SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE

 

CAS Number: 9004-32-4
EC Number: 618-378-6
Molecular Formula: C8H15NaO8
Molar mass: variable

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
It is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
It used to be marketed under the name Tylose, a registered trademark of SE Tylose.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a cellulose derivative, an ionic cellulose gum, and owing to its unique thickening, suspending, adhesion, and water retention properties, is widely used in various industrial fields.
According to the different purity, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is in the appearance of white or yellowish powder and soluble in cold and hot water.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is divided into a variety of models depending on the degree of substitution, solution viscosity and the purity.
Heating Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution, the viscosity of Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose decreases with increasing temperatures.
As long as the temperature does not exceed 50 ℃, this effect is reversible, because kept at higher temperatures for a long time, the alkaline substances in the solution can cause the degradation of Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.

CMC-Na (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others.

The linear polymer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a polyelectrolyte is an object of  consideration in this review. 
The emphasis is on the electric properties of CMC both as a free  chain in solution and adsorbed on the solid surface. 
A special attention is paid to the  mobility of counterions, electrostatically associated with the CMC polyelectrolyte chain.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, methyl cellulose, Methylcellulose) is a modified cellulose gum (Thickener is E461). 
CMC tends to give clear, slightly gummy, solutions. They are generally soluble in cold water and insoluble in hot. 
It is used to thicken dry mix beverage, syrups, ripples and ice cream, and also to stabilise ice cream, batters and sour milk. 
It gives moisture retention to cake mixes and water binding and thickening to icings.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a sodium salt derivative of cellulose. Unlike cellulose, it is water soluble and can function as a suspending agent, stabilizer, film former or thickening agent.

CMC finds use in gluten-free baking by providing dough with viscosity and bread with volume much like gluten proteins do. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose also functions well in fillings as a thickener and in glazes as an agent to slow down sugar crystallization.

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (SCMC or CMC) or Cellulose Gum is an anionic water soluble polymer; It is derived from cellulose, which is made water soluble by a chemical reaction. 
The water solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the cellulose chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible.

Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium can be found in food stuff and cosmetics as a viscosity modifier or thickener and as an emulsion stabilizer.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can also be used in the production of water-based paints and paper. Medicine eye-drops (artificial tears) may contain carboxymethyl cellulose sodium.
Carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum) for oenological use is prepared exclusively from wood by treatment with alkali and monochloroacetic acid or its sodium salt.
Carboxymethylcellulose inhibits tartaric precipitation through a "protective colloid" effect.
A limited dose is used.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is derived from natural cellulose, or plant fibre.
In its dry form, it’s an odourless and flavourless white, grey or yellow powder that dissolves in water.
When used in cosmetics, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose stops lotions and creams from separating and controls the thickness and texture of liquids, creams and gels.

A textile fiber dressing composed of sodium carboxymethylcellulose with potential wound-healing activity.
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing protects the wound site from external factors that may cause pain, promote infection, or slow the natural wound healing process.
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a non-toxic, non-allergenic, anionic water-soluble polymer derived from cellulose.

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na CMC) is used for its thickening and swelling properties in a wide range of complex formulated products for pharmaceutical, food, home and personal care applications, as well as in paper, water treatment and mineral processing industries.
To design Na CMC solutions for applications, a detailed understanding of the concentration-dependent rheology and relaxation response is needed.
We address this here by investigating aqueous Na CMC solutions over a wide range of concentrations using rheology as well as static and dynamic light scattering.
The concentration dependence of the solution specific viscosities sp could be described using a set of three power laws, as predicted from the scaling theory of polyelectrolytes.
Alternatively, a simpler approach could be used, which interpolates between two power law regimes and introduces only one characteristic crossover concentration.
We interpret the observed behavior as a transition from the non-entangled semi-dilute to the entangled concentration regimes; this transition behavior was not observed in the solution structure, as determined using static light scattering.
Dynamic light scattering revealed three relaxation modes.

The two fastest relaxations were assigned as the ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ relaxation modes typically observed in salt-free or not fully screened polyelectrolyte solutions within the semi-dilute concentration range.
The third, typically weak mode, was attributed to the presence of a small amount of poorly dissolved cellulose residuals.
Since filtration altered the solution behavior, without sufficiently removing the residuals, data collection and processing were adapted to account for this, which facilitated a detailed light scattering investigation of the original solutions, relevant for industrial applications.
The relaxation time characterizing the fast mode, , was concentration independent, whereas the relaxation time of the slow mode, demonstrated similar crossover behavior as observed for the specific viscosity, further demonstrating the dynamic nature of the crossover. 

CMC is used in drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes, as protective colloid in general.
As stabilizer in foods.
Used in pharmaceuticals as a suspending agent, tablet excipient, viscosity-increasing agent and in the development of biostructures such as biofilms, emulsions and nanoparticles for drug delivery.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a suspending agent, viscosity modifiers (thickeners) to stabilize emulsions and as a chemical dispersants of oils and other carbon structures such as nanotubes. High viscosity is used to make a mixture which resembles a cream or lotion.
Degree of polymerization: approximately 3200; Degree of substitution: approximately 6.5-8.5 carboxymethyl groups per 10 anhydroglucose units; Sodium content: approximately 8% by weight; Derivation: Cellulose fiber with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid.
Soluble in aqueous solution.
High viscosity CMC is soluble at up to 50 mg/ml concentration but heat may be required.

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sodium Salt is a high viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); the viscosity of a 1% solution in water at 25 °C is 1300-2200 centipoise (cps).
The viscosity is both concentration and temperature dependent.
As the temperaure increases, the viscosity decreases.
As the concentration increases, the viscosity increases.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a thickening agent that is made by reacting CELLULOSE (wood pulp, cotton lint) with a derivative of acetic acid (the acid in vinegar).
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also called cellulose gum.
CMC has long been considered safe, but a 2015 study funded by the National Institutes of Health raised some doubts.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose found that both CMC and another emulsifier (polysorbate 80) affected gut bacteria and triggered inflam­matory bowel disease symptoms and other changes in the gut, as well as obesity and a set of obesity-related disease risk factors known as metabolic syndrome.
In mice that were predisposed to colitis, the emulsifiers promoted the disease.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is possible that polysorbates, CMC, and other emulsifiers act like detergents to disrupt the mucous layer that lines the gut, and that the results of the study may apply to other emulsifiers as well.
Research is needed to determine long-term effects of these and other emulsifiers at levels that people consume.
CMC is not absorbed or digested, so the FDA allows it to be included with “dietary fiber” on food labels.
CMC isn’t as healthful as fiber that comes from natural foods.

A colorless, odorless, water-soluble polymer.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, NaCMC or CMC, was first developed in 1947.
Commonly known as carboxymethyl cellulose, it is composed of the sodium salt of an alkaline modified cellulose.
CMC is water-soluble but will react with heavy metal salts to form films that are clear, tough and insoluble in water.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is thixotropic, becoming less viscous when agitated.
In most cases, CMC functions as a polyelectrolyte.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used commercially in detergents, food product and as size for textiles and paper.
In conservation, CMC has been used as an adhesive for textiles and paper.
Aging studies indicate that most carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymers have very good stability with negligible discoloration or weight loss (Feller and Wilt 1990).

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others.
The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern.
Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose.
Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA).
The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0.
The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution.
The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

The solution viscosity remains normal in a wide range of pH values but the most stable in the range of pH 7-9. As the pH value decreases, the solution will be acidified.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose will be gradually changed from the salt type into the water-insoluble acid type and precipitated from the solution.
When the pH value is below 4, most of the salt type changes into the acid type, forms a three dimensional network structure and precipitates out.
Generally speaking, the higher the DS value of Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is, the better the compatibility with salts will be.
Adding salt into the Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution can have better effects than dissolving in salt water.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is generally divided into 3 grades depending on the purity: the food high-purity grade (with a content more than 99.5%), the industrial grade (with a content more than 90%), and crude products (with a content more than 65%).
According to the viscosity (molecular weight), there are 3 types: high viscosity (with the 1% solution viscosity of 5000-8500 Pa·S), medium viscosity (with the 1% solution viscosity of 1000-5000 Pa·S), and low viscosity (with the 1% solution viscosity of 5-1000 Pa·S).
Therefore, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has many varieties suitable for requirements of various applications.

CMC is a component in many lubricants used in the treatment of DED in Europe.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in combination or as substitute for HA. CMC has been shown to bind to human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) probably through interaction of its glucopyranose subunits with glucose transporters.
In cell culture studies, CMC binding to matrix proteins stimulated HCEC attachment, migration, and reepithelialization of corneal wounds.38 In a randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing CMC alone to CMC with HA, CMC alone was able to significantly reduce subjective symptoms, tear film BUT, and ocular surface staining.
CMC is also available together with osmoprotective levocarnithine and erythritol.
Moreover, a CMC-lipid preparation with castor oil is frequently used in the care of MGD.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) belongs to the class of anionic linear structured cellulose.
Sodium carboxymethyl celluloses components consist of polysaccharide composed of fibrous tissues of plants.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is a water soluble polymer which can be used as a polyelectrolyte cellulose derivative.

Carboxymethylcellulose is a cellulose derivative that consists of the cellulose backbone made up of glucopyranose monomers and their hydroxyl groups bound to carboxymethyl groups.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is added in food products as a viscosity modifier or thickener and emulsifier.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also one of the most common viscous polymers used in artificial tears, and has shown to be effective in the treatment of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye symptoms and ocular surface staining.
The viscous and mucoadhesive properties as well as its anionic charge allow prolonged retention time in the ocular surface.
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is the most commonly used salt.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is a water-soluble polymer.
As a solution in water, it has thixotropic properties.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is useful in helping to hold the components of pyrotechnic compositions in aqucous suspension (e.g., in the making of black match).
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also an especially effective binder that can be used in small amounts in compositions, where the binder can intcrfere with the intended effect (e.g., in strobe compositions). However, its sodium content obviously precludes its use in most color compositions.
Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose is manufactured from cellulose by various proccsses that replacc some of the hy drogen atoms in the hydroxyl[OH] groups of the cellulose molecule with acidic carboxymethyl [-CH2CO.OH] groups,which are neutralized to form the corresponding sodium salt.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is white when pure; industrial grade material may be grayish-white or cream granules or powder.

A semisynthetic, water-soluble polymer in which CH 2 COOH groups are substituted on the glucose units of the cellulose chain through an ether link- age.
Mw ranges from 21,000 to 500,000. Since the reaction occurs in an alkaline medium, the prod- uct is the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid R-O- CH 2 COONa.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is tackifier, at room temperature, it is non-toxic tasteless white flocculent powder, it is stable and soluble in water, aqueous solution is neutral or alkaline transparent viscous liquid, it is soluble in other water-soluble gums and resins, it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol.
Carboxymethyl cellulose is the substituted product of cellulosic carboxymethyl group.
According to their molecular weight or degree of substitution, it can be completely dissolved or insoluble polymer, the latter can be used as the weak acid cation of exchanger to separate neutral or basic proteins.
Carboxymethyl cellulose can form highly viscous colloidal solution with adhesive, thickening, flowing, emulsifying, shaping, water, protective colloid, film forming, acid, salt, suspensions and other characteristics, and it is physiologically harmless, so it is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, oil, paper, textiles, construction and other areas of production.

CMC is used as a highly effective additive to improve the product and processing properties in various fields of application - from foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals to products for the paper and textile industries.
Building material additives, printing inks, coatings, pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, paper or textiles – there’s a long and growing list of applications.

Sodium 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal acetate, also known as carmellose sodium or C.M.C., belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses.
These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
Based on a literature review very few articles have been published on sodium 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal acetate.

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is an anionic polymer with a clarified solution dissolved in cold or hot water.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose functions as a thickening rheology modifier, moisture retention agent, texture/body building agent, suspension agent, and binding agent in personal products and toothpaste.
Adding CMC into toothpaste has obvious effects in binding and body structure.
Due to CMC's good uniform substitution ability, excellent salt tolerance and acid resistance, the toothpaste can be easily extruded and show better appearance, and impart a smooth and comfortable toothfeel.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Viscosity:5000-15000 mPa.s) is the sodium salt of cellulose arboxymethyl and frequently used as viscous agent, paste and barrier agent.

Utilization of Waste Textile Cotton by Synthesizing Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose: An Approach to Minimize Textile Solid Waste
This research uses waste textile cotton (WTC) from the textile industry as a raw material to synthesize sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by adapting a modified etherification methodology.
Yields of technical CMC (TCMC), semipurified CMC (SPCMC), and purified CMC (PCMC) were  g,  g, and  g, respectively, per gram of cotton waste.
Degree of substitution (DS) values of PCMC, SPCMC, and TCMC was , , and , respectively. For PCMC, SPCMC, and TCMC, the purity of the prepared different grades of CMC was %, %, and %, respectively.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) peak values were 3437 cm-1, 1609 cm-1, and 1427 cm-1, proving WTC conversion to CMC. Furthermore,  values of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks were 9.7 and 20.5, confirming the transformation of WTC to CMC as well.
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been assessed to define CMC’s thermal stability and morphology, respectively.

CMC is an anionic water soluble polymer based on renewable cellulosic raw material.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose functions as rheology modifier, retains water and is an excellent film former.
These attributes make it a preferred choice as a bio-based hydrocolloid in multiple applications.

Characterization Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Alpha Cellulose Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper):

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is one of pharmaceutical excipients that can be used to increase viscosity in topical, oral and parenteral pharmaceutical formulation, beside that it can also be used as binder and disintegrant in tablet formulation.
Betung bamboo is one of natural material that contains high concentration of holocellulose for about 83.80%.
The purpose of this study was to characterize Na-CMC obtained through alkalization and carboxymethylation reaction.
Methods: Alkalization was carried out using 25% sodium hydroxide and 1.7% sodium tetraborate.
Carboxymethylation was done with sodium monochloroacetate to alpha cellulose ratio 1.3 : 1.
Product was identified by FTIR and further characterized by XRD, SEM, DS value and pH. Result: The product was white colour powder which has similarities of its infrared spectrum to reference.
Other characteristics that showed similarities to reference was degree of substitution 0.7073, pH 7.61, average of particle size distribution 71.54 μm, moisture content 5.88%, sulfated ash content 32.64% and loss on drying 9.85%.
Conclusion: Based on the comparison of X-ray diffraction, there is similarity between reference and product (Na-CMC) from betung bamboo.

A gummy substance that is obtained as a hygroscopic powder or a granular solid by reaction of alkali cellulose and sodium chloroacetate, that is either soluble in water or swells in water, and that is used chiefly as a thickening, emulsifying, and stabilizing agent (as in sizes for textiles and paper and in pharmaceutical ointments) and as a bulk laxative and antacid in medicine : a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose

Carboxymethyl cellulose aka CMC (e466) is actually the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is derived from cellulose, which is made water-soluble by a chemical reaction. 
The water-solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible. 
CMC is used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. 
CMC is known for its excellent water retaining capacity

Robust and recyclable sodium carboxymethyl cellulose–ammonium phosphomolybdate composites for cesium removal from wastewater:
A novel, facilely prepared, recyclable sodium carboxymethyl cellulose–ammonium phosphomolybdate composite (CMC–AMP) was synthesized by chemical cross-linking and used for Cs+ removal.
The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH value, initial Cs+ concentration, contact time, temperature and competitive ions on adsorption were investigated.
The results showed that CMC–AMP with good mechanical properties could effectively adsorb Cs+ in a wide pH range. In addition, the adsorption process of CMC–AMP was better fitted with the Lagergren first-second model and Langmuir isotherm model.
Furthermore, CMC–AMP can be reused five times using ammonium chloride as the eluent without an obvious decrease in absorption activity.
The results reveal that CMC–AMP can be used as a low cost and recyclable Cs+ adsorbent.

Cross-Linked Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:

Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is manufactured by acidifying an aqueous suspension of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and heating the suspension to achieve cross-linking. The product is then washed and dried. It is also produced during the manufacture of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by lowering the pH and heating to cause cross-linking.
Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in tablets of table-top sweeteners and dietary food supplements, as it facilitates disintegration in aqueous solutions, with a maximum level of use of 30 g/kg.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical applications.
Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has not been evaluated previously by the Committee.
The parent compound, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, was considered by the Committee in its evaluations of modified celluloses at its fifth, seventh, tenth, thirteenth, seventeenth, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh, thirtieth and thirty-fifth meetings and of ethyl cellulose and ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose at the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh meetings.
At its thirty-fifth meeting, the Committee reviewed new data on seven modified celluloses, including sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
The data consisted of the results of studies in rats on caecal enlargement, effects on caecal flora and developmental toxicity and studies of mutagenicity in vitro.
New data on humans were also available, indicating that some individuals may experience laxative effects at a dose as low as 5 g per person per day.
The Committee concluded that modified celluloses are of low toxicity and allocated a group ADI ‘not specified’1 to seven modified celluloses: methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose.
The Committee pointed out that their laxative properties should be taken into account when they are used as food additives.
Enzymatically hydrolysed sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was evaluated by the Committee at its fifty-first meeting.
The Committee compared the toxicity and absorption, distribution and metabolism of enzymatically hydrolysed carboxymethyl cellulose with that of the parent compound and concluded that the similarities in the results were consistent with the absence of any toxicologically significant difference between the two. Therefore, the enzymatically hydrolysed form was included in the group ADI ‘not specified’ with the other seven modified celluloses.

Biological Data of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
No specific information was available.
Studies reviewed previously by the Committee relating to sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and its enzymatically hydrolysed form indicated that 90–99% of both forms was excreted in faeces.
The carboxymethyl cellulose was partially degraded during passage through the gastrointestinal tract.
Cross-linking of carboxymethyl cellulose results in it becoming insoluble in water, and it is therefore less likely to be absorbed and degraded than the parent compound.

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose: A Potential Binder for Si Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries
The electrochemical performance of negative electrodes based on commercially available crystalline Si powder and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder was investigated.
Compared to the conventional binder, polyvinylidene fluoride, Si electrodes using CMC binder show vastly improved cycling performance.
A high specific capacity of about  for  has been achieved with a lower cutoff potential of  vs . Si electrodes made using CMC binder have better capacity retention than those using a binder consisting of CMC and styrene butadiene rubber.
CMC is an extremely stiff and brittle polymer, so it is surprising that it functions well as a binder in electrodes where the volume change of the active material particles is about 100%.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Carboxymethylcellulose, Sodium Salt is the most often used form of cellulose gum.
CMC is used in a variety of industries as a thickener and/or to prepare stable emulsions in both food and non-food products.
Insoluble microgranular CMC is used as a cation-exchange resin in ion-exchange chromatography for purification of proteins.
Carboxymethyl cellulose has also been used extensively to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases (part of the cellulase complex).

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is intended for use as a technological additive (functional groups: emulsifier, stabiliser, thickener, gelling agent and binder) in premixtures and feedingstuffs for all animal species with no minimum and maximum content.
A proper identification and characterisation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as required for a feed additive is not available and the occurrence of potential toxic impurities cannot be assessed.
The following conclusions apply only to sodium carboxymethyl cellulose meeting the food additive specifications.
The FEEDAP Panel concluded that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is considered safe for all animal species.
The use of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in animal nutrition is of no concern for consumer safety.
In the absence of data, the FEEDAP Panel was not in the position to conclude on the safety of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for the user.
The use of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a feed additive is considered safe for the environment.
The additive is considered to be efficacious in feedingstuffs for all animal species.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is an anionic, water-soluble cellulose derivative.
Solubility of CMC depends on the DP as well as the degree of substitution and the uniformity of the substitution distribution.
Water solubility of CMC would increase with decreased DP and increased carboxymethyl substitution and substitution uniformity.
The viscosity of the solution increases with increasing DP and increasing concentration.
CMC is soluble in water at any temperature. Because of its highly hygroscopic nature, CMC hydrates rapidly.
Rapid hydration may cause agglomeration and lump formation when the CMC powder is introduced into water.
Lump creation can be eliminated by applying high agitation while the powder is added into the water or preblending the CMC powder with other dry ingredients such as sugar before adding into water.

Due to its high solubility and clarity of its solutions, CMC is commonly used in beverages and beverage dry mixes to provide rich mouthfeel.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in acidified protein drinks to stabilize protein and prevent it from precipitating.
CMC is also added to syrup and sauce formulations to increase viscosity.
Bakery is another application where CMC is commonly used to improve the quality and the consistency of the end product.
In tortilla breads, for example, it is used to improve the process ability of the dough and the textural properties of the end product, including foldability and rollability.

Protocal for preparing 0.5% CMC-Na Solution Measure 0.5g of dry CMC-Na and dissolved in 100 ml ddH2O/0.9% Saline (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml ddH2O) to make a clear solution.
Under the condition of stirring and heating (50-65°C), adding CMC-Na slowly to ddH2O/0.9% Saline helps to accelerate dissolution.

Note
1.You must ensure that your CMC-Na solution does not exist solid-liquid separation phenomenon.
The solution is in a uniform and transparent state has no particles in it.
2.Completely dissolution of CMC-Na may requires 4 hours or more longer.
In a pharmacological test, CMC-Na (oral;5% in water; 1 year) is well tolerated in rats.
In an acute oral toxicity study in female mice, LD50 of CMC-Na for female mice is 14 g/kg body weight of mice, equivalent to 9.8 g/kg body weight of rat, categorized as practically non-toxic according to Loomis criteria (LD50 5-15g/kg body weight of rat).

Safety of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
The toxicity test on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose showed that there was no physiological activity at all in oral administration and skin contact, and no toxicity was found even at a dose of lOg/kg orally administered to mice. 
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) special committee also confirmed the safety of the product, and prescribed a daily allowance (ADD 0~30mg/kg.

Mildly toxic by ingestion.
Experimental reproductive effects.
Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose migrates to food from packagmg materials.
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NazO.
See also POLYMERS, SOLUBLE.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used in oral, topical, and some parenteral formulations.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used in cosmetics, toiletries, and food products, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material.
However, oral consumption of large amounts of carboxymethylcellulose sodium can have a laxative effect; therapeutically, 4–10 g in daily divided doses of the medium- and high-viscosity grades of carboxymethylcellulose sodium have been used as bulk laxatives.
The WHO has not specified an acceptable daily intake for carboxymethylcellulose sodium as a food additive since the levels necessary to achieve a desired effect were not considered to be a hazard to health.
However, in animal studies, subcutaneous administration of carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been found to cause inflammation, and in some cases of repeated injection fibrosarcomas have been found at the site of injection.
Hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions have occurred in cattle and horses, which have been attributed to carboxymethylcellulose sodium in parenteral formulations such as vaccines and penicillins.
LD50 (guinea pig, oral): 16 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 27 g/kg

Storage of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a stable, though hygroscopic material.
Under high-humidity conditions, carboxymethylcellulose sodium can absorb a large quantity (>50%) of water.
In tablets, this has been associated with a decrease in tablet hardness and an increase in disintegration time.
Aqueous solutions are stable at pH 2–10; precipitation can occur below pH 2, and solution viscosity decreases rapidly above pH 10.
Generally, solutions exhibit maximum viscosity and stability at pH 7–9.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may be sterilized in the dry state by maintaining it at a temperature of 1608℃ for 1 hour.
However, this process results in a significant decrease in viscosity and some deterioration in the properties of solutions prepared from the sterilized material.

Aqueous solutions may similarly be sterilized by heating, although this also results in some reduction in viscosity.
After autoclaving, viscosity is reduced by about 25%, but this reduction is less marked than for solutions prepared from material sterilized in the dry state.
The extent of the reduction is dependent on the molecular weight and degree of substitution; higher molecular weight grades generally undergo a greater percentage reduction in viscosity.
Sterilization of solutions by gamma irradiation also results in a reduction in viscosity.
Aqueous solutions stored for prolonged periods should contain an antimicrobial preservative.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Powder
-20°C: 3 years
4°C: 2 years

Preparation of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) has the following functions and properties:
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a thickener, binder, stabilizer, suspending agent and flow controlling agent.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose forms fine films that are resistant to oils, greases, and organic solvents.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose dissolves rapidly in cold water.
Acts as a protective colloid reducing water losses.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is suitable for use in food systems.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is physiologically inert.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is an anionic polyelectrolyte.
These properties and functions make it suitable for use in a broad range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, paper, and other industries. 
To serve these diverse industries, CMC are available in three grades: HIGHLY PURIFIED, PURIFIED & TECHNICAL and in many types based on carboxymethyl substitution, viscosity, purity, particle size, and other parameters.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.
The polar (organic acid) carboxyl groups render the cellulose soluble and chemically reactive.
Following the initial reaction, the resultant mixture produces approximately 60% CMC and 40% salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate).
This product is the so-called technical CMC, which is used in detergents.
An additional purification process is used to remove these salts to produce the pure CMC used for alimentary and pharmaceutical applications.
An intermediate "semipurified" grade is also produced, typically used in paper applications such as restoration of archival documents.
The functional properties of CMC depend on the degree of substitution of the cellulose structure (i.e., how many of the hydroxyl groups have taken part in the substitution reaction), as well as the chain length of the cellulose backbone structure and the degree of clustering of the carboxymethyl substituents.

Production Methods of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Alkali cellulose is prepared by steeping cellulose obtained from wood pulp or cotton fibers in sodium hydroxide solution.
The alkaline cellulose is then reacted with sodium monochloroacetate to produce carboxymethylcellulose sodium.
Sodium chloride and sodium glycolate are obtained as by-products of this etherification.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), also known as cellulose gum or Tylose, and its sodium salt are important cellulose derivatives. 
The bound carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the polymer chain makes the cellulose water-soluble. 
When dissolved, it increases the viscosity of aqueous solutions, suspensions and emulsions, and at higher concentration, it provides pseudo-plasticity or thixotropy. 
As a natural polyelectrolyte, CMC imparts a surface charge to neutral particles and thus, can be used to improve the stability of aqueous colloids and gels or to induce agglomeration.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in many products including adhesives, sealants, coatings, textiles, ceramics, mining products, building and construction materials, laundry detergents, pulp, paper, and tobacco. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose functions as a dispersant agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, water retainer, thickener and clarifying agent. Or it is used as a film-forming and binding agent, for example to agglomerate and bind iron ore into pellets. 
Since CMC is physiologically harmless2, it is also widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In food products, it acts as a thickener, stabilizer and binder and helps to control crystallization, moisture retention, and fat uptake. 
In cosmetic products such as creams and lotions, it thickens and stabilizes the product and improves its moisturising effect. 
And in tooth pastes it is added to adjust the viscosity profile.

What are some products that may contain carboxymethyl cellulose sodium?:
Water-based paints
Toothpaste
Mascara
Mayonnaise
Ice cream
Eye-drops (artificial tears)
Denture adhesive cream
Hair-coloring products
Bakery products

Application of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
CMC are widely use in Foods, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, Textiles, Papers & Corrugated Boards, Detergents, Paints, Oil Well Drillings, Welding Electrodes, Pesticides, Ceramics, Tobacco, Mosquito Repellent Incense, Explosives, Batteries, Pencils, Leathers & other industries.

Some baked good applications where carboxymethyl cellulose finds use include:
Frozen dough: As a 0.5% replacement for wheat flour and with a D.S. of 1.1, CMC weakens the influence of frozen treatment on the gluten starch structure of the dough.
Tortillas: CMC is added to tortillas for shelf life extension and to maintain a pliable texture.
Gluten free bread and cakes: Improves the internal structure like gluten proteins and helps with moisture retention and mouthfeel.
Fried doughs: At the level of 0.35%, CMC can reduce oil absorption and improve the texture of fried products.
Cookies: CMC functions as a release aid and spread controller.
CMC has a tendency to lump when added to an application unless carefully mixed.  

Methods of addition to recipes include:
Adding directly to a vortex of vigorously agitated body of water.
Dispersing CMC in another dry ingredient before adding water.
Dispersing CMC in a water miscible non-solvent (such as glycerine or corn syrup) before adding water.


Carboxymethyl cellulose can provide different functionality depending on its degree and uniformity of substitution by sodium ions, chain length and cellulose backbone. 
For example, CMC with uniform substitution is known for smooth flow properties and works well in frostings. 
CMC with non-uniform substitution is known to be thixotropic, forms a stable gel that becomes more fluid when agitated and reforms to a gel over time. 
Non-uniform substituted CMC works well in fillings or sauces.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a stabiliser, thickener, film former, suspending agent and extender. 
Applications include ice cream, dressings, pies, sauces, and puddings. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is available in various viscosities depending on the function it is to serve.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is sold under a variety of trade names and is used as a thickener and emulsifier in various cosmetic products, and also as a treatment of constipation. 
Like cellulose, it is not digestible, not toxic, and not allergenic. 
Some practitioners are using this for weight loss.

Methylcellulose is used as sizing in the production of papers and textiles. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose protects the fibers from absorbing water or oil.

When eaten, methylcellulose is not absorbed by the intestines but passes through the digestive tract undisturbed. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose attracts large amounts of water into the colon, producing a softer and bulkier stool. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used to treat constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids and irritable bowel syndrome. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose should be taken with sufficient amounts of fluid to prevent dehydration. 
Because it absorbs water and potentially toxic materials and increases viscosity, it can also be used to treat diarrhea.

Carboxymethyl ether cellulose sodium salt used in drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes, as protective colloid in general. As stabilizer in foods.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in pharmaceuticals as a suspending agent, tablet excipient, viscosity-increasing agent.
Low viscosity is usually used in thin aqueous solutions.
Medium viscosity is used to make solutions that look like a syrup.

Good water solubility and strong inhibiting ability; improve the concentrate grade and obtaining better beneficiation indicators; reducing the amount of agents and the consumption of raw materials.
Good pellet forming and water controlling properties; good dispersion and high wet-bulb strength; not easy deformation of pellet; good dry-bulb strength; high bursting temperature and strong ability to control the release of water inside the pellet; uniform distribution of pellet size; smooth pellet surface; and good metallurgical performance.

The resistance to acid and alkali is good, and the penetrability through the screen mesh is good, effectively reducing the number of rubbing the mesh and reducing the chromatic aberration; the rheological property is good and printing is smooth, with no insolubles.
The dispersion and performance of protective colloids are excellent, making the glaze slurry in a stable dispersion state; it can effectively improve the surface tension of glaze, prevent water diffusing from the glaze into embryoid body, and increase the smoothness of the glaze surface; under the condition of a small amount, it can effectively regulate the rheological property of glaze slurry, easy for glazing; it can improve the binding properties of glaze, significantly improve the strength of glaze surface, and prevent the glaze from peeling; the delicateness of glaze surface is high and the glaze slurry is stable.
With small amount, the plasticity of mud materials and the flexural strength of raw materials can be increased significantly; the loss on ignition is good, with no residue after ignition; the suspending and dispersing properties are strong, preventing raw material particles from coagulation.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used in the ceramic body, glaze slurry and fancy glaze.
In the ceramic body, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used to improve the shaping of mud materials, facilitate the shaping of green body, increase the flexural strength of green body, and is a good enhancing agent; in the glaze slurry and fancy glaze, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as a binder and plays the role of suspending, de-agglomeration and water retention.

Toothpaste -Grade Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose:
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is mainly used as a thickener in toothpaste, enables the toothpaste to have a certain consistency, the paste into stripes, with a good frame, not collapsing when attached to the toothpaste, not getting dilute, so that the paste is smooth and delicate.
1. The products in our company have good acid tolerance and mildew resistance, and good compatibility with other raw materials in the toothpaste;
2. The water solubility and water-retaining capacity are strong, making the paste not separate from oil and water;
3. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has suitable viscosity and thixotropic properties, easy to disperse and swell in the paste production, and easy for filling production;
4. The colloid-protecting, suspending and emulsifying abilities are strong.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as an additive in food, with thickening, suspending, emulsifying, stabilizing, film-forming, acid resistance and other functions.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can replace the role of guar gum, gelatin, agar, sodium alginate and pectin in food production, and is widely used in the modern food industry, such as cold products, solid beverages, juice, jam, yogurt drinks, condiments, instant noodles, baked products, and meat products.

In yogurt, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can prevent the aggregation and precipitation of milk protein, make it uniformly dispersed and suspended, maintain the stability of food quality, extend the shelf life of food, and adapt to the commonly used sterilization processes such as UHT and pasteurization.
The recommended dosage is 0.3% -0.5%.

Used in ice cream, it can prevent the growth of ice crystals, improve the expansion rate, resistance to melting, shaping, and the taste; in instant noodles, it can increase the toughness of noodles and boiling resistance; in biscuits and pancakes, it enables to have good formability, smooth surface and not easily broken; in bread and cakes, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can control the viscosity of paste, improve the water retention and storability of bakery products.
Compared with other similar products, it has such advantages as fast dissolution speed, good fluidity of the dissolved solution, uniformly distributed molecules, relatively large bulk specific gravity, high acid resistance, high salt tolerance, high transparency, less free celluloses and less gels.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an anionic derivative.It is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, primarily for its viscosity-increasing properties.
Viscous aqueous solutions are used to suspend powders intended for either topical application or oral and parenteral administration.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may also be used as a tablet binder and disintegrant, and to stabilize emulsions.
Higher concentrations, usually 3–6%, of the medium-viscosity grade are used to produce gels that can be used as the base for applications and pastes; glycols are often included in such gels to prevent them drying out.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is also used in self-adhesive ostomy, wound care, and dermatological patches as a muco-adhesive and to absorb wound exudate or transepidermal water and sweat.
This muco-adhesive property is used in products designed to prevent post-surgical tissue adhesions; and to localize and modify the release kinetics of active ingredients applied to mucous membranes; and for bone repair.
Encapsulation with carboxymethylcellulose sodium can affect drug protection and delivery.
There have also been reports of its use as a cyto-protective agent.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is also used in cosmetics, toiletries, surgical prosthetics, and incontinence, personal hygiene, and food products.

Our cellulosic products perform all kinds of different functions in the various fields of application.
Their capabilities include:

Water retention
Gelling
Emulsifying
Suspending
Absorbing
Stabilising
Bonding
Forming films

Synthesis    of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is formed when cellulose reacts with mono chloroacetic acid or its sodium salt under alkaline condition with presence of organic solvent, hydroxyl groups substituted by Sodium carboxymethyl groups in C2, C3 and C6 of glucose, which substitution slightly prevails at C2 position.
Generally, there are two steps in manufacturing process of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, alkalinization and etherification.
Step 1: Alkalinization
Disperse the raw material cellulose pulp in alkali solution (generally sodium hydroxide, 5–50%) to obtain alkali cellulose.
Cell-OH+NaOH →Cell·O-Na+ +H2O
Step 2: Etherification
Etherification of alkali cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate (up to 30%) in an alcohol-water medium. The mixture of alkali cellulose and reagent is heated (50–75°C) and stirred during the process.
ClCH2COOH+NaOH→ClCH2COONa+H2O
Cell·O-Na+ +ClCH2COO- →Cell-OCH2COO-Na
The DS of the sodium CMC can be controlled by the reaction conditions and use of organic solvents (such as isopropanol).

Usage Instruction of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sodium (CMC) is used in food as:
Thickener. CMC can produce high viscosity at low concentrations. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose also acts as a lubricant.
Emulsifier and stabilizer. 
CMC acts as an emulsifier and suspension stabilizer (eg. in icings to control ice crystal size).
Water retention agent: CMC is a water binder, helps increase the shelf life of food.
Film-forming agent: CMC can produce a film on the surface of fried food, e.g. instant noodles, and prevent absorption of excessive vegetable oil.
Viscosity modifier.
The most common application of CMC is in bakery products like bread and cake preparation. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is possible to improve loaf quality and texture while reducing the cost of production by using less fat components.
CMC is used as an emulsifier in producing high-quality biscuits. 
With CMC, the consumption of egg yolk and fats is reduced thus making the process of biscuits manufacturing less expensive.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of such products as ice creams, cold drinks, snacks, instant noodles, lactic acid bacteria beverages, yogurt, fruit milk, fruit juice, bread, biscuits.
CMC is an efficient food additive thanks to its resistance to such factors as heat, light, and mold. 
In addition, it is resistant when treated by commonly used chemicals as well. 
Moreover, compared to other food ingredients, it adds no caloric value to the manufactured products.

Use warm water or cold water when preparing the solution, and stir till it completely melts.
The amout of added water depends on variety and the use of multiple requirements.
High viscosity sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (HV-CMC) is a white or slightly yellow fibrous powder, hygroscopic, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, easy to ferment, insoluble in acids, alcohols and organic solvents, easily dispersed to form colloidal solution in water.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is reacted by the acid and fibrous cotton, it is mainly used for water-based drilling fluids tackifier, it has certain role of fluid loss, it has strong salt and temperature resistance especially.

Uses of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used, adaptable, and an indispensable raw material in many industrial fields.
In the synthetic detergent industry, it is one of the best active additives, with emulsifying, thickening, homogenizing and protective colloid effects; in the coatings industry, it is the thickener and film-forming agent, can make the product storage stable, rheological property good and easy for mechanical construction, and helps to improve the flexibility and gloss of coatings; in the welding electrode industry, it is the lubricant and gas generating agent,with such characteristics as extruding performance, lubricity, and good resistance to shedding; in the battery industry, it is the binder, thickener, and dispersing agent; in the textile industry, it is the sizing agent, textile finishing agent, and in the printing paste, the thickening, emulsifying, and suspending agents.

Paper-Grade Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose:
In the paper industry, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used for the preparation of the coatings of coated paper, and can be used as the wet end additives and surface sizing agent.
Our company provides different CMC products for papermaking to meet different customer needs.

CMC is used in food under the E number E466 or E469 (when it is enzymatically hydrolyzed) as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also a constituent of many non-food products, such as toothpaste, laxatives, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, textile sizing, reusable heat packs, various paper products, and also in leather crafting to help burnish the edges.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used primarily because it has high viscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.
CMC is used extensively in gluten free and reduced fat food products.

cellulose gum (Carboxymethyl cellulose) is a thickener, binder, and emulsifier equivalent to cellulose fiber.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is resistant to bacterial decomposition and provides a product with uniform viscosity.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can prevent skin moisture loss by forming a film on the skin’s surface, and also help mask odor in a cosmetic product.
Constituents are any of several fibrous substances consisting of the chief part of a plant’s cell walls (often extracted from wood pulp or cotton).

In drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes, as protective colloid in general.
As stabilizer in foods.
Pharmaceutic aid (suspending agent; tablet excipient; viscosity-increasing agent).

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt is used in drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes and protective colloid.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a stabilizer in foods.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also employed in pharmaceuticals as a suspending agent and excipients for tablets.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as viscosity modifiers to stabilize the emulsions.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a lubricant in artificial tears and it is used to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases.

In laundry detergents, it is used as a soil suspension polymer designed to deposit onto cotton and other cellulosic fabrics, creating a negatively charged barrier to soils in the wash solution.
In ophthalmology, CMC is used as a lubricant in artificial tears to treat dry eyes.
Extensive treatment may be required to treat severe dry eye syndrome or Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).
CMC is also used as a thickening agent, for example, in the oil-drilling industry as an ingredient of drilling mud, where it acts as a viscosity modifier and water retention agent.
Sodium CMC(Na CMC) for example, is used as a negative control agent for alopecia in rabbits.

Knitted fabric made of cellulose (e.g. cotton or viscose rayon) may be converted into CMC and used in various medical applications.
Device for epistaxis (nose bleeding).
A poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) balloon is covered by CMC knitted fabric reinforced by nylon.
The device is soaked in water to form a gel, this is inserted into the nose and the balloon inflated.
The combination of the inflated balloon and the therapeutic effect of the CMC stops the bleeding.
Fabric used as a dressing following ear nose and throat surgical procedures.
Water is added to form a gel, and this gel is inserted into the sinus cavity following surgery.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is frequently called simply carboxymethyl cellulose and also known as cellulose gum. It is derived from purified cellulose from cotton and wood pulp.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is a water dispersible sodium salt of carboxy-methyl ether of cellulose that forms a clear colloidal solution.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is a hygroscopic material that has the ability to absorb more than 50% of water at high humidity.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also a natural polymeric derivative that can be used in detergents, food and textile industries.
CMC is one of the most important products of cellulose ethers, which are formed by natural cellulose modification as a kind of cellulose derivate with an ether structure.
Due to the fact that the acid form of CMC has poor water solubility, it is usually preserved as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, which is widely used in many industries and regarded as monosodium glutamate in industry.
CMC is used in cigarette adhesive, fabric sizing, footwear paste meal, home slimy.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in interior painting architectural, building lines melamine, thickening mortar, concrete enhancement.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in refractory fiber, ceramic production molding bond. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in oil drilling, exploration address slurry thickening, reducing water loss, quality paper surface sizing.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as soap and washing powder detergent active additives, as well as other industrial production on the dispersion, emulsification, stability, suspension, film, paper, polishing and the like.
Quality product can be used for toothpaste, medicine, food and other industrial sectors.

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an anionic cellulose ether in which some of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule have been replaced with a carboxy group.
CMC, also referred to as cellulose gum, is an efficient thickener and binder for water based applications including adhesives, coatings, inks, gel packs, drilling mud and battery electrodes.

Insoluble microgranular CMC is used as a cation-exchange resin in ion-exchange chromatography for purification of proteins.
Presumably, the level of derivatization is much lower, so the solubility properties of microgranular cellulose are retained, while adding sufficient negatively charged carboxylate groups to bind to positively charged proteins.
CMC is also used in ice packs to form a eutectic mixture resulting in a lower freezing point, and therefore more cooling capacity than ice.
Aqueous solutions of CMC have also been used to disperse carbon nanotubes.
The long CMC molecules are thought to wrap around the nanotubes, allowing them to be dispersed in water.
In conservation-restoration, it is used as an adhesive or fixative (commercial name Walocel, Klucel).
CMC is used to achieve tartrate or cold stability in wine.

This innovation may save megawatts of electricity used to chill wine in warm climates.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is more stable than metatartaric acid and is very effective in inhibiting tartrate precipitation.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is reported that KHT crystals, in presence of CMC, grow slower and change their morphology.
Their shape becomes flatter because they lose 2 of the 7 faces, changing their dimensions.
CMC molecules, negatively charged at wine pH, interact with the electropositive surface of the crystals, where potassium ions are accumulated.
The slower growth of the crystals and the modification of their shape are caused by the competition between CMC molecules and bitartrate ions for binding to the KHT crystals (Cracherau et al. 2001).
In veterinary medicine, CMC is used in abdominal surgeries in large animals, particularly horses, to prevent the formation of bowel adhesions.
CMC is sometimes used as an electrode binder in advanced battery applications (i.e. lithium ion batteries), especially with graphite anodes.
CMC's water solubility allows for less toxic and costly processing than with non-water-soluble binders, like the traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which requires toxic n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) for processing.
CMC is often used in conjunction with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) for electrodes requiring extra flexibility, e.g. for use with silicon-containing anodes.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC) is used for its thickening and swelling properties in a wide range of complex formulated products for pharmaceutical, food, home, and personal care applications, as well as in paper, water treatment, and mineral processing industries.
To design Na CMC solutions for applications, a detailed understanding of the concentration-dependent rheology and relaxation response is needed.
We address this here by investigating aqueous Na CMC solutions over a wide range of concentrations using rheology as well as static and dynamic light scattering.
The concentration dependence of the solution specific viscosities ηsp could be described using a set of three power laws, as predicted from the scaling theory of polyelectrolytes.
Alternatively, a simpler approach could be used, which interpolates between two power law regimes and introduces only one characteristic crossover concentration. We interpret the observed behavior as a transition from the semidilute nonentangled to the entangled concentration regimes; this transition behavior was not observed in the solution structure, as determined using static light scattering.
Dynamic light scattering revealed three relaxation modes.
The two fastest relaxations were assigned as the “fast” and “slow” relaxation modes typically observed in salt-free or not fully screened polyelectrolyte solutions within the semidilute concentration range.
The third, typically weak mode, was attributed to the presence of a small amount of poorly dissolved cellulose residuals.
Since filtration altered the solution behavior, without sufficiently removing the residuals, data collection and processing were adapted to account for this, which facilitated a detailed light scattering investigation of the original solutions, relevant for industrial applications.
The relaxation time characterizing the fast mode, τf, was concentration independent; whereas the relaxation time of the slow mode, τs, demonstrated similar crossover behavior as observed for the specific viscosity, further demonstrating the dynamic nature of the crossover.

Specifications:
Appearance: White to Light yellow to Light orange powder to crystal
Content(Na,Drying substance): 6.0 to 8.5 %
Etherification value( as Drying substance): 0.5 to 0.8
Drying loss: max. 10.0 %
Viscosity: 900 to 1400 mPa-s(1 %, H2O, 25 deg-C)
FooDB Name: Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt

Appearance:Off white to cream colored powder
Assay (as Na; HClO4 titration, on anhydrous basis): 6.5 - 9.5%
Identity: Passes test
pH (1% solution): 6.5 - 8.0
Viscosity (1% solution; 20°C on dried basis): 250 - 350 cps
Appearance of solution: Passes test
Insoluble matter in water: Passes test
Loss on drying (at 105°C): Max 10%
Sulphated Ash (as SO4; on dried basis): 20 - 29.3%
Chloride (Cl): Max 0.25%
Sodium glycolate: Max 0.4%
Heavy metal (as Pb): Max 0.002%
Arsenic (As): Max 0.0003%
Iron (Fe): Max 0.02%

Condition to Avoid: Hygroscopic
Content(Na,Drying substance): 6.0 to 8.5 %
Drying loss: max. 10.0 %
Etherification value( as Drying substance): 0.5 to 0.8
Merck Index (14): 1829
Physical State (20 deg.C): Solid
PubChem Substance ID: 87565248
RTECS#: FJ5950000
Store Under Inert Gas: Store under inert gas
Viscosity: 500.0 to 900.0 mPa-s(2 %, H2O, 25 deg-C)

Physical state at 20 °C: Solid    
Colour: Almost white powder    
Odour: Odorless
pH value: 6.5 - 8.5
Density [g/cm3]: 1.59    
Solubility in water [% weight]: Soluble in water

Physical State: Solid
Solubility: Soluble in water (20 mg/ml).
Storage: Store at room temperature

ChEBI: CHEBI:85146
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1909054
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard    100.120.377
E number: E466 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 05JZI7B19X
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7040441 
Chemical formula: C8H15NaO8
Molar mass: variable
SMILES: CC(=O)[O-].C(C(C(C(C(C=O)O)O)O)O)O.[Na+]
InChI Key: QMGYPNKICQJHLN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI: InChI=1S/C6H12O6.C2H4O2.Na/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8;1-2(3)4;/h1,3-6,8-12H,2H2;1H3,(H,3,4);/q;;+1/p-1

Product Number: C0603
Molecular Formula / Molecular Weight: [C6H7O2(OH)x(OCH2COONa)y]__n
Physical State (20 deg.C): Solid
Store Under Inert Gas: Store under inert gas
Condition to Avoid: Hygroscopic
CAS RN: 9004-32-4
Merck Index (14): 1829
MDL Number: MFCD00081472

Properties of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium occurs as a white to almost white, odorless, tasteless, granular powder.
It is hygroscopic after drying.

logP: -3.6    
pKa (Strongest Acidic): 11.8    
pKa (Strongest Basic): -3    
Physiological Charge: 0    
Hydrogen Acceptor Count: 6    
Hydrogen Donor Count: 5    
Polar Surface Area: 118.22 Ų
Rotatable Bond Count: 5    
Refractivity: 37.35 m³·mol⁻¹    
Polarizability: 16.07 ų    
Number of Rings: 0    
Bioavailability: Yes    
Rule of Five: Yes    
Ghose Filter: No    
Veber's Rule: No    
MDDR-like Rule: No

Molecular Weight: 262.19
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 5    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 8    
Rotatable Bond Count: 5    
Exact Mass: 262.06646171    
Monoisotopic Mass: 262.06646171    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 158 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count: 17    
Formal Charge: 0    
Complexity: 173    
Isotope Atom Count: 0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 4    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 3    
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

KEYWORDS  of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
polyelectrolyte
rheology
dynamic light scattering
static light scattering

Other names  of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
Carboxymethylcellulose
carmellose
E466
Aquaplast
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
cellulose, carboxymethylether
Cellulose gum
Sodium CMC

IUPAC Name:
sodium;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;acetate

Synonyms of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose:
cellulose gum
CMC
Na CMC
Sodium cellulose glycolate
Sodium CMC

Cellulose Glycolic Acid Sodium Salt
Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose
Sodium Cellulose Glycolate
Sodium Tylose
Tylose Sodium

C.M.C.
C.m.c.
C.m.c. (TN)    
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (usp)
Carmellose sodium    
Carmellose sodium (JP15)
Celluvisc
Celluvisc (TN)    
Sodium 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal acetic acid

9004-32-4
SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
Cellulose gum
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
sodium;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;acetate
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (USP)
Carboxymethylcellulose cellulose carboxymethyl ether
CMC powder
Celluvisc (TN)
C8H15NaO8
Carmellose sodium (JP17)
CHEMBL242021
C.M.C. (TN)
CHEBI:31357
E466
K625
D01544
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium - Viscosity 100 - 300 mPa.s

Cellulose Glycolic Acid Sodium Salt (n=approx. 500)
Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (n=approx. 500)Sodium Cellulose Glycolate (n=approx. 500)
Sodium Tylose (n=approx. 500)
Tylose Sodium (n=approx. 500)
12M31Xp
1400Lc
2000Mh
30000A
7H3Sf
7H3Sx
7H4Xf
7L2C
7Mxf
9H4F-Cmc
9H4Xf
9M31X
9M31Xf
AG
Ac-Of-Sol
Antizol
Aoih
Aquacel
Aquaplast
Blanose
CMC
CMC-Na
Cellcosan
Cellofas
Cellogen
Cellpro
Cellugel
Cepol
Cmc-Clt
Cmc-Lvt
Cmcna
Collowel
Covagel
Dehydazol
Diko
Dissolvo
Dte-Nv
Ethoxose
F-Sl
Finnfix
Hpc-Mfp
KMTs
Kiccolate
Lovosa
Lucel
Marpolose
Micell
Natrium-Carboxymethyl-Cellulose
Nymcel
Orabase
PATs-V
Pac-R
Relatin
Scmc
Serogel
Sichozell
Sunrose
T.P.T
VinoStab
Yo-Eh
Yo-L
Yo-M

Substituents:    
Hexose monosaccharide
Medium-chain aldehyde
Beta-hydroxy aldehyde
Acetate salt
Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde
Carboxylic acid salt
Secondary alcohol
Carboxylic acid derivative
Carboxylic acid
Organic alkali metal salt
Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
Polyol
Organic sodium salt
Aldehyde
Hydrocarbon derivative
Alcohol
Organic oxide
Carbonyl group
Primary alcohol
Organic salt
Organic zwitterion
Aliphatic acyclic compound

Carboxymethyl cellulose
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether
7H3SF
AC-Di-sol. NF
AKU-W 515
Aquaplast
Avicel RC/CL
B 10
B 10 (Polysaccharide)
Blanose BS 190
Blanose BWM
CM-Cellulose sodium salt
CMC
CMC 2
CMC 3M5T
CMC 41A
CMC 4H1
CMC 4M6
CMC 7H
CMC 7H3SF
CMC 7L1
CMC 7M
CMC 7MT
CMC sodium salt
Carbose 1M
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium, low-substituted
Carmellose sodium, low-substituted
Carmethose
Cellofas
Cellofas B
Cellofas B5
Cellofas B50
Cellofas B6
Cellofas C
Cellogel C
Cellogen 3H
Cellogen PR
Cellogen WS-C
Cellpro
Cellufix FF 100
Cellufresh
Cellugel
Cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
Cellulose glycolic acid, sodium salt
Cellulose gum
Cellulose sodium glycolate
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt, low-substituted
Celluvisc
Collowel
Copagel PB 25
Courlose A 590
Courlose A 610
Courlose A 650
Courlose F 1000G
Courlose F 20
Courlose F 370
Courlose F 4
Courlose F 8
Daicel 1150
Daicel 1180
Edifas B
Ethoxose
Fine Gum HES
Glikocel TA
KMTs 212
KMTs 300
KMTs 500
KMTs 600
Lovosa
Lovosa 20alk.
Lovosa TN
Lucel (polysaccharide)
Majol PLX
Modocoll 1200
NaCm-cellulose salt
Nymcel S
Nymcel ZSB 10
Nymcel ZSB 16
Nymcel slc-T
Polyfibron 120
Refresh Plus, Cellufresh Formula
S 75M
Sanlose SN 20A
Sarcell TEL
Sodium CM-cellulose
Sodium CMC
Sodium carboxmethylcellulose
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
Sodium cellulose glycolate
Sodium glycolate cellulose
Sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose
Tylose 666; Tylose C
Tylose C 1000P
Tylose C 30
Tylose C 300
Tylose C 600
Tylose CB 200
Tylose CB series
Tylose CBR 400
Tylose CBR series
Tylose CBS 30
Tylose CBS 70
Tylose CR
Tylose CR 50
Tylose DKL
Unisol RH
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt
Orabase
Cellulose carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt
Cethylose
Cel-O-Brandt
Glykocellon
Carbose D
Xylo-Mucine
Tylose MGA
Cellolax
Polycell

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