Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of stumps, needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. 
Chemically, pine oils consist principally of cyclic terpene alcohols and are used in the manufacture of chemicals. Pine oil is insoluble in water but dissolves in alcohol and other organic solvents.

Pine oil, essential oil consisting of a colourless to light amber liquid of characteristic odour obtained from pine trees, or a synthetic oil similar in aroma and other properties. 
Pine oil is used as a solvent for gums, resins, and other substances. 
Pine oil has germicidal properties and is employed medically as a principal constituent of general disinfectants. 
Pine oil is also used in odorants, insecticides, detergents, wetting and emulsifying agents, wax preparations, and antifoaming agents and in textile scouring and the flotation process for refining lead and zinc ores.

Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of needles, twigs and comes from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. 
Pine oil has a strong piny odor and is miscible with alcohol. Pine Oil contains alpha-terpineol plus other cyclic terpene alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons.

Pine Oil is a derivative of turpentine obtained by steam distillation of the species Pinus. 
Pine Oil has a strong piny odor and is miscible with alcohol. Pine Oil contains alpha-terpineol plus other cyclic terpene alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons. 
Pine Oil is mainly applied in the production of household detergent, industrial cleaner, high quality ink and paint solvent owing to its pleasant pine smell, notable antimicrobial power and excellent solvency, low concentration ones can be used as foaming agent in ore floatation. 
Pine oil is a phenolic disinfectant. 
It is generally effective against numerous bacterial strains and enveloped viruses. 
Pine oil is not generally effective against non-enveloped viruses or spores. 
Pine oil will kill the causative agents of typhoid, gastroenteritis, rabies, enteric fever, cholera, several forms of meningitis, whooping cough, gonorrhea and several types of dysentery.
Pine oil is also effective against several of the leading causes of food poisoning. Pine oil is not effective against spore related illneses such as tetanus or anthrax or against non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus, rhinovirus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Pine oil disinfectants are relatively inexpensive and widely available. 
They have a relatively low human toxicity level. 
They also have a low corrosion level and limited persistence.

Pine oil is a common component of household cleaning solutions.
The fresh scent of pine provides a woodsy, clean, inviting aroma. Pine essential oils are also popular for their uplifting and refreshing scent. Pine oil, which is made from pine needles, is commonly used to help refresh the mind, destress, improve concentration, and counter fatigue. This oil can be diffused, applied topically, used in perfumes, or applied to bathwater. 

Pine Oil is an essential oil that is steam distilled from the needles of Pinus sylvestris. 
Pine oil is classified as a middle note essential oil and sought after for its fresh fragrance and cleansing properties. 
Pine oil is a desired ingredient in the soaping industry and is also used in skin care products, bath products, massage oils, detergents and disinfectants or enjoyed in diffusers.

As of 1995, synthetic pine oil was the "biggest single turpentine derivative."

Pine essential oil is a derivative of pine tree needles, which are known for their strong aroma. 

As with other essential oils, pine has been used in traditional medicine for centuries.

Pine scents and oil extracts are also abundant in everyday items. These include floor and furniture cleaners, as well as disinfectants and air fresheners.

However, oil extracts are not the same as essential oils because they don’t carry the same medicinal-strength properties.

Essential oils contain multiple chemical compounds that make them so powerful. As such, essential oils shouldn’t be ingested.

Pitch-soaked wood of the pine tree, principally Pinus palustris but also certain other species of the family Pinaceae, is subjected to steam distillation, solvent extraction followed by steam distillation, or destructive distillation to obtain the pine oil, which boils at 200°–220° C (390°–430° F).

A variety of similar pine oils are obtained by distillation of cones and needles of various species of pines or by extraction from the stumps using solvents and steam. 
Synthetic pine oil is produced by conversion of terpene hydrocarbons into terpene alcohols.

Pine Oil is a high-grade natural pine oil obtained by the chemical purification of oils derived from the distillation of pine wood. 

Pine Oil consists mainly of terpene alcohol, of which α-terpineol is the chief constituent. 
Terpene hydrocarbons, ethers and ketones are present in small quantities only.

Product properties *)
Appearance: colourless to pale yellow liquid with the odour typical of pine oil

Density / 20 °C    (DIN 51757): about 0.93 g/cm³

Viscosity (Höppler, DIN 53015)at 5 °C     
about 80 mPa s at 20 °C     
about 23 mPa s at 40 °C about 7 mPa s

Flash point (DIN 51755): >75 °C

Boiling range
5 % by vol.    at about 200 °C
95 % by vol.    at about 220 °C

*) These characteristics are for guidance only and not to be taken as product specifications. 
The tolerances are given in the product specification sheet. 
For further product properties, specifications, safety and ecological data, please refer to the MSDS.

Other names
Essential oil of pine
CAS Number: 8002-09-3 

Chemical formula: Mixture
Appearance: Colorless to pale yellow liquid
Density: 0.95 g/cm3 at 25 °C (approximate)
Melting point: 5 °C 
Boiling point: 195 °C 
Solubility in water: Insoluble
log P: 1.7
Vapor pressure: 4 mmHg

Pine oil consists of complex mixtures of monoterpene hydrocarbons (alpha, beta-pinene) and oxygenated monoterpenes (terpineol, borneol, bornyl acetate). 
Compared to other disinfectants, antimicrobial activity is relatively low. 
Concentrated formulations may contain over 50% pine oil with soap/anionic surfactant and alcohol to provide a blooming effect when diluted in water. 
End use concentrations of more than 0.5% are often required for disinfection. 
Quaternary ammonium compounds or phenolics may be combined with reduced levels of pine oil to improve disinfectant activity while retaining the characteristic pine scent.

One of the other advantages of pine oil in an all purpose cleaner is that it can also function as a disinfecting ingredient, although it is not very broad spectrum (effective primarily against Gram-negative bacteria) and requires fairly high concentrations as compared to other disinfectants. 
Pine oil acts as a dual purpose ingredient, participating in both cleaning and disinfecting. 
This is in contrast to quaternary ammonium surfactants, “quats” that do not participate in cleaning and can actually hamper it by interacting with anionic surfactants. 
However, quats do remain the most popular disinfecting choice for all purpose cleaners. 
In general anionic surfactants are not combined with the quats because quats decrease the cleaning effectiveness of the anionics and, the interaction with the anionics can deactivate the disinfection action of the quats. 
Therefore, disinfecting all purpose cleaners are generally based on nonionic or amphoteric surfactants. 
Hypochlorite bleach is also a popular choice, but, as noted in other sections, it is so chemically aggressive that only soap or amine oxide surfactants can be combined with it to create a cleaning formulation. On the positive side, hypochlorite bleach is broad spectrum, as its mechanism of chemically attacking organic structures via oxidization makes essentially all organisms vulnerable. 
However, bleach, like other antimicrobials, is much less effective on porous surfaces

In alternative medicine, Pine oil is said to be used in aromatherapy, as a scent in bath oils or more commonly as a cleaning product, and as a lubricant in small and expensive clockwork instruments. 
Pine oil may also be used varyingly as a disinfectant, sanitizer, microbicide (or microbistat), virucide or insecticide.
Pine oil is also used as an effective herbicide where its action is to modify the waxy cuticle of plants, resulting in desiccation.

Pine oil is distinguished from other products from pine, such as turpentine, the low-boiling fraction from the distillation of pine sap, and rosin, the thick tar remaining after turpentine is distilled.

Chemically, pine oil consists mainly of α-terpineol[6] and other cyclic terpene alcohols.
Pine oil may also contain terpene hydrocarbons, ethers, and esters. 
The exact composition depends on various factors, such as the variety of pine from which pine oil is produced and the parts of the tree used.

Properties as a disinfectant
Pine oil is a disinfectant that is mildly antiseptic.
Pine oil is effective against Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, the fungi Candida albicans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative enteric bacteria, household germs, Gram-negative household germs such as those causing salmonellosis, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, influenza type A, influenza virus type A/Brazil, influenza virus type A2/Japan, intestinal bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, odor-causing bacteria, mold, mildew, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhosa, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.[6]

Pine oil will kill the causative agents of typhoid, gastroenteritis (some agents), rabies, cholera, several forms of meningitis, whooping cough, gonorrhea and several types of dysentery.
It is not effective against spore related illnesses, such as tetanus or anthrax, or against non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus, rhinovirus, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C.[9]

Froth flotation
Pine oil is used as Frother for the flotation of all types of minerals
Industrially, pine oil is used as a frother in mineral extraction from ores.
For example, in copper extraction pine oil is used to condition copper sulfide ores for froth flotation. 
Therefore, Pine oil is important in the industry for the froth flotation process. 
Pine oil has largely been replaced by synthetic alcohols and polyglycol ethers.

Melting or freezing point
about -5 °C

Terpene alcohol content
at least 90 %

Water content
<0.5 %

Pine Oil has virtually unlimited stability

Effect of severe cooling:
α-Terpineol and the other terpene alcohols have relatively high melting points (>35 °C) as individual components. However, their mixtures are liquid at room temperature. 
They maintain their liquid state for a limited period also at temperatures round freezing point.

When subjected to prolonged severe cooling, the terpene alcohols crystallize out to some extent and settle on the bottom of the container. 
This crystallization process is promoted by crystal nuclei which are almost always present. Secondary components accumulate in the supernatant liquid. 
This liquid phase therefore does not have the same frother action as the homogeneous mixture.

Crystallization can be reversed by heating the product (in a water-bath or by means of a source of radiant heat) to above the melting point of the terpene alcohols. 
Neither the properties nor the efficacy of Pine Oil is adversely affected by heating. However, it is essential that Pine Oil be homogenized by stirring during heating. 
Even repeated heating does not impair the quality of the product.

The behaviour of Pine Oil under the effect of prolonged cooling must also be borne in mind when selecting storage tanks and metering systems since these can be easily blocked by the crystallized product.

Solubility and miscibility of Pine Oil:
The solubility of Pine Oil is less than 0.1 g/l. The product must therefore by added undiluted to the flotation pulp. 
However, Pine Oil is miscible with other anhydrous frothers, unsaturated fatty acids (tall oils, oleic acid), mineral oils and to some extent also with fatty amines.

Stable aqueous emulsions with any desired concentration of Pine Oil can be prepared using a suitable emulsifier. 
Different emulsifiers affect frothing, froth stability and character to varying degrees. 
The most suitable type of emulsifier should therefore be determined by preliminary trials

Our Pine Oil is a natural pine oil of excellent quality. It has been successfully used for decaded for floating sulphidic an non-sulphidic ores, industrial minerals and potash salts. 
The unvarying quality of our product is ensured by constant production control.

Pine Oil develops a relatively fine-bubbled froth which is not too stiff and has a plesant texture. 
The froth has good stability in the flotation cell but collapses relatively quickly in the launders. 
Of particular interest is the excellent carrying capacity of the froth for fairly coarse particles and for minerals which float spontaneously and in agglomerates. 
Pine Oil is therefore particularly suitable for the flotation of graphite, potash salts, phosphates and other coarse particle minerals and also for agglomeration flotation where large mineral flocks have to be carried by the froth.

Like all flotation frother which are immiscible with water, Pine Oil requires some time before it develops its full frothing action. 
This interval between the addition of the product and full frothing depends on numerous factors and should be determined by preliminary trials under the prevealing conditions. 
On the other hand, as with all pine oils, evaporation from the surface of the flotation pulp is fairly marked. 
It is therefore often necessary to add Pine Oil in several stages. This measure also prevents the effect of excess concentrations of the product known as "over-oiling" which can completely inhibit froth development.
Pine Oil also has some collector action which, under certain conditions, allows easy-to-float minerals like graphite, sulphur, molybdenite MoS2, orpiment As2S3, realgar AsS, the layer silicate minerals talc and pyrophyllite and high-rank coals possessing natural hydrophobia, to be floated without the use of a collector. 
However, it is then necessary to use additional reagents with a collector action. 
Nonpolar hydrocarbon oils (gas, heating, diesel oils and kerosene) are particularly suitable for this purpose.

Pine Oil has been used for decades in conjunction with sulphydril collectors (xanthates) for floating sulphide minerals (e.g. galena, sphalerite, chalcocite and chalcopyrite, stibnite etc.), especially when coarse-particle ores are to be floated. 
This also applies to the flotation of native metals such as gold, silver, bismuth and copper. 

Pine Oil is also very suitable for floating non-sulphidic non-ferrous metal minerals such as cerussite PbCO3, anglesite PbSO4, malachite Cu2(OH)2CO3 and azurite Cu2 after sulphiding (Na2S, NaHS) with xanthates
Pine Oil can also be combined with oxhydril collectors (olein, tall oil, petroleum sulphonates), for instance for floating fluorite, magnesite and apatite.

Finally, Pine Oil can also be employed where cationic collectors such as fatty amines, ether amines, quaternary alkyl ammonium salts and imidazoline derivatives have to be used. 
Classic examples are the flotation of potash salts, quartz, calamine and the reverse flotation of magnesite and iron ores.

The froth development of Pine Oil is largely independent of the pH of the flotation pulp. 
However, increased stiffening of the froth is likely to occur at a pH above 11. 
Water hardness, too, has no significant effect on the frother action of Pine Oil.

The quantity of Pine Oil to be used depends on a number of factors including the character and the particle size of the minerals to be floated, the quality of the water, the nature and quantity of other reagents (collectors, conditioners) present and the type of flotation machine. 
It is usually in the range 20 to 100 g/t. 
When Pine Oil is combined with other frothing reagents (Phosokresol grades, fatty acids, phosphonic acids etc.) a few grammes of the product per tonne of flotation feed (about 2-20 g/t) are often sufficient to optimize frothing and froth characteristics and to achieve savings in other reagents.

Toxicity and safety precautions
Tests to determine the acute oral toxicity of Pine Oil with rats produced a LD50 of 2555 mg/kg body weight. 
In accordance with the usual toxicity classification adopted (see W.S. Spector in "Handbook of Toxicology"), Pine Oil is to be described as slight toxic.

Care is required in handling Pine Oil in as much as prolonged contact with the skin and especially with the mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) can cause fairly severe irritation. 
Operators working with the product are therefore advised to wear protective gloves and goggles. 
Any areas of the skin which have accidentally come into contact with Pine Oil should be washed immediately with plenty of water and soap. 
Splashes of Pine Oil in the eyes should be removed by thorough rinsing with water (eye irrigation bottle).

The toxicity limit for fish, determined with guppies (Lebisted retuculatus), is about 50 mg/l.

Pine oil uses and benefits
Due to its aroma, pine essential oil is notable for its uplifting yet clearing scent. Because of this, pine essential oil can work as a room scent in a diffuser as well as in cleaning solutions.

The internet is full of anecdotes and articles that claim pine essential oil can offer more health benefits than just a nice scent. However, most of these claims lack clinical evidence.

Air fresheners and aromatherapy
Pine oil extracts are often used in air fresheners for homes, offices, and vehicles. Essential oils, on the other hand, may be used in aromatherapy to create an uplifting and invigorating atmosphere — not just a nice scent.

Inhaling oils like pine may also have clearing effects in the case of illnesses like the common cold.

Skin antimicrobial
Some proponents claim that pine essential oil may be used topically (applied to the skin) as an antimicrobial, similar to tea tree oil. In theory, the oil could be used for minor skin infections and burns.

However, research indicates that pine oil doesn’t have much antimicrobial activity. Talk to a doctor before using pine oil for this purpose.

Reduced inflammation
Pine essential oil is also touted as having anti-inflammatory effects.

In theory, such effects could do two things:

Ease symptoms of inflammatory skin conditions, such as acne, eczema, and rosacea.
Alleviate pain from related health conditions, such as arthritis and muscle pain.
However, more research is needed on this front.

Pine oils, derived by steam distillation of wood from pines, consist of a mixture of terpene alcohols. 
Pine oil–based compounds may contain small amounts of phenol derivatives. The concentration of pine oil in disinfectant cleaners varies from 0.3% to 60%.
Many “pine oil” cleaners marketed in the United States are pine scented but contain little or no actual pine oil, so it is important to check the label on pine-scented cleaners. 
Pine Sol, one of the most widely used pine oil cleaners, contains 8% to 12% pine oil, 3% to 7% alkyl alcohol ethoxylates, 1% to 5% isopropanol, and 1% to 5% sodium petroleum sulfonate in its “Original” formulation; other cleaners branded as Pine Sol contain no pine oil. 
Turpentine is a hydrocarbon mixture of terpenes derived from pine oil rather than petroleum and is often applied as a paint thinner.

The oral LD50 of pine oil ranges from 1 to 2.7 mL/kg BW. 
A substantially lower dose results in severe toxicosis.
Pine oil is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized by the liver to be excreted in urine as glucuronide conjugates. 
High concentrations of ingested pine oil are demonstrable in lung tissue, lending a characteristic pine or turpentine odor to the breath.
As is true for phenolic compounds, cats are more susceptible than other species to pine oil toxicoses

Pine oils are directly irritating to mucous membranes, producing erythema of the oropharynx, mouth, and skin. 
Ocular exposure causes marked blepharospasm, epiphora, photosensitivity, and erythema of the conjunctiva and sclera.
Ingestion results in nausea, hypersalivation, bloody vomiting, and abdominal pain. 
Systemic effects include weakness and CNS depression, ataxia, hypotension, and respiratory depression. 
Pulmonary toxicity is due to aspiration during ingestion or from emesis or may be due to chemical pneumonitis from absorption of the pine oil through the gastrointestinal tract with subsequent deposition in the lung.
Myoglobinuria and acute renal failure may develop following massive ingestions. 
A cat that ingested 100 mL of undiluted Pine Sol had severe depression, ataxia, unresponsive pupils, and shock, and died within 12 hours.
Pulmonary edema, acute centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and total renal cortical necrosis were present at necropsy examination.20

Prompt dilution with milk, egg white, or water should occur following ingestion of pine oil disinfectants. 
Because of rapid onset of depression and the danger of aspiration pneumonia, emesis is often contraindicated, and even gastric lavage with placement of a cuffed endotracheal tube poses risk. 
Dilution should be followed by the administration of activated charcoal and a saline or osmotic cathartic. 
Symptomatic and supportive care, consisting of maintenance of renal perfusion and acid-base and electrolyte balance, is crucial. 
Animals that have their dermis exposed should be bathed with soap and then rinsed with copious amounts of water as soon as feasible after the exposure.

Dettol liquid, a widespread household disinfectant that contains chloroxylenol 4.8%, pine oil, and isopropyl alcohol [4–8].

Turpentine is commonly used in several food and chemical products. 
Some of the flavoring agents (e.g., menthol) used in candy, baked goods, and chewing gum have the same chemicals that make up turpentine. 
Turpentine is also used in perfumery, sprays, deodorizers, and stimulating ointments. 
It is commonly used in the manufacture of synthetic pine oil, insecticides, beta-pinene resins, disinfectants, and human and veterinary medicines. 
It is also used in the preparation of shoe, stove, furniture, and other polishes; manufacture of synthetic camphor and menthol, cleaning materials, inks, putty, mastics, cutting and grinding fluids, paint thinners, degreasing agents, and paints. 
Turpentine is often used as a solvent thinner for paint, varnishes, waxes, resins, fats, oils, lacquers, and rubber. 
It is a starting component in the production of a variety of volatile bases.

OULO 102
RT 1712

Pine oil, also called pine nut oil, is derived from the needles of the Pinus sylvestris tree. Known for being cleansing, refreshing and invigorating, pine oil has a strong, dry, woodsy smell — some even say it resembles the scent of forests and balsamic vinegar.

With a long and interesting history that stems back to use in ancient Greek civilizations, including by Hippocrates himself, pine oil is an age-old therapeutic method for cleansing, reducing pain, increasing energy and relieving stress. Pinus sylvestris trees have been a very important timber tree in Romania for centuries, and their dried bark often accumulates as waste from wood processing. Luckily through steam distillation, pine essential oil can be created even from dead, fallen pine bark.

Pine Oil Benefits
As a detoxifying ingredient and natural disinfectant, pine oil is commonly used in massage oil blends, household cleaning products and air fresheners. It can stimulate blood flow and help decrease swelling, tenderness and pain within sore muscles or joints associated with inflammation.

Pine essential oil benefits include:

Cleansing the home of bacteria, fungi, pathogens and yeast
Killing odors and purifying the air
Decreasing inflammation
Decreasing allergies
Fighting free radicals through the presence of antioxidants, including polyphenols
Treating muscle aches and pain
Energizing and lifting your mood and focus
Pine oil is closely related to eucalyptus oil in terms of plant species and benefits, so they can be used somewhat interchangeably and are both considered “uplifting.” A great way to get even more benefits from pine oil is by combining it with eucalyptus or citrus oils, which all work similarly to fight inflammation, eliminate bacteria and odors, improve your mood, and heighten awareness.

Pine oil has a relatively low human toxicity level, a low corrosion level and limited persistence; however, it irritates the skin and mucous membranes and has been known to cause breathing problems.[8][10] Large doses may cause central nervous system depression.

Pine Oil Uses
1. Air Freshener
Pine oil is an excellent natural home deodorizer since it eliminates bacteria and microbials that can lead to contamination and odors. Capable of killing toxins in the air that can cause colds, the flu, headaches or skin reactions, pine oil is one of the most beneficial essential oils for improving immune function.

For pure, clean-smelling air throughout your home or even car, diffuse pine oil for 15–30 minutes using an oil differ or combine it with some water in a spray bottle and spray around your furniture, countertops, linens or car seats.

Also, try adding pine oil to a cotton ball and placing it behind your toil seats in your bathrooms to freshen the air naturally. And around Christmas, you can create a homemade “Christmas candle” by combing several drops of pine nut oil, sandalwood essential oil or cedarwood essential oil on a fire log about 30 minutes before burning in your fireplace.

2. All-Purpose Household Cleaner
To cleanse your countertops, appliances, bathroom or floors, combine several drops of pine oil and water in a spray bottle and spray on any surface before wiping down with a clean cloth.

3. Pots and Pans Scrub
For a deeper-acting cleaning scrub, combine several drops of pine oil with baking soda and stir them into a thick paste. Use a brillow sponge to scrub away mold, stains or stuck-on residue from your pots, home surfaces, car or appliances.

4. Floor Cleaner
To mop your floors and leave behind a clean smell, add ½ cup of white vinegar along with 10 drops of pine oil to a bucket and mop into wood surfaces before rinsing.

5. Glass and Mirror Cleaner
You can clean mirrors, glass or kitchen appliances by using pine nut oil along with vinegar to remove residue and leave behind shiny, clean surfaces. Also try using this method to clean your blender, dishwasher or laundry machine.

6. Carpet Cleaner
One of the best natural home deodorizers, use pine essential oil to remove odors from your carpet, mix 15–20 drops of pine essential oil with water in a bucket and then scrub into stains on your rugs. You can either use a carpet-cleaning device to steam or roll the mixture further into carpets or do so by hand. You don’t need to remove the oil from the carpets since it’s non-toxic and will continue to kill odor-causing bacteria and add a fresh scent to your home in the process.

7. Garbage Can Purifier
Douse a cotton ball with two drops each of lemon oil and pine oil, and then place the cotton balls at the bottom of your trashcans to help decrease bacteria and odors.

8. Shoe Smell Reducer
To get rid of shoe or foot odors, add a few drops of pine oil and tea tree oil to the bottom of shoes to freshen them up and kill bacteria.

Pine Oil Research and Studies
Pine trees are a sustainable crop and widely grown in cold climate areas throughout the world. In fact, unlike many other essential oil plants, pine trees are durable and resistant to weather changes since they can withstand temperatures as low as minus 40 degrees!

Historically, mattresses were said to be stuffed with the needles of the pine tree to help repel lice and fleas. The ancient Egyptians also supposedly used pine kernels in their cooking to kill food bacteria and decrease contamination.

Known for being a fresh-smelling ingredient in many household cleaners, pine essential oil can do more than freshen up your home — it also has the ability to remove potentially dangerous fungi, bacteria, molds and yeast.

Over recent years, as considerable interest has been given to natural plant extracts that have great use for the improvement of air quality without the need for harsh chemicals, pine nut extract has been one essential oil to rise to the top. Pine oil has been well-researched for its abilities to purify poor indoor air quality, which largely depends on the chemical composition of microorganisms living in the air that lead to pollution, odors, germ-spreading and contamination.

Some species of fungi and bacteria living in the air (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and others) and their toxins cause difficulty in breathing, allergic rhinitis, watery eyes, headaches and flu-like symptoms. In 2004, when researchers from Vilnius Pedagogical University in Lithuania investigated the purifying biological activity of Pinus sylvestris L. extract in order to find out its fungicidal benefits against airborne microorganisms, they found positive results. Antimicrobial activity of pine oil was evaluated by technique of oil diffusion to Czapek agar (for fungi), malt extract agar (for yeast and yeast-like fungi) and nutrient agar (for bacteria).

In total, pine oil was tested on 13 species of toxins living within the air (eight fungi, two yeast-like fungi, yeast and two bacteria). Results showed minor to strong activity against all types of fungi, spore bacteria, yeast-like fungi, yeast and bacteria, with pine having the biggest effects on reducing bacteria and lesser effects on more resistant fungi strains. The most active concentration of pine oil against all tested microorganisms was 2.5 percent.

pine oil (Pinus palustris) is originally used as a solvent and a disinfectant, it is also deodorizing, anti-bacterial and anti-septic. Studies are now showing that certain fractions of pine oil may stimulate fibroblast growth, which would mean an increase in the turnover of epidermal cells. Pine oil is produced by distillation of small pine branches. It may be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes.

Pine oil has a high content of various alcohols. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of alcohols with alkali metals, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. They react with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Oxidizing agents convert them to aldehydes or ketones. Alcohols exhibit both weak acid and weak base behavior. They may initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides.

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