RHODAMINE B

CAS Number: 81-88-9
Molecular Formula: C28H31ClN2O3
Molecular Weight: 479.01

Rhodamine B is a chemical compound and a dye. 
Rhodamine B is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport. 
Rhodamine dyes fluoresce and can thus be detected easily and inexpensively with fluorometers.

Rhodamine B is used in biology as a staining fluorescent dye, sometimes in combination with auramine O, as the auramine-rhodamine stain to demonstrate acid-fast organisms, notably Mycobacterium. 
Rhodamine dyes are also used extensively in biotechnology applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and ELISA. 
Rhodamine B is also used in rose milk, a popular Indian beverage.

Rhodamine B is often mixed with herbicides to show where they have been used.
Rhodamine B is also being tested for use as a biomarker in oral rabies vaccines for wildlife, such as raccoons, to identify animals that have eaten a vaccine bait. 
The rhodamine is incorporated into the animal's whiskers and teeth.
Rhodamine B (BV10) is mixed with quinacridone magenta (PR122) to make the bright pink watercolor known as Opera Rose.

Rhodamine B (also called Rhodamine 610, Basic Violet 10, or C.I. 45170) is used as a fluorescent staining dye, sometimes in combination with auramine O. 
The auramine-rhodamine stain is used to demonstrate acid-fast organisms, notably Mycobacterium; Rhodamine B is tunable around 610 nm when used as a laser dye.

Rhodamine B is an organic compound and a fluorescent dye. 
Rhodamine B is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport.
As Rhodamine B fluoresce and can thus be detected easily and inexpensively with instruments called fluorometers. 
Rhodamine dyes are used extensively in biotechnology applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and ELISA. 
Rhodamine B is also often mixed with herbicides to show where they have been used. 
Rhodamine B is also used as fishers' bait as the colour invites the fishes. 
Rhodamine B well soluble in water, solubility is ca. 50 g/l, while the solubility in 30% acetic acid solution is ca. 400 g/l. 
Chlorinated tap water decomposes Rhodamine B. 
The solution of Rhodamine B adsorbs to plastics and should be kept in glass. 
Rhodamine B has got wide absorption spectrum between 460-590 nm, the maximum is at 542 nm. 
Emission spectrum is 550-680 nm, the maximum is at 590 nm.

Properties
Rhodamine B can exist in equilibrium between two forms: an "open"/fluorescent form and a "closed"/nonfluorescent spirolactone form. 
The "open" form dominates in acidic condition while the "closed" form is colorless in basic condition.
The fluorescence intensity of rhodamine B will decrease as temperature increases.
The solubility of rhodamine B in water varies by manufacturer, and has been reported as 8 g/l and ~15 g/L, while solubility in alcohol (presumably ethanol) has been reported as 15 g/L. 
Chlorinated tap water decomposes rhodamine B. 
Rhodamine B solutions adsorb to plastics and should be kept in glass.
Rhodamine B is tunable around 610 nm when used as a laser dye.
Rhodamine Bs luminescence quantum yield is 0.65 in basic ethanol, 0.49 in ethanol, 1.0, and 0.68 in 94% ethanol.
The fluorescence yield is temperature dependent; the compound is fluxional in that Rhodamine Bs excitability is in thermal equilibrium at room temperature.

Preferred IUPAC name
9-(2-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-N,N-diethyl-3H-xanthen-3-iminium chloride

Chemical formula: C28H31ClN2O3
Molar mass: 479.02
Appearance: red to violet powder
Melting point: 210 to 211 °C (410 to 412 °F; 483 to 484 K) (Decomposes)
Solubility in water: 8 to 15 g/L (20 °C)

Other names
Rhodamine 610, C.I. Pigment Violet 1, Basic Violet 10, C.I. 45170

General description
Rhodamine B is bright-red in color.
Rhodamine B is a xanthene dye, which functions as a water tracer fluorescent. 
Rhodamine B is used as a staining fluorescent dye.

Rhodamine B Applications
Rhodamine B has been used:
-as a fluorescent dye for cross staining 1-N-methylamino-5-isocyanonaphthalene (MICAN)
-as a fluorescent dye in confocal microscopy
-to study its fluorescence in water and ethanol solutions

CAS Number: 81-88-9
CHEBI:52334 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL428971
ChemSpider: 6439 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.001.259 
KEGG: C19517 
PubChem CID: 6694
UNII: K7G5SCF8IL 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID6042369

Rhodamine B methacrylate is a polymerizable fluorescent monomer in the versatile (meth)acrylate ester family.  
The monomer can be copolymerized with many other monomer types with varied fluorescence intensity by adjusting the amount of fluorescent monomer in the polymer.

Synonyms: N-[9-(2-carboxy-x-methacryloxy-ethylthiocarbamoylphenyl)-6-diethylamino-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]-N-ethyl-ethanaminium chloride; PolyFluor®570; Methacryloxyethylthiocarbamoyl Rhodamine B;

Fluorescent monomer with:
Excitation max: 548nm
Emission max: 570nm

Rhodamine B is a useful fluorochrome for histology due to Rhodamine Bs fluorescent properties in ultraviolet light. 
Rhodamine B ejects an electron onto TiO2, which is then scavenged by O2 forming the O2- radical anion. 
This anion ultimately becomes the OH radical. 
A pH-independent process degrades Rhodamine B in TiO2 dispersions containing no dodecylbenzenesulfonate. 
The compound has been incorporated in a FRET system based on lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for monitoring biological effects. 
Rhodamine B has also been used as a mitochondrial probe to study the energetic state of multi-drug resistant and sensitive cells where the mitochondrial Rhodamine B concentration was precisely determined with the loss of fluorescence in the presence of MTT Formazan (sc-215399), a fluorescence quencher. 
In addition, Rhodamine B has been observed to significantly reduce the number of human lip fibroblast cells in culture. 
Used for staining Negri bodies in tissue.

RHODAMINE B
81-88-9
Basic Violet 10
Tetraethylrhodamine
Brilliant Pink B
Rhodamine O
Rheonine B
Rhodamine FB
Calcozine Red BX
Symulex Magenta F
Rhodamine
Rhodamine B chloride
Rhodamine S
Geranium lake N
Rhodamine BA
Rhodamine BF
Rhodamine BL
Rhodamine BN
Rhodamine BS
Rhodamine BX
Rhodamine BXL
Rhodamine BXP

Rhodamine B is a lipid-soluble, nontoxic dye that fluoresces at longer wavelengths than fluorescein and consequently is detectable at lower concentrations in the ocular tissues. 
Rhodamine Bs dynamics after topical and systemic administration are similar to those of lipid-soluble drugs.

rhodamine B ethylenediamine can be reversibly coupled to aldehydes and ketones to form a Schiff base - which can be reduced to a generate stable amine derivative by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNH3). 
Carboxylic acids of proteins and other water-soluble biopolymers can be coupled to this molecule in aqueous solution using water-soluble carbodiimides such as EDAC (E2247).

CAS No.    81-88-9
Molecular Formula: C28H31ClN2O3
Molecular Weight: 479.01

Rhodamine B can be analyzed by this reverse phase (RP) HPLC method with simple conditions. 
The mobile phase contains an acetonitrile (MeCN), water, and phosphoric acid. 
For Mass-Spec (MS) compatible applications the phosphoric acid needs to be replaced with formic acid. 
Smaller 3 µm particles columns available for fast UPLC applications. 
Rhodamine B chromatography method is scalable and can be used for isolation impurities in preparative separation. 
Rhodamine B also suitable for pharmacokinetics.

Edicol Suppa Rose BS
Acid Brilliant Pink B
Symulex Pink F
ADC Rhodamine B
Rhodamine FB CL
Ikada Rhodamine B
Rhodamine B Extra
Basic Rose Extract
Iragen Red L-U
Aizen Rhodamine BH
Akiriku Rhodamine B
Takaoka Rhodamine B
Mitsui Rhodamine BX
Rhodamine BA Export
Aizen Rhodamine BHC
Basonyl Red 545

Rhodamine B is a chemical compound and a dye. 
Rhodamine B is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport. 
Rhodamine dyes fluoresce and can thus be detected easily and inexpensively with instruments called fluorometers or in this case, a homemade spectrometer. 
Rhodamine dyes are used extensively in biotechnology applications such as, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescent correlation spectroscopy and ELISA.
Rhodamine B is used in biology as a staining fluorescent dye, sometimes in combination with auramine O, as the auramine-Rhodamine stain to demonstrate acid-fast organisms, notably Mycobacterium.

Rhodamine B is tunable around 610 nm when used as a laser-dye, Rhodamine Bs luminescence quantum yield is 0.65 in basic ethanol, 0.49 in ethanol and1.0, and 0.68 in 94% ethanol. 
The fluorescence yield is temperature dependent.
This research projects goal is open-ended, in that, there are many useful possibilities with this dye, Rhodamine Bs results are very reproducible and Rhodamine Bs excitation wavelength can be attained at 510nm, max absorption at 543nm makes Rhodamine B suitable for a 532nm green laser, which I hope to demonstrate here in this paper.
A word of caution is in order, Rhodamine B can be very toxic, especially to the eyes, and can be carcinogenic (controversial.) So very good lab procedures are to be followed, like wearing gloves and safety eye ware and avoiding any spills.

Rhodamine B Product name
Rhodamine B octadecyl ester perchlorate, Lipophilic energy transfer acceptor

Rhodamine B Description
Lipophilic energy transfer acceptor from lipophilic fluoresceins.

Rhodamine B Alternative names
RHO(BOEP)

Rhodamine B Biological description
Lipophilic energy transfer acceptor from lipophilic fluoresceins in fluorescence energy transfer assays (FRET) for cell fusion.

Purity: > 98%
CAS Number: 142179-00-8

Alternate Names:Basic Violet 10; Brilliant Pink B; Rhodamine O; Tetraethylrhodamine
Application:A useful fluorochrome for histology, FRET and mitochondrial probe

C.I. Basic Violet 10
Diabasic Rhodamine B
Elcozine Rhodamine B
Edicol Supra Rose B
Rhodamine B Extra S
Rhodamine, Blue shade
Edicol Supra Rose BS
Rhodamine Lake Red B
Rhodamine, tetraethyl-
Basic Rose Red
Cerise Toner X1127
C.I. 45170
C.I. Food Red 15

Applications
Suitable for fluorescent labellingRhodamine B is used as a laser dye, metal chelating agent and an additive to drugs and cosmetics. 
Rhodamine B also serves as a staining fluorescent dye, which is used as a colorant in inks, paper and plastics. 
Further, Rhodamine B is used to make pink fluorescent pigments. 
Rhodamine B is also employed as a biomarker in oral rabies vaccines for wildlife such as raccoons. 
In addition to this, Rhodamine B is a useful fluorochrome for histology, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and mitochondrial probe.

Solubility
Soluble in water, benzene and ethanol. 
Slightly soluble in acetone, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, methyl cellosolve and alcohol.

Notes
Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

9-(2-Carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium chloride
Cogilor Red 321.10
Eriosin Rhodamine B
Hexacol Rhodamine B Extra
D and C Red No. 19
D&C Red 19
Red No. 213
Violet zasadita 10
Food Red 15
Rhodamine B 20-7470
Rhodamine B Extra M 310
FD and C Red No. 19
Symulex Rhodamine B Toner F
Rhodamine B500 hydrochloride
Calcozine Rhodamine BXP
11411 Red
Sicilian Cerise Toner A-7127

Metal ions are widely distributed in living organisms and environmental systems, therefore, their monitoring is of great importance.
These days, several sophisticated instrumental methods are being used for the detection of metal ions; however, rapid recognition of metal ions requires powerful tools namely, colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensors. 
In this review, Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G based colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensors have been discussed. 
These methods are simple, involve low cost, lower detection limit, high selectivity, and sensitivity, thereby used to monitor real-time metal ions. 
Several metal ions were detected with high selectivity and sensitivity with the aid of various derivatives of Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G fluorophores conjugated to different ligands. 
Besides that, this review is focused on the detection of Cu2+ metal ions in recent years.

UNII-K7G5SCF8IL
C.I. No. 45170
MFCD00011931
Cosmetic Brilliant Pink Bluish D conc
Xanthylium, 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)-, chloride
Rhodamine B (C.I. 45170)
K7G5SCF8IL
Tetraethyldiamino-o-carboxyphenyl xanthenyl chlorideCHEBI:52334
Rhodamine B, pure
9-O-Carboxyphenyl-6-diethylamino-3-ethylimino-3-isoxanthene, 3-ethochloride
RhodamineB
Xanthylium, 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)-, chloride (1:1)
(9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene) diethylammonium chloride
Rhodamine B, 98+%, pure
Rhodamine B500
Basonyl Red 540
Basonyl Red 545FL
CI Food Red 15
CI Basic Violet 10
Rhodamine S [Russian]
Basic Violet 10;Brilliant Pink B;Rhodamine O;Tetraethylrhodamine
D&C red no.19
FD&C Red No. 19
D&C Red No. 19

Histology, cytology and other related scientific disciplines study the microscopic anatomy of tissues and cells. 
In order to achieve a good tissue and cellular structure, the samples need to be stained in a correct manner. 
Rhodamine B powder dye is used in various staining methods in microscopy. 
Rhodamine B is used in clinical microbiology and histology for detecting tuberculosis Mycobacteria and other acid-fast bacteria. 
Staining using Rhodamine B is a fluorescent method of visualizing acid-fast bacteria. 
Mycobacteria are difficult to stain due to the high amount of lipids and wax in their cellular membranes. 
When stained using Rhodamine B dye, acid-fast mycobacteria retain the dye even when exposed to strong destaining solutions, such as HCl-ethanol.

N-[9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]-N-ethylethanaminium chloride
D & C Red No.19
Violet zasadita 10 [Czech]
NSC41837
CCRIS 3985
HSDB 5244
EINECS 201-383-9
NSC 10475
Rhodamines
CI 45170
[9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene] diethylammonium chloride
N-(9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethylethanaminium chloride
Rhodamine B 500
Rhodamine B solution
Calcozine Rhodamine BL
Calcozine Rhodamine BX
DSSTox_CID_22369
DSSTox_RID_80008

Chemical description: Brilliant pink B, Rosaceine B, Safraniline. C.I. 45170, Schulz No. 864
Chemical Formula: C28H31ClN2O3
ColorIndex: C.I. 45170
Opacity: transparent
Suitability: Dyeing
Colors: Pink, Red
Forms: solid
Solubility in water: 15 g/l (20°C)

Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. 
Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. 
Numerous colours and combinations can be used, however, dust sometimes affects longevity and behaviour so alternatives that do not have these effects would contribute substantially. 
Rhodamine B has previously been demonstrated to be useful for marking adult Aedes aegypti males when added to the sugar meal. 
Unlike dust, this also marked the seminal fluid making Rhodamine B possible to detect matings by marked males in the spermatheca of females. 
Here, marking of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with rhodamine B and uranine was performed to estimate their potential contribution.

Methods
Two fluorescent markers, rhodamine B and uranine, were dissolved in sugar water and fed to adult An. gambiae. 
Concentrations that are useful for marking individuals and seminal fluid were determined. 
The effects on adult longevity, the durability of the marking and detection of the marker in mated females was determined. 
Male mating competitiveness was also evaluated.

Results
Rhodamine B marking in adults is detectable for at least 3 weeks, however uranine marking declines with time and at low doses can be confused with auto-fluorescence. 
Both can be used for marking seminal fluid which can be detected in females mated by marked males, but, again, at low concentrations uranine-marking is more easily confused with the natural fluorescence of seminal fluid. 
Neither dye affected mating competitiveness.

Conclusions
Both markers tested could be useful for field and laboratory studies. 
Their use has substantial potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the bio-ecology of this important malaria vector. 
Rhodamine B has the advantage that Rhodamine B appears to be permanent and is less easily confused with auto-fluorescence. 
The primary limitation of both methods is that sugar feeding is necessary for marking and adults must be held for at least 2 nights to ensure all individuals are marked whereas dusts provide immediate and thorough marking.

The fluorescence of rhodamine B can be strongly affected by its environmental pH value. 
By directly introducing the dye into various glycine solution, the fluorescence was used to monitor the pH value in the range of 5.9 ~ 6.7. 
Two newly developed techniques for broadband analysis, the barycenter technique and the self-referenced intensity ratio technique, were employed to retrieve the pH sensing functions. 
While compared with traditional techniques, e.g. the peak shift monitoring, both the two new techniques presented finer precision. 
The obtained sensing functions may find their applications in the test of biochemical samples, body tissue fluid, water quality, etc.

Ethanaminium, N-(9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethyl-,chloride
DSSTox_GSID_42369
SCHEMBL16280
D & C Red No. 19
CHEMBL428971
DTXSID6042369
AMY3544
HY-Y0016
NSC10475
Tox21_301450
NSC-10475
NSC-41837
SBB058177
AKOS000283060
CCG-269534
CS-7637
MCULE-6379896074
[9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)xanthen-3-ylidene]-diethylazanium;chloride
Ammonium, (9-(o-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)diethyl-, chloride
CAS-81-88-9
N-(9-(2-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-e- thylethanaminium chloride
NCGC00255803-01
Rhodamine B, 99+%, pure, laser grade
AK167929
AS-17153
C.I. 749

Other names: Ethanaminium, N-[9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]-N-ethyl-, chloride; Ammonium, [9-(o-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]diethyl-, chloride
Aizen Rhodamine BH; Aizen Rhodamine BHC; Akiriku Rhodamine B; ADC Rhodamine B; C.I. Basic Violet 10; C.I. Food Red 15; C.I. 45170; Calcozine Red BX; Calcozine Rhodamine BXP; Cerise Toner X1127
D And C Red No. 19; Diabasic Rhodamine B; Edicol Supra Rose B; Edicol Supra Rose BS; Eriosin Rhodamine B; FD And C red No. 19; Hexacol Rhodamine B Extra; Ikada Rhodamine B; Mitsui Rhodamine BX
Red No. 213; Rheonine B; Rhodamine; Rhodamine B Extra; Rhodamine B Extra M 310; Rhodamine B Extra S; Rhodamine B 500; Rhodamine BA; Rhodamine BA Export; Rhodamine BN; Rhodamine BS; Rhodamine BX
Rhodamine BXL; Rhodamine BXP; Rhodamine B500 hydrochloride; Rhodamine FB; Rhodamine Lake Red B; Rhodamine, tetraethyl-; Sicilian Cerise Toner A-7127; Symulex Magenta F; Symulex Rhodamine B Toner F
Takaoka Rhodamine B; Tetraethylrhodamine; 11411 Red; Rhodamine B base; Rhodamine b,CI 45170; Brilliant rhodamine b; Xanthylium, 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)-, chloride
(9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene) diethylammonium chloride; Acid Brilliant Pink B; Basic Violet 10; Brilliant Pink B; C.I. No. 45170; C.I. 749; Calcozine Rhodamine BL
Calcozine Rhodamine BX; Certiqual Rhodamine; Cogilor Red 321.10; Cosmetic Brilliant Pink Bluish D conc; D & C Red No. 19; D&C Red 19; Diethyl-m-aminophenolphthalein hydrochloride; Edicol Suppa Rose BS
Elcozine Rhodamine B; Food Red 15; Geranium lake N; Iragen Red L-U; Rhodamine B chloride; Rhodamine B 20-7470; Rhodamine BF; Rhodamine BL; Rhodamine FB CL; Rhodamine O; Rhodamine S; Rhodamine, Blue shade
Symulex Pink F; Tetraethyldiamino-o-carboxyphenyl xanthenyl chloride; 9-o-Carboxyphenyl-6-diethylamino-3-ethylimino-3-isoxanthene, 3-ethochloride; D+C RED NO. 19; Rhodamine fb ci; Violet zasadita 10
9-(2-Carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium chloride; Tetraethylrhodamine hydrochloride

Ethanaminium, N-(9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-e- thyl-, chloride
Ethanaminium, N-[9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]-N-ethyl-, chloride
SY010955
T319
AB0018931
Diethyl-m-aminophenolphthalein hydrochloride
FT-0622587
R0014
R0040
ST50826381
C19517
J10471
Q429022
9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino) xanthylium chloride
9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthenium chloride
WLN: T C666 BO EYJ EUK2&2 IR BVQ& MN2&2 &Q &G
2-[3-(diethylamino)-6-(diethylylidene)xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, chloride
2-[6-(diethylamino)-3-(diethylylidene)xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, chloride
[9-(o-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene] Diethyl-ammonium Chloride
Ethanaminium, N-(9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethyl-, chloride (9CI)
N -(9-(2-Carboxyphenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H -xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethylethanaminium chloride

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