PENTAERYTHRITOL

Pentaerythritol = 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol = Pentek = auxinutril = PER

CAS Number: 115-77-5
EC Number: 204-104-9
Chemical formula: C5H12O4
Molar mass: 136.15


Pentaerythritol is an organic compound with the formula C(CH2OH)4. Classified as a polyol, it is a white solid. 
Pentaerythritol is a building block for the synthesis and production of explosives, plastics, paints, appliances, cosmetics, and many other commercial products.
The word pentaerythritol is a blend of penta- in reference to its 5 carbon atoms and erythritol, which also possesses 4 alcohol groups.

Pentaerythritol is a versatile starting material to synthesize various dendrimers and star-shaped polymers. 
Pentaerythritol is widely used in the preparation of flame-retardant epoxy resins and polymer composites. 
Pentaerythritol is also used in the synthesis of the vasodilator, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

Pentaerythritol uses
Pentaerythritol is a versatile building block for the preparation of many polyfunctionalized compounds. 
Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkyd resins, varnishes, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, tall oil esters, antioxidants. 
Pentaerythritol can be found in transformer oil, plastics, paints, cosmetics, and many other applications.
Monopentaerythritol is used in alkyd resins, tall oil esters, certain varnishes, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, insecticides, lubricants, explosives, and paint swelling agents.

Pentaerythritol is a simple five-carbon tetraol used in the fabrication of resins, alkylated resins, varnishes, PVC stabilizers, tall oil esters, and olefin antioxidants. 
Pentaerythritol is also known under names Hercules P6, monopentaerythritol, tetramethylolmethane, THME, PETP, pentaerythrite, Pentek, etc. 
Pentaerythritol is an interesting compound that allows for the attachment of four (similar or different) groups and, hence, the construction of highly branched structures. 
Pentaerythritol has received considerable interest as an orthogonally protected handle useful for the generation of combinatorial libraries and as a building block that fits well in the general structure of oligonucleotides and peptides, providing additional functionalities.

Polyester derivatives
Pentaerythritol is a precursor to esters of the type C(CH2OX)4. 
One such derivative is pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), a vasodilator and explosive. 
The trinitrate derivative is called pentrinitrol (Petrin). 
The tetraacetate is called normosterol (PAG). 
The polymer cross-linking agent pentaerythritol tetraacrylate.

Pentaerythritol APPLICATIONS
-Alkyd-based coatings
-Synthetic lubricants
-Hot-melt adhesives
-Rosin esters
-Antioxidants
-Explosives
-Radiation curing monomers
-Pigment treatment
-Polyurethanes
-PVC stabilizers
-Lubricants
-Plasticizers
-Synthetic drying oil

Pentaerythritol uses
Pentaerythritol is used in alkyd resins, radiation cure monomers, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) stabilizers, polyurethanes, rosin esters, synthetic lubricants, pigment treatment, antioxidants, and explosives.
Worldwide, 37% is used in alkyd paints, 14.5% in alkyd inks, 11% in alkyd adhesives/sealants, 9% in plasticizers, 8% in alkyd varnishes for floors and woodwork, 7% in radiation cure coatings, 4% in lubricants, 1.3% in explosives and 8.2% in other applications.
Many grades are offered, but the largest is mono (pure) with a minimum purity of 98%.

Pentaerythritol. 
Pentaerythritol is a tetrafunctional alcohol. 
Pentaerythritol is soluble in water, benzene, ether, petroleum ether and slightly soluble in alcohol. 
Pentaerythritol is used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, fatty acid resin and tall oil esters. 
Also recommended for vinyl chloride, synthetic rubber, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, olefins antioxidant and pentaerythritol triacrylate.

Pentaerythritol Preparation
Pure pentaerythritol, prepared from the purified tetranitrate, is stated to melt at 260°. 
Pentaerythritol can be prepared by condensing acetaldehyde with formaldehyde in aqueous solution by means of calcium hydroxide or barium hydroxide.

Pentaerythritol uses
Pentaerythritol is a versatile building block for the preparation of many polyfunctionalized compounds. 
Pentaerythritol is multifaceted species in many compounds, which are wildly utilized in medicine and industry. 
Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkyd resins, varnishes, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, tall oil esters, antioxidants (e.g. Anox 20). 
Pentaerythritol can be found in transformer oil, plastics, paints, cosmetics, and many other applications.

Pentaerythritol Properties: White crystal powder without any visible foreign matters.slightly soluted in alcohol, dissolvable in benzene, ether and petroleum ether etc., Esters will be formed by reaction with common organic acid; no reaction take place when it is heated with dilute caustic solution.
Pentaerythritol is used in the manufacture of Alkyd resins, fatty acid rosin and tall oil esters and to make paint and coatings, printing ink, coating adhesives, explosives, sealants, varnish, lacquer, vinyl chloride, synthetic rubber and miscellaneous including pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), urethane coatings, flame retardant paints, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, olefins antioxidant and pentaerythritol triacrylate.

Polyester derivatives
Pentaerythritol is a precursor to esters of the type C(CH2OX)4. 
One such derivative is pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), a vasodilator and explosive. 
The trinitrate derivative is called pentrinitrol (Petrin). 
The tetraacetate is called normosterol (PAG). 
The polymer cross-linking agent pentaerythritol tetraacrylate.

Fire retardants
Pentaerythritol is used as a fire retardant, such as in plastics. 
Pentaerythritol produces a thick carbon barrier upon heating, protecting the surface substrate.

Pentaerythritol is one of the most common main active components in intumescent paints and coatings. 
Pentaerythritol acts as a carbon donor and together with an acid donor, most commonly ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and a blowing agent, most commonly melamine.

Pentaerythritol Fire retardants
Pentaerythritol is used as a fire retardant, such as in plastics.
Pentaerythritol produces a thick carbon barrier upon heating, protecting the surface substrate.

Pentaerythritol is one of the most common main active components in intumescent paints and coatings. 
Pentaerythritol acts as a carbon donor and together with an acid donor, most commonly ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and a blowing agent, most commonly melamine.

About Pentaerythritol
Helpful information
Pentaerythritol is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.
Pentaerythritol is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Pentaerythritol Consumer Uses
Pentaerythritol is used in the following products: polymers, adhesives and sealants, coating products, lubricants and greases, polishes and waxes and washing & cleaning products. 

Pentaerythritol or 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol is an odorless white, crystalline, solid organic compound. 
Pentaerythritol is tetrahydric neopentyl alcohol with chemical formula C5H12O4 and is non-hygroscopic, non-volatile, and stable in air. 
Pentaerythritol is predominantly used in the surface coating industries. 
Moreover, Pentaerythritol is used for manufacturing synthetic drying oils by esterification reaction and other reaction with fatty acid esters. 
Pentaerythritol possesses excellent property such as low volatility and the high flash point, which make it an ideal substitute for dielectric fluids in the transformer. 
Pentaerythritol  exhibits superior properties such as water resistance, luster, flexibility, and alkali resistance. 
Therefore, Pentaerythritol is widely used in a range of applications such as adhesive & sealant, inks, paints & coatings, plasticizers, lubricants, varnishes, and others. 
Other applications includes medicine, flame retardants, pesticide, and explosives.

Pentaerythritol is also used in the silvering of mirrors, leather tanning, and in fuel compositions, preservatives, paper processing, glues, cosmetics, dyes, plastics, rubber, and as a flavoring agent.

Pentaerythritol is a synthetic 4-valent alcohol, which is obtained by the chemical reaction of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. 
This alcohol has 5 carbon atoms and is offered in the form of white crystalline powder. 
The characteristic properties of pentaerythritol include its sweet taste and good combustibility.

Pentaerythritol Article service life
Other release to the environment of Pentaerythritol is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment), indoor use and outdoor use resulting in inclusion into or onto a materials (e.g. binding agent in paints and coatings or adhesives).
Pentaerythritol can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: machinery, mechanical appliances and electrical/electronic products (e.g. computers, cameras, lamps, refrigerators, washing machines), vehicles and electrical batteries and accumulators.
Pentaerythritol can be found in products with material based on: plastic (e.g. food packaging and storage, toys, mobile phones), metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), fabrics, textiles and apparel (e.g. clothing, mattress, curtains or carpets, textile toys) and wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys).

In general the most convenient method now known for forming the ethers of pentaerythritol is the reaction of pentaerythrityl tetrabromide with the sodium derivative or the alcohol or phenol, as described by Backer. 
Nichols and Yanovsky have accomplished ether formation by the reaction of an alkylhalide with pentaerythritol in presence of alkali, and Glattteldand Schneider (12) by the reaction or an alkyl halide with the sodium derivative of pentaerythritol in liquid ammonia. 

Pentaerythritol Availability
Pentaerythritol is sold by chemical suppliers. 
Some products may contain traces of borax as additive.
Certain cosmetics contain a small amount of PE or its derivates.

A process for the preparation of pentaerythritol, comprising reacting formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and sodium hydroxide and acidification with formic acid. 
These steps take place in a reactor with supplies of formaldehyde, sodium hydroxide, acetaldehyde and formic acid and at the end the solution formed is evacuated to a buffer tank of larger capacity than the reactor. 
In the reactor new reactions and acidifications are successively reinitiated by new supplies.
In the first place a formaldehyde solution is added, followed by simultaneous but separate additions of sodium hydroxide solution and acetaldehyde, forming a reaction mixture in such a way that the flowrates of the solutions vary with the time and that the temperature at which the reactions are conducted also varies with the time. 
The outflow from the buffer tank is constant and continuous.

Widespread uses by professional workers
Pentaerythritol is used in the following products: polymers, adhesives and sealants, coating products, lubricants and greases, polishes and waxes, washing & cleaning products and laboratory chemicals.
Pentaerythritol is used in the following areas: building & construction work.
Other release to the environment of Pentaerythritol is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).

Pentaerythritol is an organic compound with the formula C(CH2OH)4. 
Pentaerythritol is an odorless white solid. 
Classified as a polyol, Pentaerythritol is a white solid. 
Pentaerythritol is a building block for the synthesis and production of explosives, plastics, paints, appliances, cosmetics, and many other commercial products. 
Pentaerythritol is a material with several interesting features. 
Pentaerythritols heat of crystalline transition is as large as the heat of fusion of ice and it is not costly, because it is produced on a relatively large scale as a chemical commodity.
The word pentaerythritol is a blend of penta- in reference to its 5 carbon atoms and erythritol, which also possesses 4 alcohol groups. 
Pentaerythritol is a simple five-carbon tetraol used in the fabrication of resins, alkylated resins, varnishes, PVC stabilizers, tall oil esters, and olefin antioxidants. 
Pentaerythritol is an interesting compound that allows for the attachment of four groups and, hence, the construction of highly branched structures.

Pentaerythritol Properties
Formula mass: 136.15
Melting point, °C: 47 – 49
Boiling point, °C: 380
Density: 1.511 g/cm3
Solubility in water: 60 g/L
Heat of fusion: 5.3 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 72.7 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion: -2769 kJ/mol

Pentaerythritol Formulation or re-packing
Pentaerythritol is used in the following products: polymers, coating products, adhesives and sealants, lubricants and greases, polishes and waxes, washing & cleaning products, inks and toners and laboratory chemicals.
Release to the environment of Pentaerythritol can occur from industrial use: formulation in materials, formulation of mixtures, in the production of articles and as processing aid.

Pentaerythritol uses at industrial sites
Pentaerythritol is used in the following products: polymers, adhesives and sealants, coating products, laboratory chemicals, lubricants and greases and heat transfer fluids.
Pentaerythritol is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Pentaerythritol is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, plastic products and rubber products.
Release to the environment of Pentaerythritol can occur from industrial use: in the production of articles, as processing aid, formulation in materials, for thermoplastic manufacture, manufacturing of the substance, formulation of mixtures and in processing aids at industrial sites.

auxinutril
hercules P6
2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol
maxinutril
pentek
1,3-propanediol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)methane

Pentaerythritol is a stable solid and the production volume was ca. 25,000 tonnes/year in 1996 and 1997 in Japan. 
Pentaerythritol is used as intermediate for Alkyd resin, Rosin ester, Explosive and Lubricants. 
No consumer use is reported. 
Pentaerythritol is classified as ‘Biodegradable’. 
The bioconcentration factor ranged from 0.3 – 2.1.
The potential environmental distribution of pentaerythritol obtained from a generic fugacity model (Mackey level III) showed the chemical will be distributed mainly to water and soil. 
Predicted environmental concentration (PEClocal) of the chemical was estimated as 4.3 x 10-3 mg/l and 5.1 x 10-5 mg/l from Japanese local exposure scenario.
The main route of occupational exposure is inhalation with limited workers during bag filling operation. 
The average concentration in the atmosphere was measured at production sites as 8.5 mg/m3  (range 0.35-20.3 mg/m3 ) and the daily intake as the worst case was estimated as 1.2 mg/kg/day. 
There is no available information on the consumer use. 
For indirect exposure via the environment, the daily intakes through drinking water and fish are estimated as 1.43 x 10-4 mg/day and 1.35 x 10-5 mg/kg/day, respectively, based on PEClocal of 4.30 x 10-3 mg/l. 

Pentaerythritol is a versatile building block for the preparation of many polyfunctionalized compounds made from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
Pentaerythritol is used for the synthesis and production of explosives, plastics, paints, appliances, cosmetics, and many other commercial products.
Pentaerythritol is also one of the most common main active components in intumescent paints and coatings and acts as a carbon donor together with an acid donor, most commonly ammonium polyphosphate (APP).
Modern advances in paint technology, construction activities and favorable government measures are likely to boost the demand of paints and coatings in coming years.
Hence, owing to the above-mentioned factors, the application of pentaerythritol from paints and coatings is likely to dominate during the forecast period

Display Name: Pentaerythritol
EC Number: 204-104-9
EC Name: Pentaerythritol
CAS Number: 115-77-5
Molecular formula: C5H12O4
IUPAC Name: pentaerythritol

Pentaerythritol Manufacture
Release to the environment of Pentaerythritol can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, in the production of articles, for thermoplastic manufacture, as processing aid, formulation in materials and as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates).

Boiling point: 276 °C (40.00 hPa)
Density: 1.39 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Ignition temperature: 490 °C
Melting Point: 258.4 °C
pH value: 3.5 - 4.5 (100 g/l, H₂O, 35 °C)
Vapor pressure: <1 hPa (20 °C)
Bulk density: 750 - 850 kg/m3
Solubility: 72.3 g/l

Pentaerythritol (Penta-Mono grade) is a white crystalline powder. 
Pentaerythritol is a synthetic polyhydric alcohol containing four primary hydroxyl groups (tetra functional compound). 
Pentaerythritol provides the outstanding properties due to the nature of compact structure and high density of hydroxyl groups.
Pentaerythritol is used in production of Alkyd resin, Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN – an explosive), Pentrinitrol (Petrin), Normosterol (PAG), Pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (polymer cross-linking agent). 
Major application for Pentaerythritol is branching of monomer for alkyd resin that provides the excellent performance related to drying speed, viscosity, water resistance properties of the paints.

Pentaerythritol Safety
Pentaerythritol is irritant to skin, eyes, nose and mouth. 
Pentaerythritol presents some toxicity if ingested.

Pentaerythritol Storage
Pentaerythritol should be stored in closed bottles, away from any flame source or oxidizer. 
Just about any clean bottle is suitable.

Pentaerythritol Disposal
Pentaerythritol can be safely burned as it releases no toxic byproducts.

Pentaerythritol is not readily biodegradable according to data obtained in Japan. 
However, there are numerous data on biodegradability of this chemical ranging from 0% after 28 days. 
Direct photodegradation is not expected because pentaerythritol has not absorption band in UV and VIS region.
Bioaccumulation potential of pentaerythritol is very low (OECD 305C: BCF 0.3 –2.1).
The results show that, if pentaerythritol is released into water, it is unlikely to be distributed into other compartments. 
If pentaerythritol is released into air or soil, it is likely to be transported to water. 

Pentaerythritol and Human health
Pentaerythritol caused only soft faeces and diarrhoea in a repeated dose study. 
Pentaerythritol is not considered as an irritant to skin and eyes. 
Within the Sponsor country exposure is well controlled in a closed system. 
Estimated daily intake via indirect exposures is considered to be low. 
As margin of safety for indirect exposure is more than 500,000, it is currently considered of low potential risk and low priority for further work.

Formula: C5H12O14 / C(CH2OH)4
Molecular mass: 136.2
Boiling point at 4kPa: 276°C
Melting point: 260°C
Relative density (water = 1): 1.4
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 25°C: 2.5
Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: 0.013
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 4.7
Flash point: 240°C o.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 390-490°C
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -1.69  

PentaerythritolSynthesis
Pentaerythritol was first reported in 1891 by German chemist Bernhard Tollens and his student P. Wigand.
Pentaerythritol may be prepared via a base-catalyzed multiple-addition reaction between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde, followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product.

Most of the N-substituted amines derived from pentaerythritol that are described in the literature have been prepared by reaction of a pentaerythrityl tetrahalide (generally the tetrabromide) with the desired amine. 
Alphen (14) has prepared secondary amines from pentaerythrityltetramine by condensation with aldehydes, followed by reduction of the products. 
In both cases pentaerythritol had to be converted first into the tetrahalide.
Formation of amines from pentaerythritol by splitting off water with primary amines has not been reported in the literature, although this is a well-known procedure for simpler alcohols, as in the alkylation of aniline by heating with methanol and acid. 

CAS Number: 115-77-5    
CHEBI: 134760
ChEMBL: ChEMBL3186112
ChemSpider: 7984 
DrugBank: DB13526
ECHA InfoCard: 100.003.732
EC Number: 204-104-9
KEGG: D08331
PubChem CID: 8285
RTECS number: RZ2490000
UNII: SU420W1S6N  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2026943

Pentaerythritol has been designed for efficient crystallization screening of biological macromolecules based on pentaerythritol polymers as precipitants. 
The screen was developed by Ulrike Demmer from the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysics in Frankfurt.
The choice of a suitable precipitant is of crucial importance for the crystallization of proteins. 
JBScreen Pentaerythritol utilizes two novel precipitating agents, i.e. pentaerythritol propoxylate and pentaerythritol ethoxylate. 
Both are branched polymers containing a pentaerythritol backbone. 
Thus they differ from more traditional precipitants like MPD and PEG’s in size and nature.
In addition, pentaerythritol polymers function as cryoprotectants. 
Protein crystals grown in high concentrations of these precipitants can be frozen directly from the crystallization drop. 
The successful application of pentaerythritol polymers to yield protein crystals was first described by Gulick et al. 
Furthermore, this class of precipitants has been used for membrane crystallization: The X-ray structure of cbb3 Cytochrome Oxidase was published in Science in 2010. 
Crystals of this proton pumping membrane protein were successfully grown using pentaerythritol ethoxylate as precipitation agent.

Chemical formula: C5H12O4
Molar mass: 136.15
Appearance: white solid
Density: 1.396g/cm3
Melting point: 260.5 °C (500.9 °F; 533.6 K)
Boiling point: 276 °C (529 °F; 549 K) at 30 mmHg
Solubility in water: 5.6 g/100 mL at 15 °C
Solubility: Soluble in methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, formamide; insoluble in acetone, benzene, paraffin, ether, CCl4
Vapor pressure: 0.00000008 mmHg (20°C)

Pentaerythritol (2,2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propane-1,3-diol) as white crystalline odorless solid has been synthesized in 1891. 
Pentaerythritol is multifaceted species in many compounds, which are wildly utilized in medicine and industry. 
Also, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) play a crucial role in organic and medicinal chemistry. 
Hence, in these reactions, pentaerythritol is a versatile substrate for the synthesis of many polyfunctionalized products, because of the presence of the neopentane core and one hydroxyl group in each of the four terminal carbons.

How is Pentaerythritol produced?
Mono Pentaerythritol can be transported and delivered in a variety of ways.  
Pentaerythritol is available in 20-25 kg bags, 500kg and 1000 kg bags, and can also be transported in bulk in tank cars.  
Pentaerythritol has a specific gravity of 1.396 and a flash point of 240oCand it is stable under normal conditions.
Mono Pentaerythritol is not classified as dangerous for transport, but it should be used in a well-ventilated workplace and then should be stored in a cool and dry location.

How is Pentaerythritol stored and distributed?
Mono Pentaerythritol is synthesized from the aldol condensation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.  
The aldehyde that is produced then undergoes a cross- Cannizzaro reaction where one molecule of pentaerythritose is reduced to pentaerythritol.  
The raw pentaerythritol is then separated out, dissolved, and is then subjected to high temperature acid hydrolysis.  
Pentaerythritol is then purified in an active carbon bed, after which it is concentrated and crystallised.

At present, China is the largest producer of Pentaerythritol in the world.  
The growth in production in China has occurred due to the strong demand of the local automotive and construction industries.

What is Mono Pentaerythritol used for?
The main commercial and industrial role for Mono Pentaerythritol is as a chemical intermediate as it is a basic material for polymer production.  
Pentaerythritol is mainly employed in the manufacture of alkyd resins and paints, where it enhances the drying speed, hardness, and the water resistance of these paints.

The second largest market for mono pentaerythritol is in the production of neopolyol esters for synthetic lubricants.  
Pentaerythritol ensures both the hydrolytic resistance, and the viscosity control, of these lubricants.

Pentaerythritol is also employed in the preparation of polyvinyl chloride stabilisers, plasticisers, antioxidants, adhesives and sealants, varnishes and inks.  
Pentaerythritol is also used to make radiation-curing monomers, and rosin esters.

Preferred IUPAC name
2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol[1]
Other names
2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)1,3-propanediol
Pentaerythritol[1]
Hercules P 6
Monopentaerythritol
Tetramethylolmethane
THME
PETP
Pentaerythrite
Pentek
Hercules Aqualon improved technical PE-200

Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS-TO-WHITE ODOURLESS CRYSTALLINE POWDER. 

Mono Pentaerythritol (also known as PETP; tetramethylolmethane, and THME) is a polyhydric alcohol that contains four primary hydroxyl groups.  
Pentaerythritol has the formula C5H12O4 and is a white, odourless, crystalline solid however it can also be a white, crystalline free-flowing powder.  
Pentaerythritol is moderately soluble in cold water, is freely soluble in hot water, and is slightly soluble in alcohol.
Pentaerythritols primary role in industry is as a chemical intermediate.
There are many grades of Pentaerythritol available commercially but Mono Pentaerythritol has the largest market share as it accounts for approximately 85% of worldwide sales.   
Pentaerythritol is composed of 98% pure Mono Pentaerythritol.

Pentaerythritol Physical dangers
Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. 
If dry, Pentaerythritol can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc. 

Pentaerythritol Chemical dangers
Decomposes on heating. 
Pentaerythritol produces irritating fumes. 
Reacts violently with strong oxidants and strong acids. 
This generates explosion hazard. 

Pentaerythritol has been manufactured in large quantities during war-time for conversion to its explosive tetranitrate. 
Pentaerythritol has also a considerable market as a component in resinous compositions for the paint and varnish industry, and is becoming important for manufacturing surtace-active agents.
Owing to the polyhydroxylic nature of pentaerythritol the preparation of most of its derivatives described in the literature involves more steps than would be required for an ordinary alcohol. 
Pentaerythritol has been the purpose of this work to enrich the. 
Chemistry of pentaerythritol and to investigate especially whether its esterification, etherifieation, and conversion to amines could be accomplished in a simpler and thus cheaper way. 

vapor pressure: <1 mmHg ( 20 °C)
Quality Level: 200
assay: 99%
bp: 276 °C/30 mmHg (lit.)
mp: 253-258 °C (lit.)
SMILES string: OCC(CO)(CO)CO
InChI: 1S/C5H12O4/c6-1-5(2-7,3-8)4-9/h6-9H,1-4H2
InChI key: WXZMFSXDPGVJKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Pentaerythritol esters with long chain fatty acids such as stearic acid, also called pentaerythritol tetrastearate or simply PETS, are a class of polymer additives with a strong release effect. 
They are typically used in polycarbonate and ABS polymers, but also in PET, PA and other plastics. 
These release agents have extremely low volatility, a minimum influence on the transparency of the finished article and excellent thermostability.
The different grades of LOXIOL® pentaerythritol esters produced by Emery Oleochemicals offer similar benefits.
When feeding an injection molding machine or an extruder using plastics compounds that contain LOXIOL® pentaerythritol esters, improved feed behavior has been achieved and granules are prevented from melting in the feed zone (bridge formation). 
LOXIOL PETS also have a favorable influence on the tool filling speed by lowering friction.
As release agents, these additives prevent the polymer melt from sticking to the hot machine parts and facilitate mold release at higher temperatures. 
Even in a mold with a complex geometry, parts can be demolded easily. 
LOXIOL PETS improve the surface properties of the finished articles. 
When using up to 0.5%, plastic articles remain transparent and color stable. 
In biaxially oriented polyester films, LOXIOL® pentaerythritol esters further improve resistance to abrasion.

Pentaerythritol tetranitrate is devoid of nitrate tolerance and shows no reproductive or developmental toxicity in animal studies. 
Recently, pentaerythritol tetranitrate has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of intrauterine growth restriction and the risk of preterm birth in women with abnormal placental perfusion. 
This study was conducted to test the perinatal programming effect of pentaerythritol tetranitrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of genetic hypertension. 
Parental spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with pentaerythritol tetranitrate (50 mg/kg per day) during pregnancy and lactation periods; the offspring received standard chow without pentaerythritol tetranitrate after weaning. 
Maternal treatment with pentaerythritol tetranitrate had no effect on blood pressure in male offspring. 
In the female offspring, however, a persistent reduction in blood pressure was observed at 6 and 8 months. 
This long-lasting effect was accompanied by an upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 1, and heme oxygenase 1 in the aorta of 8-month-old female offspring, which was likely to result from epigenetic changes (enhanced histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation) and transcriptional activation (enhanced binding of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II to the transcription start site of the genes). 
In conclusion, maternal pentaerythritol tetranitrate treatment leads to epigenetic modifications, gene expression changes, an improvement of endothelial function and a persistent blood pressure reduction in the female offspring.

Pentaerythritol Side Effects
Side effects of pentaerythritol tetranitrate are:
-Dizziness
-Headache
-Flushing
-Syncope
-Hypotension
-Tachycardia
-Methemoglobinemia
-Nausea
-Vomiting
-Weakness
-Restlessness
-Uncontrolled urination

PENTAERYTHRITOL
115-77-5
2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol
Pentek
Tetramethylolmethane
Monopentaerythritol
Pentaerythrite
Auxinutril
Maxinutril
Monopentek
Penetek
Metab-Auxil
Hercules P6
Tetrahydroxymethylmethane
Methane tetramethylol
1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-
2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)methane
tetra(hydroxymethyl)methane
THME
PE 200
Auxitrans
1,1,1-Tris(hydroxymethyl)ethanol
NSC 8100
UNII-SU420W1S6N
MFCD00004692
Pentaerythritol, 98%
SU420W1S6N
DSSTox_CID_6943
DSSTox_RID_78264
DSSTox_GSID_26943
pentaerithrityl
Pentaerythrital
CAS-115-77-5
Charmor PM 15

Pentaerythritol Rosinate is the ester of rosin acids derived from Rosin with the polyol, pentaerythritol, used as a skin conditioning and viscosity increasing agent in mascaras. 
No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in the chronic feeding studies. 
Historical data indicate that Pentaerythritol Rosinate may be used in cosmetics at concentrations up to 10%. 
The safety of use of this concentration of Pentaerythritol Rosinate has not been demonstrated. 
The data needed to evaluate safety include current concentration of use, source and method of manufacture, chemistry (UV spectral analysis, pH, and impurities), ocular irritation, human dermal irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization (only if the ingredient is found to absorb UVA or UVB radiation). 
Pentaerythritol cannot be concluded that this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products until the cited data have been obtained and evaluated.

Pentaerythritol Rosinate is the ester of rosin acids derived from Rosin with the polyol, pentaerythritol. 
Pentaerythritol is used by the cosmetic industry in mascaras. 
The following report is a review of the safety data on this ingredient. 

CCRIS 2306
HSDB 872
EINECS 204-104-9
BRN 1679274
Auxenutril
Pentaertyhritol
Hydrafuca
AI3-19571
Hercules Mono-PE
Auxitrans (TN)
mono pentaerythritol
3SY
Pentaerythritol, CP
tetramethylol methane
Pentaerythritol, 99%
MONOPENTAERYTHRITO
EC 204-104-9
Pentaerythritol, sodium salt
ACMC-1C8V3
SCHEMBL15049
WLN: Q1X1Q1Q1Q
4-01-00-02812 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
C(CH2OH)4
1, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-
CHEMBL3186112

Other names: 1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-; Auxinutril; Hercules P6; Maxinutril; Metab-Auxil; Methane tetramethylol; Monopentek; Penetek; Pentaerythrite; Pentek; PE 200; Tetrahydroxymethylmethane; Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)methane; Tetramethylolmethane; 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol; Auxenutril; Monopentaerythritol; 1,1,1-Tris(hydroxymethyl)ethanol; Hercules Mono-PE; Pentaertyhritol; PETP; THME; Methane, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-,; NSC 8100; Charmor PM 15

Color: White
Packaging: Plastic bottle
Melting Point: 257.0°C to 264.0°C
Boiling Point: 276.0°C (30.0 mmHg)
Quantity: 250g
Flash Point: 240°C
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Assay Percent Range: 97.5% min. (GC)
Linear Formula: C(CH2OH)4
Beilstein: 01,528
Merck Index: 15,7221
Solubility Information: Solubility in water: 1 g/18 mL water (15°C). 
Other solubilities: slightly soluble in alcohol and formamide, insoluble in benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ether,, acetone and petroleum ether
Formula Weight: 136.15
Physical Form: Crystals
Percent Purity: 98%
Chemical Name or Material: Pentaerythritol

DTXSID2026943
1,2-Diacylglycerol-LD-PE-pool
NSC8100
CHEBI:134760
DAMIANA Powder & Powder Extract
ZINC391843
Methane, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-,
AMY40485
NSC-8100
Pentaerythritol, calcium, zinc salt
Tox21_201921
Tox21_303573
ANW-16903
SBB060192
STL483077
AKOS009166690
DB13526
MCULE-7635228253
2,2-bis-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol
NCGC00249136-01
NCGC00257496-01
NCGC00259470-01
BP-13392
2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-propane-1,3-diol
FT-0652275
FT-0673583
P0039
ST51046424
BLACK COHOSH ROOT Powder & Powder Extract
D08331
55474-EP2269996A1
55474-EP2270101A1
55474-EP2284165A1
55474-EP2292597A1
55474-EP2295399A2
55474-EP2295438A1
55474-EP2301919A1
55474-EP2301924A1
55474-EP2302015A1
55474-EP2305808A1
55474-EP2308857A1
55474-EP2308865A1
55474-EP2371805A1
55474-EP2372017A1
55474-EP2374895A1
A803483
Q421828
Q-201541
Q-201892
F0001-0283

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