 1309-42-8 
DOT Classification: Non-Regulated 
Storage Code: Green 
Alternate Name: Milk of Magnesia  

Magnesium Hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Mg(OH)2. 
The solid mineral form of Magnesium Hydroxide is brucite, first described in 1824 and named after Magnesium hydroxides discoverer, the American mineralist Archibald Bruce (1777-1818). 
Brucite is used as a flame retardant because Magnesium hydroxide thermally decomposes in a similar way as aluminium hydroxide and mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite, to release water. 
The superior properties of the synthetic form of Mg(OH)2, in terms of purity and particle size distribution,has opened up far more applications. 
Synthetic Magnesium Hydroxide is produced by Kyowa Chemical Industry since 1950 and by us, Kisuma Chemicals since 1998.

One important application of Mg(OH)2 is the use of the material in the pharmaceutical industry, for example as antacid to neutralize stomach acids and as laxative. 
Although the use of Mg(OH)2 for this purpose was already described in 1829 by Sir James Murray, who used a fluid magnesia preparation to treat the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Marquis of Anglesey, of stomach pain, Magnesium hydroxide was first sold under the brandname ''Philip's Milk of Magnesia'' by Charles Henry Philip's in 1872. 
Today, medicinal type Mg(OH)2 is sold in liquid form, chewable tablets or tablets.

The largest industrial application of Mg(OH)2 is flame retardants for articles such as roofing, isolation materials, plastic articles and coatings. 
The mechanism of flame retardancy is based on the endothermic decomposition of the material into MgO and H2O. 
This reaction adsorbs heat, which delays ignition of the associated substance. 
The water that is released dilutes combustible gases and inhibits oxygen from aiding the combustion. 
Other known applications of Mg(OH)2 include food additives, where the material is used as acidity regulator, and as precursor for other magnesium materials, most notably MgO.

Clearance
Magnesium hydroxide is mainly excreted in the urine by the kidneys. 
Since the kidneys play a major role in Magnesium hydroxides clearance, individuals with renal failure are at risk of hypermagnesemia with long term consumption as the appropriate amounts of magnesium may not be excreted.

Magnesium Hydroxide (Mg (OH)₂) is an efficient and safe alkali for water purification, flue gas cleaning and pulp bleaching. 
Nedmag's magnesium hydroxide is a qualitative, stable suspension that is supplied in bulk quantities.

IUPAC name
Magnesium hydroxide
Other names
Magnesium dihydroxide
Milk of magnesia

Applications of magnesium hydroxide
Nedmag's magnesium hydroxide is suitable for bleaching pulp, wastewater treatment, and flue gas treatment. 
Nedmag magnesium hydroxide is also used in marine scrubbers to clean exhaust gasses. 
For this application, the new product Mg(OH)₂ Mare is introduced, also known on the market as MH53S. 
Furthermore, magnesium hydroxide is used in other industrial processes.

Magnesium Hydroxide is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 
Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. 
Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. 

CAS Number: 1309-42-8  
CHEBI:6637 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1200718  
ChemSpider: 14107  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.013.792  
EC Number: 215-170-3
E number: E528 (acidity regulators, ...)
Gmelin Reference: 485572
PubChem CID: 14791
RTECS number: OM3570000
UNII: NBZ3QY004S  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID4049662

Magnesium hydroxide is used for a short time to treat occasional constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a laxative (osmotic-type) that is thought to work by drawing water into the intestines, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines.
Magnesium hydroxide is also used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. 
Magnesium hydroxide is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.

How to use Magnesium Hydroxide Suspension
Take this product by mouth as directed. 
For the chewable form, chew thoroughly before swallowing. 
For the liquid form, shake the bottle well before each dose. 
Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. 
Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. 

If you are taking this medication for constipation, drink a full glass of water (8 ounces or 240 milliliters) with each dose. 
Follow all directions on the product package, or use as directed by your doctor. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Extended use or overuse of this medication for constipation may result in dependence on laxatives and ongoing constipation. 
Overuse may also cause persistent diarrhea, loss of too much body water (dehydration), and mineral imbalances (e.g., high magnesium).

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. 
For constipation problems, Magnesium hydroxide may take 30 minutes to 6 hours to produce a bowel movement. 
Tell your doctor if this product does not produce a bowel movement, if you need to use Magnesium hydroxide or other laxative products regularly for more than 1 week, or if you have rectal bleeding. 
For stomach acid problems, do not take the maximum dose of Magnesium hydroxide for more than 2 weeks unless directed by your doctor. 
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Application
Magnesium hydroxide has been used in the synthesis of brucite.

Biochem/physiol Actions
Magnesium hydroxide is a flame retardant. 
Magnesium hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid which has a long-lasting effect. 
The liquid formulation of magnesium hydroxide is called milk of magnesia. 
Magnesium hydroxide is used as a laxative. 
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the treatment of diarrhea along with aluminium hydroxide. 
The naturally occurring form of magnesium hydroxide is brucite.

Magnesium hydroxide is used as an antacid for short-term relief of stomach upset and as a laxative for short-term treatment of constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is available in nonprescription products alone and in combination with other nonprescription ingredients to relieve stomach upset.

Magnesium is a natural mineral. 
Magnesium hydroxide decreases stomach acid and increases the amount of water in the intestines that may induce the movements of bowel. 
Magnesium hydroxide is used as a laxative for the relief of occasional constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, stomach acid, and heartburn.

MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE
1309-42-8
Milk of magnesia
magnesium;dihydroxide
CHEBI:6637
Magnesium hydrate
Magnesium hydroxide suspension
Magnesium Hydroxide (GILUMAG)

Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is a crystalline white to off-white powder with a specific gravity of 2.4 and a hardness of Mohs of about 3.0. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a magnesium hydroxide solution with anti-acid and laxative properties. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a white powder formed by the addition of lime milk from seawater in large quantities (calcium hydroxide). 
In nature, Magnesium hydroxide occurs as the mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide is a white solid with low solubility in water (Ksp = 5.61×10−12). 
In the manufacture of magnesium alloy, Magnesium hydroxide is the main raw material and has been used as a fire-retardant additive. 
Magnesium hydroxide forms a suspension of water known as magnesia milk, which has long been used as an anti-acid and a laxative.
When heated above 450 °C, magnesium hydroxide loses 30.9 percent of Magnesium hydroxides mass as water vapor. 
Magnesium hydroxide is soluble in a solution of dilute acid and ammonium chloride, but nearly insoluble in water and alcohol. 

Combining a solution of several magnesium salts with alkaline water produces solid Mg(OH)2 precipitation:
Mg2+ + 2 OH− → Mg(OH)2

Magnesium hydroxide, 95%, pure
Magnesiumhydroxid
Magnesium-hydroxide
ACMC-1BQGA
magnesium(2+) hydroxide
Magnesium Hydroxide powder
Mg(OH)2
Magnesium Hydroxide, powder
CHEMBL1200718
DTXSID4049662

Why is this medication prescribed?
Magnesium hydroxide is used to treat occasional constipation in children and adults on a short-term basis. 
Magnesium hydroxide is in a class of medications called saline laxatives. 
Magnesium hydroxide works by causing water to be retained with the stool. 
This increases the number of bowel movements and softens the stool so Magnesium hydroxide is easier to pass.

How should Magnesium hydroxide be used?
Magnesium hydroxide come as a chewable tablet, tablet, and a suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. 
Magnesium hydroxide usually is taken as a single daily dose (preferably at bedtime) or you may divide the dose into two or more parts over one day. 
Magnesium hydroxide usually causes a bowel movement within 30 minutes to 6 hours after taking Magnesium hydroxide. 
Follow the directions on the package or on your product label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take magnesium hydroxide exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Magnesium hydroxide or take Magnesium hydroxide more often than prescribed by your doctor.

If you are giving magnesium hydroxide to your child, read the package label carefully to make sure that it is the right product for the age of the child. 
Do not give children magnesium hydroxide products that are made for adults.
Check the package label to find out how much medication the child needs. 
Ask your child's doctor if you don't know how much medication to give your child.
Take the suspension, chewable tablets, and tablets with a full glass (8 ounces [240 milliliters]) of liquid.
Do not take magnesium hydroxide for longer than 1 week without talking to your doctor.
Shake the oral suspension well before each use.

Other uses for Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antacid with other medications to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach.
Magnesium hydroxide may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow to using Magnesium hydroxide?
Before taking magnesium hydroxide,
-tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium hydroxide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in magnesium hydroxide preparations. 
-Ask your pharmacist or check the product label for a list of the ingredients.
-tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. 
-Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
-if you are taking other medications, take them at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking magnesium hydroxide.
-tell your doctor if you have stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, or a sudden change of bowel habits lasting more than 2 weeks. 
-Also, tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease.
-tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
-If you become pregnant while taking magnesium hydroxide, call your doctor.

What should I do if I forget a dose of Magnesium hydroxide?
Tell your doctor if you are on a magnesium-restricted diet before taking magnesium hydroxide. 
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

Chemical formula: Mg(OH)2
Molar mass: 58.3197 g/mol
Appearance: White solid
Odor: Odorless
Density: 2.3446 g/cm3
Melting point: 350 °C (662 °F; 623 K) decomposes
Solubility in water:    
0.00064 g/100 mL (25 °C)
0.004 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility product (Ksp): 5.61×10−12
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −22.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.559

The action of hydrochloric acid on magnesium hydroxide produces magnesium chloride, MgCl2, a colorless, delicate (water-absorbing) material used in the manufacture of magnesium metal, in the manufacture of heavy-duty flooring cement, and as an additive in the manufacture of textiles. 
Magnesium hydroxide is used for the manufacture of plastics and filled (co)polymer compounds based on elastomers, thermosets, thermoplastics like those based on polyvinylchloride, polyamides, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, ultrathene, as a highly efficient non-toxic inorganic flame retardant, filler, and smoke suppressant additive, and so on, in paper and cardboard industry, as a mild neutralizing agent for waste and natural water treatment, as a raw material in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
In addition, magnesium hydroxide has properties that inhibit smoke and flame retardant and is thus commercially used as a fire retardant. 
Magnesium hydroxide can also be used topically to relieve cancer sores or as a deodorant (aphthous ulcers). 
Magnesium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of tofu to coagulate soy milk. 
Much of the industrially produced Mg(OH)2 and the limited quantity removed is converted to fused magnesia (MgO). 

As Magnesium hydroxide is both a poor electrical conductor and an outstanding thermal conductor, Magnesia is valuable.
Magnesium hydroxide is used as an absorbent for desulfurizing flue gas. 
Most flue gas desulfurization used sodium hydroxide technique, calcareous gypsum technique, in the 20th century, before the 1970s. 
As the Mg2+ ion is involved with the vital biological polyphosphate compounds DNA, RNA, and adenosine triphosphate, magnesium is essential for all living cells (ATP). 
In order to function, many enzymes rely on magnesium. 
Magnesium hydroxide is medically used to regulate gastric acid and laxatives, as a mineral additive, as a color preservation agent, as a desiccant, as an alkali agent, and as a processing aid for sugar.

What is Magnesium hydroxide?
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE (mag NEE zhum hye DROX ide) is a laxative and an antacid. 
Magnesium hydroxide is used to treat constipation. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also used to treat acid indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.
Magnesium hydroxide may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

What should I tell my health care provider before I take Magnesium hydroxide?
They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
-bowel, intestinal, or stomach disease
-change in bowel habits for more than 14 days
-kidney disease
-low magnesium diet
-nausea, vomiting
-stomach pain or blockage
-an unusual or allergic reaction to magnesium hydroxide, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
-pregnant or trying to get pregnant
-breast-feeding

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound. 
Magnesium hydroxide is naturally found as the mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide can be used as an antacid or a laxative in either an oral liquid suspension or chewable tablet form. 
Additionally, magnesium hydroxide has smoke suppressing and flame retardant properties and is thus used commercially as a fire retardant. 
Magnesium hydroxide can also be used topically as a deodorant or for the relief of canker sores (aphthous ulcers).

How should I use Magnesium hydroxide?
Take Magnesium hydroxide by mouth. 
Chew Magnesium hydroxide completely before swallowing. 
Follow the directions on the package or prescription label. 
After taking Magnesium hydroxide, drink a full glass of water. 
Take Magnesium hydroxide at regular intervals. 
Do not take Magnesium hydroxide more often than directed.
Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of Magnesium hydroxide in children. 
While Magnesium hydroxide may be used in children for selected conditions, precautions do apply.
Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of Magnesium hydroxide contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.
NOTE: Magnesium hydroxide is only for you. 
Do not share Magnesium hydroxide with others.

Linear Formula: Mg(OH)2
CAS Number: 1309-42-8
Molecular Weight: 58.32
EC Number: 215-170-3
MDL number: MFCD00011104
PubChem Substance ID: 24896999
NACRES: NA.21

Quality Level: 200
product line: BioXtra
assay: ≥95%

Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs naturally as the colorless, crystalline mineral brucite. 
Magnesium hydroxide is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide.

impurities:
≤0.01% Phosphorus (P)
≤0.1% Insoluble matter

What Is Magnesium hydroxide?
Sodium Hydroxide, Calcium Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide are white solids which occur in several forms, including powders. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium Hydroxide are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, fragrances, foot powders, hair dyes and colors, makeup, nail products, personal cleanliness products, shampoos, shaving products, depilatories, skin care products, and suntan products. 
Sodium and Calcium Hydroxide are also used in hair straighteners and hair wave sets.

Why is Magnesium hydroxide used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Sodium Hydroxide, Calcium Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide are used to control the pH of cosmetics and personal care products. 
Magnesium Hydroxide is also used as an absorbant.

Scientific Facts about Magnesium hydroxide: 
Sodium Hydroxide has historically been used to hydrolyze fats and form soaps. 
Magnesium hydroxide is also called caustic soda, soda lye or sodium hydrate. 
Calcium Hydroxide is also know as hydrated lime. 
The mineral form of Calcium Hydroxide is called portlandite. 
Magnesium Hydroxide is also know as milk of magnesia. 
The mineral form of Magnesium Hydroxide is called brucite. 
Potassium Hydroxide is also known as potash lye or caustic potash. 
Potassium Hydroxide has the ability to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment and eventually dissolves in the water it absorbs.

mp: 350 °C (lit.)
solubility: 5 M HCl: 0.1 M, clear, yellow
anion traces: chloride (Cl-): ≤0.5%

cation traces
Al: ≤0.02%
Ca: ≤0.7%
Cu: ≤0.0005%
Fe: ≤0.02%
K: ≤0.005%
NH4+: ≤0.05%
Na: ≤0.05%
Pb: ≤0.001%
Zn: ≤0.002%

Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas–solid reaction. 
An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. 
The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. 
Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 °C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. 
The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. 
The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas–solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

Magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide both appear in the active ingredients of certain over-the-counter medications, particularly laxatives. 
They're very similar in structure and in function; in fact, in the presence of water, magnesium oxide actually turns into magnesium hydroxide. 
Because of this—and because there's plenty of water in the body—you can consider them interchangeable with regard to biological activity.

SMILES string: O[Mg]O
InChI: 1S/Mg.2H2O/h;2*1H2/q+2;;/p-2
InChI key: VTHJTEIRLNZDEV-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Magnesium hydroxide is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.
Magnesium hydroxide is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses of Magnesium hydroxide:
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following products: lubricants and greases, anti-freeze products, adhesives and sealants, polishes and waxes, coating products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, washing & cleaning products and air care products.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: outdoor use, indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Article service life
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: in the production of articles.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).
Magnesium hydroxide can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: vehicles and machinery, mechanical appliances and electrical/electronic products (e.g. computers, cameras, lamps, refrigerators, washing machines).
Magnesium hydroxide can be found in products with material based on: plastic (e.g. food packaging and storage, toys, mobile phones), paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper), metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), stone, plaster, cement, glass or ceramic (e.g. dishes, pots/pans, food storage containers, construction and isolation material), rubber (e.g. tyres, shoes, toys) and wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys).

Widespread uses of Magnesium hydroxide by professional workers
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following products: lubricants and greases, anti-freeze products, coating products, polishes and waxes, adhesives and sealants, polymers and fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay.
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following areas: building & construction work, agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Magnesium hydroxide is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, plastic products, textile, leather or fur, pulp, paper and paper products and machinery and vehicles.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Formulation or re-packing of Magnesium hydroxide:
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following products: polymers, lubricants and greases, fertilisers, pharmaceuticals and coating products.
Magnesium hydroxide has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, formulation in materials, in the production of articles, as processing aid, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and for thermoplastic manufacture.

Uses at industrial sites
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following products: polymers, lubricants and greases, pH regulators and water treatment products, laboratory chemicals, anti-freeze products and coating products.
Magnesium hydroxide has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Magnesium hydroxide is used in the following areas: municipal supply (e.g. electricity, steam, gas, water) and sewage treatment, formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging and building & construction work.
Magnesium hydroxide is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, plastic products, pulp, paper and paper products, rubber products and textile, leather or fur.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, in the production of articles, as processing aid, of substances in closed systems with minimal release, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), formulation in materials, as processing aid and for thermoplastic manufacture.
Other release to the environment of Magnesium hydroxide is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners).

Manufacture of Magnesium hydroxide:
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance and as processing aid.

MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE 100G
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D211
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D212
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D213
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D214
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D611
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D661
Magnesium Hydroxide GILUMAG D671
AKOS015904092
DB09104
E528
FT-0628085
FT-0693469
C07876
Pharmaceutical Grade Magnesium Hydroxide HD ~ USP
Q407548
J-005906
PHENOL,2-[4,6-BIS(2,4-DIMETHYLPHENYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YL]-5-(2-BUTEN-1-YLOXY)-
1909-42-8

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