PROPYLENE GLYCOL ETHYL ETHER

CAS Number: 52125-53-8
Molecular Formula: C5H12O2

Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether / Ethoxy Propanol (PE) is a colorless liquid with a slight ethereal odor that can be used as a solvent for alkyd resins, acrylic resins and polyester paint.

What is Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether?
PGEE is glycol ether based on Propylene oxide and ethanol. 
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is a solvent having a bi-functional nature (ether-alcohol and the respective acetate). 
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is a clear liquid with a sweetish odour.

How is Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Used?
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used as an intermediate and in formulations in industrial, professional or consumer applications.
Mainly in surface coatings and printing inks and paints, cleaners, agrochemical or de-icing/antiicing formulations. 

Health, Safety and Environmental Considerations:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is a flammable liquid with flashpoint is 1040 F/400C. 
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is an isomer mix, of which the main component is 1-Ethoxypropanol-2 (typically 98% or more) and its acetate.
If large quantities are ingested or high vapour concentrations inhaled, PGEE  may cause central nervous system depression including headaches, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and coma.

To a certain extent, Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can cause slight irritation of the skin and respiratory tract, but these effects do not trigger classification according to GHS criteria. 
However, Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether has been shown to cause serious eye irritation. 
Some countries have determined an occupational exposure limit for Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether and these can be found in the Safety Datasheet for that county. 

The derived no effect levels for acute inhalation exposure are 211 mg/m³ for workers who are expected to be protected by adequate personal protection equipment and 300 mg/m³ for consumers.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether show low toxicity towards aquatic organisms. 
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is completely miscible with water, biodegradable and not expected to bio-accumulate. 

Storing and Transporting Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether:
Due to Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ethers flammability, they are classified as hazardous for transport under transport regulations.
Glycol ethers should be stored at ambient temperatures away from sources of ignition and substances with oxidising or corrosive properties. 

Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol commonly used in paints and cleaners. 
These solvents typically have a higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower-molecular weight ethers and alcohols. 
The first one was ethyl cellosolve (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether), with the name now generic for glycol ethers.

Glycol ethers are either "e-series" or "p-series" glycol ethers, depending on whether they are made from ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, respectively. 
Typically, e-series glycol ethers are found in pharmaceuticals, sunscreens, cosmetics, inks, dyes and water-based paints, while p-series glycol ethers are used in degreasers, cleaners, aerosol paints and adhesives. 
Both E-series glycol ethers and P-series glycol ethers can be used as intermediates that undergo further chemical reactions, producing glycol diethers and glycol ether acetates. 
P-series glycol ethers are marketed as having lower toxicity than the E-series. 
Most glycol ethers are water-soluble, biodegradable and only a few are considered toxic.

One study suggests that occupational exposure to glycol ethers is related to low motile sperm count, a finding disputed by the chemical industry.

Molecular Weight: 104.15     
XLogP3-AA: 0.2     
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1     
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 2     
Rotatable Bond Count: 3     
Exact Mass: 104.083729621 
Monoisotopic Mass: 104.083729621     
Topological Polar Surface Area: 29.5 Ų     
Heavy Atom Count: 7     
Formal Charge: 0 
Complexity: 37.1     
Isotope Atom Count: 0     
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 1     
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0     
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0     
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0     
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1     
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes     

About Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Helpful information:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 10 000 to < 100 000 tonnes per annum.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following products: coating products, inks and toners, polymers and finger paints.
Other release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.

Article service life of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether:
Other release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment), outdoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. tyres, treated wooden products, treated textile and fabric, brake pads in trucks or cars, sanding of buildings (bridges, facades) or vehicles (ships)) and indoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. release from fabrics, textiles during washing, removal of indoor paints).
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: vehicles.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can be found in products with material based on: wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys), metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper) and plastic (e.g. food packaging and storage, toys, mobile phones).

Widespread uses of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether by professional workers:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following products: coating products and non-metal-surface treatment products.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following areas: printing and recorded media reproduction and building & construction work.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used for the manufacture of: machinery and vehicles.
Other release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.

Formulation or re-packing of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following products: coating products and non-metal-surface treatment products.
Release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and formulation in materials.

Uses of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether at industrial sites:
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following products: semiconductors.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging and printing and recorded media reproduction.
Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, electrical, electronic and optical equipment and plastic products.
Release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and in the production of articles.

Manufacture of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether:
Release to the environment of Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

Formula: C5H12O2 / CH3CH2OCH2CHOHCH3
Molecular mass: 104.2
Boiling point: 133°C
Melting point: -100°C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.896
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 25°C: 36.6
Vapour pressure, kPa at 25°C: 1
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.6
Flash point: 40°C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 255°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 1.3-12
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.3
Evaporation rate (n-butyl acetate = 1): 0.54
Viscosity: 2.32 mm²/s at 20°C 

A series of acetate ionic liquids were synthesized using a typical two-step method. 
The ionic liquids were used as environmentally benign catalysts in the production of propylene glycol ethers from propylene oxide and alcohols under mild conditions. 
The basic strengths of the ionic liquids were evaluated by determination of their Hammett functions, obtained using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the relationship between their catalytic activities and basicities was established. 
The catalytic efficiencies of the ionic liquids were higher than that of the traditional basic catalyst NaOH. 

This can be attributed to the involvement of a novel reaction mechanism when these ionic liquids are used. 
A possible electrophilic-nucleophilic dual activation mechanism was proposed and confirmed using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 
In addition, the effects of significant reaction parameters such as concentration of catalyst, molar ratio of alcohol to propylene oxide, reaction temperature, and steric hindrance of the alcohol were investigated in detail.

Glycol ether solvents:
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol, CH3OCH2CH2OH)
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-ethoxyethanol, CH3CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (2-propoxyethanol, CH3CH2CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether (2-isopropoxyethanol, (CH3)2CHOCH2CH2OH)
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol, CH3CH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OH), a widely used solvent in paintings and surface coatings, cleaning products and inks
Ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (2-phenoxyethanol, C6H5OCH2CH2OH)
Ethylene glycol monobenzyl ether (2-benzyloxyethanol, C6H5CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Propylene glycol methyl ether, (1-methoxy-2-propanol, CH3OCH2CH(OH)CH3)
Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol, methyl carbitol, CH3OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol, carbitol cellosolve, CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Diethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether (2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol, butyl carbitol, CH3CH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH)
Dipropyleneglycol methyl ether
C12-15 pareth-12 a polyethylene glycol ether used as an emulsifier in cosmetics

Dialkyl ethers
Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (dimethoxyethane, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3), a higher boiling alternative to diethyl ether and THF, also used as a solvent for polysaccharides, a reagent in organometallic chemistry and in some electrolytes of lithium batteries
Ethylene glycol diethyl ether (diethoxyethane, CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH3)
Ethylene glycol dibutyl ether (dibutoxyethane, CH3CH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3)

Esters
Ethylene glycol methyl ether acetate (2-methoxyethyl acetate, CH3OCH2CH2OCOCH3)
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (2-ethoxyethyl acetate, CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCOCH3)
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (2-butoxyethyl acetate, CH3CH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OCOCH3)
Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate)

How to Use Propylene Glycol?
Propylene glycol is an organic compound with many industrial uses. 
Propylene Glycol is a viscous liquid that is sweet, faint and transparent. 
The FDA (along with other international standards institutions) considers it to be generally safe to handle and to ingest and has certified the safety of using propylene glycol in medications, food flavors and for industrial purposes. 
However, although experts believe this liquid to be safe, there are those who may be allergic to it. 
Propylene Glycol is therefore important to test for allergies before using substances that contain propylene glycol.

Use propylene glycol as a solvent. 
Propylene glycol is an ideal solvent to mix chemicals while developing photographic films. 
Propylene glycol can also be used as a solvent in the manufacture of oral, topical applications and injections for the pharmaceutical industry, because it is insoluble in water. 
Propylene Glycol is added to food colorings and flavorings because of its sweet flavor combined with its solvent properties. 
Propylene glycol is also used as a solvent to make paint, cleansers, inks, fingernail polish and removers and household cleaning agents. 
The semiconductor industry makes use of solvents called Cellosolves that contain propylene glycol.

Utilize propylene glycol for its moisturizing properties. 
Adding propylene glycol to cosmetics and medicines will help them retain their moisture content. 
Food additives, toothpastes, mouthwashes, tobacco, lotions, hand sanitizers and saline lotions use propylene alcohol to retain moisture. 
Propylene Glycol is used to regulate humidity in pipes and cigars to prevent dehydration. 
The moisturizing effect in deodorant sticks is achieved by adding propylene glycol. 
Propylene Glycol is also a well-known humectant or moisturizer used as an additive to food for preservation.

Use propylene glycol as a cooling compound. 
Propylene Glycol is considered one of the best anti-freeze compounds for industrial use. 
Propylene Glycol is added to automobile cooling systems to prevent radiator damage. 
A propylene glycol coating is used in fermenting tanks in the wine and beer industry. 
Propylene Glycol is also used in cryonics to preserve living human bodies in hospitals.

Add propylene glycol to food additives and liqueurs to give them a creamy texture. 
Using propylene glycol in additives like angostura and orange bitters will extend the taste and give more volume to the liquid.

Add propylene glycol to fragrant oils. 
Propylene glycol is the most popular transdermal carrier in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. 
Transdermal carriers transport oils through the pores of the skin. 
With the addition of transdermal carriers such as propylene glycol, topical applications like lotions and massage oils are transported through the skin to lubricate and rejuvenate skin cells.

The category contains four structurally related propylene glycol ethers:
-Propylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether (PnB, 5131-66-8, major (“alpha”) isomer, 29387-86-8 isomeric mixture)
-Dipropylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether (DPnB, 29911-28-2 major isomer or 35884-42-5 isomeric mixture))
-Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (DPMA, 88917-22-0 isomeric mixture)
-Tripropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (TPM, 20324-33-8 one of the isomers and 25498-49-1 isomeric mixture)

The alpha (secondary alcohol) form is kinetically favored during synthesis. 
In the case of TPM, the commercially produced product may contain up to 8 such isomers.
Data for these propylene glycol ethers are supplemented with data from three propylene glycol ethers that are closely related to the category members in molecular structure, physicochemical properties and toxicity and thus extend the category. 

These compounds are:
Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether (PM; CAS No. 107-98-2)
Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PMA; CAS No. 108-65-6)
Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (DPM; CAS No. 34590-94-8 isomeric mixture and 20324-32-7 major isomer)

UNII-724V58309X
724V58309X
121214-34-4
S-1-ethoxy-2-propanol
2-Propanol, 1-ethoxy-, (2S)-
Propylene glycol ethyl ether, (S)-
(S)-1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol
SCHEMBL9636848
(S)-propylene glycol ethyl ether
ZINC1640885
AKOS020829248
Q27266019
UNII-ROT9EQO32E component JOLQKTGDSGKSKJ-YFKPBYRVSA-N

Regulatory process names
1-Ethoxy-2-propanol
1-ethoxy-2-propanol
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol; 2PG1EE; 1-ethoxy-2-propanol; propylene glycol monoethyl ether
2-Propanol, 1-ethoxy-
2PG1EE
Propylene glycol ethyl ether
propylene glycol monoethyl ether

Translated names
1-Ethoxy-2-propanol (de)
1-ethoxy-2-propanol (nl)
1-ethoxypropaan-2-ol (nl)
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol (cs)
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol (da)
1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol (de)
1-etoksi-2-propanol (hr)
1-etoksi-2-propanol (sl)
1-Etoksi-2-propanoli (fi)
1-etoksi-2-propanolis (lt)
1-etoksi-2-propanols (lv)
1-etoksipropan-2-ol (hr)
1-etoksipropan-2-ol (sl)
1-Etoksipropan-2-oli (fi)
1-etoksipropan-2-olis (lt)
1-etoksipropān-2-ols (lv)
1-etoksy-2-propanol (no)
1-etoksy-2-propanol (pl)
1-etoksypropan-2-ol (no)
1-etoksypropan-2-ol (pl)
1-etoksü-2-propanool (et)
1-etoksüpropaan-2-ool (et)
1-etossi-2-propanolo (it)
1-etossipropan-2-olo (it)
1-etoxi-2-propanol (es)
1-etoxi-2-propanol (hu)
1-etoxi-2-propanol (pt)
1-etoxi-2-propanol (ro)
1-etoxi-2-propanol (sv)
1-etoxipronan-2-ol (es)
1-etoxipropan-2-ol (pt)
1-etoxipropan-2-ol (ro)
1-etoxipropán-2-ol (hu)
1-etoxy-2-propanol (sk)
1-etoxypropán-2-ol (sk)
1-éthoxy-2-propanol (fr)
1-éthoxypropan-2-ol; 2PG1EE; 1-éthoxy-2-propanol; éther monoéthylique de propylène glycol; (fr)
1-αιθοξυ-2-προπανόλη (el)
1-αιθοξυπροπαν-2-όλη (el)
1-етокси-2-пропанол (bg)
1-етоксипропан-2-ол (bg)
2PG1EE (bg)
2PG1EE (da)
2PG1EE (de)
2PG1EE (el)
2PG1EE (es)
2PG1EE (et)
2PG1EE (fi)
2PG1EE (fr)
2PG1EE (hr)
2PG1EE (hu)
2PG1EE (it)
2PG1EE (lt)
2PG1EE (lv)
2PG1EE (nl)
2PG1EE (no)
2PG1EE (pl)
2PG1EE (pt)
2PG1EE (ro)
2PG1EE (sk)
2PG1EE (sl)
2PG1EEA (cs)
eter monoetylowy glikolu propylenowego (pl)
propilen glicol monoetil eter (ro)
propilen glikol monoetil eter (sl)
propilen-glikol monoetil-eter (hr)
propilene glicol monoetiletere (it)
propilenglicol monoetil eter (es)
propilenglikolio monoetileteris (lt)
propilenoglico etil éter (pt)
propilén-glikol-monoetil-éter (hu)
propilēnglikola monoetilēteris (lv)
propyleenglycolethylether (nl)
propyleenglycolmonoether (nl)
Propyleeniglykolin monoetyylieetteri (fi)
Propylenglycol-Ethylether (de)
Propylenglycol-Monoether (de)
propylenglycolmonoethylether (da)
propylenglykolmonoethylether (cs)
propylenglykolmonoetyleter (no)
propylénglykol-monoetyléter (sk)
propüleenglükoolmonoetüüleeter (et)
éter etílico do propilenoglicol (pt)
éther monoéthylique du propylène glycol (fr)
éther éthylique du propylène glycol (fr)
αιθυλαιθέρας της προπυλενογλυκόληςμονοαιθέρας της προπυλενογλυκόλης (el)
пропилeнгликол моноетилов етер (bg)

IUPAC names
1-Ethoxy-2-propanol
1-ethoxy-2-propanol
1-ethoxy-2-propanol; propylene glycol monoethyl ether
1-ethoxypropam-2-ol
1-ETHOXYPROPAN-2-OL
1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol
1-ethoxypropan-2-ol; 2PG1EE; 1-ethoxy-2-propanol; propylene glycol monoethyl ether;
1-etossipropan-2-olo
2PG1EE
ethoxy propanol
Ethoxypropanol
Ethoxypropanol
propylene glycol monoethyl ether
Propyleneglycol ethyl ether

Trade names
EP
Ethoxy Propanol
ethoxypropanol
ETHYLPROXITOL
PGEE
propylene glycol ethyl ether

Other identifiers
1331-13-1
1569-02-4
603-177-00-8

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