MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE

CAS Number: 1317-33-5
EC Number: 215-263-9
Chemical formula: MoS2
Molecular Weight: 160.07


Molybdenum disulfide (or moly) is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur. 
Molybdenum disulfides chemical formula is MoS2.

The compound is classified as a transition metal dichalcogenide. 
Molybdenum disulfide is a silvery black solid that occurs as the mineral molybdenite, the principal ore for molybdenum.
MoS2 is relatively unreactive. 
Molybdenum disulfide is unaffected by dilute acids and oxygen. 
In appearance and feel, molybdenum disulfide is similar to graphite. 
Molybdenum disulfide is widely used as a dry lubricant because of Molybdenum disulfides low friction and robustness. Bulk MoS
2 is a diamagnetic, indirect bandgap semiconductor similar to silicon, with a bandgap of 1.23 eV.

Molybdenum disulfide Applications
Lubricant
Due to weak van der Waals interactions between the sheets of sulfide atoms, MoS2 has a low coefficient of friction.
MoS2 in particle sizes in the range of 1–100 µm is a common dry lubricant.
Few alternatives exist that confer high lubricity and stability at up to 350 °C in oxidizing environments. 
Sliding friction tests of MoS2 using a pin on disc tester at low loads (0.1–2 N) give friction coefficient values of <0.1.

MoS2 is often a component of blends and composites that require low friction. 
For example, Molybdenum disulfide is added to graphite to improve sticking.
A variety of oils and greases are used, because they retain their lubricity even in cases of almost complete oil loss, thus finding a use in critical applications such as aircraft engines. 
When added to plastics, MoS2 forms a composite with improved strength as well as reduced friction. 
Polymers that may be filled with MoS2 include nylon (trade name Nylatron), Teflon and Vespel. 
Self-lubricating composite coatings for high-temperature applications consist of molybdenum disulfide and titanium nitride, using chemical vapor deposition.

Examples of applications of MoS2-based lubricants include two-stroke engines (such as motorcycle engines), bicycle coaster brakes, automotive CV and universal joints, ski waxes and bullets.
Other layered inorganic materials that exhibit lubricating properties (collectively known as solid lubricants (or dry lubricants)) includes graphite, which requires volatile additives and hexagonal boron nitride.

MoS2 is employed as a cocatalyst for desulfurization in petrochemistry, for example, hydrodesulfurization. 
The effectiveness of the MoS2 catalysts is enhanced by doping with small amounts of cobalt or nickel. 
The intimate mixture of these sulfides is supported on alumina. 
Such catalysts are generated in situ by treating molybdate/cobalt or nickel-impregnated alumina with H2S or an equivalent reagent. 
Catalysis does not occur at the regular sheet-like regions of the crystallites, but instead at the edge of these planes.

MoS2 finds use as a hydrogenation catalyst for organic synthesis.
Molybdenum disulfide is derived from a common transition metal, rather than group 10 metal as are many alternatives, MoS2 is chosen when catalyst price or resistance to sulfur poisoning are of primary concern. 
MoS2 is effective for the hydrogenation of nitro compounds to amines and can be used to produce secondary amines via reductive alkylation.
The catalyst can also can effect hydrogenolysis of organosulfur compounds, aldehydes, ketones, phenols and carboxylic acids to their respective alkanes.
The catalyst suffers from rather low activity however, often requiring hydrogen pressures above 95 atm and temperatures above 185 °C.

Production
MoS2 is naturally found as either molybdenite, a crystalline mineral, or jordisite, a rare low temperature form of molybdenite.
Molybdenite ore is processed by flotation to give relatively pure MoS
The main contaminant is carbon. 
MoS2 also arises by thermal treatment of virtually all molybdenum compounds with hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur and can be produced by metathesis reactions from molybdenum pentachloride.

MoS2 has been used in fields such as lubrication material and additives, threaded connection, cataylist for desulfurization in petroleum refineries, secondary batteries, field-effect transistors, sensors, organic light-emitting diodes and memory.
Molybdenum disulfide will be supplied as powder or dispersion, and Molybdenum disulfide has good solubility in water and ethanol.
If you have any questions, please contact us and we will try our best to provide the solutions for you.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a semiconductor which is composed of Mo atoms sandwiched between two layers of hexagonal close packed sulfur atoms in a structure similar to graphene. 
Traditionally, Molybdenum disulfide has been used as a solid lubricant due to Molybdenum disulfides low friction properties and as a hydrodesulfurization catalyst to lower the sulfur content in natural gas and fuels. Bulk MoS2 were first examined as a possible hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalyst as early as 1977 by Tributsch et al. However, it was not until about 20 years later that its potential in the hydrogen evolution reaction was fully unveiled. 
This book discusses the synthesis, properties and industrial applications of molybdenum disulfide.

Chemical formula: MoS2
Molar mass: 160.07 g/mol
Appearance: black/lead-gray solid
Density: 5.06 g/cm3
Melting point: 2,375 °C (4,307 °F; 2,648 K)
Solubility in water: insoluble
Solubility: 
decomposed by aqua regia, hot sulfuric acid, nitric acid
insoluble in dilute acids
Band gap: 
1.23 eV (indirect, 3R or 2H bulk)
~1.8 eV (direct, monolayer)

Structure and physical properties
Crystalline phases
All forms of MoS
2 have a layered structure, in which a plane of molybdenum atoms is sandwiched by planes of sulfide ions. 
These three strata form a monolayer of MoS2. 
Bulk MoS2 consists of stacked monolayers, which are held together by weak van der Waals interactions.
Crystalline MoS2 is found in nature as one of two phases, 2H-MoS2 and 3R-MoS2, where the "H" and the "R" indicate hexagonal and rhombohedral symmetry, respectively. 
In both of these structures, each molybdenum atom exists at the center of a trigonal prismatic coordination sphere and is covalently bonded to six sulfide ions. 
Each sulfur atom has pyramidal coordination and is bonded to three molybdenum atoms. 
Both the 2H- and 3R-phases are semiconducting.
A third, metastable crystalline phase known as 1T-MoS2 was discovered by intercalating 2H-MoS2 with alkali metals.
This phase has tetragonal symmetry and is metallic. 
The 1T-phase can be stabilized through doping with electron donors like rhenium, or converted back to the 2H-phase by microwave radiation.

Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (MoS2 NSs) are members of a family called transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). 
As one kind of 2D crystalline nanomaterial, MoS2 NSs have a substantial range of properties suitable for applications in semiconductors, energy storage, catalysts, biomedicines, etc. 
In particular, the excellent biocompatibility of MoS2 NSs offers promise for use in drug delivery, cancer therapy, bioimaging, tissue engineering, etc. 
Here, the physicochemical properties, applications in anticancer therapy, and biosafety of MoS2 NSs are briefly reviewed.

Allotropes
Nanotube-like and buckyball-like molecules composed of MoS2 are known.

Exfoliated MoS2 flakes
While bulk MoS2 in the 2H-phase is known to be an indirect-band gap semiconductor, monolayer MoS2 has a direct band gap. 
The layer-dependent optoelectronic properties of MoS2 have promoted much research in 2-dimensional MoS2-based devices. 
2D MoS2 can be produced by exfoliating bulk crystals to produce single-layer to few-layer flakes either through a dry, micromechanical process or through solution processing.

Micromechanical exfoliation, also pragmatically called "Scotch-tape exfoliation", involves using an adhesive material to repeatedly peel apart a layered crystal by overcoming the van der Waals forces. 
The crystal flakes can then be transferred from the adhesive film to a substrate. 
This facile method was first used by Novoselov and Geim to obtain graphene from graphite crystals. 
However, Molybdenum disulfide can not be employed for a uniform 1-D layers because of weaker adhesion of MoS2 to the substrate (either Si, glass or quartz). 
The aforementioned scheme is good for graphene only.
While Scotch tape is generally used as the adhesive tape, PDMS stamps can also satisfactorily cleave MoS2 if Molybdenum disulfide is important to avoid contaminating the flakes with residual adhesive.

Liquid-phase exfoliation can also be used to produce monolayer to multi-layer MoS2 in solution. 
A few methods include lithium intercalation to delaminate the layers and sonication in a high-surface tension solvent.

Mechanical properties
MoS2 excels as a lubricating material (see below) due to Molybdenum disulfides layered structure and low coefficient of friction. 
Interlayer sliding dissipates energy when a shear stress is applied to the material. 
Extensive work has been performed to characterize the coefficient of friction and shear strength of MoS2 in various atmospheres.
The shear strength of MoS2 increases as the coefficient of friction increases, this property is called superlubricity. 
At ambient conditions, the coefficient of friction for MoS2 was determined to be 0.150, with a corresponding estimated shear strength of 56.0 MPa.
Direct methods of measuring the shear strength indicate that the value is closer to 25.3 MPa.

CAS Number: 1317-33-5  
CHEBI:30704 
ChemSpider: 14138 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.013.877  
PubChem CID: 14823
RTECS number: QA4697000
UNII: ZC8B4P503V  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5042162

The wear resistance of MoS2 in lubricating applications can be increased by doping MoS2 with chromium. 
Microindentation experiments on nanopillars of Cr-doped MoS2 found that the yield strength increased from an average of 821 MPa for pure MoS2 (0 at. % Cr) to 1017 MPa for 50 at. % Cr.
The increase in yield strength is accompanied by a change in the failure mode of the material. 
While the pure MoS2 nanopillar fails through a plastic bending mechanism, brittle fracture modes become apparent as the material is loaded with increasing amounts of dopant.
The widely used method of micromechanical exfoliation has been carefully studied in MoS2 to understand the mechanism of delamination in few-layer to multi-layer flakes. 

The exact mechanism of cleavage was found to be layer dependent. 
Flakes thinner than 5 layers undergo homogenous bending and rippling, while flakes around 10 layers thick delaminated through interlayer sliding. 
Flakes with more than 20 layers exhibited a kinking mechanism during micromechanical cleavage. 
The cleavage of these flakes was also determined to be reversible due to the nature of van der Waals bonding.
In recent years, MoS2 has been utilized in flexible electronic applications, promoting more investigation into the elastic properties of this material. 
Nanoscopic bending tests using AFM cantilever tips were performed on micromechanically exfoliated MoS2 flakes that were deposited on a holey substrate.

The yield strength of monolayer flakes was 270 GPa, while the thicker flakes were also stiffer, with a yield strength of 330 GPa.
Molecular dynamic simulations found the in-plane yield strength of MoS2 to be 229 GPa, which matches the experimental results within error.
Bertolazzi and coworkers also characterized the failure modes of the suspended monolayer flakes. 
The strain at failure ranges from 6 to 11%. 
The average yield strength of monolayer MoS2 is 23 GPa, which is close to the theoretical fracture strength for defect-free MoS2.
The band structure of MoS2 is sensitive to strain.

Chemical reactions
Molybdenum disulfide is stable in air and attacked only by aggressive reagents. 
Molybdenum disulfide reacts with oxygen upon heating forming molybdenum trioxide:
2 MoS2 + 7 O2 → 2 MoO3 + 4 SO2

Chlorine attacks molybdenum disulfide at elevated temperatures to form molybdenum pentachloride:
2 MoS2 + 7 Cl2 → 2 MoCl5 + 2 S2Cl2

Intercalation reactions
Molybdenum disulfide is a host for formation of intercalation compounds. 
This behavior is relevant to its use as a cathode material in batteries.
One example is a lithiated material, LixMoS2.
With butyl lithium, the product is LiMoS2.

Research
Hydrogen evolution MoS2 and related molybdenum sulfides are efficient catalysts for hydrogen evolution, including the electrolysis of water; thus, are possibly useful to produce hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

Microelectronics
As in graphene, the layered structures of MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit electronic and optical properties that can differ from those in bulk.
Bulk MoS2 has an indirect band gap of 1.2 eV, while MoS2 monolayers have a direct 1.8 eV electronic bandgap, supporting switchable transistors and photodetectors.

MoS2 nanoflakes can be used for solution-processed fabrication of layered memristive and memcapacitive devices through engineering a MoOx/MoS2 heterostructure sandwiched between silver electrodes.
MoS2-based memristors are mechanically flexible, optically transparent and can be produced at low cost.

The sensitivity of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor is fundamentally restricted by the zero band gap of graphene, which results in increased leakage and reduced sensitivity. 
In digital electronics, transistors control current flow throughout an integrated circuit and allow for amplification and switching. 
In biosensing, the physical gate is removed and the binding between embedded receptor molecules and the charged target biomolecules to which they are exposed modulates the current.
MoS2 has been investigated as a component of flexible circuits.

MoS2 (2H phase) is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.2 eV. Monolayer MoS2 has a band gap of ~1.8 eV. 
Molybdenum Disulfide is used for example as a photodetector and transistor. 
The layers are stacked together via van der Waals interactions and can be exfoliated into thin 2D layers. 
MoS2 belongs to the group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC).
The 2H phase MoS2 crystals produced at HQ Graphene have a typical lateral size of ~0.8-1 cm, hexagonal/rectangular shaped and have a metallic appearance. 
We produce both n-type and p-type MoS2, having a typical charge carrier density of ~1015cm-3 at room temperature. 
A selection of peer review publications on the MoS2 crystals we sell can be found below.

Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles can be synthesized at high temperature as mono- and polycrystalline materials or at low temperature using various electro-chemical routes. 
In the low temperature method, a chemical solution reaction route can be used between the organometallic precursor Mo(CO) 6 and sulfur in p-xylene at 140°C. 
The MoS2 nanoparticles obtained is of 10–30 nm diameter, and mostly amorphous with a rounded shape.

Molybdenum disulfide is used traditionally in greases for bit lubrication. 
In addition, polymers of 2-methylpropene (i.e., isobutene) and metal soaps are used to formulate synthetic greases.
A viscosity of 600-750 c P at 120 °C is desirable. 
However, in the severe environment of a rock bit bearing, the viscosity of the composition should be at least 200 c P at 100 °C. 
Other heavy-duty greases based on molybdenum sulfide also contain calcium fluoride and metal soaps as thickeners.

Specialized lubricating greases have been developed for the bearing assemblies of roller bits. 
The greases are prepared from petroleum oils that are thickened with alkali and alkaline earth metal soaps. 
The greases contain additives and fillers, such as synthetic dichalcogenides of refractory metals, which exhibit the necessary service characteristics. 
Tests have shown that such greases exceed the initial grease by 7-12 times with respect to performance time.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an important solid lubricant and is known as the "king of solid lubrication."
Molybdenum disulfide is a solid powder made from natural molybdenum concentrate after chemical purification. 
The color of the product is black with a slight silver gray, metallic luster, slippery to the touch, and insoluble in water. 
Molybdenum disulfide has the advantages of good dispersibility and non-sticking. 
Molybdenum disulfide can be added to various greases to form a non-sticky colloidal state, increasing the lubricity and extreme pressure of the grease.
Molybdenum disulfide is also suitable for high-temperature, high-pressure, high-speed, and high-load mechanical working conditions to extend the life of the equipment; the main function of molybdenum disulfide for friction materials is to reduce friction at low temperatures and increase friction at high temperatures with small loss on ignition.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has a wide range of applications as a good solid lubricant, and the following working conditions are applicable:
1. Lubrication under wide temperature conditions: the applicable range of lubricating oil and grease is about 60°C to 350°C. 
The molybdenum disulfide solid lubricant can be applied to the operating temperature range of 270°C to 1000°C.
2. Lubrication under heavy load conditions: The oil film of general lubricating oil and grease can only bear relatively small loads. 
Once the load exceeds the limit value it can bear, the oil film will rupture and the friction surface will seize. 
The average load that the solid lubricating film can bear is 108Pa.
3. Lubrication under vacuum conditions: Under high vacuum conditions, general lubricating oils and greases are highly evaporative, which can easily damage the vacuum environment and affect the performance of other components. 
Generally, molybdenum disulfide solid lubricating materials are used for lubrication.
4. Lubrication under radiation conditions: Under radiation conditions, general liquid lubricants will polymerize or decompose and lose their lubricating properties. 
Solid lubricants have better radiation resistance.
5. Lubrication of conductive sliding surface: The friction of conductive sliding surfaces such as motor brushes, conductive sliders, solar collector rings and sliding electrical contacts on artificial satellites working in a vacuum, can be made of carbon graphite or metal The composite material is lubricated.
6. Severe environmental conditions: severe environmental conditions, such as transportation machinery, engineering machinery, metallurgical and steel industry institutions, mining machinery and other transmission parts working in harsh environments such as dust, sand, high temperature and humidity, can be used Molybdenum disulfide solid lubricant for lubrication.
7. Corrosive environments: such as ship machinery, chemical machinery and other transmission parts working in corrosive media such as water (steam), sea water, acid, alkali, salt, etc., must withstand different degrees of chemical corrosion. 
The transmission parts working in this situation can be lubricated with molybdenum disulfide solid.
8. The environment is very clean: the transmission parts in the electronics, textile, food, medicine, paper, printing and other machinery need to avoid contamination, and MoS2 solid lubricant can be used for lubrication.
9. Occasions without maintenance: Some transmission parts do not need maintenance, and some transmission parts need to reduce the frequency of maintenance in order to save costs. 
In these occasions, the use of MoS2 solid lubricants is both reasonable and convenient and can save money.

IUPAC name
Molybdenum disulfide

Other names
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide

Molybdenum disulfide [molybdenum(IV) sulfide, MoS2] is an inorganic compound that exists in nature in the mineral molybdenite. 
Molybdenum disulfides crystals have a hexagonal layered structure (shown) that is similar to graphite.
In 1957, Ronald E. Bell and Robert E. Herfert at the now-defunct Climax Molybdenum Company of Michigan (Ann Arbor) prepared what was then a new rhombohedral crystalline form of MoS2. Rhombohedral crystals were subsequently discovered in nature.
Like most mineral salts, MoS2 has a high melting point, but Molybdenum disulfide begins to sublime at a relatively low 450 ºC, this property is useful for purifying the compound.
Because of Molybdenum disulfides layered structure, hexagonal MoS2, like graphite, is an excellent “dry” lubricant. 
Molybdenum disulfide and its cousin tungsten disulfide can be used as surface coatings on machine parts (e.g., in the aerospace industry), in two-stroke engines (the type used for motorcycles), and in gun barrels (to reduce friction between the bullet and the barrel).

Unlike graphite, MoS2 does not depend on adsorbed water or other vapors for Molybdenum disulfides lubricant properties. 
Molybdenum disulfide can be used at temperatures as high as 350 ºC in oxidizing environments and up to 1100 ºC in nonoxidizing environments. 
Molybdenum disulfides stability makes Molybdenum disulfide useful in high-temperature applications in which oils and greases are not practical.
In addition to its lubricating properties, MoS2 is a semiconductor. 

Linear Formula: MoS2
MDL Number: MFCD00003470
EC No.: 215-263-9
Pubchem CID: 14823
IUPAC Name: bis(sulfanylidene)molybdenum
SMILES: S=[Mo]=S
InchI Identifier: InChI=1S/Mo.2S
InchI Key: CWQXQMHSOZUFJS-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Molybdenum disulfide is also known that Molybdenum disulfide and other semiconducting transition-metal chalcogenides become superconductors at their surfaces when doped with an electrostatic field.
The mechanism of superconductivity was uncertain until 2018, when Andrea C. Ferrari at the University of Cambridge (UK) and colleagues there and at the Polytechnic Institute of Turin (Italy) reported that a multivalley Fermi surface is associated with the superconductivity state in MoS2. 
The authors believe that “this [Fermi surface] topology will serve as a guideline in the quest for new superconductors.”

In 2017 a 115-transistor, 1-bit microprocessor implementation using two-dimensional MoS2.
MoS2 has been used to create 2D 2-terminal memristors and 3-terminal memtransistors.
Photonics and photovoltaics MoS2 also possesses mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and can emit light, opening possible applications such as photodetectors.
MoS2 has been investigated as a component of photoelectrochemical (e.g. for photocatalytic hydrogen production) applications and for microelectronics applications.
Superconductivity of monolayers Under an electric field MoS2 monolayers have been found to superconduct at temperatures below 9.4 K.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which resembles graphite, is used as a solid lubricant or as an additive to greases and oils. 
Molybdenum forms hard, refractory, and chemically inert interstitial compounds with boron, carbon, nitrogen, and silicon upon direct reaction with those elements at high temperatures.

MoS2 is effective in this application because Molybdenum disulfide's a layered material much like graphite with easy slip planes. 
Now that graphite, in the form of graphene, is being used for electronic circuits, Molybdenum disulfide seems logical that molybdenite should be tried as well.

MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide
1317-33-5
Molybdenite
Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2)
1309-56-4
UNII-ZC8B4P503V
ZC8B4P503V
MFCD00003470
Molysulfide
Molykote
Motimol
Nichimoly C
Sumipowder PA
Molykote Z
Molyke R

Molybdenum disulfide belongs to a class of materials called 'transition metal dichalcogenides' (TMDCs). 
Materials in this class have the chemical formula MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (groups 4-12 in the periodic table) and X is a chalcogen (group 16). 
The chemical formula of molybdenum disulfide is MoS2.
The crystal structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) takes the form of a hexagonal plane of S atoms on either side of a hexagonal plane of Mo atoms.
These triple planes stack on top of each other, with strong covalent bonds between the Mo and S atoms, but weak van der Waals forcing holding layers together. 
This allows them to be mechanically separated to form 2-dimensional sheets of MoS2.
Following on from the huge research interest in graphene, MoS2 was the next 2-dimensional material to be investigated for potential device applications. 
Due to Molybdenum disulfides direct bandgap, Molybdenum disulfide has a great advantage over graphene for several applications, including optical sensors and field-effect transistors.

General description
Molybdenum disulfide is a two dimensional layered material. 
Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)exhibit photoconductivity. 
The layers of the TMD can be mechanically or chemicaly exfoliated to form nanosheets.

Application
Acidic solution of MoS2 particles was used to catalyze hydrogen evolution at a water 1,2-dichloroethane interface. 
MoS2 was dispersed in N-methyl-pyrrolidone to form exfoliated MoS2 flakes of various sizes. 
MoS2 ink was used for inkjet printer. 
MoS2 may find potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

Molybdenum disulfide’s exceptional lubricity is a consequence of its unique crystal structure, which is made up of very weakly bonded lamellae.
These lamellae can slide across each other, “shear”, under very low force, providing the lubrication effect. 
This shearing force required to overcome the weak bonding between the lamellae, F, is related to the compressive force, W, perpendicular to the lamellae by the equation F = μ W where μ is a constant termed the “Coefficient of Friction”.
The coefficient of friction for molybdenum disulfide crystals shearing along their lamella is approximately 0.025, among the lowest known for any material.
The lamellae tend to align and adhere to contact surfaces, particularly under conditions of sliding and pressure.
This “burnishing in” of the molybdenum disulfide gives it its exceptional performance life. 

History
Molybdenum disulfide is a naturally occurring blackcolored solid compound that feels slippery to the touch. 
Molybdenum disulfide readily transfers and adheres to other solid surfaces with which Molybdenum disulfide comes into contact. 
Molybdenum disulfides mineral form – called molybdenite – was commonly confused with graphite until late in the 1700’s. 
Both were used for lubrication and as a writing material for centuries.
Wider use of molybdenite as a lubricant was impeded by naturally occurring impurities that significantly reduced Molybdenum disulfides lubricating properties. 

Methods of purifying molybdenum disulfide and extracting molybdenum were developed late in the 19th century, and the value of molybdenum as an alloying addition to steel was quickly recognized. 
The demand for a domestic source of molybdenum during World War I resulted in the development of the Climax mine in Colorado, which started production in 1918 and continued into the 1990’s1 , 2.
The availability of high purity molybdenum disulfide spurred extensive investigations into Molybdenum disulfides lubrication properties in various environments during the late 30’s and 40’s. 
These investigations demonstrated Molybdenum disulfides superior lubrication properties and stability under extreme contact pressures and in vacuum environments. 
The United States National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the precursor to NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, initiated research on aerospace uses of molybdenum disulfide in 1946. 
These investigations resulted in extensive applications in spacecraft3, including the extendible legs on the Apollo Lunar Module4 , 5.
Applications continue to expand as new technologies evolve requiring reliable lubrication and resistance to galling under increasingly stringent conditions of temperature, pressure, vacuum, corrosive environments, process sensitivity to contamination, product life, and maintenance requirements.

Molybdenum disulfide is used as a dry lubricant in, e.g. greases, dispersions, friction materials and bonded coatings.
Molybdenum-sulfur complexes may be used in suspension but more commonly dissolved in lubricating oils at concentrations of a few percent.
Molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, the most common natural form of molybdenum, is extracted from the ore and then purified for direct use in lubrication. 
Since molybdenum disulfide is of geothermal origin, Molybdenum disulfide has the durability to withstand heat and pressure. 
This is particularly so if small amounts of sulfur are available to react with iron and provide a sulfide layer which is compatible with MoS2 in maintaining the lubricating film.

T-Powder
Moly Powder B
Moly Powder C
Moly Powder PA
Moly Powder PS
Mopol M
Mopol S
Natural molybdenite
Molybdenum bisulfide
Pigment Black 34
M 5 (lubricant)
Liqui-Moly LM 2
Solvest 390A
DM 1 (sulfide)
Molybdenite (MoS2)
Liqui-Moly LM 11

Mechanical properties
MoS2 monolayers are flexible, and thin-film FETs have been shown to retain their electronic properties when bent to a 0.75mm radius of curvature. 
They have a stiffness comparable to steel, and a higher breaking strength than flexible plastics (such as polyimide(PI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)), making them particularly suitable for flexible electronics.
At around 35Wm-1K-1, the thermal conductivity of MoS2 monolayers is ~100 times lower than that of graphene.

Compound Formula: MoS2
Molecular Weight: 160.07
Appearance: Black powder or solid in various forms
Melting Point: 1185 ° C (2165 ° F)
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: 5.06 g/cm3
Solubility in H2O: Insoluble
Storage Temperature: Ambient temperatures
Exact Mass: 161.849549
Monoisotopic Mass: 161.849549

Molybdenum Sulfide or Molybdenum Disulfide is a moderately water and acid soluble Molybdenum source for uses compatible with sulfates. 
Sulfate compounds are salts or esters of sulfuric acid formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogens with a metal.
Most metal sulfate compounds are readily soluble in water for uses such as water treatment, unlike fluorides and oxides which tend to be insoluble. 
Organometallic forms are soluble in organic solutions and sometimes in both aqueous and organic solutions. 
Metallic ions can also be dispersed utilizing suspended or coated nanoparticles and deposited utilizing sputtering targets and evaporation materials for uses such as solar energy materials and fuel cells. 

Molybdenum Sulfide is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
Ultra high purity and high purity compositions improve both optical quality and usefulness as scientific standards. 
Nanoscale elemental powders and suspensions, as alternative high surface area forms, may be considered. 
American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopeia/British Pharmacopeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. 
Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

Molybdenum disulfide coatings have unique characteristics that differentiate Molybdenum disulfide from other solid or dry lubricants.
Molybdenum disulfide coatings provide effective lubrication for loads exceeding 250,000 psi, with a low coefficient of friction at 0.03-0.06. 
MoS2 also remains stable even in the presence of other solvents.
Current research shows no other lubricant aside of molybdenum disulfide coatings that can resist temperatures higher than 350°C in oxidizing environments, and 1100°C in non-oxidizing environments.
Molybdenum disulfide coatings are thermally cured and bonded to the base metal of the coated part. 
Aside from bonded coating, other recognized MoS2 coating formulations are greases for bearings, splines, and chassis, or as pastes for splines, gears, and universal joints.

Molycolloid CF 626
LM 13 (lubricant)
MD 40 (lubricant)
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide, 98.5%
Molykote Microsize Powder
C.I. Pigment Black 34
Molybdenum ores, molybdenite
DAG-V 657
HSDB 1660
DAG 206
DAG 325
LM 13
MD 40

MOLYBDENUM disulphide, MoS2, undergoes oxidation in bulk at temperatures above 450° C, which may be demonstrated1 by gravimetry. 
However, the substance must ordinarily be covered with a surface layer of oxide, since heating samples in a good vacuum leads to the evaporation of molybdenum trioxide. 
Molybdenum disulfide is possible that such layers are involved in the frictional transients observed2 when molybdenum disulphide is used as a lubricant in wet atmospheric environments. 
Molybdenum disulfide is germane to inquire as to the origin of the oxide layers, and we wish to comment on the possible extent of the hydrolytic decomposition of molybdenum disulphide to yield hydrogen sulphide and molybdenum dioxide. 
Haltner found2 that when an MoS2 film, supported on certain metals, and particularly copper, was exposed to rubbing and shearing forces in a wet atmosphere, hydrogen sulphide could be detected. 
If no metal is present, however, the reaction appears to be different, for Cannon3 found that the gravimetry of adsorption of water on fine particle molybdenum disulphide showed a strong and extensive irreversible interaction at 0° C. 

Synonym(s):
Molybdenum disulfide
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
MoS2

CAS Number: 1317-33-5
Molecular Weight: 160.07
EC Number: 215-263-9
MDL number: MFCD00003470
PubChem Substance ID: 57652216
NACRES: NA.23

Molybdenum Disulfide is dry/solid lubricant powder, also known as the molybdenite (principal ore from which molybdenum metal is extracted), and has the chemical formula MoS2. 
Molybdenum disulfide is insoluble in water and dilute acids. 
Crystal structure is Hexagonal Lamellar and is similar to graphite, Boron Nitride and Tungsten Disulfide. 
Molybdenum disulfide also has excellent film forming properties and is an excellent lubricant in moisture free environments below 400° C. 
MoS2 offers excellent lubricity properties in inert atmospheres and under high vacuum where other conventional lubricants fail. 

MoS2 also offers extreme pressure lubricant properties. 
MoS2 is able to withstand up to 250,000 p.s.i. which makes it extremely effective when used in applications such as cold metal forming. 
MoS2 is widely used as dry lubricant additive in Grease, Oils, Polymers, Paints and other coatings. 
MoS2 is available in particle sizes: 90 nm, 1.5 micron, 4.5 micron and 12.5 micron.
Larger sizes are possible as custom orders. 

New and future applications of MoS2: Since the discovery of single-layer graphene in 2004, the field of 2D materials has seen several new classes of materials emerge. 
One of these is transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). 
These materials are comprised of one of the transition metals bound with one of the elements in Group 16. 
However, oxides are typically not classed as dichalcogenides. 
Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) is currently the most studied member of the TMD family. 

Similar to graphite, when MoS2 transitions from a bulk structure to a single layer structure the properties of this material undergo a significant change. 
The layers of the TMD can be mechanically or chemically exfoliated to form nanosheets.
The most striking change that occurs when transitioning from bulk to single layer is the shift in the optoelectronic properties, with the material changing from being an indirect bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap value of approximately 1.3 eV to a direct bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap value of approximately 1.9 eV. 
Due to the presence of a bandgap in this material there are significantly more uses for MoS2 in comparison to other 2d materials such as graphene.
Some areas in which MoS2 has already been applied include high on/off ratio field effect transistors due to low leakage currents, memresistors based on layered TMD films, controllable spin and valley polarization, geometric confinement of excitons, tuneable photoluminescence, the electrolysis of water, and photovoltaics/photodetectors.

Molybdenum disulfide is a naturally mined material that takes a silvery black solid form, similar to that of graphite. 
The geothermal origin of molybdenum disulfide lends to its durability to withstand heat and pressure. 
Molybdenum disulfide is also relatively unaffected by dilute acids and oxygen.
When combined with high quality resins, binders, and other water soluble sulfides, molybdenum disulfide provides excellent lubrication and corrosion inhibiting properties.
Molybdenum disulfide is commonly used in parts and equipment with heavy load carrying capacity, subjected to high operating temperatures, and where the coefficient of friction is a concern.

Moly di sulphide (MoS2) is a black powder insoluble in most solvents. 
Molybdenum disulfide is an excellent high temperature lubricant stable in air to 350°C and in vacuum or inert atmospheres to 1200°C.
Molybdenum disulfide is a lubricant grade of molybdenum disulphide [MoS2] available in technicalgrade.
Typical MoS2 content [calculated average] is 98%.

Applications :
Lubricants : Grease – Generally greases contain typically 3 percent MoS2 with the critical parameters being surface roughness, load & speed.
Pastes – These grease like products contain high levels (50- 70 percent ) of Mos2. 
Technical grade is typically used because this particle size can satisfy a broader range of requirements.

Aerosol sprays & Bonded coatings- Theses products contain up to 80 percent Mos2 and a binder material that can be either organic or inorganic in nature. 
MIL – Spec coatings invariably use Technical Grade but if the product is in aerosol form Super fine may be required to guard against spray tip clogging.

Friction products: Friction materials includes brake pads and clutch linings for automotive and aircraft applications. 
Technical grade is used in these products to reduce noise (squeaking), dependence of friction level on sliding speed and temperature, and wear. 
Cold forging and cold extrusion – Technical fine grade is preferred.

Engineering plastics Engineering plastics- Both Technical & Technical Fine grade may be used, depending on the polymer system.
Sinter metallurgy; Carbon brushes:

Physical Properties:
A shining bluish-gray to black powder.
Mol. Wt:160. 08
Sp. Gr. 4. 8-5
Hardness 1 on Mohs scale.
Plastics: it gives self-lubrication, lower coefficient of friction and much lower wear on parts.
Rubber: to reduce friction, in elastomers (as mold release and finish).
Lubricant: high temperature lubricants

EINECS 215-172-4
EINECS 215-263-9
bis(sulfanylidene)molybdenum
C.I. 77770
disulfidomolybdenum
[MoS2]
ACMC-1BT09
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide, powder
DTXSID5042162CHEBI:30704
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide, 95.0%
AKOS015903590

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a layered material with outstanding electrical and optical properties. 
Numerous studies evaluate the performance in sensors, catalysts, batteries, and composites that can benefit from guidance by simulations in all-atom resolution. 
However, molecular simulations remain difficult due to lack of reliable models. 
We introduce an interpretable force field for MoS2 with record performance that reproduces structural, interfacial, and mechanical properties in 0.1% to 5% agreement with experiments. 
The model overcomes structural instability, deviations in interfacial and mechanical properties by several 100%, and empirical fitting protocols in earlier models. 
Molybdenum disulfide is compatible with several force fields for molecular dynamics simulation, including the interface force field (IFF), CVFF, DREIDING, PCFF, COMPASS, CHARMM, AMBER, and OPLS-AA. 

The parameters capture polar covalent bonding, X-ray structure, cleavage energy, infrared spectra, bending stability, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and contact angles with polar and nonpolar solvents. 
We utilized the models to uncover the binding mechanism of peptides to the MoS2 basal plane. 
The binding strength of several 7mer and 8mer peptides scales linearly with surface contact and replacement of surface-bound water molecules, and is tunable in a wide range from −86 to −6 kcal mol−1.
The binding selectivity is multifactorial, including major contributions by van-der-Waals coordination and charge matching of certain side groups, orientation of hydrophilic side chains towards water, and conformation flexibility. 
We explain the relative attraction and role of the 20 amino acids using computational and experimental data. 
The force field can be used to screen and interpret the assembly of MoS2-based nanomaterials and electrolyte interfaces up to a billion atoms with high accuracy, including multiscale simulations from the quantum scale to the microscale.

Henderson molybdenite, NIST RM 8599
Molybdenum disulfide, Crystal, 99.995%
FT-0628966
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide, powder, <2 mum, 99%
Q424257
Molybdenum sulfide concentrate, NIST(R) SRM(R) 333a
Molybdenite, naturally occurring mineral, grains, approximately 0.06-0.19in
Molybdenum(IV) sulfide, nanopowder, 90 nm diameter (APS), 99% trace metals basis
863767-83-3

Molybdenum Disulfide is a dry film lubricant and is widely used as a friction-reducing additive to coatings, greases and waxes.
Molybdenum disulfide coatings or MoS2 is an inorganic compound used as a coating solution for critical parts and equipment. 
Because the compound is unreactive to most corrosive agents, MoS2 is widely used in corrosion management.
Molybdenum disulfide is typically applied as a solid or dry lubricant and offers great corrosion protection against friction, high temperature, and harsh chemicals.

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