Butanethiol is used as a solvent, as an intermediate in the synthesis of certain pesticides and, as a result of its odour, as an additive with warning function
EC / List no.: 203-705-3
CAS no.: 109-79-5
Mol. formula: C4H10S
normal butyl thioalcohol
Butyl mercaptan appears as a clear, colorless liquid with a strong skunk-like odor.
Flash point in range -18 to 43°F.
Less dense than water and slightly soluble in water. Vapors heavier than air.
Other names: n-Butanethiol; n-Butyl mercaptan; n-Butyl thioalcohol; Butanethiol; Butyl mercaptan; Thiobutyl alcohol; 1-Butyl mercaptan; n-C4H9SH; NCI-C60866; Butylthiol; n-Butylthiol; 1-Mercaptobutane; 1-butylthiol; butane-1-thiol
n-Butyl mercaptan (n-BM) is used as a solvent and a chemical intermediate
N-Butyl Mercaptan is used in food and nutritional applications as an agrochemical intermediate, steam boilers, feed water heaters, piping and heat exchangers and as lubricating oil additive.
Industries: Agriculture , Lubricant Formulation , Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul
N-Butyl Mercaptan is used in Food and Nutritional applications as flavour and fragrance intermediate as well as agrochemical intermediates to maintain fertile land, grow crops and raise healthy livestock.
Form : Liquid
Physical state : Liquid
Color : Clear
Odor : Repulsive
Flash point : 3,3 °C
Method: ASTM D - 1310
Lower explosion limit : 1,4 %(V)
Upper explosion limit : 11,3 %(V)
Oxidizing properties : no
Autoignition temperature : 272 °C estimated
Molecular formula : C4H10S
Molecular weight : 90,2 g/mol
pH : Not applicable
Freezing point : -115 °C
Boiling point/boiling range : 96 - 110 °C
Vapor pressure : 1,60 PSI at 38 °C
Relative density : 0,842 at 15,6 °C
Density : 840 g/l
Water solubility : Negligible
Viscosity, dynamic : 0,497 cP
Relative vapor density : 2 (Air = 1.0)
Evaporation rate : 1
Percent volatile : > 99 %
Primary Chemistry: N-BUTYL MERCAPTAN
Synonyms: 1-Mercaptobutane; Butyl mercaptan; n-Butyl thioalcohol; Butane-1-thiol
CAS # 109-79-5, Butanethiol, 1-Mercaptobutane, Butyl mercaptan, n-Butyl thioalcohol, Butane-1-thiol
Molecular Formula: C4H10S
Molecular Weight: 90.18
CAS Registry Number: 109-79-5
Flavor & Fragrance
Molecular mass: 90.2
CAS # 109-79-5
RTECS # EK6300000
ICSC # 0018
UN # 2347
CAS Number: 109-79-5
Chemical formula: C4H10S
Molar mass: 90.18 g·mol−1
Appearance: Clear liquid
Odor: cabbage-like, skunk-like, garlic-like
Density: 0.83679 g/mL
Melting point: −115.8 °C (−176.4 °F; 157.3 K)
Boiling point: 98.2 °C (208.8 °F; 371.3 K)
Solubility in water: Slightly soluble (0.06% at 20°C)
Vapor pressure: 35 mmHg (20°C)
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point: 2 °C; 35 °F; 275 K
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LC50 (median concentration): 4020 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
2500 ppm (mouse, 4 hr)
770 ppm (dog, 30 min)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible) TWA 10 ppm (35 mg/m3)
REL (Recommended) C 0.5 ppm (1.8 mg/m3) [15-minute]
IDLH (Immediate danger) 500 ppm
1-Butanethiol, also known as butyl mercaptan, is a volatile, clear to yellowish liquid with a fetid (extremely foul-smelling) odor, commonly described as "skunk" odor.
In fact, 1-butanethiol is structurally similar to several major constituents of a skunk's defensive spray but is not actually present in the spray.
The scent of 1-butanethiol is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion.
The threshold level for 1-butanethiol is reported as 1.4 ppb
1-Butanethiol is chemically classified among the thiols, which are organic compounds with molecular formulas and structural formulas similar to alcohols, except that sulfur-containing sulfhydryl group (-SH) replaces the oxygen-containing hydroxyl group (-OH) in the molecule.
1-Butanethiol's basic molecular formula is C4H9SH, and its structural formula is similar to that of the alcohol n-butanol.
1-Butanethiol is prepared by the free radical catalyzed addition of hydrogen sulfide to 1-butene.
Commercially, this is performed using ultraviolet light.
1-Butanethiol is a thiol of low molecular weight, and it is highly flammable.
1-Butanethiol is used as an industrial solvent, and as an intermediate for cotton defoliants.
It is sometimes placed in the "stink bombs" and "stink perfumes" for pranksters.
Feed water heaters
Piping and heat exchangers
Food nutritional applications as well as flavour and fragrance intermediate
Agrochemical intermediates to maintain fertile land, grow crops and raise healthy livestock.
Pesticide Dispersing Agent
Air Compressor Oil Formulating
Engine Oil Formulating
Gear Oil Formulating
Hydraulic Oil Formulating
Industrial Oil Formulating
Textile Oil Formulating
Turbine Oil Formulating
Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul
Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul
1-Butanethiol is a very noxious and caustic chemical compound, and at sufficiently high concentrations, it produces serious health effects in both humans and animals, especially as a result of prolonged exposure.
Higher concentrations can lead to unconsciousness and coma after prolonged exposure.
Contact with the skin and mucous membranes causes burns, and contact with the eyes can lead to blurred vision or complete blindness.
Inhalation may cause weakness, confusion, cough, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath.
The substance irritates the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract.
It may cause effects on the thyroid and the nervous system and could cause lowering of consciousness.
Normal butyl thioalcohol
Caswell No. 119D
1-Butanethiol, 98%, AcroSeal(R)
FEMA No. 3478
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 125001
n-butyl mercaptan, sodium salt
n-butyl mercaptan, lithium salt
n-butyl mercaptan, Ag(+1) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, potassium salt
n-butyl mercaptan, tin (+2) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, lead (+2) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, copper (+1) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, silver (+2) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, geranium (+2) salt
n-butyl mercaptan, molybdenum (+3) salt
UN 2347 (Related)
n-butyl mercaptan, 14C,1-(35)S-labeled cpd
4-01-00-01555 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
n-butyl mercaptan, 2-(14)C,2-(35)s-labeled cpd
n-butyl mercaptan, 1,2-(14)C,2-(35) S-labeled cpd
1-Butanethiol, analytical standard
1-Butanethiol, purum, >=97.0% (GC)
Butanethiol Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Butane thiol, also known as butyl mercaptan, is a volatile, clear to yellowish liquid with a fetid (extremely foul-smelling) odor, commonly described as "skunk" odor. In fact, butanethiol is structurally similar to several major constituents of a skunk's defensive spray but is not actually present in the spray. The scent of butanethiol is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. The threshold level for 1-butane thiol is reported as 1.4 ppb.
Butanethiol is chemically classified among the thiols, which are organic compounds with molecular formulas and structural formulas similar to alcohols, except that sulfur-containing sulfhydryl group (- SH) replaces the oxygen-containing hydroxyl group in the molecule. Butanethiol's basic molecular formula is C4H9SH, and its structural formula is similar to that of the alcohol n-butanol. Butanethiol is prepared by the free radical catalyzed addition of hydrogen sulfide to 1-butene. Commercially, this is performed using ultraviolet light. Butanethiol is a thiol of low molecular weight, and it is highly flammable.
1-Butanethiol has an unpleasant (skunk) odor.
Butanethiol is also known as butyl mercaptan. It is a volatile, highly flammable clear to yellowish liquid with an extremely foul-smelling, strong, garlic-, cabbageor skunk-like Butanethiol is also known as butyl mercaptan. It is a volatile, highly flammable clear to yellowish liquid with an extremely foul-smelling, strong, garlic-, cabbageor skunk-like
Clear, colorless liquid with a strong garlic, cabbage, or pungent skunk-like odor. Odor threshold concentrations of 0.0028 ppbv and 3.7 μg/m3 (1.0 ppbv) were reported by Katz and Talbert (1930) and Nagata and Takeuchi (1990), respectively.
Reported found in beef, cheddar cheese, raw chicken, cooked potatoes, beer and boiled eggs.
Butanethiol is used as an industrial solvent , and as an intermediate for cotton defoliants. It is some times placed in the "stink bombs" and "stink perfumes" for prankster.
Solvent; intermediate in the production of insecticides and herbicides; gas odorant
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72, p. 1073, 1950 DOI: 10.1021/ja01159a005
Butanethiol is also known as butyl mercaptan. It is a volatile, clear to yellowish liquid with an extremely foul smell, with a strong, garlic-, cabbage-, or skunk-like odour. It is slightly oily in nature. Butanethiol is used as a chemical intermediate in the production of insecticides and herbicides. It is also used as a gas odorant.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
Butanethiol is incompatible with acids, diazo and azo compounds, halocarbons, isocyanates, aldehydes, alkali metals, nitrides, hydrides, and other strong reducing agents. Reactions with these materials generate heat and in many cases hydrogen gas. May liberate hydrogen sulfide upon decomposition or reaction with an acid. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents [USCG, 1999].
Toxic by inhalation. Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Upper respiratory tract irritant.
Inhalation causes loss of sense of smell; muscular weakness. convulsions, and respiratory paralysis may follow prolonged exposure. Contact of liquid with eyes or skin causes slight irritation. Ingestion causes nausea.
Exposures to butanethiol cause adverse health effects and poisoning. The symptoms of poisoning in exposed workers include, but are not limited to, asthenia, muscular weak ness, malaise, sweating, nausea, vomiting, headache, restlessness, increased respiration, incoordination, muscular weakness, skeletal muscle paralysis in most cases, heavy to mild cyanosis, lethargy and/or sedation, respiratory depression followed by coma. Severe cases of poisoning lead to death of the exposed worker. In laboratory studies, animals given intraperitoneal and oral exposures of butane thiol survived near-lethal single doses. However, after 20 days post-treatment, animals showed pathological changes involving liver and kidney damage. The pathomorpho logical changes in the liver included cloudy swelling, fatty degeneration, and necrosis. Pathological changes in the kidneys included cloudy swelling, and the lungs displayed capillary engorgement, patchy edema, and occasional hemorrhage
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An eye irritant. Dangerous fire hazard by exposure to heat, flame, sparks, or powerful oxidizers. Reacts violently with HNO3. Incompatible with acids, acid fumes, oxidizing materials, heat, flame, and sparks. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic SOx. See also MERCAPTANS.
Butanethiol is a very noxious and caustic chemical compound, and at sufficiently high concentrations, it produces serious health effects in both humans and animals, especially as a result of prolonged exposure. Higher concentrations can lead to unconsciousness and coma after prolonged exposure. Contact with the skin and mucous membranes causes burns, and contact with the eyes can lead to blurred vision or complete blindness.
Inhalation may cause weakness, confusion, cough, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath. The substance irritates the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. It may cause effects on the thyroid and the nervous system and could cause lowering of consciousness.
Butyl mercaptan is a flammable, colorless liquid with a strong, skunk-like odor. The Odor Threshold in air is 0.00097 ppm. Molecular weight 5 90.19; Specific gravity (H2O:1) 5 0.83 @ 20C; boiling point 5 99C;freezing/melting point 5 2116C; vapor pressure 5 35 mmHg @ 20C; 75 mmHg @ 34.5C; relative vapor density (air 5 1) 5 3.1; Flash point 5 2C (cc); Autoignition temperature # 225C. Explosive limits: LEL: 1.4%; UEL: 10.2%. Hazard identification (based on NFPA-704 M Rating System): Health 1; flammability 3; reactivity 0 ?. Slightly soluble in water; solubility 5 0.06% @ 20C.
Chemical/Physical. Releases toxic sulfur oxide fumes when heated to decomposition (Sax and Lewis, 1987).
UN2347 Butyl mercaptan, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3—Flammable liquid
Dry the thiol with CaSO4 or Na2SO4, then reflux it over magnesium, or dry with, and distil it from CaO, under nitrogen [Roberts & Friend J Am Chem Soc 108 7204 1986.] It has been separated from hydrocarbons by extractive distillation with aniline. Dissolve it also in 20% NaOH, extract with a small amount of *C6H6, then steam distil it until clear. The solution is then cooled and acidified slightly with 15% H2SO4. The thiol is distilled out, dried with CaSO4 or CaCl2, and fractionally distilled under N2 [Mathias & Filho J Phys Chem 62 1427 1958]. It has also been purified by precipitation as the lead mercaptide from alcoholic solution, then regeneration by adding dilute HCl to the residue followed by steam distillation. All operations should be carried out in a fume cupboard due to the TOXICITY and obnoxious odour of the thiol. [Beilstein 1 IV 1555.]
May form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Attacks some plastics and rubber
Incineration (1093C) followed by scrubbing with a caustic solution.
Butanethiol decomposes an heading and release toxic fumes. It reacts with strong acids, bases and strong oxidants. Workers during handling of butanethiol should be very careful, should avoid open flames, sparkings, and smoking. Chemical vapor/air mixtures cause explosion ha3 and workers should wear protective cloathing, safety goggles and breathing apparatus and should work in good ventillation
Butanethiol Preparation Products And Raw materials
dilute sulphuric acid 1-Bromobutane Calcium chloride Methanol solvent Dibutyl sulfide 3-(n-Butylsulphanyl)propionic acid 1-Chlorobutane 3-Mercaptopropionic acid
Dibutyl sulfide 2-hexanethiol 4,4'-Cyclohexylidenebisphenol
1-Butanethiol formula graphical representation
1-Mercaptobutane; Bear skunk; Butanethiol; Butyl mercaptan; Butylthiol; Normal butyl thioalcohol; Thiobutyl alcohol; n-Butanethiol; n-Butyl mercaptan; n-Butyl thioalcohol; n-Butylmercaptan; [ChemIDplus] UN2347
Colorless liquid with a strong, garlic-, cabbage-, or skunk-like odor; [NIOSH]
Used as a solvent, an odorant for natural gas, and an intermediate for insecticides and herbicides; [ACGIH]
In four hour inhalation studies, rats and mice show central nervous system depression. Oral and intraperitoneal doses at near lethal levels injure the liver and kidneys. Workers exposed in an accident to 50-500 ppm for one hour experienced weakness, sweating, headache, and vomiting. One of these workers lost consciousness for 20 minutes. [ACGIH] See "THIOLS."