PROPYLENE GLYCOL METHYL ETHER

Propylene glycol methyl ether = PGME

Propylene glycol methyl ether = Methoxy Propanol = PM

CAS Number: 107-98-2 
Chemical formula: C4H10O2
Molar mass: 90.122 g·mol−1

Propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME or 1-methoxy-2-propanol) is an organic solvent with a wide variety of industrial and commercial uses.
Similar to other glycol ethers, Propylene glycol methyl ether is used as a carrier/solvent in printing/writing inks and paints/coatings. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether also finds use as an industrial and commercial paint stripper. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is used as an antifreeze in diesel engines.

Methoxy propanol (also known as propylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, PM, and PGME), is a colourless liquid that is soluble in water and is highly flammable.  
Propylene glycol methyl ether is a methoxy alcohol derivative and has a formula of C4H10O2.

Propylene glycol methyl ether, also known as propylene glycol methyl ether, is a clear, colourless liquid with a faint ether-like odour. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is soluble in water and has moderate volatility. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is a propylene oxide-based glycol ether which is fast evaporating and hydrophilic. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether has low surface tension as well as excellent solvency and coupling abilities.

Process for producing propylene glycol methyl ether
Propylene glycol methyl ether is produced by feeding a solution of a basic catalyst in methanol to a catalytic distillation column containing a heterogeneous basic catalyst defining a heterogeneous reaction zone, and feeding propylene oxide to the column. 
The methanol reacts with the propylene oxide according to a dual homogeneous catalytic reaction and heterogeneous catalytic reaction to form propylene glycol methyl ether, which is removed from the column as a bottoms product. 
Alternatively, methanol can be reacted with propylene oxide in a pre-reactor, to form propylene glycol methyl ether, and, when the temperature in the pre-reactor reaches about 100°C, the reaction products are transferred to the catalytic distillation column for further reaction.

Propylene glycol methyl ether is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.
Propylene glycol methyl ether is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Propylene glycol methyl ether is the fastest evaporating solvent in the  glycol ether family. 
With very high water solubility and active solvency, Propylene glycol methyl ether  is widely used in coating and cleaning applications. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether offers better  viscosity reduction than heavier molecular weight glycol ethers and is particularly  effective in epoxy and high solids acrylic systems. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether can also be  used in combination with Propylene glycol methyl ether in glass cleaning  formulations.

Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether is an organic compound that has no color and no odor. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is a transparent, viscous liquid and has a lightly sweet tatse. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is miscible and hygroscopic with water, acetone, and chloroform. 
Nearly half of all propylene glycol made is used for the fabrication of unsaturated polyester resin. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is also used in food and tabacco products as a humectant, preservative and solvent.

Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether (PM) is a colorless liquid with a slight ethereal odor that is used as an excellent industrial solvent with low toxicity and has strong solubility for polar and unpolar materials, which can be used for advanced paints, printing inks as well as some other polymers including glycol acid resin, acrylic acid resin, epoxy resin and nitrocellulose.

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (PGME) is produced by a reaction of propylene oxide with methanol using a catalyst. 
This reaction produces a clear, colorless liquid with an ether-like odor that spreads over distance. 
The properties of this compound include moderate volatility, moderate flammability and stability. 
Also, this chemical is soluble in water, methanol, ether and other organic solvents. 

The low systemic toxicity of PGME increases the attractiveness of this chemical. 
Uses for this chemical vary widely. 
PGME is primarily used as a solvent for cellulose, acrylics, dyes, inks and stains. 
Therefore, paints and lacquers are a prime use. 

PGME helps produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PMA) by acting as a chemical building block. 
Many industrial, chemical, automotive and household cleaners include PGME as well. 
Other applications include use as a coalescing agent in coatings and electronics. 
Household applications abound including floor polish, caulking and sealants, pesticides, dyes, and inks.

Propylene glycol methyl ether, also known as 1-methoxy-2-propanol, is a colorless organic chemical compound. 
Generally, Propylene glycol methyl ether is medium boiling glycol ether that is categorized under P-series glycol ether group. 
This compound is produced by the reaction between propylene oxide and methanol which is carried out in presence catalyst. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether are used prevalently as an organic solvent in commercial as well as industrial applications such as printing ink, chemical, agricultural, and automotive, among others.

The physico-chemical properties of Propylene glycol methyl ether such as excellent solvent activity, high dilution ratio, medium evaporation rate, and readily biodegradable nature, among other owing to which Propylene glycol methyl ether appears as suitable alternative for petroleum based solvents. 
Thereby,  Propylene glycol methyl ether leads to increase in demand for Propylene glycol methyl ether in several industries such as chemical, automotive and paint & coating is increased in order to support sustainability development

Use Summary: The predominant use of this chemical is in consumer products, including paints, varnishes, inks and cleaning products. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is also has limited use as an inert ingredient in pesticide products as a solvent in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops only; and/or a deactivator, emollient in pesticide formulations applied to animals.

Synthesis of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Over Mg/Al Hydrotalcite Catalyst
Mg-Al hydrotalcites with different Mg/Al molar ratios were prepared and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and BET analyses. 
The calcined hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio of 4.0 (LDO Mg/Al 4.0) exhibited the highest catalytic activity in the synthesis of propylene glycol methyl ether (PM). 
The catalytic activity relating to the amount of the basic sites and crystallinity depended on the Mg/Al molar ratio. 

The optimal equilibrium of acid-base property and high crystallinity made the LDO Mg/Al 4.0 an excellent catalyst in the reaction. 
Etherification of propylene oxide (PO) with methanol over the LDO Mg/Al 4.0 was researched. 
The optimized reaction conditions were as follows: 
140 °C, catalyst amount 0.9 wt%, methanol/PO molar ratio 4.0 and 6 h. 

The PO conversion and PM selectivity were 93.2 and 97.4%, respectively. 
Above all, almost all the PM was 1-methoxy-2-propanol, for no 2-methoxy-1-propanol was detected by GC analysis in the reaction products, and the catalyst could be reused for five times. 
Graphical Abstract The particles of the LDH Mg/Al 4.0 showed well-developed hexagonal plates with narrow size distribution (2-4 μm) and were in line with the typical morphology for hydrotalcite-like materials. 
The optimal equilibrium of acid-base property and high crystallinity made the LDO Mg/Al 4.0 an excellent catalyst in the synthesis of propylene glycol methyl ether (PM) from methanol and propylene oxide (PO).

How is Propylene glycol methyl ether produced?
Methoxy propanol is produced by the reaction of 1,2-epoxy propane and methanol in the presence of a catalyst, and this is then followed by distillation.
The worldwide annual production of methoxy propanol is approximately 100,000 to 500,000 tonnes.

Handling and Storage of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Prior to working with Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether you should be trained on Propylene glycol methyl ethers proper handling and storage.
Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether may form explosive Peroxides during prolonged storage.
Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether is not compatible with oxidizing agents (such as perchlorates, peroxides, permanganates, chlorates, nitrates, chlorine, bromine and fluorine);
Strong acids (such as hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric); acid chlorides; acid anhydrides; aluminum; copper; and isocyanates.Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area.

Sources of ignition, such as smoking and open flames, are prohibited where Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether is used, handled, or stored.
Metal containers involving the transfer of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether should be grounded and bonded.
Use explosion-proof electrical equipment and fittings wherever Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether is used, handled, manufactured, or stored.
Use only non-sparking tools and equipment, especially when opening and closing containers of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether. 

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and Propylene glycol methyl ethers vapours are flammable. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated place away from sources of ignition. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether must be isolated from incompatible materials such as strong oxidizers, bases and acids.

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether is a mild, but usually temporary, irritant to the eyes. 
Repeated or prolonged contact with the skin may cause irritation, and in very large amounts skin absorption may cause drowsiness or dizziness. 
High levels of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether vapour may produce eye, nose and throat irritation, and at very high levels may produce anaesthetic or narcotic effects. 
Unnecessary exposure should be prevented by appropriate work practices and engineering controls, adequate ventilation and by the use of approved personal protective equipment including gloves, clothing and safety goggles and the use of respirators where appropriate to the task being carried out.

Methoxy propanol has a specific gravity of 0.924 and a flash point of 33° C and is therefore highly flammable so should be stored in a cool, dry and well-ventilated area that is free from sources of ignition.

Handling of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and clothing. 
Do not breathe vapours.
Extinguish any naked flame. 
Remove ignition sources. 
Avoid sparks. 
Do not smoke. 
The vapour is heavier than air spreads along the ground and distant ignition is possible. 
Ensure electrical continuity by bonding and grounding (earthing) all equipment. 
Do not use compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling operations. 
Handle and open container with care in well-ventilated area. 
Do not empty into drains.

Storage of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Must be stored in a diked (bunded) well-ventilated area, away from sunlight, ignition sources and other sources of heat. 
Bulk storage tanks should be diked (bunded). 
Keep away from aerosols, flammables, oxidizing agents, corrosives. 
Storage Temperature: Ambient.

First-Aid Measures of Propylene glycol methyl ether:

Inhalation : Remove to fresh air. 
If the victim has difficulty breathing or tightness of the chest, give 100% oxygen with rescue breathing or CPR as required and transport to the nearest medical facility.

Skin Contact : Remove contaminated clothing. 
Immediately flush skin with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, and follow by washing with soap and water if available.

Eye Contact : Immediately flush eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes while holding eyelids open. 
Transport to the nearest medical facility for additional treatment.
Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting and transport to nearest medical facility for additional treatment.

Fire-Fighting Measures of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Suitable extinguishing media : Dry chemical powder, Alcohol-resistant foam and Carbon dioxide.

Specific hazard arising from the chemical: May produce toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide if burning.

Special protective action for fire-fighters: Keep adjacent containers cool by spraying with water.

Protective Equipment : Wear full protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus.

Applications/uses of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Methoxy propanol is predominately used in the manufacture of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (otherwise known as PMA) and is also used in industrial and commercial products including paints, varnishes, inks, synthetic resin and rubber adhesives, and automotive and oven cleaners.  
Propylene glycol methyl ether is also used as a cleaning agent in the LCD and electronics industry.

Propylene glycol methyl ether isprimarily used as a chemical building block for the production of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is also used as a solvent in manufacturing processes for the chemical, automotive and agricultural industries and in paint, lacquer and varnishes. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is used as a coalescing agent in water-based paints and inks where Propylene glycol methyl ether promotes polymer fusion during the drying process.

Propylene glycol methyl ether is formulated into a wide range of cleaners for industrial and commercial use such as those for ovens, glass, hard surfaces, floors, carpets and upholstery, as well as in speciality sanitation products such as swimming pool cleaners. 
Propylene glycol methyl ether is also present in many everyday products such as polish, laundry aids, caulk, sealants, pesticides, inks for ballpoint and felt-tip pens, synthetic resin and rubber adhesives.

Active solvent for solvent-based coatings.
Active and tail solvent for solvent based gravure and flexographic printing inks.
Coupling agent in solvent blends for water-based gravure, flexographic, and silk screen printing inks.

Carrier solvent for ball point and felt tip writing pen inks.
Coupling agent and solvent for household and industrial cleaners, rust removers, and hard surface cleaners.
Solvent for agricultural pesticides, deactivator and emollient for ivestock pesticides.

Architectural coatings
Auto OEM
Auto refinish
Automotive
Building materials
Commerical printing inks
General industrial coatings
Graphic arts
Janitorial & household cleaners
Marine
Paints & coatings
Protective coatings
Wood coatings

Other uses of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
PGME is primarily used in the chemical, agricultural (pesticides), automotive, paint and varnish industries. 
Commercial PGME is a mixture of two isomers and contains less than 0.5% of the p-isomer. 
The predominant use of PGME is as a solvent:
in various manufacturing processes, but Propylene glycol methyl ether is also used as an intermediate in the manufacture of propylene glycol methyl ether 

Consumer Uses of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Propylene glycol methyl ether is used in the following products: coating products, washing & cleaning products, anti-freeze products and cosmetics and personal care products.
Other release to the environment of Propylene glycol methyl ether is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use as processing aid.

Stability and Reactivity of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Chemical Reactivity: Forms peroxides of unknown stability.
Stability:Stable under normal conditions.
Hazardous Polymerisation:No.

Conditions to Avoid:Heat, flame, spark and other ignition sources.
Materials to Avoid:Oxidizing agents.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Thermal decomposition is highly dependent on conditions. 
Carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide and other organic compounds will be evolved when this material undergoes combustion or thermal or oxidative degradation. 
May form explosive peroxides.

Physical chemical data of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Physical State (20°C): Liquid
Physical State (25°C): Liquid
Density (kg/m3): 924 [Kg/m³] at a temperature of 20°C
Kinematic viscosity (cSt): 
1.88 [cSt] at a temperature of 20°C
1.86 [cSt] at a temperature of 25°C
Molar mass (g/mol): 90.12
Density of gas (kg/m3): 3.999
Solubility (g/L): 10000000 [g/L] at a temperature of 20°C and salinity of 0‰
Boiling Point (°C): 121
Melting Point (°C): -97
Critical temperature (°C): 579.8
Critical pressure (Pa): 4113000
Surface tension (mN/m): 27.27 [mN/m] at a temperature of 20°C
Vapour Pressure (Pa): 
1460 [Pa] at a temperature of 20°C
1665 [Pa] at a temperature of 25°C
Flash Point (°C): 38
Flash Point (Pensky-Martens closed cup) (°C): 32
Flash Point (Cleveland open cup) (°C): 36
Combus enthalpy (J/Kg): 25857120
Specific heat capacity (J/(Kg·K)): 2426
Henry's constant (mol/(m³·Pa)): 0.09

Behaviour at sea
Log kow: -0.49
Log koc: 0
Aqueous photolysis (Half-life): Not photolysable
Biodegradation in estuary environment (Half-life) (days): Not hydrolysable
Bioconcentration factor (BCF): 3.2

Additional data of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Colour: colourless
Odour: mild odour

Physical & chemical information of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Formula: C4H10O2 / H3CCHOHCH2OCH3
Molecular mass: 90.1
Boiling point: 120°C
Melting point: -96°C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.92
Solubility in water: very good
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 1.2
Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.03
Flash point: 38°C
Auto-ignition temperature: 270°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 1.9-13.1 

Molecular Weight: 90.1
Boiling Point: 248°F
Freezing Point: -139°F (Sets to glass)
Solubility: Miscible
Vapor Pressure: (77°F): 12 mmHg
Specific Gravity: 0.96
Flash Point: 97°F
Upper Explosive Limit: (calc): 13.8%
Lower Explosive Limit: (calc.): 1.6%

Properties of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Chemical formula: C4H10O2
Molar mass: 90.122 g·mol−1
Appearance: Colorless liquid
Odor: Ethereal
Density: 0.92 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point: −97 °C (−143 °F; 176 K)
Boiling point: 120 °C (248 °F; 393 K)
Solubility in water: Miscible
log P: -0.45 

Identifiers of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
CAS Number: 107-98-2
ECHA InfoCard: 100.003.218
UNII: 74Z7JO8V3U 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID8024284
InChI: InChI=1S/C4H10O2/c1-4(5)3-6-2/h4-5H,3H2,1-2H3
Key: ARXJGSRGQADJSQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
SMILES: CC(O)COC

Names of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Preferred IUPAC name
1-Methoxypropan-2-ol

Other names of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
PGME
1-Methoxy-2-propanol
Methoxypropanol
α-Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
Dowanol PM

Common name of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
1-Methoxy-2-propanol
1-Methoxy-2-propanol; 2-Methoxy-1-methylethanol; 1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane; Methoxyisopropanol; Propylene glycol 1-methyl ether
Methoxyisopropanol
Propylene glycol methyl ether
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
Dowanol PM
 
Trade name of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane
1-Methoxy-2-propanol
1-Methoxypropanol-2
1-methoxypropan-2-ol
2-Methoxy-1-methylethanol
2-Propanol, 1-methoxy- (6CI, 7CI, 8CI, 9CI)
Agent IA94
DOWANOL™ PM Glycol Ether
DOWANOL™ PM Glycol Ether
Dowanol TM PM Glycol
Glycol Ether PM
METHYLPROXITOL
SHP 401
SOLVENON PM

Synonyms & Trade Names of Propylene glycol methyl ether:
Dowtherm 209
1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane
2-Methoxy-1-methylethanol
1-Methoxy-2-propanol
Propylene glycol methyl ether
arcosolv PM
dowanol PM
kuraray PGM
1-methoxypropan-1-ol
methoxypropanol
methyl ether of propylene glycol
methyl propasol
1,2-propanediol, monomethyl ether
1-propanol, 1-methoxy-
propylene glycol monomethyl ether
solvenon PM

1-Methoxy-2-propanol
107-98-2
1-Methoxypropan-2-ol
PGME
Methoxyisopropanol
Closol
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
2-Propanol, 1-methoxy-
Dowtherm 209
Poly-Solve MPM
Propasol solvent M
Dowanol 33B
PROPYLENE GLYCOL METHYL ETHER
2-Methoxy-1-methylethanol
1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane
2-Propanol, methoxy-
Propylene glycol 1-methyl ether
NSC 2409
Dowanol-33B
1-methoxy-propan-2-ol
.alpha.-Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
Methyl proxitol
DSSTox_CID_4284
DSSTox_RID_77354
DSSTox_GSID_24284
UNII-74Z7JO8V3U
Ucar Solvent LM (Obs.)
CAS-107-98-2
HSDB 1016
EINECS 203-539-1
UN3092
BRN 1731270
propyleneglycol monomethylether
AI3-15573
Glycol ether pm
Ucar solvent lm
Solvent PM
Gylcol Ether PM
Icinol PM
Poly-solv MPM
74Z7JO8V3U
Methoxy-2-propanol
MFCD00004537
3-methoxy-propan-2-ol
Propan-1-methoxy-2-ol
rac-1-methoxy-2-propanol
EC 203-539-1
1,2-PROPYLENE GLYCOL 1-MONOMETHYL ETHER
2-methoxy-1-methyl ethanol
Propan-2-ol, 1-methoxy-
3-01-00-02146 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
propylene glycol monomethylether
1-Methoxy-2-propanol, 98%
Propyleneglycol monomethyl ether
Methoxypropanol, .alpha. isomer
CHEMBL3186306
DTXSID8024284
NSC2409
WLN: QY1 & 1O1
propylene glycol mono methyl ether
(+/-)2-methoxy-1-methylethanol
NSC-2409
Propylene Glycol 1-Monomethyl Ether
Tox21_201803
Tox21_303269
7109AF
1-Methoxy-2-propanol, >=99.5%
AKOS009158246
MCULE-7513310960
SB44649
SB44662
NCGC00249123-01
NCGC00256978-01
NCGC00259352-01
1-Methoxy-2-propanol, analytical standard
DB-016688
Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Reagent Grade
FT-0608005
FT-0647598
FT-0654880
FT-0655258
M0126
E72455
Q1884806
1-Methoxy-2-propanol [UN3092] [Flammable liquid]
Z1262237356

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