N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone appears as a clear colorless liquid with a "fishlike" odor. 
N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one is a member of the class of pyrrolidine-2-ones that is pyrrolidin-2-one in which the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen is replaced by a methyl group. 
NMP (N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone) is a polar solvent with outstanding characteristics. It has a wide range of applications because it offers very high solvency, high boiling point, low freezing point, and ease of handling.

CAS: No. 872-50-4 
EINECS: No. 212-828-1

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone,
1-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone,
1-Methyl-Pyrrolidine-2-one,
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone

Preferred IUPAC name
1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one
Other names
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-Methylpyrrolidone
N-Methylpyrrolidinone
Pharmasolve

CAS Number: 872-50-4 


The petrochemicals application segment of the NMP market includes butadiene recovery and extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene (BTX). NMP is also used in lube oil purification. The demand for NMP in the petrochemical industry is growing due to its high solvency and low degradation rate as compared to other chemicals. NMP faces competition from other polar aprotic solvents, such as acetonitrile, furfural, sulfolane, and dimethylformamide. APAC and the Middle East & Africa are increasing the production of BTX, thereby fueling the demand for NMP during the forecast period.


N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Acts as a powerful, aprotic solvent with high solvency and low volatility. Possesses high chemical and thermal stability. Exhibits complete miscibility with water at all temperatures and both recyclable by distillation as well as readily biodegradable. Due to its high boiling point and very good solvent power it extends as well as improves the properties of high temperature bake coatings. Provides very good mechanical and dielectric properties. Also aids rheological control, better flow, leveling-less cratering and pinholing. Used in electronic coatings, wire coatings and paint strippers.

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile water-miscible polar aprotic solvent. It is used as a drug solubilizer and penetration enhancer in human and animal, yet its bioactivity properties remain elusive

Pharmasolve™ N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile solubilizer for one-component systems. It is a water-miscible polar aprotic solvent with high interfacial activity. Pharmasolve™ NMP is manufactured in a facility with ISO 9001:2015 and EXCiPACT GMP certifications. It is used as a drug solubilizer and penetration enhancer in human and animal parenteral dosage forms.


N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a very strong solubilizing agent that has important applications in different fields of industry. 
This review presents NMP’s physicochemical characteristics, its applications - especially in the pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. 
The characteristics of NMP, such as physicochemical properties, solubilization efficacy, toxicity, and adverse effects, are compared with those of other common solvents used in pharmaceutical industries. 
This review shows that NMP is an acceptable pharmaceutical solvent and that its efficacy, toxicity, and side effects are comparable with those of other common solvents
         

ABSTRACT - N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a very strong solubilizing agent that has important applications in different fields of industry. 
This review presents NMP’s physicochemical characteristics, its applications - especially in the pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. 
The characteristics of NMP, such as physicochemical properties, solubilization efficacy, toxicity, and adverse effects, are compared with those of other common solvents used in pharmaceutical industries. 
This review shows that NMP is an acceptable pharmaceutical solvent and that its efficacy, toxicity, and side effects are comparable with those of other common solvents. 

INTRODUCTION  1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is a liquid, also called by several other names, such as 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-5-pyrrolidinone, 1-methylazacyclopentan-2-one, 1-methylpyrroli- dinone, 1-methylpyrrolidone, methyl-  pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). 
It is a solvent with high power for solubilizing chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. It is a product of the petroleum industry and can be recycled by distillation and extraction with water (1, 2). 
NMP is a biodegradable solvent therefore, environmental contamination considerations are fewer in its applications (3). 
It is used in different fields and is considered a safe solvent (4). 
In a recent study, it has been isolated from a marine sponge, which shows that it may be biosynthesized (5).  
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES In the pharmaceutical sciences, water is the most common solvent; however, organic solvents are also used. 
Table 1 shows a summary of physicochemical properties of the common organic solvents that have been reported as cosolvents in the literature related to pharmaceutical sciences (6), along with the properties of NMP. 
NMP belongs to the group of aprotic solvents, is a slightly yellow clear liquid, and is miscible with water; low molecular–weight alcohols; ketones; polyethylene glycols; and other solvents such as ethyl acetate, chloroform, and benzene. It has low volatility and low flammability, with the necessary solubilization power to make it a suitable solvent in different fields of applications. 
It does not form an azeotropic mixture with water (7). 
The mechanism of solubilization of drugs by NMP is ambiguous, and there are various theories for the same, including its action as a cosolvent (8), complexing agent (9), and surfactant (10). Recently, Sanghvi et al. investigated the solubilization mechanism of NMP and concluded that it acts as a cosolvent and complexing agent simultaneously (11). The NMP molecule (Figure 1) has nonpolar carbons, which can weaken the hydrogen-bonded structure of water, thus enabling it to act as a cosolvent. 
In addition, the presence of a large planar nonpolar region can lead to hydrophobic interactions between NMP and drugs (11). 
Apart from the useful properties of NMP, some deleterious effects have also been found. 
Steel parts of apparatuses used in the presence of this solvent have been reported to undergo a corrosive reaction at temperatures above 300° C, which restricts its applications at higher temperatures in a metal-containing setup (12, 13)

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS NMP has been used in different fields of industrial applications, including electronics, petroleum, paint, textiles, rubber, chemical, polymer, and pharmaceutical industries; various syntheses; and different analytical methods 

Solvent or Cosolvent NMP is one of the main pharmaceutical cosolvents (16), and it acts as a very strong solubilizing agent; it is a solubilizing excipient used in parenteral and oral medications (4). It is an important solvent used in the extraction, purification, and crystallization of drugs (17, 18). 
A few commercial pharmaceutical products containing NMP, which are all nonaqueous formulations, are currently available in the market. Leuprolide acetate (Sanofi-aventis, Quebec, Canada) is used for the suppression of gonadal sex-hormone production in the treatment of malignant neoplasms of the prostate and is formulated as a solution composed of 55–66% NMP and 34–45% poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) for use as a controlled-release gel for subcutaneous injection. 
After injection, NMP diffuses away from the injection site, providing a depot of drug that is released over a period of 1 to 6 months. 
Doxycycline hyclate (Atrix Laboratories, Colorado, USA) gel is composed of 100 mg/mL doxycycline hyclate in NMP with 37% poly(DL-lactide) and is used for subgingival administration in the form of a seven-day controlled-release system (4). Florfenicol (Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Boxmeer, The Netherlands) IV solution  and doxycycline gel (Pfizer Animal Health, Quebec, Canada) for the treatment and control of periodontal diseases contain NMP and are used in veterinary medicine (11). 
NMP can be used in parenteral formulations of drugs, because in addition to its excellent solubilizing power, it has low viscosity, which is a critical parameter in using fine-gauge needles or microcatheters (4). Wei  et al. have patented a novel form of carvedilol that is solvated with NMP and have named it "carvedilol pharmasolve solvate". The conventional form of the drug is prescribed twice a day, whereas the novel form can be orally prescribed as a unit dose/day or may be administered in other dosage forms (19


NMP is a water-like liquid with a mild amine odor. It is stable and soluble in water. 
Materials to avoid are strong oxidizing or reducing agents. 
Uses: In commercial processes to strip paint, in the electronics industry for cleaning and degreasing silicon wafers, in immersion and ultrasonic equipment to clean engine parts, remove printing ink residues, and as a solvent for surface coatings. CAS# (872-50-4).

Substance name:1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Trade name:n-Methyl 2 Pyrrolidone (NMP)
EC no:212-828-1
CAS no:872-50-4
HS code:29337900
KH product code:100045
Formula:C5H9NO
Synonyms:1-methyl-2-oxopyrrolidine / 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone / 1-methyl-5-pyrrolidinone / 1-methyl-5-pyrrolidone / 1-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinone / 1-methylazacyclopentan-2-one / 1-methyl-gammabutyrolactam / 1-methylpyrrolid-2-one / 1-methylpyrrolidinone / 1-methylpyrrolidone / 1-methylpyrrolidone-2 / 2-pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl- / methyl-alpha-pyrrolidone, normal / methylpyrrolidone, N- / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone / N-methyl-alphapyrrolidinone / N-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidone / N-methyl-gamma-butyrolactam / Nmethylpyrrolidinone / N-methylpyrrolidone / NMP(=N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) 


N-METHYL- PYRROLIDON
Synonyms: NMP, N-methyl pyrrolidone, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
CAS - Number: 872-50-4
EINECS - Number: 212-828-1

Features:
It is highly polar and readily miscible with most organic solvents (alcohols, ethers, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc.). It mixes with water in all proportions. Organic and inorganic materials are also highly soluble. High boiling point and low freezing point make NMP easy to handle. It has a high flash point compared to similar solvents. It is chemically and thermally stable, non-corrosive.

Applications:
It is used as a cleaning or liberating agent in many industrial areas. NMP is used to make fine chemicals from mass-produced chemicals.
NMP applications in the electronics field have expanded in recent years. 
It can also be used to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane in metal cleaning applications (a preferred solution due to worldwide environmental problems with chlorinated solvents). NMP can dissolve both organic and inorganic compounds well or better than chlorofluorocarbon solvents.

Electronics:
Wax and flux removal, deburring, electronic component cleaning, semiconductor component cleaning, solvent for lithium battery manufacture.

Automotive:
Form cleaning, metal component cleaning

Chemical industry:
Regenerating agent (acetylene, BTX, butadiene), synthetic resin coating solvent, reaction solvents (PPS, polyamide, etc.), equipment washing

Agro-chemistry:
Pesticide solvent during synthesis, formulation agent

Optical:
Cleaning of plastic lens manufacturing equipment

Pharmaceutical industry:
Water-soluble solvent, cleaning, extraction

Solvent for polymers, textile coatings, resins, agricultural chemicals, paint removal, degreasing; petrochemical processing; pharmaceuticals


N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is a powerful solvent with broad solubility for resins and high chemical and thermal stability. 
It is completely soluble with water at all temperatures and is soluble with most organic solvents.

NMP has a role as a polar aprotic solvent. It is a N-alkylpyrrolidine, a lactam and a member of pyrrolidin-2-ones.
Denser than water. 
Flash point 199°F. 
Contact may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. 
May be toxic by ingestion.
NMP is a colorless liquid, although impure samples can appear yellow. 
NMP is miscible with water and with most common organic solvents. 
NMP also belongs to the class of dipolar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. 
NMP is used in the petrochemical and plastics industries as a solvent, exploiting its nonvolatility and ability to dissolve diverse materials

Preparation
NMP is produced industrially by a typical ester-to-amide conversion, by treating butyrolactone with methylamine. 
Alternative routes include the partial hydrogenation of N-methylsuccinimide and the reaction of acrylonitrile with methylamine followed by hydrolysis. 
About 20,000 to 30,000 tons are produced annually.

Applications
NMP is used to recover certain hydrocarbons generated in the processing of petrochemicals, such as the recovery of 1,3-butadiene and acetylene. 
1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one is used to absorb hydrogen sulfide from sour gas and hydrodesulfurization facilities. 
Its good solvency properties have led to NMP's use to dissolve a wide range of polymers. 
Specifically, it is used as a solvent for surface treatment of textiles, resins, and metal coated plastics or as a paint stripper. 
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone  is also used as a solvent in the commercial preparation of polyphenylene sulfide. In the pharmaceutical industry, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used in the formulation for drugs by both oral and transdermal delivery routes.
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone  is also used heavily in lithium ion battery fabrication, as a solvent for electrode preparation, though there is much effort to replace it with solvents of less environmental concern, like water.


Preferred IUPAC name: 1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one
Other names:1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone;N-Methylpyrrolidone;N-Methylpyrrolidinone;Pharmasolve; CAS Number: 872-50-4 

Applications
NMP is used to produce fine chemicals from mass-produced chemicals.
NMP applications in the electronics field have expanded in recent years.  NMP's high polarity and high solvency power along with our high purity, high-grade production technology enable the high performance needed in this field.
NMP can dissolve organic and inorganic compounds equally well or better than chlorofluorocarbon solvents.  Therefore NMP is used in various industrial fields as a cleaning or release agent.
NMP is replacing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in metal cleaning applications due to the world-wide environmental pollution problems associated with chlorinated solvents.

1) Electronics
Wax, flux removal
Burr removal
Electronic parts cleaning
Semiconductor parts cleaning
Solvent for lithium battery manufacturing
Semiconductor photo-resist thinner
Color filter photo-resist thinner

2) Automotive
Mold cleaning
Metal (parts) cleaning

3) Chemical
Extract agent (acetylene, BTX, butadiene)
Synthetic resin surface coating solvent
Reaction solvents (PPS, polyimide, etc.)
Equipment washing

4) Optical
Plastic lens manufacturing equipment cleaning

5) Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Chemicals
Water-soluble solvent
Cleaning
Extraction

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP)
Chemical synonyms:    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone; N-Methylpyrrolidone; N-Methylpyrrolidinone; NMP; 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Product description
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is a high boiling, polar aprotic, low viscosity liquid. NMP has a good solvency for a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and it is miscible with water at all temperatures and has a high chemical and thermal stability. It is used as a solvent for engineering polymers and coating resins. Additionally, the polar nature and the low surface tension of NMP makes it an excellent cleaning medium and paint stripping solvent.
NMP is a powerful solvent with a low volatility used for a wide range of chemicals and finds its application among others in:

Petrochemical processing:
NMP is used as extraction medium in several industrial processes because of its affinity for unsaturated hydrocarbons and aromatics, for example butadiene recovery, BTX extraction, lube oil purification, ...

As illustration for the strong selectivity of NMP towards acetylene, the table below shows the solubility of acetylene in various solvents.


Electronics:
NMP is used as photoresist stripper, for defluxing, degreasing and cleaning.
NMP is a solvent for the production of FCCL, polyamide/polyimide wire enamels, epoxy and polyurethane coatings, ...
Pharmaceuticals:
NMP can be used as solvent, extraction medium, …
Industrial and household cleaning:
NMP is used for paint stripping, in graffiti removers, oven cleaners, in automotive and industrial cleaner formulations, ...
Agrochemicals:
NMP can be used as solvent during synthesis or as a formulation agent.


N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is prepared by preparing a mixture comprising monomethylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine and ammonia in a first process step by reacting ammonia with methanol at elevated temperature in the presence of a catalyst, separating 10 off the ammonia, reacting the mixture comprising the methylamines with gamma-butyrolactone (γ-BL), in a molar ratio of monomethylamine to γ-BL of at least 1 in a second process step at elevated temperature and superatmospheric pressure, separating NMP and unreacted methylamines from the reaction product and returning unreacted methylamines to the first process step for reaction with methanol and ammonia.


N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is a water-miscible organic solvent. NMP is widely used in the petrochemical industry, and in the manufacturing of various compounds, including pigments, cosmetics, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. NMP increasingly is used as a substitute for chlorinated hydrocarbons.


1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is also known as NMP, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone. NMP is a colorless to light yellow transparent liquid with a slight ammonia odor. NMP is completely miscible with water. It is highly soluble in lower alcohols, lower ketones, ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and benzene and moderately soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. NMP is strongly hygroscopic, chemically stable, not corrosive towards carbon steel and aluminum, and slightly corrosive to copper. It has low adhesiveness, strong chemical and thermal stability, high polarity, and low volatility. This product is slightly toxic, and its permitted concentration limit in air is 100ppm.


N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is a solvent used in a variety of industries and applications, such as paint and coating removal, petrochemical processing, engineering plastics coatings, agricultural chemicals, electronic cleaning and industrial/domestic cleaning.
Uses
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) is a polar aprotic solvent that has the advantages of low toxicity, high boiling point, outstanding solvency, strong selectivity and good stability. It is widely used in purification of aromatic hydrocarbon extraction, acetylene, olefins, and diolefins.
It is used in industrial cleaning, and it serves as a solvent for production of pesticides, engineering plastics, coatings, synthetic fibers, and integrated circuits.
It can also be used as an industrial cleanser, dispersant, dye, lubricant and antifreeze.
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is an excellent solvent, widely used in aromatics extraction, lubricating oil refining, acetylene enrichment, butadiene separation and synthesis gas desulfurization.
It is used in gas desulfurization, lubricating oil refining, lubricating oil antifreeze, olefin extraction, and as a solvent for insoluble engineering plastics polymerization.
It can be used in herbicide, to clean insulation materials, semiconductor industry precision instruments and circuit boards, to recycle PVC exhaust, as a detergent, dye supplement and dispersing agent.
It is used in mediums for polymerization reactions such as engineering plastics and aramid fiber.
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is used as a polyvinylidene fluoride solvent and electrode auxiliary material for lithium ion batteries.
high purity grade for ICP-MS detection.
For peptide synthesis.

N-Methylpyrrolidone dist. (NMP) is an aprotic, highly polar organic solvent with a wide range of applications.

General

NMP as an aprotic, highly polar organic solvent is used in a variety of applications. These include:

Peptide synthesis in the pharmaceutical industry
Membrane manufacture, for example, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)
and polyether sulfone (PES).
Lithium ion battery production
Coatings, inks and resins
Crop protection formulations and active ingredient synthesis
Oil extraction processes


Characteristics    
NMP is a 5-member-ring compound containing nitrogen.  It has a wide range of uses due to the following excellent characteristics.

N-Methylpyrrolidone is highly polar and miscible with most organic solvents (alcohols, ethers, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc.).  
Organic and inorganic substances are highly soluble in it.
N-Methylpyrrolidone mixes with water in all proportions.
N-Methylpyrrolidone has a high flash point compared to similar solvents.
The boiling point is high, the freezing point is low, and handling is easy.
N-Methylpyrrolidone is chemically and thermally stable, and not corrosive.


NMP, known for its solvent power and exceptional performance, has become the product of choice for paint strippers, agricultural chemicals and process solvent applications. 
As a cosolvent, NMP can improve the gloss of floor polishes. 
Because of its high solvency and low volatility, NMP is used in automotive and industrial cleaners with solvents, including hydrocarbons, terpenes, propylene carbonate and propylene glycol ethers. 
It also has application in the electronic industry as a photoresist stripper and it can be a replacement for 1,1,1-tricholoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance, in demanding applications, including the cleaning of metal parts. 
It is recyclable by distillation, readily biodegradable and essentially non-toxic to aquatic life. 
It is not on the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) list of the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

storage
NMP is hygroscopic (picks up moisture) but stable under normal conditions. It will violently react with strong oxidizers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, etc. The primary decomposition products produce carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide fumes. Excessive exposure or spillage should be avoided as a matter of good practice. Lyondell Chemical Company recommends wearing butyl gloves when using NMP. NMP should be stored in clean, phenolic-lined mild steel or alloy drums. Teflon®1 and Kalrez®1 have been shown to be suitable gasket materials. Please review MSDS prior to handling.

Description
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is an aprotic solvent with a wide range of applications: petrochemical processing, surface coating, dyes and pigments, industrial and domestic cleaning compounds, and agricultural and pharmaceutical formulations. It is mainly an irritant, but has also caused several cases of contact dermatitis in a small electrotechnical company.

Chemical Properties
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is a colourless or light yellow liquid with an amine odour. It can undergo a number of chemical reactions even though it is accepted as a stable solvent. It is resistant to hydrolysis under neutral conditions, but strong acid or base treatment results in ring opening to 4-methyl aminobutyric acid. 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone can be reduced to 1-methyl pyrrolidine with borohydride. Treatment with chlorinating agents results in amide formation,an intermediate which can undergo further substitution, while treatment with amyl nitrate yields the nitrate. Olefins can be added to the 3 position by treatment first with oxalic esters, then with appropriate aldehyes (Hort and Anderson 1982).

Uses
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is a polar solvent that is used in organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Large scale applications include the recovery and purification of acetylenes, olefins, and diolefins, gas purification, and aromatics extraction from feedstocks.
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is a versatile industrial solvent. NMP is currently approved for use only in veterinary pharmaceuticals. The determination of the disposition and metabolism of NMP in the rat will contribute toward understanding the toxicology of this exogenous chemical which man may likely be exposed to in increasing amounts.

Uses
Solvent for high-temperature resins; petrochemical processing, in the microelectronics fabrication industry, dyes and pigments, industrial and domestic cleaning compounds; agricultural and pharmaceutical formulations

Definition
ChEBI: A member of the class of pyrrolidine-2-ones that is pyrrolidin-2-one in which the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen is replaced by a methyl group.

Production Methods
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is manufactured by the reaction of buytrolactone with methylamine (Hawley 1977). Other processes include preparation by hydrogenation of solutions of maleic or succinic acids with methylamine (Hort and Anderson 1982). Manufacturers of this chemical include Lachat Chemical, Inc, Mequon, Wisconsin and GAF Corporation, Covert City, California.

Synthesis Reference(s)
Tetrahedron Letters, 24, p. 1323, 1983 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)81646-9

General Description
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is a powerful, aprotic solvent with high solvency, and low volatility. This colorless, high boiling, high flash point and low vapor pressure liquid carries a mild amine-like odor. NMP has high chemical and thermal stability and is completely miscible with water at all temperatures. NMP can serve as a co-solvent with water, alcohols, glycol ethers, ketones, and aromatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons. NMP is both recyclable by distillation and readily biodegradable. NMP is not found on the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) list of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile
This amine is a very mild chemical base. 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone does tend to neutralize acids to form salts plus water. The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides.

Hazard
Severe skin and eye irritant. Explosive lim-its 2.2–12.2%.

Health Hazard
Inhalation of hot vapors can irritate nose and throat. Ingestion causes irritation of mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes causes irritation. Repeated and prolonged skin contact produces a mild, transient irritation.

Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic oxides of nitrogen may be formed in fire.

Industrial uses
1) 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone is used as a general dipolar aprotic solvent, stable and unreactive;
2) for extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from lubricating oils;
3) for carbon dioxide removal in ammonia generators;
4) as a solvent for polymerization reactions and polymers;
5) as a paint stripper;
6) for pesticide formulations (USEPA 1985).
Other non-industrial uses of 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone are based on its properties as a dissociating solvent suitable for electrochemical and physical chemical studies (Langan and Salman 1987). Pharmaceutical applications make use of the properties of 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as a penetration enhancer for a more rapid transfer of substances through the skin (Kydoniieus 1987; Barry and Bennett 1987; Akhter and Barry 1987). 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone has been approved as a solvent for slimicide application to food packaging materials (USDA 1986).
Contact allergens
1-Methylpyrrolidone is an aprotic solvent with a wide range of applications: petrochemical processing, surface coating, dyes and pigments, industrial and domestic cleaning compounds, and agricultural and pharmaceutical formulations. It is mainly an irritant, but it can cause severe contact dermatitis due to prolonged contact.
Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by skin contact. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Combustible when exposed to heat, open flame, or powerful oxidizers. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
Carcinogenicity

Applications/uses
Electronics
Paints & coatings
Polymer & plastic
Process solvents
Solvents/stripping agents
Wire wrappers


1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDINONE
872-50-4
N-Methylpyrrolidone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one
Methylpyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
M-Pyrol
N-Methylpyrrolidinone
1-Methylpyrrolidone
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-
1-Methylpyrrolidinone
n-methyl-pyrrolidone
1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one
1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone
N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one
NMP
N-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactam
Methyl pyrrolidone
N-methyl pyrrolidone
1-methylpyrrolidine-2-one
N-methyl pyrrolidinone
Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidon
Methylpyrrolidinone
UNII-JR9CE63FPM
2-Pyrrolidinone, methyl-
N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidone
N-Methylpyrrolidon
NSC 4594
Agsolex 1
N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinone
CCRIS 1633
N-methyl-pyrrolidinone
Methylpyrrolidone, N-
HSDB 5022
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon
N-Methylpyrrolid-2-one
EINECS 212-828-1
JR9CE63FPM
2687-44-7
N-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
N-Methyl-.alpha.-pyrrolidone
CHEMBL12543
N-Methyl-.gamma.-butyrolactam
N-Methyl-.alpha.-pyrrolidinone
N-Methylpyrrolidinon
26138-58-9
51013-18-4
pharmasolve
CAS-872-50-4
Pyrrolidinone, methyl-
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99.5%, for HPLC
Methylpyrrolidone [NF]
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99.5+%, ACS reagent
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99+%, for spectroscopy
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99.5%, Extra Dry, AcroSeal(R)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, puriss. p.a., >=99.0% (GC)
Norleucine, 5-oxo-, DL-
Micropure ultra
N-methypyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99.5%, Extra Dry over Molecular Sieve, AcroSeal(R)
Pyrol M
N-methylpirrolidone
1methylpyrrolidinone
n-methyl pyrrolidon
n-methylbutyrolactam
N-methy pyrrolidone
N-methyl-pyrolidone
N-methyl-pyrrolidon
N-methylpyrolidinone
1-methylpyrolidinone
Microposit 2001
n-methylpyrollidinone
N-methlypyrrolidinone
N-methyl pirrolidone
N-methyl pyrollidone
N-methyl-pyrollidone
N-methylpyrrolidone-
NMP,SP Grade
1-methyl pyrrolidone
1-methyl-pyrrolidone
methyl-2-pyrrolidone
MFCD00003193
N-methy pyrrolidinone
N-methyl pyrolidinone
N-methyl-pyrolidinone
N-methyl- pyrrolidone
N-methylpyrro-lidinone
N-methylpyrroli-dinone
N-methylpyrrolidin-one
1-methyl-2pyrrolidone
1-methyl2-pyrrolidone
1methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-pyrrolidinone
methylpyrrolidin-2-one
N-methy-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl 2-pyrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyrolidone
PubChem17618
3p1d
N-methyl 2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrollidone
1-methyl-2-pirrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyroldinone
1-methylpyrrolid-2-one
1methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
ACMC-1CKWA
n-methylpyrrolidine-2one
N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinon
N-methylpyrolidin-2-one
1-methy-2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2-pyrolidinone
N-methyl 2-pyrrolidinone
N-methyl-2-pyrollidinone
N-methyl-pyrrolid-2-one
N-methylpyrollidin-2-one
1 -methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl 2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2-pyrollidinone
1-methyl-pyrrolin-2-one
N-Methylpyrrolidone-(2)
NMP, N-Methylpyrrolidone
1-Methyl-pyrrolidin-2one
N-methylpyrrolidine-2-one
WLN: T5NVTJ A
N-methyl -2-pyrrolidinone
1 -methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl -2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone
EC 212-828-1
2-Pyrrolidone, 1-methyl-
1-methyl-pyrrolidine-2-one
1-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
N-methyl-pyrrolidin -2-one
KSC201Q7R
1-Methylazacyclopentane-2-one
GTPL9520
1-Methyl-2- pyrrolidin-2-one
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99.5%
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, anhydrous
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone ACS reagent
AKOS000120930
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, BioSolv(R)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, HPLC Grade
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, Reagent, ACS
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 99%, extra pure
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (Low water content)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, analytical standard
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, anhydrous, 99.5%
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, for HPLC, >=99%
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, for synthesis, 99%
Residual Solvent Class 2 - N-Methylpyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, ReagentPlus(R), 99%

Handling and Storage
NMP is classified under the Japanese Fire Services Act as a hazardous material, Class 4, Petroleums No.3 (4,000 liter quantity specified), water soluble, Hazardous Rank III. 
Since NMP is hygroscopic, if moisture content is to be controlled, it is important to keep storage containers tightly closed or under a dry nitrogen atmosphere.  
Since NMP is a strong degreaser, in the event of skin contact wash immediately with water.

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone
1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one
1-Methylpyrrolidinone
1-Methylpyrrolidone
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-
AgsolEx 1
Methylpyrrolidone
Microposit 2001
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
n-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactam
N-Methylpyrrolidinone
N-methylpyrrolidone
NMP
Pharmasolve
Pyrol M
SL 1332

Translated names
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidon (da)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon (de)
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidon (nl)
1-methylpyrrolidin-2-on (cs)
1-metil-2-pirolidon (hr)
1-metil-2-pirolidon (sl)
1-metil-2-pirolidonas (lt)
1-metil-2-pirolidons (lv)
1-metil-2-pirolidonă (ro)
1-metil-2-pirrolidon (hu)
1-metil-2-pirrolidon (mt)
1-metil-2-pirrolidona (es)
1-metil-2-pirrolidona (pt)
1-metil-2-pirrolidone (it)
1-metyl-2-pyrrolidon (no)
1-metyl-2-pyrrolidon (sv)
1-metylo-2-pirolidon (pl)
1-metylpyrolidín-2-ón (sk)
1-metyyli-2-pyrrolidoni (fi)
1-metüül-2-pürrolidoon (et)
1-méthyl-2-pyrrolidone (fr)
1-μεθυλο-πυρρολιδόνη-2 (el)
1-метил-2-пиролидон (bg)
<I>N</I>-metil-2-pirolidon (hr)
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidon (cs)
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidon (da)
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon (de)
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidon (nl)
N-metil-2-pirolidon (sl)
N-metil-2-pirolidonas (lt)
N-metil-2-pirolidons (lv)
N-metil-2-pirolidonă (ro)
N-metil-2-pirrolidon (hu)
N-metil-2-pirrolidon (mt)
N-metil-2-pirrolidona (es)
N-metil-2-pirrolidona (pt)
N-metil-2-pirrolidone (it)
N-metyl-2-pyrolidón (sk)
N-metyl-2-pyrrolidon (no)
N-metyl-2-pyrrolidon (sv)
N-metylo-2-pirolidon (pl)
N-metyyli-2-pyrrolidoni (fi)
N-metüül-2-pürrolidoon (et)
N-méthyl-2-pyrrolidone (fr)
N-μεθυλο-πυρρολιδόνη-2· (el)
N-метил-2-пиролидон (bg)

CAS names
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-

IUPAC names
1-mehyl-2-pyrrolodone
1-Methyl 2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl 2-pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidon
1-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methylpyrrolidin-1-one
1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one
1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one,N-METHYLPYRROLIDONE, 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
1-methylpyrrolidone
1-méthyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-O-butyl 2-O-(phenylmethyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-
2-Pyrrolidone, 1-methyl
Methyl pyrrolidone
METHYL-N 2-PYRROLIDONE
n methyl 2 pyrrolidone
N-Methyl pyrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrolidone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-Methylpyrrolidone
N-Methylpyrrolidone
NMP
NMP
NMP (n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone)

Trade names
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone
1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one
1-Methylpyrrolidinone
1-Methylpyrrolidone
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl- (7CI, 8CI, 9CI)
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-(7Cl, 8Cl, 9Cl)
M-Pyrol
N-Methyl pyrrolidone
N-methyl pyrrolidone
N-Methyl-.alpha.-pyrrolidinone
N-Methyl-.alpha.-pyrrolidone
N-Methyl-.gamma.-butyrolactam
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-METHYLPYROLIDONE
N-Methylpyrrolidinone
N-Methylpyrrolidon
n-methylpyrrolidon in Lube Green preparation
N-Methylpyrrolidone
NMP
POLYFLON PTFE SM-3900
Pyrol-M

M-PYROL(R)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone( 99.5%, HyDry, Water≤50 ppm (by K.F.))
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone( 99.5%, HyDry, with molecular sieves, Water≤50 ppm (by K.F.))
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Manufacturer
1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE, REAGENT (ACS)1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE, REAGENT (ACS)1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE, REAGENT (ACS)
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone 872-50-4 NMP N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone 872-50-4 NMP
1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDINONE
1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone absolute over molecular sieve
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, spectrophotometric grade
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidon
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, anhydrous
N-Methyl-2-ketoptrrolidine
N-Methyl Pyloridone (NMP)
1-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDINE
2-METHYLPYRROLIDONE
METHYLPYRROLIDINONE
N-Methylpyrrolidon
N-METHYL PYRROLIDON (PEPTIDE GRADE)
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, distilled
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, anhydrous, 99.5%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSealTM bottles
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, ACS grade, 99.0+%
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, HPLC Grade, 99.5%
N-Methylpyloridone
Methyl Pyrrolidone, N- (NMP)
Methyl Pyrrolidone, N-, M-Pyrol
Methylpyrrolidinone, N- (NMP)
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE extrapure
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, M-PYROLTM, NMP
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solution
131
1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinon
1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone
1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one
1-Methylazacyclopentane-2-one
1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one
1-methyl-pyrrolidine-2-one
1-Methylpyrrolidinone
1-Methylpyrrolidone
2-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
2-Pyrrolidinone,1-methyl-
2-Pyrrolidone, 1-methyl-
Deuterated N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
DeuteratedN-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
gsolex 1
-Methyl-a-pyrrolidinone
-Methyl-a-pyrrolidone
-Methyl-g-butyrolactam
methylpyrrolidinone(non-specificname)
Methylpyrrolidone
Micropure ultra
M-Pyrol
m-Pyrrole
N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinone
N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidone

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP – EC 212-828-1, CAS 872-50-4) is used as a solvent and a surfactant in cosmetic products. It may enhance the dermal absorption of other cosmetic ingredients. The substance, classified as CMR category 1B, has recently been under scientific scrutiny by the Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety (SCCS) and the EU Competent Authorities.

Scientific Opinion

The SCCS based its Opinion on the worst case assessment with a maximum use concentration of 5% NMP in cosmetic products and a dermal absorption of 100%, when the Margin of Safety is considered to be too low. The Opinion does not specify the actual possible maximum concentrations of NMP present in cosmetic products; and specific measurement of dermal absorption through skin at relevant concentrations. The SCCS however concluded that the presence of NMP with a maximum use concentration of 5% in cosmetic products is not safe for the consumer.

Consequences for the cosmetic industry

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone has been added to the List of substances banned for use in cosmetic products in 2015 and will most likely be included in Annex II of the 1223/2009 Regulation – List Of Substances Prohibited In Cosmetic Products very soon. Transition periods are usually necessary to allow industry to adapt to a new legal requirement, nevertheless manufacturers should plan to reformulate and replace NMP in their cosmetic formulas.


Industry Insights
The global N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) Market size was estimated at USD 1.07 billion in 2015 and is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period, primarily owing to the rising demand from key application segments, such as oil & gas (petrochemical), pharmaceuticals and electronics, among others. This growth can be attributed to the expansion of the overall petrochemical industry.

During the period 2017 - 2021, the spending on downstream asset maintenance is expected to witness a growth of 7%, compared to that in 2012 - 2016, to reach USD 336 billion. This growth can be attributed to greenfield and brownfield expansion projects. Asia Pacific and North America together account for more than 60% of this spending. Such a huge expansion in the petrochemical industry will certainly boost the demand for NMP over the forecast period.

U.S. N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone market revenue, by application, 2013 - 2025 (USD Million)

U.S. N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone market


Oil & gas refers to the petrochemical industry, where the downstream operations (refining process) mainly consume NMP. 
Though the oil & gas market is not performing well, due to piled up inventories and low crude prices, downstream operations are expected to boost in the coming years. 
NMP is increasingly being used for the purpose of re-refining the lubricating oil. In addition, it helps in improving the viscosity index and oil performance.

It is also responsible for improving oil efficiency and solvent extraction. Usage in excess amount possesses several potential threats to humans. 
Owing to these factors, certain regulatory bodies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ECHA have imposed restrictions on the usage in particular products over certain limits.

NMP market has been segmented into oil & gas, pharmaceuticals, electronics, paints & coatings, agrochemicals, and others. The oil & gas market has been further segmented into butadiene recovery, BTX extraction, lube oil purification. The pharmaceutical segment is further segmented into two sub-segments namely solvent and penetration enhancer. The electronic segment is divided into solvent and photoresist stripper.

Refining business has capitalized on the low oil prices and hence the petrochemical market is booming. NMP is used as an extraction medium in various applications such as butadiene recovery, BTX extraction, lube oil purification. The growth in these industries will directly offer a growth advantage to this industry.

Furthermore, in electronics applications, NMP is used for degreasing and cleaning, and as a photoresist stripper. NMP is also used as a solvent in the production of conformal coatings (epoxy and polyurethane coatings) in printed circuit boards (PCB).

The automotive industry is witnessing a huge growth in terms of electronic inputs to vehicles. Most of the manufacturing activities are carried in Asia, it contributes to the overall industry growth owing to the infrastructure support and necessary equipment.


pplication Outlook (Volume, Kilo Tons; Revenue, USD Million, 2013 - 2025)

Oil & gas

Butadiene recovery

BTX extraction

Lube oil purification

Pharmaceuticals

Solvent

Penetration enhancer

Electronics

Solvent

Photoresist stripper

Paints & Coatings

Agrochemicals

Others

NMP and NMP-based formulations are the leading methylene chloride substitutes for paint stripping, graffiti removal, and industrial cleanup. 
NMP's advantages over methylene chloride include:
• Low odor.
• Low evaporation rate - no readhesion of paints.
• Non-carcinogenic
• Completely water soluble and rinseable.

Depending on the application, we recommend either straight NMP or a blend of NMP and a cosolvent or co-solvents. 
Straight NMP is recommended for applications where high performance is critical or users require recovery and recycling of the NMP. 
Used NMP can be recycled in-house using commercial vacuum distillation equipment or sent to a recycler for recovery.

Adding a small amount of non-ionic surfactant to the straight NMP is recommended to improve wetting and reduce stripping time. 
For immersion stripping of small painted parts, heating NMP to 63°C can reduce stripping times. 
Although NMP is only slightly combustible, heated NMP baths should be explosion-proof, equipped with over temperature-controllers, and properly vented to minimize the risk of fire and worker exposure.
For consumer and industrial applications where the NMP is not recovered or high performance is not required, NMP can be blended with co-solvents to reduce cost and be further modified with
surfactant and thickeners. 
The following blends are useful starting formulations with good performance in a range of paints and varnishes:

NMP is used to recover certain hydrocarbons generated in the processing petrochemicals, such as the recovery of 1,3-butadiene and acetylene. It is used to absorb hydrogen sulfide from sour gas and hydrodesulfurization facilities. Due to its good solvency properties NMP is used to dissolve a wide range of polymers. It also used as a solvent for surface treatment of textiles, resins, and metal coated plastics or as a paint stripper.

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) or Pharmasolve is very strong solubilizing agent and it has important applications in different fields of industry. This review presents NMP physicochemical characteristics, application especially in pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacokinetic and toxicity. Characteristics of NMP such as physicochemical properties, solubilization efficacy, toxicity and adverse effects were compared with other common solvents used in the pharmaceutical industries. This review reveals that NMP is an acceptable pharmaceutical solvent and its efficacy, toxicity, and side effects are comparable with other common solvent.


N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is a high boiling, polar aprotic, low viscosity liquid. NMP has a good solvency for a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and it is miscible with water at all temperatures and has a high chemical and thermal stability. It is used as a solvent for engineering polymers and coating resins. Additionally, the polar nature and the low surface tension of NMP makes it an excellent cleaning medium and paint stripping solvent.
NMP is a powerful solvent with a low volatility used for a wide range of chemicals and finds its application among others in:

Petrochemical processing:
NMP is used as extraction medium in several industrial processes because of its affinity for unsaturated hydrocarbons and aromatics, for example butadiene recovery, BTX extraction, lube oil purification, ...


The petrochemicals application segment of the NMP market includes butadiene recovery and extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene (BTX). NMP is also used in lube oil purification. The demand for NMP in the petrochemical industry is growing due to its high solvency and low degradation rate as compared to other chemicals. NMP faces competition from other polar aprotic solvents, such as acetonitrile, furfural, sulfolane, and dimethylformamide. APAC and the Middle East & Africa are increasing the production of BTX, thereby fueling the demand for NMP during the forecast period.


N-Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP) is an alternate cleaner for several applications including electronics cleaning, paint stripping, fiberglass fabrication, printing, and urethane foam production. NMP-based products have proven to be effective solvents, and when used in well-designed formulations with the proper equipment , can meet metal cleaning requirements. NMP is also used as a solvent for surface coatings, including acrylates, epoxies, polyurethanes, polyvinyl chlorides, polyamidimide-based wire enamels, water-based coatings, and printing inks. It also works on varnishes, lacquers, and burnt-on carbon deposits. NMP's low evaporation rate contributes to even, smooth surfaces. Many plastics, including polystyrene, polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride, are soluble in NMP. According to PRO-ACT, NMP is best used in a tank-type process. It would require testing and engineering approval for it to be used as a general wipe solvent and paint remover.

NMP has been commercially produced in the United States since the mid-1960s. The typical pH of NMP is 8.0 to 9.5. It is a highly polar colorless liquid with a mild amine odor. NMP is a very stable, water-soluble cleaner, with a high flashpoint (196 �F [91 �C]) and low vapor pressure (0.24 mm Hg/68 �F [20 �C]). It is biodegradable with a minimal potential for bioaccumulation.

A typical cleaning process may involve a heated immersion/ultrasonic-cleaning tank with NMP, followed by a heated rinse tank, filled with clean water or NMP. Because the rinsing agents do not evaporate rapidly, a subsequent drying step may be required. NMP is commonly used in the pure state but can be used in a blend with various surfactants and thickeners. It is completely miscible in water and in most organic solvents, including alcohols, ethers, ketones, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. After a cleaning process, NMP can be separated and sent back to the wash tank. Many oils become miscible in NMP only at temperatures above 17 to 20 �C (63 - 68 �F), making it easy to separate contaminated NMP in a settling tank.

In the electronics industry, NMP has been used for cleaning and degreasing single-crystal silicon wafers for integrated circuits. NMP is also an active ingredient in a commercially available product that is a water-miscible, semiaqueous cleaner used to deflux printed wiring boards (PWBs) after wave solder or vapor phase reflow. The product dissolves various contaminants ranging from flux and pyrolized flux to inorganic contaminants and fingerprints. The product is designed to clean through immersion at ambient temperatures but cleaning can be enhanced through either ultrasonics, spraying, spraying under immersion, or agitation.

NMP is used in some commercial processes to strip paint. NMP removes paint more slowly than methylene chloride, but NMP dissolves multiple layers rather than lifting each coat. While NMP paint removers work slower, they have lower vapor pressures, a factor that reduces the potential for solvent inhalation. NMP blends tend to cost more than conventional solvents but typically require up to 40 percent less usage than these solvents. NMP-based formulas will effectively strip acrylic latex gloss, epoxy spray paint, polyurethane gloss enamel, high gloss polyurethanes and tallow oil alkyd spray paints.

NMP has been used as a replacement for MEK in immersion engine cleaning applications. One alternate immersion product, Fine Organics (FO) 606, which is based on n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), is being used at Tinker AFB in the Tank and Cooler Processing Shop as an immersion bath for the removal of carbon and other difficult to remove soils.

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