SLS ( SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE )

SLS = Sodium Lauryl Sulfate = Sodium dodecyl sulfate

Functions of SLS: Anionic surfactant; emulsifying agent; modified-release agent; penetration enhancer; solubilising agent; tablet and capsule lubricant.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), also known as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, is a synthetic organic compound found in many types of personal care and cleaning products. 
SLS is produced by treating lauryl alcohol with sulfur trioxide gas to form the sulfate. 
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate may be used in pure form or extracted from palm kernel or coconut oil via a process known as hydrolysis, which is a chemical breakdown that occurs as the result of a reaction with water. 
This is followed by hydrogenation, which is the addition of hydrogen to achieve saturation.
According to the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), the product contains no ingredients that pose a hazard to human health or the environment. 
However, the Lauryl Sulfate MSDS does indicate that it could cause irritation if ingested or comes in contact with the eyes or skin. 
Therefore, wearing an apron, safety goggles and rubber gloves is recommended during use. 
There are no specific storage requirements for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, although storing or using the product around open flames or intense heat should be avoided.

Sodium dodecyl sulphate
EC / List no.: 205-788-1
CAS no.: 151-21-3
Mol. formula: C12H26O4S.Na
CAS Number: 151-21-3 
E487
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE    
Dodecyl sodium sulfate
Lauryl sodium sulfate
Sodium dodecyl sulfate    


Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
EC / List no.: 287-809-4
CAS no.: 85586-07-8


Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-18-alkyl esters, sodium salts
EC / List no.: 273-257-1
CAS no.: 68955-19-1


PRODUCT DETAILS & INFORMATION
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), also known as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, is a synthetic organic compound found in many types of personal care and cleaning products. 
SLS is produced by treating lauryl alcohol with sulfur trioxide gas to form the sulfate. 
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate may be used in pure form or extracted from palm kernel or coconut oil via a process known as hydrolysis, which is a chemical breakdown that occurs as the result of a reaction with water. 
This is followed by hydrogenation, which is the addition of hydrogen to achieve saturation.
According to the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), the product contains no ingredients that pose a hazard to human health or the environment. 
However, the Lauryl Sulfate MSDS does indicate that it could cause irritation if ingested or comes in contact with the eyes or skin. 
Therefore, wearing an apron, safety goggles and rubber gloves is recommended during use. 
There are no specific storage requirements for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, although storing or using the product around open flames or intense heat should be avoided.

Sodium lauryl sulfate is a widely used surfactant in cleaning, cosmetics, and personal care products for its exceptional foaming and excellent viscosity building properties. 
Sodium lauryl sulfate is a highly effective anionic surfactant used to remove oily stains and residues and exhibits a lower cold temperature cloud point than typical products of this type.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant commonly used in detergents and cleaning products. 
While widely used in pesticide formulations as a surfactant and dispersant, SLS is usually an inert ingredient or used in combination with other ingredients, most of which are ineligible for use in minimum-risk pesticides. 
SLS has some antimicrobial activity but is more often a synergist used with other antimicrobial active ingredients.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, SLS (synonymously called Sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) [CH3 (CH2)11 OSO3 Na] (MW 288.38) is an anionic (negatively charged) surfactant used as a cleansing agent (detergent) in cosmetics. 
It is prepared by the sulphation of commercially available lauryl alcohol from coconut oil. 
The molecule has a tail of 12 carbon atoms, attached to a sulfate group, giving the molecule the amphiphilic properties required of a detergent. 
This foaming detergent is cheap, used in personal care products and small amount generates a large amount of foam. 
SLS is used as a detergent in most (90%) of commercial soaps and shampoos. 
Additionally, it is found in large number of personal care products including toothpastes, body wash, cleansers, facial cleansers, bath oils/salts/bubbles, liquid hand soap, Baby bath wash, hair removers, fragrance/perfume/cologne, sunscreen/tanning oil, conditioners, styling products and makeup removers.

USES & APPLICATIONS
The many industrial uses of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate include:
Personal Care: Lower concentrations of lauryl sulfate are used in a wide range of personal care products such as toothpaste, oral care, mouthwash, shaving cream and bubble bath.
Rubber: In rubber manufacturing applications, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate acts as a flow agent and internal lubricant.
CASE: SLS can act as an extremely effective wetting agent due to its ability to reduce the surface tension in various liquids.
Soaps and Detergents: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate will act as a surfactant in liquid soap and detergent, and it is also an excellent additive for compact powders.
Nutraceuticals: Manufacturers of nutraceuticals use Sodium Lauryl Sulfate as an excipient (inactive ingredient) in many of their products.

Its functions (INCI)
Cleansing : Helps to keep a clean surface
Denaturant : Makes cosmetics unpleasant. Mainly added to cosmetics containing ethyl alcohol
Emulsifying : Promotes the formation of intimate mixtures between immiscible liquids by modifying the interfacial tension (water and oil)
Foaming : Capturing small air bubbles or other gases in a small volume of liquid by changing the surface tension of the liquid
Surfactant : Reduces the surface tension of cosmetics and contributes to the even distribution of the product when it is used

Synonym: Dodecyl sodium sulfate, Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt, Lauryl sulfate sodium salt, SDS, SLS, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium lauryl sulfate

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant naturally derived from coconut and/or palm kernel oil. 
It usually consists of a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl. 
SLS lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions and is used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, and detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes. 
It is also used in creams and pastes to properly disperse the ingredients and as research tool in protein biochemistry. SLS also has some microbicidal activity.


Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, also known as SLS, is a surfactant that is widely used in many different types of consumer products. 
These type of surfactants are commonly known as “foaming agents” and are used in products designed to clean —including personal care and home cleaning products. 
They work by lowering water surface tension to effectively spread a product across the surface being cleaned, attracting dirt and grime away from the surface and down the drain.


SLS is an anionic surfactant with superior viscosity and foaming properties and high detergency. It offers advantage over ethersulfates in its easy rinsability off the skin. The product is used in a wide range of personal care products such as shampoos, liquid soaps, hand pastes, bath products, shaving creams etc.
 
Outstanding foaming characteristics and detergency of SLS are being utilized in the formulation of light duty cleaners, rug shampoos, fine fabric wash, textile scouring and many other industrial applications such as emulsion polymerization, oil field chemicals, construction etc.


Application areas
HI&I cleaning
Emulsion polymerization
Fire-fighting
Personal care
Laundry detergents
Industrial auxiliaries
Construction chemicals
Oil fields


Applications Segment:
Industrial Cleaning
Household Cleaning
Polymerization
Pharmaceuticals
Others


Types Segment:
SLS Needle
SLS Powder
SLS Liquid


Production of SLS : 
SLS is prepared by the sulfation of commercially available lauryl alcohol with either sulphur trioxide or chlorosulfonic acid. 
The product of this reaction is then neutralised with aqueous sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. 
Lauryl alcohol is in turn usually derived from either coconut oil or palm kernel oil by hydrolysis, which liberates their fatty acids, followed by hydrogenation. 
Due to the synthetic method, commercial samples of SLS are often a mixture with other alkyl sulfates, dodecyl sulfate as the main component.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a chemical compound that is commonly used in personal care and cleaning products, such as body washes, detergents, cleansers, shampoos, handwashes and toothpastes. SLS is what’s known as a surfactant—that means it reduces the surface tension between ingredients in a product. It can be made synthetically or naturally, and it’s what gives cleaning products that foamy, bubbly consistency most of us have come to expect.


Like other surfactants, SLS is amphiphilic. It thus migrates to the surface of liquids, where its alignment and aggregation with other SLS molecules lowers the surface tension. 
This allows for easier spreading and mixing of the liquid. SLS has potent protein denaturing activity and inhibits the infectivity of viruses by by solubilizing the viral envelope and/or by denaturing envelope and/or capsid proteins.

Versatile ingredient composed of several non-volatile alcohols. Functions primarily as a surfactant, but can also be used as a skin-conditioning agent, emulsifier, and solvent. 

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is one of the most sensitizing cleansing agents used in skincare products. 

SLS is a widely used ionic solubilizer & and high HLB anionic emulsifier that is suitable for application in liquid dispersions, solutions, emulsions and micro emulsions to formulate tablets, foams and semi-solids such as creams, lotions and gels.

SLS, is manufactured by sulfation of the corresponding fatty alcohol of natural origin and subsequent neutralization with sodium hydroxide. 
SLS is characterized by a very high active substance matter and a very low content of inorganic salts and unsulfated fatty alcohols. 

Why use SLS in PHARMA ?
Extremely efficient excipient throughout the tableting process
Widely used ionic solubilizer and high HLB anionic emulsifier
Additionally suitable as wetting agent or lubricant
Suitable for solid, semi-solid dosage forms and foams

PHARMA
Solubilizer and emulsifier
SLS can be used as a solubilizer to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble APIs in both solid and liquid oral dosage forms. 
SLS grades are also suitable for semi solid dosage forms like creams, lotions and gels. Moreover, sodium lauryl sulfate is very broadly used in oral care formulations. 
SLS can be used in physical mixing, melt granulation, spray drying and hot melt extrusion processes.
SLS is extremely efficient throughout the tableting process by assisting in drug dissolution and aiding water uptake during disintegration of the end formulation.


Wetting agent in tabletting
Due to improved wettability of the tablet, SLS can reduce tablet disintegration time.


Special lubricant for tablets
SLS can be used as tablet lubricant if standard lubricants (i.e. magnesium stearate) are incompatible with the formulation. 
As lubricant the typical usage concentration of SLS is 2%.

Commonly known as SLS, Sodium Lauryl Sulphate is a chemical surfactant used in all sorts of cosmetics and cleaning products. It can be derived from petroleum, palm oil or coconut oil.

It works by turning liquids into a foam and you’ll usually find it in things like toothpaste, body wash, soaps and detergents. It’s also an ingredient in industrial strength cleaners, bath salts and even make-up.

In a nutshell, the frothy lather your shampoo produces is usually thanks to SLS.


Sodium dodecyl sulfate Chemical Properties,Uses and Production

Anionic surfactants
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an anionic surfactant, and is a typical representative of sulphate-based surfactant. 
It is abbreviated as SDS, and also known as AS, K12, coco alcohol sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and foaming agent. 
The commercial products are usually white to light yellow crystalline powder. It is non-toxic, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and ether, soluble in water, and has good anionic and nonionic complex compatibility. It has good emulsibility, foamability, and foaming, infiltrating, decontaminating and dispersing properties. It is abundant in foams and quickly biodegradable, and has solubility next only to fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sodium sulphate (abbreviated as AES). It is not sensitive to alkali and hard water, but its stability is inferior to general sulfonate under acidic conditions and is close to AES. It is not favorable to exceed 95 °C upon long-term heating, and its irritation is at the middle level among surfactants, with an irritation index of 3.3 for a 10% solution, which is higher than AES and lower than sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (abbreviated as LAS). 
Toxicity LD50 is 1300mg/kg. There is no evidence that this product is carcinogenic, but high doses may indeed irritate the skin. 
However, in general sanitary products the concentration is limited when used as a forming agent, and is in line with national standards. 
So there is no need to concern.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a major component of detergent.
SLS is usually used in the DNA extraction process to separate DNA after protein denaturation. 
SLS is widely used as a foaming agent in toothpaste, soap, shower gel, shampoo, detergent and cosmetics. 
95% of personal care products and household cleaning products contain sodium lauryl sulfate.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is a common additive used in a variety of personal care products including toothpastes, shampoos and body washes, and in a variety of household products including laundry detergents, floor cleaners and engine degreasers.  SLS, similar to soap, is used as a surfactant, detergent and emulsifier; in short, it is an inexpensive and effective foaming agent. Because many people associate foaming with effective cleaning, SLS is frequently added to cleaning and personal care products such as toothpaste.
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate is useful in a wide variety of personal care applications in which viscosity building and foam characteristics are of importance. 
Because of its low salt content, this product is particularly useful in formulations that are sensitive to high levels of sodium chloride. 
It is compatible with alkanolamides and amphoterics so that maximum optimization of foam and viscosity characteristics can be reached in the finished product. 
It can be incorporated into shampoos, handsoaps, bath products, shaving creams and medicated ointments. 
It is especially useful for opaque, pearlescent, or cream products.

Product advantages:

excellent cleaning and cleaning properties,
very high foam-forming capacity,
a wide range of cosmetic and industrial applications,
has an effect under both alkaline and acidic pH conditions.


Toxicity
It can be safely used for food, but the content of sodium lauryl sulfate should not be less than 90% (FDA, §172.822, 2000). LD50 is 1288mg/kg (rat, oral).

Sodium dodecyl sulfonate
There is certain universality of confusion and misuse for them, both of which belong to the anionic surfactants and the English abbreviations are both SDS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (abbreviated as SDS) is also called sodium lauryl sulfate (abbreviated as SLS), belongs to sulfate salt and has a molecular weight of 288.38. It is a white or light yellow crystal, and is easily soluble in water. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (abbreviated as SDS) belongs to sulfonate, has a molecular weight of 272.38, and differs with the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate in that it lacks one oxygen atom and the carbon atom is directly connected to the sulfur atom. Please note the difference so as to avoid misuse.

Utilization limitation
(FDA, §172.822, 2000, mg/kg): dry protein 1000; frozen protein 125; liquid protein 125; marshmallow foaming agent used in an amount of 0.5% gelatin; as a surfactant for solid drinks acidified with fumaric acid and juice drinks acidified with fumaric acid, 25; as moisturizers for grease, 10 (amount of grease). According to the regulation of (FDA, §172.210, 2000), it can be used as a citrus fruit surface coating agent, and the amount is limited per GMP.

Chemical property
It is a white to pale yellow powder, has a slight special smell, and is easily soluble in water.

Uses
Sodium dodecyl sulfate has excellent detergency, emulsification and foaming power, can be used as detergents and textile auxiliaries, and is also used as an anionic surfactant, toothpaste foaming agent, mine fire extinguishing agents, foaming agents for fire extinguishers, emulsion polymerization emulsifiers, emulsifying and dispersing agents for medical use, shampoo and other cosmetic products, wool detergent, detergent for silky class fine fabrics and flotation agent for metal beneficiation.
GB 2760-96 stipulates as processing aids for food industry. SLS used as foaming agents; emulsifying agents; and anionic surfactants. It is used for cakes, drinks, proteins, fruits, fruit juice, and edible oil, and so on.
ISLS is used as surfactants, detergents, foaming agents, and wetting agents, and so on.
SLS is used as relatively low-level ion-pairing reagents, and is cheaper than sodium heptanesulfonate and sodium pentanesulfonate when less demanding.
SLS is used as raw material for modifying materials.
SLS is used as additives in capillary electrophoresis analysis and is generally used as molar solution.
SLS is also used in other analysis such as flow column analysis.

Production method
Sulphur trioxide method: the reaction apparatus is a vertical reactor. At 32 °C nitrogen gas is introduced into the reactor through the gas vents at a flow rate of 85.9 L·min-1. At 82.7 kPa lauryl alcohol is introduced at a flow rate of 58 g·min-1. The liquid sulfur trioxide is fed into flash evaporator at 124.1 kPa, the flash temperature is maintained at 100 °C, and sulfur trioxide flow rate is controlled to be 0.907 2 kg·h-1. Sulfated product is then rapidly quenched to 50 °C, injected into the aging device and left for 10 to 20 min, and finally injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with a base. The neutralizing temperature is controlled at 50 °C. The material is discharged when the pH value is adjusted to 7 to 8.5, to obtain a liquid product which is spray dried to give a solid product.
Batch method: lauryl alcohol is charged into reaction kettle and pre-heated to 30 °C. Then chlorosulfonic acid 0.03 mol in excess than the theoretical amount is sprayed into the alcohol under high speed agitation. The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 to 35 °C. After the sulfation reaction, it is injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with 30% lye to a pH value of 7 to 8.5, and finally bleached with 0.4% (weight) hydrogen peroxide. It is spray dried to give a solid. It can also be formulated into solutions according to quality standard.
Continuous method: the reaction apparatus is tubular reactor. Lauryl alcohol is initially saturated with hydrogen chloride. Lauryl alcohol at a flow rate of 334 g·min-1 and hydrogen chloride at a flow rate of 40.5 g·min-1 are fed into saturation chamber through gauge. Then the solution of lauryl alcohol with hydrogen chloride is fed into reactor at 21.4 °C to react with chlorosulfonic acid. After the reaction is subjected to gas-liquid separation, the sulfated product flows from the bottom of the separator into neutralization kettle. It is neutralized with 30% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C to give a liquid product, which is spray dried to give a solid product.

Chemical Properties
White crystalline flakes

Chemical Properties
Sodium lauryl sulfate consists of white or cream to pale yellowcolored crystals, flakes, or powder having a smooth feel, a soapy, bitter taste, and a faint odor of fatty substances.

Uses
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an emulsifier and whipping aid that has a solubility of 1 g in 10 ml of water. It functions as an emulsifier in egg whites. It is used as a whipping aid in marshmallows and angel food cake mix. It also functions to aid in dissolving fumaric acid.

Uses
Anionic detergent

Uses
hydrophilic tablet lubricant

Uses
Wetting agent, detergent, especially in the textile industry. Electrophoretic separation of proteins and lipids. Ingredient of toothpastes.

Use: Foaming agent and detergent for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, Wetting agent for wettable powders

Use: Foaming agent and booster of tooth pastes and shampoos.

Use: Emulsifier for polymerization process of synthetic rubber and synthetic resin

Use: Shampoos and body shampoos, hard surface liquid detergents and laundry products

INCI Name: Sodium lauryl sulfate


Benefits:
Excellent foam and viscosity enhancer
Good cleansing properties
Can be used together with other surfactants
Provides high foam, good lather, and excellent detergent properties
Use: Can be added to formulas as is. Recommended use level 3 - 30% depending on desired foaming and cleansing effects. Can be used at higher concentrations for bubble baths. For external use only.

Applications: Body washes, shampoos, bubble baths, cleansing lotions, various personal care cleansing products.
Country of Origin: USA
Raw material source: Coconut oil and chlorosulfuric acid
Manufacture: Sodium lauryl sulfate is produced by treating lauryl alcohol, which is derived from either coconut or other vegetable oils, with chlorosulfuric acid. The resulting product is then neutralized through the addition of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.


Applications
All purpose cleaners
Bath oils
Body wash/shampoo
Detergents
Dishwash detergents
Emulsion polymerization
Exfoliant scrub
Glass cleaners
Green products
Hand soap
Rug shampoo


Definition
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates that lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions.

Production Methods
Sodium lauryl sulfate is prepared by sulfation of lauryl alcohol, followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate.

General Description
White to pale yellow paste or liquid with a mild odor. Sinks and mixes with water.

Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile
DODECYL SULFATE is incompatible with strong oxidizers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is also incompatible with cationic materials and with acids with pH below 2.5. Salts, basic, such as DODECYL SULFATE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.

Health Hazard
Inhalation of dust causes sneezing and coughing. Ingestion of large amounts causes irritation of stomach. Dust irritates eyes and may cause burns on prolonged contact. Contact with skin causes some irritation; continued exposure to water solution causes drying out and cracking.

Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Sodium dodecyl sulfate are not available; however, Sodium dodecyl sulfate is probably combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Sodium lauryl sulfate is an anionic surfactant employed in a wide range of nonparenteral pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics.
It is a detergent and wetting agent effective in both alkaline and acidic conditions. In recent years it has found application in analytical electrophoretic techniques: SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is one of the more widely used techniques for the analysis of proteins; and sodium lauryl sulfate has been used to enhance the selectivity of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC).

Contact allergens
This anionic detergent is widely used in cosmetics and industry. As a skin irritant agent, SLS can be used in several dermatological applications. It is also a good indicator of excited skin during patch testing.

Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. A human skin irritant. An experimental eye and severe skin irritant. A mild allergen. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO, and Na2O. See also ESTERS and SULFATES.

Safety
Sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used in cosmetics and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is a moderately toxic material with acute toxic effects including irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, and stomach. Repeated, prolonged exposure to dilute solutions may cause drying and cracking of the skin; contact dermatitis may develop.(3) Prolonged inhalation of sodium lauryl sulfate will damage the lungs. Pulmonary sensitization is possible, resulting in hyperactive airway dysfunction and pulmonary allergy. Animal studies have shown intravenous administration to cause marked toxic effects to the lung, kidney, and liver. Mutagenic testing in bacterial systems has proved negative.
Adverse reactions to sodium lauryl sulfate in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations mainly concern reports of irritation to the skin or eyes following topical application.
Sodium lauryl sulfate should not be used in intravenous preparations for humans. The probable human lethal oral dose is 0.5–5.0 g/kg body-weight.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.25 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.12 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.29 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IP): 0.21 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 0.12 g/kg

storage
Sodium lauryl sulfate is stable under normal storage conditions. However, in solution, under extreme conditions, i.e. pH 2.5 or below, it undergoes hydrolysis to lauryl alcohol and sodium bisulfate.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container away from strong oxidizing agents in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods
Purify this detergent by Soxhlet extraction with pet ether for 24hours, followed by dissolution in acetone/MeOH/H2O 90:5:5(v/v) and recrystallisation [Politi et al. J Phys Chem 89 2345 1985]. It has been purified by two recrystallisations from absolute EtOH, aqueous 95% EtOH, MeOH, isopropanol or a 1:1 mixture of EtOH/isopropanol to remove dodecanol, and dried under vacuum [Ramesh & Labes J Am Chem Soc 109 3228 1987]. SDS has also been purified by repeatedly foaming whereby a 0.15% aqueous solution is made to foam and the foam is discarded, then the H2O is removed in vacuo and the residue is diluted to the required concentrations [see Cockbain & McMullen Trans Faraday Soc 47 322 1951] or by liquid-liquid extraction [see Harrold J Colloid Sci 15 280 1960]. Dry it over silica gel. For DNA work it should be dissolved in excess MeOH passed through an activated charcoal column and evaporated until it crystallises out. It has also been purified by dissolving in hot 95% EtOH (14mL/g), filtering and cooling, then drying in a vacuum desiccator. Alternatively, it is crystallised from H2O, vacuum dried, washed with anhydrous Et2O and dried in vacuum again. These operations are repeated five times [Maritato J Phys Chem 89 1341 1985, Lennox and McClelland J Am Chem Soc 108 3771 1986, Dressik J Am Chem Soc 108 7567 1986]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1847.]

Incompatibilities
Sodium lauryl sulfate reacts with cationic surfactants, causing loss of activity even in concentrations too low to cause precipitation. Unlike soaps, it is compatible with dilute acids and calcium and magnesium ions.
Sodium lauryl sulfate is incompatible with salts of polyvalent metal ions, such as aluminum, lead, tin or zinc, and precipitates with potassium salts. Solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate (pH 9.5–10.0) are mildly corrosive to mild steel, copper, brass, bronze, and aluminum.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; oral capsules, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Metering vessel 1-Dodecanol Hexane Liquid sulfur trioxide Ethanol Hydrogen peroxide Sulfur trioxide Chlorosulfonic acid Hydrochloric acid DCM Sodium hydroxide SULFATE STANDARD Poly(acrylic acid)


Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sometimes written sodium laurilsulfate, is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4Na. 
It is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. 
This molecule is an organosulfate and a salt. 
It consists of a 12-carbon tail attached to a sulfate group, that is, it is the sodium salt of dodecyl hydrogen sulfate, the ester of dodecyl alcohol and sulfuric acid. 
Its hydrocarbon tail combined with a polar "headgroup" give the compound amphiphilic properties and so make it useful as a detergent.
Also derived as a component of mixtures produced from inexpensive coconut and palm oils, SDS is a common component of many domestic cleaning, personal hygiene and cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food products, as well as of industrial and commercial cleaning and product formulations

Preferred IUPAC name: Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium monododecyl sulfate; Sodium lauryl sulfate; Sodium monolauryl sulfate; Sodium dodecanesulfate; Sodium coco-sulfate; dodecyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfate, sodium salt; n-dodecyl sulfate sodium; Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt

Chemical formula: C12H25NaSO4
Molar mass: 288.372 g/mol
Appearance: white or cream-colored solid
Odor: odorless
Density: 1.01 g/cm3
Melting point: 206 °C (403 °F; 479 K)
Surface tension:
CMC: 8.2 mM at 25 °C[1]
Refractive index (nD): 1.461


TYPE OF INGREDIENT: Foaming agent.
MAIN BENEFITS: SLS creates a lather, SLS Encourages a deep clean, and SLS Emulsifies.


Sodium lauryl sulfate is frequently used as a surfactant, or foaming agent. It may also serve as an emulsifier, helping oil based and water based ingredients to stay mixed. 
In many of our toothpastes SLS is used as a surfactant and helps to properly disperse the ingredients during brushing, and ensures easy rinsing and removal of debris

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a surfactant that can have a variety of uses, but in cleaning products, it is often used to break water tension and attract dirt and grime away from the material it is intended to clean. We use SLS that is derived from coconut or palm kernel oil from renewable carbon plant-derived materials.


Sodium lauryl sulfate may be derived from either petroleum based or vegetable based sources. 
The SLS is entirely derived from the vegetable sources of coconut and/or palm kernel oil. 
The oils can be split into glycerin and the component fatty acids, one of which is lauric acid. 
The lauric acid is isolated and then hydrogenated to form the lauryl alcohol. 
Alternately, the whole oil can be esterified and then hydrogenated to form the fatty alcohols of which lauryl alcohol would be isolated by fractionation. 
The lauryl alcohol is then combined with sulfur which then forms the salt, sodium lauryl sulfate.


Physicochemical properties

Bottle of 20% sodium dodecyl sulfate in distilled water for use in the laboratory.
The critical micelle concentration (CMC) in pure water at 25 °C is 8.2 mM, and the aggregation number at this concentration is usually considered to be about 62.
The micelle ionization fraction (α) is around 0.3 (or 30%).[4]

Production
Sodium lauryl sulfate is synthesized by treating lauryl alcohol with sulfur trioxide gas, oleum, or chlorosulfuric acid to produce hydrogen lauryl sulfate.
The resulting product is then neutralized through the addition of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.
Lauryl alcohol can be used in pure form or may be derived from either coconut or palm kernel oil by hydrolysis (which liberates their fatty acids), followed by hydrogenation.
When produced from these sources, commercial samples of these "Sodium lauryl sulfate" products are actually not pure SDS, rather a mixture of various sodium alkyl sulfates with Sodium lauryl sulfate being the main component.
For instance, SDS is a component, along with other chain-length amphiphiles, when produced from coconut oil, and is known as sodium coco sulfate (SCS).
Sodium lauryl sulfate is available commercially in powder, pellet, and other forms (each differing in rates of dissolution), as well as in aqueous solutions of varying concentrations.


Applications
Cleaning and hygiene
Sodium lauryl sulfate is mainly used in detergents for laundry with many cleaning applications.
It is a highly effective surfactant and is used in any task requiring the removal of oily stains and residues. 
For example, it is found in higher concentrations with industrial products including engine degreasers, floor cleaners, and car exterior cleaners.

In lower concentrations, it is found in hand soap, toothpastes, shampoos, shaving creams, and bubble bath formulations, for its ability to create a foam (lather), for its surfactant properties, and in part for its thickening effect.

Food additive

This section needs expansion with: a secondary source-derived summary of its uses in food and related products, as this is a clear more preeminent application than many of those that follow. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, appearing as its synonym sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), is considered a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient for food use according to the USFDA (21 CFR 172.822).
It is used as an emulsifying agent and whipping aid.
SLS is reported to temporarily diminish perception of sweetness.


Laboratory applications
Principal applications
Sodium lauryl sulfate, in science referred to as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), is used in cleaning procedures,Vand is commonly used as a component for lysing cells during RNA extraction and/or DNA extraction, and for denaturing proteins in preparation for electrophoresis in the SDS-PAGE technique.


Denaturation of a protein using SDS
In the case of SDS-PAGE, the compound works by disrupting non-covalent bonds in the proteins, and so denaturing them, i.e. causing the protein molecules to lose their native conformations and shapes. By binding to proteins at a ratio of one SDS molecule per 2 amino acid residues, the negatively charged detergent provides all proteins with a similar net negative charge and therefore a similar charge-to-mass ratio.
In this way, the difference in mobility of the polypeptide chains in the gel can be attributed solely to their length as opposed to both their native charge and shape.
It is possible to make separation based on the size of the polypeptide chain to simplify the analysis of protein molecules, this can be achieved by denaturing proteins with the detergent SDS.
The association of SDS molecules with protein molecules imparts an associated negative charge to the molecular aggregate formed; this negative charge is significantly greater than the original charge of that protein.
The electrostatic repulsion that is created by SDS binding forces proteins into a rod-like shape, thereby eliminating differences in shape as a factor for electrophoretic separation in gels.
A dodecyl sulfate molecule has two negative charges at the pH value used for electrophoresis, this will lead the net charge of coated polypeptide chains to be much more negative than uncoated chains.[18] The charge-to-mass ratio is essentially identical for different proteins because SDS coating dominates the charge.[18]

Pharma applications

Sodium lauryl sulfate is a widely used in the pharmaceutical field as an ionic solubilizer and emulsifier that is suitable for applications in liquid dispersions, solutions, emulsions and micro emulsions, tablets, foams and semi-solids such as creams, lotions and gels.
Additionally, SLS aids in tablet wettability, as well as lubrication during manufacturing. 
Brand names of pharma-grade SLS include Kolliphor SLS and Kolliphor SLS Fine.

Miscellaneous applications
SLS is used in an improved technique for preparing brain tissues for study by optical microscopy. The technique, which has been branded as CLARITY, was the work of Karl Deisseroth and coworkers at Stanford University, and involves infusion of the organ with an acrylamide solution to bind the macromolecules of the organ (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.), followed by thermal polymerization to form a "brain–hydrogel" (a mesh interspersed throughout the tissue to fix the macromolecules and other structures in space), and then by lipid removal using SDS to eliminate light scattering with minimal protein loss, rendering the tissue quasi-transparent.[21][22]

Along with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate and Triton X-100, aqueous solutions of SDS are popular for dispersing or suspending nanotubes, such as carbon nanotubes.

Niche uses
SLS has been proposed as a potentially effective topical microbicide, for intravaginal use, to inhibit and possibly prevent infection by various enveloped and non-enveloped viruses such as the herpes simplex viruses, HIV, and the Semliki Forest virus.

In gas hydrate formation experiments, SDS is used as a gas hydrate growth promoter.
Researchers aim for gas hydrate promotions as scale-up of industrial applications of gas hydrates such as desalination process, gas storage, and gas separation technologies.

Liquid membranes formed from SDS in water have been demonstrated to work as unusual particle separators.
The device acts as a reverse filter, allowing large particles to pass while capturing smaller particles.

Toxicology
Carcinogenicity
SDS is not carcinogenic when consumed or applied directly, even to amounts and concentrations that exceed amounts used in standard commercial products.
The earlier review of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) program Expert Panel in 1983 reported that SDS (there, abbreviated SLS, for sodium lauryl sulfate) in concentrations up to 2%, in a year-long oral dietary studies in dogs, gave no evidence of tumorigenicity or carcinogenicity, and that no excess chromosomal aberrations or clastogenic effects were observed in rats fed up to 1.13% sodium lauryl sulfate in their diets for 90 days, over those on a control diet.[32]:157, 175 The 2005 review by the same group indicated that further available data lacked any available suggestion that SDS or the related ammonium salt of the same amphiphile could be carcinogenic, stating that "Despite assertions to the contrary on the Internet, the carcinogenicity of these ingredients is only a rumor;" both studies conclude that SDS appears "to be safe in formulations designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by thorough rinsing from the surface of the skin. In products intended for prolonged contact with skin, concentrations should not exceed 1%."[33]:89ff

Sensitivity
Like all detergents, sodium lauryl sulfate removes oils from the skin, and can cause skin and eye irritation.
It has been shown to irritate the skin of the face, with prolonged and constant exposure (more than an hour) in young adults.
SDS may worsen skin problems in individuals with chronic skin hypersensitivity, with some people being affected more than others.

Oral concerns
The low cost of SDS, its lack of impact on taste,[38] its potential impact on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), which contribute to malodorous breath, and its desirable action as a foaming agent have led to the use of SDS in the formulations of toothpastes.
A series of small crossover studies (25-34 patients) have supported the efficacy of SLS in the reduction of VSCs, and its related positive impact on breath malodor, although these studies have been generally noted to reflect technical challenges in the control of study design variables.
While primary sources from the group of Irma Rantanen at University of Turku, Finland conclude an impact on dry mouth (xerostomia) from SLS-containing pastes, a 2011 Cochrane review of these studies, and of the more general area, concludes that there "is no strong evidence… that any topical therapy is effective for relieving the symptom of dry mouth."
A safety concern has been raised on the basis of several studies regarding the effect of toothpaste SDS on aphthous ulcers, commonly referred to as canker or white sores.
A consensus regarding practice (or change in practice) has not appeared as a result of the studies.

Some studies have suggested that SLS in toothpaste may decrease the effectiveness of fluoride at preventing dental caries (cavities). 
This may be due to SLS interacting with the deposition of fluoride on tooth enamel.


SLS is used in a range of domestic cleaning products, personal hygiene products (such as toothpaste), haircare and skincare products. In skincare it is primarily used in cleansing products for its ability to create a lather when it comes into contact with water, though it can also be used as an emulsifier.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), also known as sodium laurilsulfate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, is an anionic surfactant commonly used as an emulsifying cleaning agent in household cleaning products (laundry detergents, spray cleaners, and dishwasher detergents). 
The concentration of SLS found in consumer products varies by product and manufacturer but typically ranges from 0.01% to 50% in cosmetic products1,2 and 1% to 30% in cleaning products.3,4 SLS can be synthetic or naturally derived. 
This chemical is synthesized by reacting lauryl alcohol from a petroleum or plant source with sulfur trioxide to produce hydrogen lauryl sulfate, which is then neutralized with sodium carbonate to produce SLS.5

SLS (CAS# 151–21–3; MW 288.38 g/mol; pH 7.2) is a nonvolatile, water-soluble (100–150 g/L at room temperature) compound with a partition coefficient (log Pow) of 1.6 – making it a relatively hydrophilic compound.6–8 Generally, hydrophilic compounds have a low soil/sediment adsorption coefficient and low bioconcentration factors (BCFs). 
The BCF for SLS ranges from 2.1 to 7.1.6,7 Down-the-drain cleaning products release SLS into the environment via household wastewater systems. 
In the environment, >99% of SLS readily biodegrades into nontoxic components per the OECD 301 standard.7

Consumers may be exposed to SLS by using products that contain the ingredient. 
Exposure to SLS from household cleaning products depends on the frequency of household cleaning activities, which is reported as being 1–2 times per week on average.
The intended application of detergents and cleaners should not result in direct contact with product ingredients; however, misuse of the product could potentially cause dermal (skin and ocular) or inhalation exposure.9 Oral exposure to cleaning products is unlikely but has occurred – mostly in children – because of accidental ingestion.10 With regular use of cleaning products, the delivered dose of SLS from dermal or inhalation exposure is expected to be low given the low volatility and dermal absorption rate of SLS.6,7

Since the early 1990s, misconstrued information on the human and environmental toxicity of SLS has led to consumer confusion and concern about the safety of SLS as an ingredient in household products.11 As scientific literature is inherently vulnerable to misinterpretation by the general public, health and safety claims made by marketing campaigns do not always align with the latest peer-reviewed scientific evidence. Oftentimes, consumer product claims use language in ways that can be misleading to the average consumer. Review of the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS is warranted to elucidate the known risks and benefits of using SLS in household cleaning product formulation.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is the sodium salt of lauryl sulfate. It typically appears as a white or cream colored crystal or powder. It may also be called sodium dodecyl sulfate; dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt; and sodium n-dodecyl sulfate.

SLS is the best-known and most commonly-used sulfate. It’s inexpensive and can be derived from a number of sources including petroleum, coconut oil, and even palm oil. 

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a cleaning agent and surfactant, is an ingredient in many personal care and cleaning products. 
SLS can be derived from natural sources like coconut and palm kernel oil and can also be manufactured in a laboratory setting.

Uses & Benefits
Personal Care Products
SLS has been an ingredient in shampoos since the 1930s. It works as a surfactant, trapping oil and dirt in hair so it can rinse away with water. 
An effective foaming agent, SLS can help create a rich lather in products like body and hand wash, facial cleansers and bubble. 
Likewise, SLS helps create the foaming action in toothpaste and also helps remove food particles from teeth.

Cleaning Products
SLS is an effective surfactant used in household cleaning products to help remove oily stains and residues, such as food stains in carpets. 
Because of its ability to break down oil and grease, SLS also is an ingredient in many industrial cleaning products, such as engine degreasers and industrial strength detergents.

SLS is available commercially in powder and pellet forms. 
The salt is a 12-carbon chain attached to a sulfate group giving the material the amphiphilic properties required of a detergent. 
Sodium cocosulfate is essentially the same compound, but made from less purified coconut oil. 
A related surfactant, Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) is more widely used as a detergent and surfactant in personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc.) and in some medicated shampoos. 
SLES is effective over a wide pH range, both in acidic and alkaline solution and in hard water (because of the solubility of the corresponding calcium and magnesium salts i.e. no common ion effect). 
It differs from SLS by virtue of presence of ethoxyl groups [(OCH2CH2)n] in the backbone where n=3 or more, which is thought to give SLES extra foaming activity. 
Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate is also occasionally used in medicated shampoos. 

SLS occurs as white or cream to pale yellow-coloured crystals, flakes, or powder having a smooth feel, a soapy, bitter taste, and a faint odour of fatty substances. 
The alkaline salt exhibits a pH = 7.0–9.5 (for a 1% w/v aqueous solution); small amounts are sufficient to raise the pH of semi-solid preparations significantly enough to cause degradation of compounds, for example when diluents such as emulsifying ointment, which contains SLS, are used for compounding steroidal preparations. 
For this reason (and because of its skin irritancy properties discussed later), some manufacturers have removed SLS as a semi-solid emulsion stabiliser and replaced it with alternatives. 
As a surfactant, SLS has bacteriostatic properties given its pore-forming ability in lipid membranes. 
It displays some action against Gram-positive bacteria, although it is ineffective against many Gramnegative microorganisms. 
It therefore is used in skin cleansing and medicated shampoo products, although SLES is more often used due to its better foaming properties. 
SLS potentiates the fungicidal activity of certain substances such as sulfanilamide and sulfathiazole, and has been demonstrated to exert microbicidal activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I. 


Use in medicinal products SLS has a number of functional uses in pharmaceutical preparations as an emulsifying agent, modifiedrelease agent, penetration enhancer, solubilising agent, tablet and capsule lubricant. 
Table 1 lists the applications and concentrations typically used. 

Table 1: Uses of SLS as an excipient (modified from The Handbook of Excipients) 

Use 
Concentration Skin cleanser in topical applications 1% w/v 
Tablet lubricant (for dispersible tablets) 0.5–2% w/w 
Wetting agent in dentifrices (toothpastes) 1–2% w/w 
Releasing agent in suppositories and pessaries 0.4–1% w/w 
Dissolution / wetting agent in solid oral dosage forms 0.2–1.5% w/w 
Foaming / lathering agent in shampoos 10–25% w/v


SLS is a Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) excipient and is included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; oral capsules, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). 
In the EU, SLS is included in non-parenteral medicines. 
Sodium laurilsulfate used as an excipient  
2. Pharmaco-toxicological data Given its long history of use, a wide range of non-clinical studies including acute and chronic toxicity studies, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity studies and acute skin and ocular irritation studies have been conducted with SLS. 
The majority of these studies are not modern and were conducted before the introduction GLP according to the standards of the time but provide sufficient information to make a risk assessment. The non-clinical safety data for SLS has been reviewed in detail. 
SLS is a moderately toxic material with acute toxic effects including irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract and stomach. 
The toxicity of SLS derives primarily from its surfactant properties, producing disruption of cell membranes and conformational changes of proteins.


Sodium lauryl sulfate is a surfactant, and its efficacy, low cost, abundance and simplicity mean it’s used in a variety of cosmetic, dermatological and consumer products.

SLS is what’s known as a “surfactant.” This means it lowers the surface tension between ingredients, which is why it’s used as a cleansing and foaming agent.

Most concerns about SLS stem from the fact that it can be found in beauty and self-care products as well as in household cleaners.

Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) is a surfactant with a similar chemical formula. However, SLES is milder and less irritating than SLS.


What Is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Used For?  
Since SLS is a common ingredient listed in a variety of personal care, cosmetic, and household cleaning products, you’re likely to find it in:

Grooming products, such as shaving cream, lip balm, hand sanitizer, nail treatments, makeup remover, foundation, facial cleansers, exfoliants, and liquid hand soap
Hair care products, such as shampoo, conditioner, hair dye, and styling gel
Dental care products, such as toothpaste, teeth whitening products, and mouthwash
Bath products, such as bath oils or salts, body wash, and bubble bath
Laundry detergents

Where you’ll find SLS
It’s used in a variety of products, including:

Grooming products, such as shaving cream, lip balm, hand sanitizer, nail treatments, makeup remover, foundation, facial cleansers, exfoliants, and liquid hand soap
Hair products, such as shampoo, conditioner, hair dye, dandruff treatment, and styling gel
Dental care products, such as toothpaste, teeth whitening products, and mouthwash
Bath products, such as bath oils or salts, body wash, and bubble bath
Creams and lotions, such as hand cream, masks, anti-itch creams, hair-removal products, and sunscreen
You’ll notice that all of these products are topical, or applied directly to the skin or body.

What Is SLS and Is It Harmful?
Is sodium lauryl sulfate healthy? Is SLS bad for the environment? Learn more about this common ingredient in cleaning and personal care products.

What Is SLS and Is It Harmful?
Written by Lisa Truesdale. Reviewed by cleaning expert Sean Busch. Medically reviewed by board-certified dermatologist Dr. Julie Jackson, MD, FAAD.

In the 1930s, the invention of sulfates revolutionized the personal care and household cleaning industries. Recognized for their satisfyingly sudsy lather, these chemicals are effective at removing dirt and oil from a wide variety of surfaces.

In recent years, however, discerning consumers have questioned the potential safety of sulfates. Why are manufacturers turning to “sulfate-free” solutions – and is the negative hype surrounding sulfates deserved?

What Are Sulfates?
Sulfates are detergents made of sulfur-containing mineral salts. Derived from either petroleum-based or plant-based sources, they’re cheap for companies to obtain and create rich lather that consumers look for in shampoos and soaps.

Many consumer product companies add sulfates to household cleaning products like laundry detergent, dish soap, carpet cleaner, and all-purpose cleaner. They’re also commonly found in personal care products like shampoo, body wash, shaving cream, and toothpaste. 

The most commonly-used sulfate compounds are:

sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)
sodium laureth sulfate (e.g. SLES, sodium lauryl ether sulfate)
ammonium laureth sulfate (ALS)
sodium stearyl sulfate
sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLSA)
sodium coco sulfate
How Do Sulfates Work? 
Sulfates are surfactants, which means they lower the surface tension of water so oil, dirt, and grime can mix with it more easily. One side of the molecule attaches to oil while the other side attaches to water. This helps cleaning products lift, dissolve, and rinse dirt and grease away.

what products use sodium lauryl sulfate

What Is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)?
SLS is the best-known and most commonly-used sulfate. It’s inexpensive and can be derived from a number of sources including petroleum, coconut oil, and even palm oil. 

Is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) the Same as Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)?
Although they sound similar – and are often used in the same types of products – SLS and SLES are two separate surfactants. In fact, they have different chemical formulas


Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is commonly used in skincare products such as body wash, cleansers, shampoos and hand washes. It’s the ingredient that gives these products the foamy, bubbly consistency most of us associate with a squeaky clean.

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate is a chemical agent that’s used for cleaning. Essentially it helps to make soaps ‘froth’. It has been used as a shampoo ingredient since the 1930’s as an alternative to soap. It can be derived from petroleum, coconut oil or palm oil. SLS is an effective foaming agent, providing lots of bubbles and cleaning power. So it’s used in everything from floor cleaners to shampoos.


It's sodium lauryl sulfate and it's in many things you use every single day. From cleaners to cosmetics to toothpaste — it's a very common ingredient used to create foam for deeper cleaning. Have you ever wondered why you have to spit more with a particular toothpaste over another? That's sodium lauryl sulfate toothpaste. Check out the below to see how we dug a little deeper to get the complete picture on SLS.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Just The Facts
There's a lot to know when it comes to SLS. Here's a little breakdown of sodium lauryl sulfate and its connection to toothpaste.

SLS is a cleaning agent and surfactant found in many consumer products, according to Chemical Safety Facts
Because of it's cleaning power, SLS is prevalent in toothpaste
It not only cleans but also helps remove food debris stuck in your mouth and teeth
The FDA and EPA, among other organizations, have found SLS to be safe for consumers, according to Chemical Safety Facts
And the American Cancer Society does not include SLS as a known carcinogen
How Is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Made?
While SLS's job is relatively simple, the making of it somewhat complex. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), it's created by:

Combining sulfur trioxide with plant or petroleum-based lauryl alcohol
That product forms hydrogen lauryl sulfate.
Hydrogen lauryl sulfate is then neutralized with sodium carbonate to yield — sodium lauryl sulfate.
What's really interesting is that it can be made naturally or synthetically. Thus, it can be found in both synthetic and natural products.

How Is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Used In Toothpaste
One of the most common products SLS can be found in is toothpaste. It not only helps remove food debris and particles, but it allows for your toothpaste to create the foam that forms as you brush, according to Chemical Safety Facts. That foaming action aids in "the solubility of plaque and accretions during brushing," says the American Dental Association. Imagine brushing your teeth without it foaming up. Weird, right?

Are There Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Safety Concerns?
Overall, the health and safety concerns for SLS are minimal. But there are some details you should know:

SLS is a safe compound for consumer personal care products and not a known carcinogen, says the NIH
Stomatitis or mouth sore sufferers that use SLS toothpaste will develop more irritation, says the NIH, while toothpaste without SLS will reduce the pain
If you extract its separate elements or change its chemical composition, it's possible SLS could become toxic
Ultimately though, when adequately formulated and qualified, SLS is safe and not dangerous

Laurylsiran sodny
NaDS
Natrium laurylsulfuricum
SDS
SLS
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Sodium dodecylsulfate
Sodium laurilsulfate
Sodium lauryl sulfate
Sodium lauryl sulphate

Kolliphor® SLS, is manufactured by sulfation of the corresponding fatty alcohol of natural origin and subsequent neutralization with sodium hydroxide. The excipient is characterized by a very high active substance matter and a very low content of inorganic salts and unsulfated fatty alcohols. Kolliphor® SLS is extremely efficient throughout the tableting process by assisting in drug dissolution and aiding water uptake during disintegration of the end formulation.

Product Details
Chemical Name:    Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Former product name:    Texapon® K12 G PH
CAS-No:    151-21-3
Regulatory Status:    
Ph. Eur.: Sodium Laurilsulfate
USP / NF: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
JP: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

Kolliphor® SLS has a self-affirmed GRAS status. A cosher certificate is available upon request.

Raw material origin:    Kolliphor® SLS is based on vegetable and synthetic raw materi


Commonly known as SLS, Sodium Lauryl Sulphate is a chemical surfactant used in all sorts of cosmetics and cleaning products. It can be derived from petroleum, palm oil or coconut oil.

It works by turning liquids into a foam and you’ll usually find it in things like toothpaste, body wash, soaps and detergents. It’s also an ingredient in industrial strength cleaners, bath salts and even make-up.

In a nutshell, the frothy lather your shampoo produces is usually thanks to SLS.


Summary
SLS is a surfactant used in beauty products, other cosmetics an cleaning products
It helps to make products foamy and helps to clean away dirt


SLS is a ‘surfactant’ – an agent that lowers the surface tension between different ingredients, e.g. between two liquids, a gas and liquid, or a liquid and a solid.

When it comes to beauty products, its main benefits include:

Trapping oil-based dirt so it can be rinsed away with water
Turning liquids into foam for that rich lather we all expect and enjoy when we’re washing
One common concern with SLS is that it is used in both beauty / self-care products as well as household cleaners – where it performs a very similar function.

Summary
SLS traps oil-based dirt so it can be rinsed away and makes products ‘foam’

Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium salts

CAS names
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
IUPAC names
Alkylsulfat-Na

FAS C12-14, Na / Sodium C12-14 alkyl sulfates/ FASNA
FETTALKOHOLSULFAT, NA-SALZ C12-14
Hansanol AS 240
linear Alkyl sulfate
Nátrium-lauril-szulfát
SLS
sodium alkyl sulfate
Sodium alkyl sulphate
Sodium dodecyl sulphate

sodium lauryl sulfate

Sulfuric acid, C12-14-alkyl (even numbered) esters, sodium salts

Sulfuric acid, C12-14-alkyl(even numbered) esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, C12-14-alkyl(even numbered) esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12- 14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12- 14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14 (even numbered)-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14 (even numbered)-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14(even numbered)-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-14-ester, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid,C12-14-alkyl esters, sodium salts

Trade names
Galaxy 799

Hansanol AS 240
Hansanol AS 240 P
IFRAPON LS
Sodium alkyl sulphate
SULFETAL LS, SULFETAL LS/C, SULFETAL LS-E, SULFETAL LS a pH alto,SULFETAL LS at high pH, SULFETAL LS/K, SULFETAL LS/R, SULFETAL LS/R a pH alto, LUMOROL EM, LUMOROL AP
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12- 14-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Syntapon L
Ufapol SLS 30
Ufapol TEP 2
Ufapol TEP2 P
Ufapore TAE
Ufapore TFA
Ufapore TFF
Ufarol 95 A
Ufarol 95 G
Ufarol Na 30
Ufarol Na 30 S
Ufarol TCL 90 A
Ufarol TCL 92 N
Ufarol TCL 92 P
Ufarol TCL 95 N
Ufarol TDG

Other identifiers
85586-07-8

Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt (1:1)
Other
IUPAC names
Dodecyl sodium sulfate
Dodecyl sodium sulfate, Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt, Lauryl sulfate sodium salt, SDS, Sodium lauryl sulfate
Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt
dodecyl sulphate sodium salt
dodecylbenzenesulfonate sodium
Dodecylsulfate, Sodium salt
Dosium lauryl sulfate
LAURYL SULFATE, SODIUM SALT
Natriumdodecylsulfat
Natriumlaurylsulfat
Schwefelsäuredodecylester
SDS, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laurilsulfate
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
sodium dodecyl sulfate
sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium dodecyl sulfate solution
Sodium dodecylsulphate
Sodium lauryl sulfate
Sodium lauryl sulfate
sodium lauryl sulphate
Sodium laurylsulfuricum
Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate
sodium;dodecyl sulfate
Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt

Trade names
Dodecyl sodium sulfate
SINOLIN 100P
sodium dodecyl sulfate
sodium lauryl sulfate
Syntapon LS-P
sodium lauryl sulphate
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-18-alkyl esters, sodium salts


IUPAC names
ASCON 68955-19-1 Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-18 (even numbered)-alkyl esters, sodium saltsColonial SCS
FAS C12-18, Na
FETTALKOHOLSULFAT, NA-SALZ C12-18
sodium C12-18-alkyl sulfate
Sodium coco sulfate
sodium pentadecyl sulfate
sodium;pentadecyl sulfate
Sulfuric acid, C12-18-alkyl(even numbered) esters, sodium salts 
Sulfuric acid, C12-18-alkyl(even numbered) esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono C12-18 alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-18-alkyl esters, sodium salts
Sulfuric acid, mono-C12-18-alkyl esters, sodium salts
SULFURIC ACID, MONO-C12-18-ALKYLESTERS, SODIUM SALTS
SULPHURIC ACID, MONO-C12-18-ALKYL ESTERS, SODIUM SALTS


Trade names
Primary Alkyl Sulphate (PAS)
SULFETAL LS 40 T, SULFETAL LS 40/T, SULFETAL LS 40 T-E
Syntapon LO
Ufarol TCT 90 A
Ufarol TCT 90 G
Ufarol TCT 90 N
Ufarol TCT 90 P

Sodium Lauryl sulfate is a surfactant widely used in cosmetics. It is produced mostly from palm oil. 
It has a very strong foaming and detergent power, but it is criticized for its very irritating and drying effect on the skin, so much so that it is found less and less often in shower gels and bath products. 
Manufacturers prefer to use the ethoxylated version (SLES = Sodium Laureth Sulfate) less abrasive or other softer surfactants. 
However, it remains very present in toothpastes for adults (57% contain it) and children (42%).
SLS is also criticized for being a pollutant for the environment, animals, aquatic environments or even plants. 
Nevertheless, it is authorized in organic.


Increasing Demand for Detergents and Cleaners
SLS is one of the most common active ingredients in laundry detergent. It is a synthetic detergent belonging to a class of medium to strong surfactants, called alkyl sulfates. 
When it is used in the form of detergents, it offers advantages, such as strong cleansing power, high foam production at a low production cost.
Additionally, it is a highly effective surfactant and is used in any task requiring the removal of oily stains and residues. 
For applications in detergents and cleaners, the SLS compound is found in a very high concentration as compared to its application for other products. 
Some of the detergents where SLS is used, include floor cleaners, cloth detergents, and car wash soaps.

The global sodium lauryl sulfate market is expected to grow significantly owing to its extensive use as soaps, detergents, and cleaners. 
rowth in the detergents & cleaners segment is expected to be a key market driver for the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) market owing to its property that allows separation of dirt molecules from the surface providing better contact between the product and the surface. 
In addition, growth in the global personal care industry is another driving force for the SLS market due to its widespread use in toothpaste, soaps, and shampoos. 
Detergents & cleaners was the largest application segment of SLS in 2013 followed by personal care products. 
The global skincare market is expected to reach USD 147 billion by 2020 contributing to the growth in the SLS industry owing to its extensive use in the segment. 
Apart from the personal care industry, SLS is also used in the healthcare sector during lysis for DNA extraction and analysis of haemoglobin. 
Moreover, a rise in the use of SLS as a surfactant in engine degreasers, floor cleaners, and car wash soaps also pose as major factors contributing to market growth. 
SLS is also being used in the biocide and pesticide industry owing to its property to inhibit possible protection against various enveloped and non-enveloped virus. 
Toxicity from SLS remains a key restraint to market growth since it causes skin irritation and eye inflammation. 
In addition, the use of SLS in toothpaste is prone to cause ulcers and decrease the effectiveness of fluoride. 
SLS market was dominated by Asia Pacific owing to the rise in the personal care industry particularly in India and China. 
Asia Pacific is expected to witness tremendous growth for SLS over the forecast period on account of the significant growth of the personal care industry in the region. 
North America held the second-largest share of the SLS market followed by Europe. However, both these regions are expected to grow at a sluggish rate owing to market saturation. 
Middle East is expected to be the fastest-growing region for the forecast period owing to increased use of personal care products and a rise in surfactant industries. 
Africa remains a potential market owing to the rise in surfactant industries in the region. 


151-21-3 [RN]
205-788-1 [EINECS]
3599286 [Beilstein]
Dodecyl Sodium Sulfate
Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt
Lauryl sodium sulfate
Lauryl Sulfate Sodium
Lauryl sulfate sodium salt
Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium
Lauryl sulfate, sodium salt
MFCD00036175 [MDL number]
Natrium laurylsulfonicum
Natriumdodecylsulfat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
n-Dodecyl sulfate sodium
n-Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt
Sodium dodecyl sulfate [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
sodium dodecyl sulphate
sodium dodecylsulphate
Sodium Laurel Sulfate
Sodium laurilsulfate
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate [JAN] [JP15] [NF] [USAN] [Wiki]
sodium lauryl sulphate
Sodium monododecyl sulfate
Sodium monolauryl sulfate
Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate
sodium n-dodecylsulfate
Sulfate de sodium et de dodécyle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sulfate, Sodium Dodecyl
Sulfate, Sodium Lauryl
sulfuric acid dodecyl ester sodium salt
Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt
Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt
sulfuric acid, dodecyl ester, sodium salt
Sulfuric acid, dodecyl ester, sodium salt (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
Sulfuric acid, monododecyl ester, sodium salt
111726-87-5 [RN]
121481-64-9 [RN]
12738-53-3 [RN]
12765-21-8 [RN]
12768-45-5 [RN]
1334-67-4 [RN]
1335-72-4 [RN]
51222-39-0 [RN]
57176-54-2 [RN]
58640-35-0 [RN]
64441-33-4 [RN]
74433-77-5 [RN]
8012-56-4 [RN]
Adeka Hope LS 35
Alscoap-LN 90P
Bio-Soft SDBS 60
Calfoam ES 303
Dermacide
Emal 2F30
Empicol LX 2
Emulsogen LS
Genapol LSS [Trade name]
Perlankrol E.S.D. 60
Polystep B 5
Rewopol NLS 28
Rolpon LS
Rosulfan L 1
Sandet ona
Sinolin 90TK-N
Sintrex L 100
Sipon LCS 98
Stanfax 234
Stepanal WAC
Sterling waq-cosmetic
Sulfochem SLS
Sulfopon wa 1
Sulfopon WA1 Special
Sulfopon WA2
Sulfopon WA3
Sulfotex wa
Sulfotex wala
Supralate C
Surfax 220
Swascol 3L
Swascol 4L
Syntapon L
Tarapon K 12
Texapon K 12
Texapon K 12G
Texapon K12
Texapon L 100
Texapon V hc
Trepenol WA
Ufarol AM 30
Ufarol TCL 92
Ultra sulfate sl-1
WAQE
Witcolate A
(dodecyloxy)sulfonic acid sodium
110863-24-6 [RN]
20% SDS
Adeka Hope LS 90
Akyposal NLS
Akyposal SDS
Alscoap LN 40A
Alscoap LN 90
Alscoap MP 90N
Alscoap SP 40
Anticerumen
Aquarex ME
Aquarex methyl
Avirol 101
Calfoam SLS 30
Carsonol SLS
Carsonol SLS Special
Carsonol SLS-S
Conco sulfate WA
Conco Sulfate WAG
Conco Sulfate WAN
Conco Sulfate WAS
Conco sulfate WN
Cycloryl 21
Cycloryl 21LS
Cycloryl 31
Cycloryl 580
Dehydag Sulfate GL
dodecyl hydrogen sulfate sodium
Dodecyl hydrogen sulfate sodium salt
dodecyl hydroxysulfonate, sodium salt
Dodecyl sulfate sodium
Dodecyl Sulfate, Sodium
DODECYL SULFATE, SODIUM SALT
DODECYL-D25 SULFATE, SODIUM SALT
Dodecylsulfuric acid sodium salt
Dupanol WAQ
Duponal
Duponal WAQE
Duponol
Duponol C
Duponol QC
Duponol QX
Duponol WA
Duponol WAQ
Duponol WAQA
Duponol WAQE
Duponol WAQM
Emal 10 Powder
Emal 2F
EMAL O
Emal OS
Empicol [Trade name]
Empicol BSD 70
Empicol LPZ
Empicol LS 30
Empicol LX 28
Empicol LX 28R
Empicol LX 42
Empicol LXV
Empicol LY 28S
Empimin SDS
Emulsifier No. 104
Equex S
Equex SP
Finasol osr2
Fongrapol LSS
Gardinol
Hexamol SLS
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:8984
Incronol SLS
Jordanol SL-300
Lanette Wax S
Lanette wax-S
Lauryl sulfate sodium salt, SDS, Dodecyl sodium sulfate
Laurylsiran sodny [Czech]
Laurylsulfuric acid sodium salt
Maprobix NEU
Maprofix 563
Maprofix LK
Maprofix NEU
Maprofix WAC
Maprofix wac-LA
Melanol CL
Melanol CL 30
Monagen Y 100
Monododecyl sodium sulfate
Monogen LH
Monogen Y 100
Monogen Y 500
NADS
NALS
Natrium laurylsulfuricum
Natriumalkyl(C8-C20)-sulfate
Natriumlaurylsulfat
Neutrazyme
Nikkol SLS
Nissan Persoft SP
Nissan Sintrex L 100
Odoripon AL 95
OmniPur Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
Orvus WA
Perklankrol ESD 60
Perlandrol L
Perlankrol L
PI-47791
Pionin A 21
Polystep B 3
Quolac EX-UB
Rewopol NLS 30
Rhodapon LCP
Rhodapon LSB
Rhodapon SB
Rhodapon SM
Rhodapon UB
Richonol A
Richonol AF
Richonol C
SDS Tablets - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
SDS, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
SDS, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, n-Dodecyl Sulfate, Sodium
Sinnopon LS 100
Sinnopon LS 95
Sintapon L
Sipex OP
Sipex SB
Sipex SD
Sipex SP
Sipex UB
Sipon LS
Sipon LS 100
Sipon LSB
Sipon PD
Sipon UB
Sipon WD
SLES
SLS
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Tablets
sodium dodecylsulfate
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate NF
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, SDS
Sodium lauryl sulfic acid
Sodium lauryl sulphic acid
sodium laurylsulfate
Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, 20% Solution (w/v) - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, High Purity - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, Molecular Biology Grade - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
Sodiumlauryl ether sulfate
Sodium-n-dodecyl sulfate
Standapol WA-AC
Standapol WAQ
Standapol WAQ Special
Standapol WAQ-LC
Standapol WAS 100
Steinapol NLS
Steinapol NLS 90
Stepanol ME
Stepanol ME Dry
Stepanol ME Dry AW
Stepanol ME Dry SLS
Stepanol methyl
Stepanol methyl dry AW
Stepanol T 28
Stepanol WA
Stepanol WA 100
Stepanol WA-100
Stepanol WAC
Stepanol WAQ
Sterling WAQ-CH
Sulfetal L 95
Sulfolyser
Sulfopon T 30
Sulfopon WA 1 Special
Sulfopon WA 2
Sulfopon WA 3
Surfactant K12
Swascol
Swascol 1P
十二烷基硫酸钠 [Chinese]


Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), also known as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), is a salt of organosulfate. 
SLS is ethoxylated to produce sodium lauryl ether sulfate in order to mitigate its corrosive nature
SLS is anionic surfactant play an important role in removing dirt, clay, and oily stains, due to their excellent foam- and lather-forming characteristics. 
They also exhibit superior wetting and emulsifying properties
High demand for sodium lauryl sulfate in the laundry care industry has played a vital role in the upgrade of surfactant technologies over the last few decades. 
Asia Pacific has been the largest industry for laundry care over the last few years. 
The region is anticipated to be a lucrative market for manufacturers of emulsion polymers during the forecast period 2019 to 2027, owing to their upstream integration with raw material suppliers and wide geographic coverage
The laundry care industry in mature markets, such as Western Europe, is expected to witness modest growth, with a continuous shift toward concentrated liquid and tablet detergents and the subsequent increase in unit prices. 
With these indicators, outlook for the global sodium lauryl sulfate market appears positive


It is used in foods as an emulsifier, whipping agent, surfactant and wetting agent SLS has not been proven to be carcinogenic when either applied directly to skin or consumed. 
SLS however is a strong surfactant and a number of health concerns have been raised in published reports.; SLS is a highly effective surfactant used in any task requiring the removal of oily stains and residues. 
As such the compound is found in high concentrations in industrial products including engine degreasers, floor cleaners, and car wash soaps. 
In household products, SLS is used in lower concentrations with toothpastes, shampoos, and shaving foams. It is an important component in bubble bath formulations for its thickening effect and its ability to create a lather.; Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), also known as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), is an ionic surfactant that is used in household products such as toothpastes, shampoos, shaving foams and bubble baths for its thickening effect and its ability to create a lather. The molecule has a tail of 12 carbon atoms, attached to a sulfate group, giving it amphiphilic properties required of a detergent. It is prepared by sulfation of 1-dodecanol (lauryl alcohol, CH3(CH2)10CH2OH) followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate. 
Like all detergent surfactants (including soaps), it removes oils from the skin, and can cause skin irritation. 
It is also irritating to the eyes.; Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laurilsulfate or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS) (C12H25SO4Na) is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. 
The molecule has a tail of 12 carbon atoms, attached to a sulfate group, giving the molecule the amphiphilic properties required of a detergent.

Product advantages:

excellent cleaning and cleaning properties,
very high foam-forming capacity,
a wide range of cosmetic and industrial applications,
has an effect under both alkaline and acidic pH conditions.


Applications:

shampoos,
liquid soaps,
bath liquids,
shaving cosmetics,
professional car cosmetics,
universal washing and cleaning liquids,
industrial cleaning and washing,
cosmetics.

How does SLS work?
SLS is a ‘surfactant’ – an agent that lowers the surface tension between different ingredients, e.g. between two liquids, a gas and liquid, or a liquid and a solid.

When it comes to beauty products, its main benefits include:

Trapping oil-based dirt so it can be rinsed away with water
Turning liquids into foam for that rich lather we all expect and enjoy when we’re washing
One common concern with SLS is that it is used in both beauty / self-care products as well as household cleaners – where it performs a very similar function.

Summary
SLS traps oil-based dirt so it can be rinsed away and makes products ‘foam’
What products contain SLS?
If you have a look at the labels of products under your kitchen sink or in your bathroom, chances are you will find some SLS. It is used in many common household products, like:

Hair products including shampoos, conditioners, styling gels / mousses, and hair dyes
Beauty products including foundations and lip balms
Grooming products including shaving creams, hand sanitisers, face washes, makeup removers, hair removal products and exfoliants
Dental products including toothpastes, mouthwashes and teeth whitening products
Bath products including body washes, bath creams, bubble baths and bath oils
Lotions and creams including body lotions, sun creams, hand creams and body butters
Household cleaning products including laundry detergents, dishwasher products and washing up liquid
SLS is also used as a thickener or emulsifier in some foods, like some marshmallows, and dried egg products.

Summary
SLS is used in all sorts of cosmetics, skincare, haircare and dental products, as well as household cleaning agents


Sodium lauryl sulfate has the chemical formula C12H25SO4Na, and has many other names such as sodium monolauryl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium monolauryl sulfate, sodium dodecane sulfate, lauryl alcohol, hydrogen sulfate - sodium salt, n-lauryl sulfate sodium and finally sulfuric acid monolauryl ester sodium salt 
It is a widely used ingredient in household and industrial items. 
It is formed by combining sulfonic acid and dodecanol in a process known as esterification. 
This product is then neutralised with sodium carbonate to give sodium lauryl sulfate.

Shampoos contain SLSIt is the main component of most soap-based products, and if you were to look in your bathroom you're guaranteed to find at least one product containing it, for example, your shampoo or toothpaste. 
In industry it will be found in engine degreasers or carpet cleaners, for example. 
It's inexpensive and an excellent foaming agent. 
It has a high pH as it is an alkali substance and has the appearance of a white powder.

A Molecule with a Head and Tail
Sodium lauryl sulfate is a surfactant, which means a molecule that has ampiphilic properties. 
This means the sulfate head group (shown by the pink shading in the diagram below) is hydrophilic and water soluble, while the 12-carbon-long chain is hydrophobic and water insoluble. 
It is an anionic surfactant as defined by the sulfate head group, since it has a negative charge. The head group must be sufficiently soluble in water to be classed as a surfactant.

Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing for easier spreading of a droplet on the surface, thus lowering interfacial tension between two liquids.

Above a critical concentration SLS will form micelles in water. The concentration at which micelles start to form is the critical micelle concentration, CMC. 
At this point, surface tension becomes independent of concentration.
 An SLS micelle is spherical and will have a diameter of roughly twice the length of SLS. 
It will contain 20-50 molecules, the sulfate heads will face outwards forming the face of the sphere pointing towards the water. 
The long hydrocarbon chains with then form the interior of the spherical micelle. The CMC of SLS is roughly 8.1 mol m-3 at 25°C. 

Applications of Surfactants
Surfactants such as SLS are used as detergents, an effective cleanser. 
Dirt that is hydrophilic is easily removed by rinsing with water but dirt that is hydrophobic, e.g. oils, fats and grease, are much harder to remove from their substrate (the surface that they are coating). 
Surfactants have many roles in detergency. First, they promote wetting of the substrate. 
At the substrate a liquid droplet will form to have the least surface tension possible and thus the least surface area in contact with the substrate. 
Surfactants enable the surface area of contact between the droplet and the substrate to be larger, and thus increase wetting of the substrate.

Detergent action

Secondly the hydrophobic tails of the SLS will solvate fatty acids or grease deposits that are attached to the surface of a solid and hold them in suspension, moving them into the liquid bulk phase and thus making it easier to wash them away. 
This process is known as emulsification. 
This is because a dispersion of a chemically different liquid within another liquid, such as water with oil particles in its bulk phase, is known as an emulsion. 
It is the decreasing of interfacial surface tension by the surfactant, SLS, that enables this process, not its ability to form foam, as commonly misconceived. 
Once the dirt is surrounded by surfactant it will also be prevented from re-depositing upon the substrate. 
The surfactant will also coat the substrate, as mentioned before. 
By improving the wetting, anionic surfactants boost the negative charge at the surface and increase the electrostatic repulsions, and this will also prevent re-deposition of dirt.

Micelle formation and detergency are in competition with each other. 
The SLS molecules must form a micelle around the dirt before forming without it.

SLS-PAGE electrophoresisOther applications of SLS
Another major application of SLS is SLS-PAGE which stands for sodium lauryl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoesis; understandably they came up with an acronym for it. 
It's a widely used biochemical technique that separates proteins based on their molecular weight. 
SLS binds to the proteins in solution, much like it would bind to dirt in detergency. 
It then unfolds the proteins and gives them a uniform negative charge across the protein. 
This enables them to be easily identified when passing through the gel by measuring their mobility, and this value will be proportional to the logarithm of their molecular weight.

Another use of SLS was documented in a study recently. 
PG-300995 is an anti-HIV agent, but is a poorly soluble drug in solution. 
The addition of SLS at different pH levels was investigated, and found to be an efficient surfactant, aiding solvation at high enough concentrations.

SLS is one of the most common active ingredients in laundry detergent. 
It is a synthetic detergent belonging to a class of medium to strong surfactants, called alkyl sulfates. 
When it is used in the form of detergents, it offers advantages, such as strong cleansing power, high foam production at a low production cost.
Additionally, it is a highly effective surfactant and is used in any task requiring the removal of oily stains and residues. 
For applications in detergents and cleaners, the SLS compound is found in a very high concentration as compared to its application for other products. 
Some of the detergents where SLS is used, include floor cleaners, cloth detergents, and car wash soaps.


Sodium lauryl sulfate (C12H25SO4Na) is a surface-active agent used in cleaning and cosmetic products. 
It is also known by the term sodium dodecyl sulfate. It is used in industrial strength degreasers, floor cleaners, bubble bath and toothpastes. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, it has been used as an excipient in dissolvable dosage forms.


Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), also known as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, is a synthetic organic compound found in many types of personal care and cleaning products. SLS may be used in pure form or extracted from palm kernel or coconut oil. Some concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate are used in a wide range of personal care products such as toothpaste, oral care, mouthwash, shaving cream and bubble bath. It also has numerous other application such as CASE, HI&I, Lubes & Greases, and Nutraceuticals.

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.