POTASSIUM PERSULFATE


APPLICATION
Initiator for the emulsion or solution Polymerization of acrylic monomers, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride etc. and for the emulsion co-polymerization of styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene etc.

Oxidizing agent, used in cleaning and pickling of metal surface, accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives and modification of starch, production of binders and coating materials,

Desizing agent and bleach activator, It is an essential component of bleaching formulations for hair cosmetics.

The initiator for emulsion polymerization has to be water-soluble, considering the mechanism of emulsion polymerization.

Typical initiators are persulfates, for example, sodium, potassium, or ammonium persulfate, which are activated by thermal energy; typical polymerization temperatures are in the range of 70–90 °C.

Very popular are also redox systems, which consist of an oxidizing and a reducing compound. The interaction of these components and optionally some multivalent metal ions generates radicals even at low temperatures and allows smooth polymerization

EC / List no.: 231-781-8

CAS no.: 7727-21-1

Mol. formula: K2O8S2


Potassium Persulfate
Potassium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S2O8. It is the potassium salt of persulfate (also called peroxydisulfate), an oxidizer. It is a white solid that dissolves in water. It is almost non-hygroscopic and has good shelf-life. Persulfate is often used as a strong oxidizer or monomer polymerization initiator.

Potassium persulfate is but only an initiator for latex or acrylic monomer polymer fluid, vinyl acetate or chloroethylene, etc. but also an initiator for the copolymerization of cinnamene, acrylonitrile, butadiene and other colloids. It is often used as a strong oxidizer and has the following usages

(1) Used while rinsing or cleaning the surface of metal with acid;
(2) Accelerate the processing procedure of low concentration formalin binder;
(3) Used as a regulator while producing amylum and applied to the production of binder or paint;
(4) Used as desizing agent or active bleaching agent;
(5) For hair dye, as a principal ingredient with discoloring function.
(6) Used as oxidizer for remediation of envionmental protection.


Potassium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S2O8. Also known as potassium peroxydisulfate or KPS, it is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in cold water, but dissolves better in warm water. 
This salt is a powerful oxidant, commonly used to initiate polymerizations.

Potassium persulfate can be prepared by electrolysis of a cold solution potassium bisulfate in sulfuric acid at a high current density.[1]

2 KHSO4 → K2S2O8 + H2
It can also be prepared by adding potassium bisulfate (KHSO4) to a solution of the more soluble salt ammonium peroxydisulfate (NH4)2S2O8. In principle it can be prepared by chemical oxidation of potassium sulfate using fluorine.

Uses
This salt is used to initiate polymerization of various alkenes leading to commercially important polymers such as styrene-butadiene rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene and related materials. In solution, the dianion dissociates to give radicals:[3]

[O3SO-OSO3]2− ⇌ 2 [SO4]•−
It is used in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent,[4] for instance in the Elbs persulfate oxidation of phenols and the Boyland–Sims oxidation of anilines.

As a strong yet stable bleaching agent it also finds use in various hair bleaches and lighteners. Such brief and non-continuous use is normally hazard free, however prolonged contact can cause skin irritation.[5] It has been used as an improving agent for flour with the E number E922, although it is no longer approved for this use within the EU.

Precautions
The salt is a strong oxidant and is incompatible with organic compounds. Prolonged skin contact can result in irritation.

Potassium persulfate appears as a white crystalline solid. Specific gravity 2.477. Decomposes below 100°C.

Use: Potassium Persulfate is a transparent colorless crystal that is a strong oxidizer. It is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.


Persulfates are key components in many industrial processes and commercial products.

The polymer industry uses aqueous solutions of persulfates as initiators in the polymerization of latex and synthetic rubber. 

The electronics industry considers sodium persulfate an efficient microetchant in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. 

The following examples further illustrate the chemical versatility of persulfates.

Polymerization
Plastics and rubber — Ammonium, potassium, and sodium persulfates are used as initiators for emulsion polymerization reactions in the preparation of acrylics, polyvinyl chlorides, polystyrenes, and neoprene.

They are used as polymerization initiators in the manufacture of synthetic rubber (styrene butadiene and isoprene) for automobile and truck tires.

Persulfate initiation is used to prepare latex polymers for paints, coatings, and carpet backing.

Structural materials — Persulfates are used as initiators in polymeric concrete formulations.

Inorganic chemicals and minerals — Persulfates are also initiators for the polymeric coating of graphite filaments.

Soil stabilization — Ammonium persulfate is used as a curing agent in chemical grout systems used to stabilize soil near dams, tunnels, and buildings.

Oxidation

Surface preparation — The oxidation power of persulfates is used to clean and microetch a variety of printed circuit board substrates.

Persulfates are important oxidants in plating and coating processes. They are also etchants for nickel, titanium, and zink alloys.

Persulfates are used to clean and mill aluminum, brass, copper, and many other metal surfaces prior to plating or adhesive bonding


Persulfates are used to clean and activate carbon and charcoal before and after their use as absorbents.

Cosmetics — The cosmetic industry has developed formulations which use persulfates to boost hair bleaching performance.

Organic synthesis — Persulfates are oxidizing agents in the preparation of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, quinones, and a variety of other compounds.

The pharmaceutical industry uses sodium persulfate as a reagent in the preparation of antibiotics.

Other Applications

Adhesive — Persulfates are used in the preparation of adhesive films and metal bonding adhesives.

Gas and oil production — In enhanced oil recovery, persulfates are used "down hole" for gel forming and breaking.

Inks, pigments, and dispersants — Persulfates are used to graft substrates to polymers (for example, carbon black to sodium acrylate). Persulfates are used in the preparation of dispersants for ink jetting and toner formulations.

Mining — Persulfates can be used in nickel and cobalt separation processes.

Peroxymonosulfate — FMC developed a process using ammonium and sodium persulfates to prepare peroxymonosulfate solutions. This patented process allows fast, efficient, on-site production of an alternative to Caro's acid and potassium caroate.

Photography — Persulfates are used in many photographic applications, including bleaching solutions, solution regeneration, equipment cleaning, and waste water treatment.

Pulp and paper — Persulfates are used in the sizing of paper, preparation of binders and coatings, and production of special papers.


An activated alkali metal persulfate effectively repulps neutral/alkaline wet-strength broke and decolorizes dyes and optical brightener.

Textiles — Ammonium and sodium persulfates are used in the desizing and bleaching of textiles and the development of dyestuffs.

Swimming pools — PPS shock treatment is used to oxidize non-filterable waste in swimming pools and other recreational water. PPS shock clarifies water and prevents the formation of combined chlorine.
Environmental — Persulfates are very strong oxidants, have excellent shelf life when stored properly, and are economical to use. These properties make persulfates suitable for a variety of environmental applications, such as soil remediation and wastewater/groundwater cleanup.

Oxidation Chemistry
The persulfate anion is the most powerful oxidant of the peroxygen family of compounds

Outline
Potassium persulfate (Formula is K2S2O8) is also known as potassium peroxydisulfate, molecular weight is 270.32, decomposition temperature is 50-60℃, it is white, odorless crystal, it is soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, it has strong oxidizing, it is commonly used as bleaching agents, oxidizing agents, it can be used as the polymerization initiator, it almost does not absorb moisture, it has good stability at room temperature, it is easy to be stored, and it has the advantages of convenience and safety, etc. . Applications involves polymerization initiator, circuit board cleaning and etching, copper and aluminum surface activation, modified starch, pulp and textile bleaching and desizing low temperature, circulating water purification treatment systems, oxidative degradation of harmful gases, low formaldehyde adhesive stick together accelerated oxidation of ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbons, disinfectants, hair dye decolorization.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.

Half-life
80℃-1.5 hours; 70℃-7.7 hours; 60℃-33 hours; 45℃-292 hours; 35℃-1600 hours.

Recrystallization
Potassium persulfate dissolves in 30℃ water, cools, then the recrystallized product can be obtained, it is filtered and dried under reduced pressure in the presence of calcium chloride.
Solubility in water(g/100ml)
Grams which dissolves in per 100 ml of water: 4.7g/20 ℃.
The main application areas
Potassium persulfate is mainly used as initiator and strong oxidizing agents.
Initiator:
Potassium persulfate is the initiator of latex or solution polymerization of acrylic monomers, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride and other product, and it is also the initiator of styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene and the like emulsion for copolymerisation.
Strong oxidizing agent:
1. It is used as desizing agent and bleach activator.
2. It is used for oxidative degradation of harmful substances in pool and closed circular loop in water.
3. It can be applied in the production of starch modifier and applied in the production of adhesive and coating agent.
4. It can be applied in the branched-chain oxidation, alcohol and aromatic hydroxy oxidation.
5. It is one of the basic constituent of hair dyes, it plays the role of decolorization.
Toxicity
The amount is not specified (FAO/WHO, 2001).

Potassium persulfate powder has stimulating effect on nasal mucosa, packaging should be ventilated to prevent dust. Labour protection appliance should be dressed at work.

Storage precautions
Potassium persulfate is non-flammable, it is combustion-supporting which due to it can release of oxygen, storage environment must be dry and clean, well-ventilated. Pay attention to moisture and rain, it should not be transported in rain. Keep away from fire, heat and direct sunlight. It should be kept sealed packaging, labels should be intact and clear. It should be stored separately with flammable or combustible materials, organic compounds, as well as rust, small amount of metal, and other reducing substance, it should avoid mix to prevent causing decomposition of potassium persulfate and explosion.

Chemical properties
It is colorless or white triclinic crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, the solubility is 1.75g/100ml water at 0℃, the solubility is 5.3g/100ml water at 20℃. It is insoluble in alcohol. Queous solution is acidic.

Uses
It can be used as gluten agent of wheat flour.
It is mainly used as a disinfectant and fabric bleach. It can be used as industrial oxidant in dyes and inorganic salts. It can be used as emulsion polymerization initiators in synthetic rubber industry. It can be used as polymerization accelerator in synthetic resin. In addition, it can also be used in the steel, photographic industry and medicine.
It can be used as analytical reagents, oxidants and plastic initiator, it can also be used in the film photofinishing.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.
Production method
Potassium sulfate method
Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid formulates to form liquid electrolyte, it is decontaminated by electrolysis, HSO4-can discharge and generate peroxydisulfate acidat in the anode, and then reacts with ammonium sulfate to generate ammonium persulfate, Then replacement reaction can happen when potassium is added . The finished product of potassium persulfate can be obtained after cooling, separation, crystallization, drying.
Anode reaction: 2HSO4-2e → H2S2O8
Cathodic reaction: 2H ++ 2e → H2 ↑
(NH4) 2SO4 + H2S2O8 → (NH4) 2S2O8 + H2SO4
(NH4) 2S2O8 + K2SO4 + H2SO4 → K2S2O8 + 2NH4HSO4
It can be derived by replacement reaction with ammonium persulfate potassium sulfate, then it goes through cooling, separation, crystallization, drying.

Category
oxidant
Toxicity grading
Mid toxicity.
Acute toxicity
Oral-rat LD50: 802 mg/kg.

Explosive hazardous characteristics
It can explode when mixes with reductant, sulfur, phosphorus; It can explode when be heated, impacted, and meets fire.

Flammability hazard characteristic
Thermal decomposition can get oxygen; toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides can generate after combustion.

Storage characteristics
Treasury should have ventilation and be low-temperature drying; loading and unloading should be light; it should be stored separately with organic matter, reducing agents, sulfur, phosphorus combustibles.

Extinguishing agent
Mist of water, sand, foam.
Professional standards
TWA 2 mg/m.

Chemical Properties
colourless odourless crystals or white powder

Chemical Properties
Potassium persulfate is a colorless or white, odorless crystalline material.

Physical properties
Colorless or white crystals; triclinic structure; density 2.477 g/cm3; stable in solid crystalline form; decomposes on heating, evolving oxygen; completely decomposes at about 100°C; sparingly soluble in cold water 1.75 g/100mL at 0°C; moderately soluble at ordinary temperature, 5.29 g/100 mL at 20°C;aqueous solution acidic and unstable, decomposing slowly at room temperature and more rapidly when the solution is warmed; insoluble in alcohol.

Uses
Bleaching fabrics, soaps; in photography under the name Anthion to remove last traces of thiosulfate from plates and paper; in analytical chemistry.

Preparation
Potassium persulfate can be prepared by electrolysis of a mixture of potassium sulfate and potassium hydrogen sulfate at a high current density:
2KHSO4→K2S2O8+ H2
Also, the compound can be prepared by adding potassium hydrogen sulfate,KHSOto an electrolyzed solution of ammonium hydrogen sulfate, NH4HSO4.

General Description
A white crystalline solid. Specific gravity 2.477. Decomposes below 100°C.

Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble. Slowly decomposed by water. The salt rapidly liberates oxygen when heated, and especially so when wet.

Reactivity Profile
Potassium persulfate is an oxidizing agent. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible material. Potassium persulfate plus a little potassium hydroxide and water released sufficient heat and oxygen to ignite a polythene (polyethylene) liner in a container. [MCA Case History 1155. 1955].

Hazard
Strong irritant and oxidizing agent. Fire risk in contact with organic materials.

Health Hazard
Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Fire Hazard
These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Agricultural Uses
Potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, is a white crystalline material, moderately hygroscopic, available in fine, granular and semi-granular forms. It contains 48 to 54% potassium (as K2O) and supplies 17 to 20 % of sulphate. Chloride-sensitive crops like tobacco, grapes and potato require chloride-free potassium fertilizers. Therefore, these crops are fertilized with potassium sulphate, although this is more expensive than potassium chloride. These three crops, being major crops, account for about 7% of the total potash consumption. For best results, potassium sulphate should contain at least 50 % potash by weight.
Potassium sulphate occurs in nature as 'langbeinite' , a double sulphate of potassium and magnesium (K2SO4?2MgSO4) and made from burkeite (Na2CO3?2Na2SO4), kainite (KCl?MgS04?3H2O) or potassium chloride (KCl) as follows:
When applied to soil, potassium ion from the watersoluble potassium sulphate is retained in the soil colloids and not easily leached out. This makes potassium sulphate an excellent fertilizer, useful for all soils and crops while sowing or before sowing. It is also a safe ingredient of powdered, mixed fertilizers.

Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by ingestion. An irritant and allergen. A powerful oxidtzer. Flammable when exposed to heat or by chemical reaction. Can react with reducing materials. It liberates oxygen above 100' when dry or @ about 50' when in solution. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of SOx,, S2O8, and K2O.

Potential Exposure
Potassium persulfate is used as a bleaching and oxidizing agent; it is used in redox polymeri- zation catalysts; in the defiberizing of wet strength paper and in the desizing of textiles. Soluble in water.

Shipping
UN1492 Potassium persulfate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

Purification Methods
Crystallise the persulfate twice from distilled water (10mL/g) and dry it at 50o in a vacuum desiccator. Its solubility in H2O is 1.6% at 0o, 4.5% at 20o, and 7.2% at 30o. An aqueous solution decomposes on long standing with evolution of O2 and formation of KHSO4. It is a powerful oxidising agent. Store it at ~10o. [Fehér in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 390 1963.]

Incompatibilities
A strong oxidizer. Incompatible with combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable materials; sulfur, metallic dusts, such as aluminum dust; chlorates and perchlorates. Attacks chemically active metals. Keep away from moisture.

Waste Disposal
Use large volumes of reducing agents (bisulfites, e.g.). Neutralize with soda ash and drain into sewer with abundant water.
Potassium persulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate Sulfuric acid Potassium sulfate


Initiator potassium persulfate
The need for increased stabilities and for controllable permeabilities and morphologies led to the development of polymerized surfactant vesicles [55, 158-161]. Vesicle-forming surfactants haw been functionalized by vinyl, methacrylate, diacetylene, isocyano, and styrene groups in their hydrocarbon chains or headgroups. Accordingly, SUVs could be polymerized in their bilayers or across their headgroups. In the latter case, either the outer or both the outer and inner surfaces could be polymerized separately (Fig. 38). Photopolymerization links both surfaces selective polymerization of the external SUV surface is accomplished by the addition of a water-soluble initiator (potassium persulfate, for example) to the vesicle solution. [Pg.55]

Polymerization of styrene in each of the three types of microemulsions was performed using a water soluble initiator, potassium persulfate (K2S208), as well as an oil-soluble initiator, AIBN. As desired, solid polymeric materials were obtained instead of latex particles. In the anionic system, the cosolvent 2-pentanol or butyl cellosolve separates out during polymerization. Three phases are always obtmned after polymerization. The solid polymer was obtained in the middle with excess phases at the top and bottom. GC analysis of the upper phase indicates more than 80% 2-pentanol, while Karl-Fisher analysis indicated more than 94% water in the lower phase. Some of the initial microemulsion systems have either an excess organic phase on top or an excess water phase as the bottom layer. GC analysis showed the organic phase to be rich in 2-pentanol. However, the volume of the excess phase is much less in the initial system than in the polymerized system. [Pg.72]

Most emulsion polymerization is based on free-radical reactions, involving monomers (e.g., styrene, butadiene, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, acrylic acid, etc.), surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), initiator (potassium persulfate), water (18.2MQ/cm), and other chemicals and reagents such as sodium hydrogen carbonate, toluene, eluent solution, sodium chloride, and sodium hydroxide. [Pg.864]

Emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate under the action of pulsed microwave irradiation was studied by Zhu et al. [11], The reactions were conducted in a self-designed single-mode microwave reaction apparatus with a frequency of 1250 MHz and a pulse width of 1.5 or 3.5 ps. The output peak pulse power, duty cycles, and mean output power were continuously adjustable within the ranges 20-350 kW, 0.1-0.2%, and 2-350 W, respectively. Temperature during microwave experiments was maintained by immersing the reaction flask in a thermostatted jacket with a thermostatic medium with little microwave absorption (for example tetrachloroethylene). In a typical experiment, 8.0 mL methyl methacrylate, 20 mL deionized water, and 0.2 g sodium dodecylsulfonate were transferred to a 100-mL reaction flask which was placed in the microwave cavity. When the temperature reached a preset temperature, 10 mL of an aqueous solution of the initiator (potassium persulfate) was added and the flask was exposed to microwave irradiation. [Pg.655]

When the water-soluble initiator potassium persulfate is added to an emulsion polymerization system, it undergoes thermal decomposition to form sulfate radical anion ... [Pg.267]

Clay and mineral fillers have been used for reducing production costs and improving the comprehensive water absorbing properties of superabsorbent materials For example, a poly(acrylic acid)/mica superabsorbent has been synthesized with water absorbency higher than 1100 g H20/g In a typical method of preparation, acrybc acid monomer is neutralized at ambient temperature with an amount of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to achieve 65% neutralization (optimum) Dry ultrafine (<0.2 tm) mica powder (10 wt%) is added, followed by cross-linker N,N-methylene-bisacrylamide (0.10 wt%) and radical initiator, potassium persulfate The mixture is heated to 60-70°C in a water bath for 4 h. The product is washed, dried under vacuum at 50°C, and screened. [Pg.429]

Sarkar el aL [6] studied the conventional thermal initiator, potassium persulfate. He discovered that the initial rate of potassium persulfate decomposition in the presence of VAc may be written as... [Pg.701]

In an in-situ encapsulation process, a dispersion including monomers and the pigment particles can be homogenized. The monomers in the dispersion are then polymerized at the surface of the pigment so as to encapsulate the pigment particles. 6-15% of the monomers are acidic. The acidic monomers can assist the pigment in remaining properly dispersed in the inkjet ink. As a polymerization initiator, potassium persulfate may be used (20). [Pg.129]

There are various additives in PVC plastics, such as antioxidants, light stabilizers, initiators, plasticizers, flame retardants, pigments and others. As initiators, potassium persulfate, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, percarbonate and some azo-compounds can be used. The presence of chlorine in the hydrocarbon backbone gives rigidity and toughness to the polymer, but PVC liberates hydrogen chloride when exposed to high temperatures. To prevent this, stabilizers are added to the polymer. There are several kinds of stabilizers on the market. The most important contain lead, tin, calcium and zinc and... [Pg.608]

Cho and Lee used three different initiators, potassium persulfate, 2,2 -azobisisobutyronitrile, and 4,4 -azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (water-soluble, but less hydrophilic than potassium persulfate) to investigate their effects on the emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of polymethyl methacrylate seed latex particles. Inverted core/shell latex particles were observed when 2,2 -azobisisobutyronitrile or 4,4 -azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) was used to initiate free radical polymerization. The use of potassium persulfate resulted in various morphological structures of latex particles, which were largely determined by the initiator concentration and polymerization temperature

CAS No.7727-21-1
Chemical Name:Potassium persulfate
SynonymsKPS;anthion;Virkon S;BETZ 2701;PERSULPHATE;NP A SOLUTION;Potassum Suphates;SULPHATE STANDARD;POTASSIUM SULPHATE;POTTASSIUM SULPHATE

Other names
potassium peroxydisulfate
Anthion
potassium perdisulfate

CAS Number: 7727-21-1 
ChemSpider    
22821 ☒
ECHA InfoCard    100.028.893 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number: 231-781-8
E number: E922 (glazing agents, ...)
PubChem CID: 24412
RTECS number: SE0400000
UNII    
6B86K0MCZC 
UN number:1492

Properties
Chemical formula:K2S2O8
Molar mass:270.322 g/mol
Appearance: white powder
Odor: odorless
Density: 2.477 g/cm3
Melting point: < 100 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water: 1.75 g/100 mL (0 °C)
4.49 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility: insoluble in alcohol
Refractive index (nD): 1.467


Persulfate Handling and Safety
Persulfates are oxidizing chemicals that require careful attention to all aspects of handling and use. 
For more information, you may request a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) which is available from ATAMAN KİMYA office.

Personal Protective Equipment
When handling persulfate chemicals, follow the guidelines listed here and in the MSDS.
Protect your eyes — Wear chemical-type goggles or a face mask whenever splashing, spraying, or any eye contact is possible.
Protect your respiratory system — Use dust respirators approved by NIOSH/MSA whenever exposure may exceed the established standard listed in the current MSDS.
Protect your hands — Wear general purpose neoprene gloves.
Protect yourself with proper clothing — Wear ordinary work clothes with long sleeves and full-length pants.
Protect yourself with proper footwear — Wear shoes with neoprene soles.

First Aid
Eye contact — Flush with water for at least 15 minutes.
If irritation occurs and persists, obtain medical attention.

Skin contact — Wash with plenty of soap and water.
If irritation occurs and persists, obtain medical attention.
Wash clothing before reuse.

Inhalation — Get fresh air. If breathing difficulty or discomfort occurs, call a physician.
Ingestion — Drink one to two glasses of water. Do not induce vomiting. Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious individual. Call a physician immediately.
When properly handled and stored, persulfates and their solutions do not present serious health hazards.
The MSDS provides information concerning exposure, emergency, first aid, and disposal of persulfates.


Potassium Persulfate Market: Overview 

Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) is also called potassium peroxydisulfate. It is a colorless or white triclinic powder found in the form of a crystals. It shows solubility in water, but in alcohol it is insoluble. Potassium persulfate is said to be a strong oxidizing agent, and is used widely for bleaching. It is known to be a stable compound at normal room temperature. Moisture is not absorbed by potassium persulfate and hence it can be easily stored for longer so that it can be used later.

Some of the uses of potassium persulfate are circuit board cleaning; polymerization initiator; etching of circuit boards; enhancing the water purification treatment processes; aluminum and copper surface activation; disinfection; hair dye decolorization; low formaldehyde adhesive stick along with the speedy oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons and ethanol, modified starch, degradation by oxidation of harmful gases, and for the bleaching of pulp and textiles in the paper and textile industries, respectively; and oxidative desizing at low temperature. 

Potassium Persulfate Market: Market Trends

Potassium persulfate is extensively used as an initiator and a strong oxidizing agent. It is one of the essential constituents of hair dyes, as it is a perfect agent for decolorization. Potassium persulfate is used as bleach activator and desizing agent. It is used for the oxidative degradation of toxic substances or chemicals in closed circular loops in water or a pool, making the process of water treatment easy. It can be used as an analytical reagent, plastic initiator, and oxidant, and in the process of the photofinishing of film. These applications make potassium persulfate an essential commodity in the market as it is used in many industries including cosmetics, water treatment plants, for bleaching purposes, etc.

Though the toxicity of potassium persulfate is mild, continuous exposure to it may lead to major side effects on human health. Some of the adverse effects caused due by exposure to potassium persulfate may lead to cancer, issues related to one’s reproductive systems, and even skin allergies in certain cases.

Sodium sulfate is used as a substitute for potassium persulfate in certain analytical processes due to the similar qualities that are seen in both compounds.

Keeping in mind the mild level of toxicity of potassium persulfate and its wide range of industrial applications, it is expected that the market may experience stable growth in the near future. 

Potassium Persulfate Market: Region-wise Outlook

Asia Pacific, North America, and Europe are the key regional markets for potassium persulfate at present and are expected to retain the position even in the future. Currently, the market for potassium persulfate is developing considerably in Asia Pacific. Developing countries such as India, China, and Japan are known to have a vast market for potassium persulfate.

Its applications in fields such as the water treatment, cosmetics, paper, and textile industries are the reasons for its extensive market in the above regions of the world. 

Ammonium, potassium, and sodium persulfates are used as initiators for emulsion polymerization reactions in the preparation of acrylics, polyvinyl chlorides, polystyrenes, and neoprene. They are used as polymerization initiators in the manufacture of synthetic rubber (styrene butadiene and isoprene) for automobile and truck tires. Persulfate initiation is used to prepare latex polymers for paints, coatings, and carpet backing.

Products
Key Functions
Potassium Persulfate
Potassium persulfate is used as an initiator for emulsion polymerization reactions, in the preparation of acrylic, vinyl, styrene, neoprene, styrene-butadiene and other resins. It is also used in depolymerization in modification of starch, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a gel breaker in the oil and gas industry.

Potassium Persulfate
Potassium persulfate is used as an initiator for emulsion polymerization reactions, in the preparation of acrylic, vinyl, styrene, neoprene, styrene-butadiene and other resins. It is also used in depolymerization in modification of starch, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a gel breaker in the oil and gas industry.

Oxidizer, Free Radical Generator
Bleaching
Pool/Spa Shock
Sodium Persulfate
Sodium persulfate acts as a polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, as an etchant and cleaner in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics.

Oxidizer, Free Radical Generator
Bleaching
Pool/Spa Shock
Ammonium Persulfate
Ammonium persulfate acts as a polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, as an etchant and cleaner in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a gel breaker in the oil and gas industry.

Oxidizer, Free Radical Generator
Bleaching

Synonyms:
     dipotassium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
     dipotassium peroxodisulfate
     dipotassium peroxodisulphate
     dipotassium peroxydisulfate
     dipotassium persulfate
     dipotassium sulfonatooxy sulfate
     peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2) , dipotassium salt
     peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), potassium salt (1:2)
     peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), dipotassium salt
     peroxydisulfuric acid potassium salt (1:2)
     peroxydisulfuric acid, dipotassium salt
     potassium peroxodisulfate
     potassium peroxydisulfate
     potassium peroxydisulfate (K2(S2O8))
     potassium peroxydisulphate

TNP-201 DECOMPOSITION SOLUTION 1
anthion
NP A SOLUTION
POTASSIUM PEROXODISULFATE
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULPHATE
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE, PURIFIED
Kaliumperoxodisulfat
Potassium Perslphate
Potassum Suphates
Dipotassiumperoxydisulphate
DI-POTASSIUM PEROXODISULPHATE
DIPOTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
BETZ 2701
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE 98%
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate (measured as [S2O8])
dipotassium peroxodisulphate potassium persulphate
POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE extrapure
POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE extrapure AR
Potassium oersulfate
Potassium persulfate, for analysis
Potassium persulfate, for analysis ACS
Peroxodisulfuric acid dipotassium salt
Virkon S
Hydrogen peroxodisulfate
Peroxodisulfuric acid
Potassium Peroxydisulphate, Acs Grade
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE (KPS)
POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE (KPS)
Potassium peroxydisulfate, ACS, 99.0% min
Potassium peroxydisulfate, 99.99% (metals basis)
Potassium persulfate,99+%,for analysis ACS
Potassium peroxydisulfate, 99.9% (metals basis)
Potassium peroxodisulfate,Potassium persulfate
Potassium peroxodisulfate/ 99+%
Potassium persulfate,Potassium peroxodisulfate
Potassium peroxydisulfate (metals basis)
Potassium Peroxydisulfate, Acs Min
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), potassium salt (1:2)
dipotassiumpersulfate
peroxydisulfuricacid([(ho)s(o)2]2o2),dipotassiumsalt
Peroxydisulfuricacid,dipotassiumsalt
peroxydisulfuricacid[((ho)s(o)2)2o2],dipotassiumsalt
potassiumperoxydisulfate(k2s2o3)
potassiumperoxydisulfate[k2(s2o8)]
Potassium Persulfate Potassium peroxydisulfate Dipotassium peroxydisulphate
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE SIGMAULTRA
POTASSIUM PEROXODISULFATE (MAX. 0,001 % N) R. G., REAG. ACS
POTASSIUM PEROXODISULFATE EXTRA PURE
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE ELECTROPHORESIS*REA GENT
POTASSIUM PEROXODISULFATE R. G.
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE, 99+%, A.C.S. REAGE NT
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE PHOTOGRAPHIC GRADE
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE ACS REAGENT
Potassium persulfate, 99.99% metals basis
PotassiumPersulfateK2S2O8
PotassiumPersulphateGr


POTASSIUM PERSULFATE
7727-21-1
Potassium peroxydisulfate
Anthion
Potassium peroxodisulfate
Potassium peroxydisulphate
Dipotassium peroxydisulfate
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate
Dipotassium persulfate
Caswell No. 700
UNII-6B86K0MCZC
Peroxydisulfuric acid, dipotassium salt
potassium persulphate
HSDB 2638
EINECS 231-781-8
MFCD00011386
UN1492
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 063602
Potassium peroxydisulfate (K2(S2O8))
6B86K0MCZC
Peroxydisulfuric acid dipotassium salt
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2) , dipotassium salt
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), dipotassium salt
Potassiumpersulfate
Potassium persulfate, 99+%, ACS reagent
Potassium persulfate, 99+%, for analysis
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), potassium salt (1:2)
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), potassium salt (1:2)

Virkon S
potasium persulfate
potassium persuifate
ACMC-20ajud
potassium monopersulphate
potassium peroxidisulfate
dipotassium dioxidan-2-idesulfonate
Potassium persulfate, ACS Reagent Grade
Potassium persulfate [UN1492] [Oxidizer]
FT-0689072
Potassium persulfate [UN1492] [Oxidizer]
dipotassium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
Potassium persulfate, Trace metals grade 99.99%
Q415226
Anthion
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate; potassium persulphate
Dipotassium peroxydisulfate
Dipotassium persulfate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2) , dipotassium salt
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), potassium salt (1:2)
Peroxydisulfuric acid, dipotassium salt
Potassium peroxydisulfate
Potassium peroxydisulfate (K2(S2O8))
Potassium peroxydisulphate
Potassium persulfate
POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE
potassium persulphate

Translated names
Dikaaliumperoksodisulfaat (et)
dikalijev peroksodisulfat (hr)
dikalijev peroksodisulfat (sl)
dikalio peroksodisulfatas (lt)
dikalium-peroxodisulfát (cs)
dikaliumperoksodisulfaatti (fi)
dikaliumperoksodisulfat (no)
dikaliumperoxodisulfaat (nl)
dikaliumperoxodisulfat (da)
Dikaliumperoxodisulfat (de)
dikaliumperoxodisulfat (sv)
dikálium-peroxodiszulfát (hu)
dikālija peroksidisulfāts (lv)
dipotasiu peroxodisulfat (ro)
Kaaliumpersulfaat (et)
kalijev persulfat (hr)
kalijev persulfat (sl)
kalio persulfatas (lt)
kaliumpersulfaatti (fi)
Kaliumpersulfat (de)
kaliumpersulfat (no)
kálium-persulfát (sk)
kálium-perszulfát (hu)
kālija persulfāts (lv)
nadtlenodisiarczan(VI) dipotasu (pl)
peroksodisiarczan(VI) dipotasu (pl)
perossodisolfato di dipotassio (it)
peroxodissulfato de dipotássio (pt)
peroxodisulfate de dipotassium; persulfate de potassium (fr)
peroxodisulfato de dipotasio (es)
peroxodisíran draselný (cs)
peroxodisíran draselný (sk)
potasiu persulfat (ro)
Υπερθειικο κάλιο (el)
υπεροξοδιθειικό δικάλιο (el)
дикалиев пероксодисулфат (bg)
калиев персулфат (bg)

CAS names
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), potassium salt (1:2)
IUPAC names
dipotassium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
dipotassium [(sulfoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
dipotassium O-[(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanidolate
Dipotassium Peroxodisulphate
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate
Dipotassium peroxodisulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate potassium persulphate
dipotassium peroxodisulphate; potassium persulphate
Dipotassium persulfate
dipotassium sulfonatooxy
dipotassium sulfonatooxy sulfate
dipotassium sulfonatooxy sulphate
dipotassium-peroxodisulphate-
dipotassium;sulfonatooxy sulfate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), dipotassium salt
Potassium peroxydisulfate
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE
Potassium persulfate
Potassium persulfate
Potassium Persulphate
potassium persulphate
pottassium persulfat

Trade names
dipotassium peroxodisulfate
Dipotassium persulfate
dipotassium persulfate
Potassium peroxodisulfate
potassium peroxodisulfate
Potassium persulfate
potassium persulfate


ANTHION
DIPOTASSIUM PEROXODISULFATE
DIPOTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
DIPOTASSIUM PERSULFATE
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE (K2(S2O8))
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULFATE (K2S2O3)
POTASSIUM PEROXYDISULPHATE
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE
POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE
VIRKON S


 

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