POLYOXYETHYLENE (40) STEARATE

Chemical Formula    : C20H40O3
Average Molecular Weight: 328.5298
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 328.297745146
IUPAC Name: 2-hydroxyethyl octadecanoate
Traditional Name: glycol stearate
CAS Registry Number: 9004-99-3

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is soluble in ethylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and water. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is used in a study to investigate its effects on multidrug resistance (MDR) and to assess the phase behaviours of micro-emulsion to produce nanostructured drug-loaded lipid carriers. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate enhances antitumor activity and modulates multidrug resistance of vinblastine sulphate, which is one of the major hurdles limiting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a multifunctional neutral surfactant used in polishes and paper, food products, textile chemicals, household products, pharmaceutical formulations, and cosmetic formulations. 

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is waxy or flaky white to creamy coloured substance used as surfactant and emulsifier agent in beauty products and cosmetics. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is also known as PEG-40 stearate and polyoxyl 40 stearate. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is used on skin burn or skin irritation with anti-microbial cream or ointment. 
The global polyoxyethylene (40) stearate market is growing at a significant growth over the forecast period, owing to rapid growth of emulsifiers in personal care industry.

DESCRIPTION of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
General description:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a neutral surfactant.

Applications of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate has been used in a study to assess the phase behaviors of special hot microemulsion to produce drug-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate has also been used in a study to investigate its effects on multidrug resistance (MDR).

Polyoxyethylene 40 monostearate, also known as ethylene glycol monostearate or octadecanoate 2-hydroxyethyl ester, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as fatty acid esters. 
These are carboxylic ester derivatives of a fatty acid. 
Based on a literature review a significant number of articles have been published on Polyoxyethylene 40 monostearate.

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is an octadecanoate ester composed of repeating 8-40 ethyleneoxy units. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is an ingredient used in cosmetics and beauty products primarily as a surfactant and emulsifier.
Polyoxyethylene stearate is a non-ionic surfactant, which is permitted for use as the E number food additive E431.

E431: Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
Origin:
E431 is a synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid).

Function & characteristics of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Emulsifier

Products:
Bakery products, puddings, etc.

Acceptable Daily Intake:
Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds.

Side effects of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
None known in the concentrations used. 
People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

Dietary restrictions of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. 
Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.

Roles Classification:
Chemical Role(s):    
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a nonionic surfactant.
A surfactant with an uncharged hydrophilic headgroup.

food emulsifier:
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

emulsifier:
The chemical role played by a substance that stabilizes an emulsion by increasing its kinetic stability.

Biological Role(s):    
food emulsifier:
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

Application(s):    
food emulsifier:
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles limiting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. 
Identification of new and effective MDR reversal agents is needed. 
In this study, the effects of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (PS40) on MDR were evaluated via the transport of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate vinblastine sulfate (VBL) through Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat intestine tissue. 
The effects of PS40 on the antitumor activity of VBL were examined through 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay and multidrug-resistant tumor-bearing mice. 
Results of the transport experiments showed that PS40 reduced VBL efflux. 

The cytotoxicity of vinblastine to K562/ADR cells was significantly enhanced when the cells were cotreated with 100 or 150 μg/mL PS40. 
In vivo data revealed that average tumor volume and average tumor weight were significantly less in the VBL+PS40 group than in the VBL group. 
The inhibition rate for tumor growth was increased from 0.06 (VBL group) to 0.84 (VBL+PS40 group). 
These results suggest that PS40 may be a potentially useful adjuvant to enhance the therapeutic effects of P-gp substrates.

CAS Registry Number: 9004-99-3
SMILES: CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)OCCO
InChI Identifier:
InChI=1S/C20H40O3/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-20(22)23-19-18-21/h21H,2-19H2,1H3
InChI Key: RFVNOJDQRGSOEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Polyoxyl 40 Stearate, Type II, NF is commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations as an emulsifier and a surfactant. 
All Spectrum Chemical NF grade products are manufactured, packaged and stored under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP).

Synonyms: Myrj 52 ; Polyethylene Glycol (40) Monostearate ; PEG-40 Stearate

Growing personal care, cosmetics, textile, food, and pharmaceutical industry and high demand for emulsifying agents in the above industries particularly in regions such as North America, Asia-Pacific, and Europe are some of the economic factors factor driving the global polyoxyethylene (40) stearate market. 
However, health hazards of polyoxyethylene (40) stearate including kidney toxicity may lead to restraining the global polyoxyethylene (40) stearate market. 
As Polyoxyl 40 Stearate is classified as a PEG, it will have the similar concerns associated with all PEGs. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate can increase the incidences of brain cancer, leukaemia, uterine and breast cancer, attributed to presence of harmful impurities called as ethylene oxide. 

Alternative Parents of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:     
-Carboxylic acid esters 
-Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives 
-Primary alcohols 
-Organic oxides 
-Hydrocarbon derivatives 
-Carbonyl compounds 

Chemical Properties of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
-Waxy, light-tan solid; nearly odorless. 
-Congealing range 39–45C. 
-Soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and acetone; insoluble in mineral and vegetable oils.

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is compatible with lipophilic compounds due to a higher free fatty acid content. 
Suggested applications: cosmetic formulations, lubricants.

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a high molecular weight, high HLB surface active agent suggested for use in cosmetic formulations (emulsifier, viscosity modifier) and in lubricants (emulsifier).

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a multifunctional surface active agent suggested for use in cosmetic formulations, household products, lubricants, textile chemicals, polishes and paper.

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is listed as particularly applicable for hand and body lotions and creams.

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
polyethylene glycol monostearate is an emulsifier.

Uses of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene stearate is an emulsifier and antifoaming agent used in processed foods, fruit jellies, and sauces.

Definition of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a mixture of the monoand diesters of stearic acid and mixed polyoxyethylene diols having an average polymer length of 7.5 oxyethylene units.

General Description of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is a neutral surfactant.
Safety Profile:
-Very slightly toxic by ingestion. 
-Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. 
-Experimental reproductive effects. 
-When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. 

Technical details:
State: White flakes
Active content %: 99.00
Nature: Nonionic

APPEARANCE of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
White flakes

FUNCTION of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Is an emulsifier for cosmetic O/W emulsions and is compatible with higher concentrations of electrolytes.

SYNONYMS:
PEG-40 Stearate
Tego Acid S 40 P
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-hydro-omega-hydroxy-, octadecanoate
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
Polyethylene glycol monostearate

STORAGE of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Keep in sealed, unopened, original containers at 60ø – 80ø F. Avoid conditions of high humidity and temperature.

Biological Activity of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
A non-ionic emulsifying agent that can modulate multidrug resistance and enhances antitumor activity of vinblastine sulfate by modulating substrate-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity; inhibits P-gp mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner in Caco-2 cells, also shows potential inhibitory activitites agasint CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

Substituents:    
-Fatty acid ester
-Carboxylic acid ester
-Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
-Carboxylic acid derivative
-Organic oxygen compound
-Organic oxide
-Hydrocarbon derivative
-Primary alcohol
-Organooxygen compound
-Carbonyl group
-Alcohol
-Aliphatic acyclic compound

Based on the end-use, the global polyoxyethylene (40) stearate market is segmented into:
-Pharmaceutical
-Personal Care
-Cosmetics
-Textile Chemicals
-Polishes and Paper
-Household Products
-Food

Based on the application, the global polyoxyethylene (40) stearate market is segmented into:
-Lubricating Agent
-Emulsifying Agent
-Additive

Description of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is used as an Emulsifier – An agent that forms or preserves a mixture of substances normally incapable of being mixed. 
For eg. Oil and water and also helps preventing discoloration.

Polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) is a non-ionic emulsifying agent.
Polyoxyethylene stearate has been recommended as an additive to the radiolabelled 7H12 Middlebrook TB media and as such has been shown to enhance growth of mycobacteria in the radiometric BACTEC rapid culture system. 
Polyoxyethylene (50) stearate produces the greatest enhancement in growth and reduction in the time taken to detect growth for M. tuberculosis and polyoxyethylene (30) stearate and polyoxyethylene (JL) stearate for species of mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis. 

Polyoxyethylene stearate inhibits P-gp mediated efflux in a concentration dependent manner mainly by modulating substrate-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. 
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate reduces vinblastine sulfate efllux. 
The cytotoxicity of vinblastine to K562/ADR cells is significantly enhanced when the cells are cotreated with 100 or 150 μg/mL Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate.

Polyoxyethylene stearate is potentially useful as a pharmaceutical ingredient to improve the oral bioavailability of coadministered P-gp substrates and substrates for certain CYP isoforms. 
The average tumor volume and average tumor weight are significantly less in the Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate+vinblastine group. 
The inhibition rate for tumor growth is increased from 0.06 (vinblastine group) to 0.84 (vinblastine+Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate group).

An economical and environmentally benign synthesis method remains important in industrial processes. 
In this work, kaolin an abundant and non-toxic precursor is employed for mesoporous gamma-alumina synthesis. 
The study explored the consequence of varying polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (PS) surfactant concentration and aging time in the synthesis of mesoporous gamma-alumina with enhancing structural properties. 
The alumina was characterized using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric-Derivative Thermal Gravimetric (TG-DTG), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), N 2 Adsorption–Desorption, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Solid State ²⁷ Al MAS NMR, and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). 
Structural properties and morphology of the mesoporous γ-Al 2 O 3 improved with increasing surfactant amount from 0.45 g to 1.8 g and aging time from 1 to 2 days, then dropped afterward. 

Accordingly, mesoporous γ-Al 2 O 3 synthesized with 1.8 g PS and age for 2 days (Al-1.8-2) possessed the highest surface area of 319.2 m ² /g, a narrow average pore diameter of 2.7 nm, and pore volume of 0.42 cm ³ /g. 
Thus, Al-1.8-2 was chosen and doped with 15% NaOH to obtained 15-Na/Al-1.8-2 catalyst. 
After modification, the basic sites increased, the surface area decreased, and the morphology changed, signifying Na incorporation into the alumina. 

On application in methanolysis reaction, up to 99.46% biodiesel yield was obtained, demonstrating a very high activity for the catalyst. 
The tremendous activity of the catalyst can be associated with the enhanced structural properties of the mesostructured gamma-alumina.

CAS No.9004-99-3
Chemical Name:Polyoxyethylene stearate
Synonyms: PEG-100 STEARATE;Polyethylene glycol monostearate;PEG-75 STEARATE;POES;polyoxyl;polystate;PEG-150 STEARATE;POLYOXYL 50 STEARATE;POLYOXYETHYLENE 8 STEARATE;Polyoxyl 100 Stearate (200 mg)
CBNumber:CB4111623
Molecular Formula:C34H70O9
Molecular Weight:622.91
MDL Number:MFCD00148007
MOL File:9004-99-3.mol

Synonym(s):
Myrj 52

CAS Number:
9004-99-3

MDL number:
MFCD00148007

NACRES:
NA.25

PROPERTIES:
description:
non-ionic

Quality Level:
100

form:
powder

application(s):
detection

Functions of Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate:
1. Anti-foaming Agent / Defoamer - Reduces or hinders the formation of foam.
2. Binder / Stabilizer - Retains the physical characteristics of food/cosmetics and ensure the mixture remains in an even state.
3. Emulsifier - Allows water and oils to remain mixed together to form an emulsion.
4. Surfactant - Reduces the surface tension to allow mixtures to be formed evenly. Emulsifier is a specific type of surfactant which allows two liquids to mix together evenly

Phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed based on hot-stage microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of solid dispersions of griseofulvin or tolbutamide in polyethylene glycol 2000 or Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate. 
The solid dispersions were prepared by physical mixing, fusion, and coprecipitation from ethanol. 
The phase diagrams were largely independent of the method of preparation of the dispersion systems. 
The diagrams were of the monotectic type for polyethylene glycol 2000 with each drug and for griseofulvin with each excipient, with the monotectic species being the pure drug. 

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate with tolbutamide gave eutectic systems in which liquid Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate dissolved up to 20% of the tolbutamide. 
The phase diagrams showed greater solubility of tolbutamide in liquid Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate than in polyethylene glycol 2000 but showed a similar solubility of griseofulvin in each excipient. 
Solid solution formation was not detected.

InChI:
1S/C20H40O3/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-20(22)23-19-18-21/h21H,2-19H2,1H3

InChI key:
RFVNOJDQRGSOEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Synonyms  
E431     
macrogol 40 stearate     
macrogol stearate 2000 
PEG stearate     
polyethylene glycol monostearate 
polyethylene glycol stearate     
polyoxyethylene (40) monostearate     
polyoxyethylene (40) stearate     
polyoxyethylene monostearate     
polyoxyethylene stearate     
polyoxyl 40 stearate     
polyoxyl 8 stearate     
stearic acid, monoester with polyethylene glycol
algon ST 400
2-hydroxyethyl octadecanoate (peg-40)
lipopeg 39-S
lipopeg 39-S flakes
myrj S40
nikkol MYS-40MV
nikkol MYS-40V
pegosperse 1750 MS
pegosperse 1750-MS
poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-(1-oxooctadecyl)-.omega.-hydroxy- (40 mol EO average molar ratio)
polyethylene glycol (40) monostearate
polyethylene glycol (40) stearate
polyoxyethylene (40) monostearate
polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
polyoxyl 40 stearate NF grade
polyoxyl 40 stearate regular grade

Brand Names      
Myrj 49 
Myrj 52     
Myrj S40
 

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