Synonyms: Hexametaphosphate, sodium salt; SHMP; Metaphosphoric acid, hexadosium salt; Sodium polyphosphates, glassy
EC / List no.: 233-343-1
CAS no.: 10124-56-8
Mol. formula: H6O18P6.6Na
Metaphosphoric acid (H6P6O18), sodium salt (1:6)
Metaphosphoric acid, hexasodium salt
Formula Weight: 611.77
Melting point: 628°
Boiling Point: 1500°
Refractive Index: 1.482
Storage & Sensitivity
Solubility: Soluble in water. Insoluble in organic solvents
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a food additive used in dairy product, canned milk, packaged egg whites, ice cream, seafood and meat processing. It is also used as a sequestrant and water softening agent and detergents. It is an active ingredient in toothpastes as an anti-staining agent. It prevents the steel corrosion. Further, it is used in building, water treatment and in photographic developing. In addition, it is used as a retarder in dental alginate impression materials and as a thinner for petroleum drilling fluids.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is miscible in water but insoluble in organic solvents.
This sequestrant, thickener, emulsifier and texturizer is used in a variety of foods.
The phosphorus in the additive helps to prevent mineral corrosion (calcium, iron salts, magnesium, etc.).
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a food additive and a softening agent for water and detergents.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can also be found in leathers, clays and pigments, and personal care products such as toothpaste.
Sodium hexametaphosphate, also known as its abbreviation SHMP, a polyphosphate commonly used in dairy products, sausage, seafood, meat processing, toothpaste, and also in water treatment.
The European food additive number for it is E452i.
Generally, its purpose in food is as a texturizer, sequestrant, thickener, and emulsifier.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is an inorganic compound of sodium salt and hexaphosphoric acid.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is sometimes called Sodium Polymetaphosphate, which stands for a more correct chemical term, but is rarely used among manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors.
In general, all applications of SHMP fall into two grades: food grade and industrial/tech grade.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in a variety of food products and is labeled as E452i, although it is generally recognized as safe when applied in foods.
Due to its characteristics of sequestrant, thickener, emulsifier, and texturizer, SHMP can be found in many daily products
Sodium Hexametaphosphate (Food Grade) is in the form of white powder, white fine powder, white granular or colourless piece.
In the food industry it is used as a sequestrant, quality improver or moisture binding strength in the case of many food treatments.
Applications for Sodium Hexametaphosphate include cheese powders and dips, breakfast cereals, beer and bottled beverages, imitation cheese, frozen dessert, packaged eggs, artificial maple syrup, sausages, seafood and meat processing.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is a salt of composition Na6[(PO3)6].
Sodium hexametaphosphate of commerce is typically a mixture of metaphosphates (empirical formula: NaPO3), of which the hexamer is one, and is usually the compound referred to by this name. Such a mixture is more correctly termed sodium polymetaphosphate. They are white solids that dissolve in water.
Sodium hexametaphosphate [Wiki]
1,3,5,7,9,11-Hexaoxa-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaphosphacyclododecane-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexolate, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaoxide, sodium salt (1:6) [ACD/Index Name]
2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaoxyde de cyclohexaphosphoxane-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexolate et de hexasodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Hexametaphosphate, sodium salt
Hexanatriumcyclohexaphosphoxan-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexolat-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaoxid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Hexasodium cyclohexaphosphoxane-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexolate 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaoxide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Metaphosphoric acid, hexasodium salt
Natrium hexametaphosphat [German]
hexasodium 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaoxido-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaoxa-2λ5,4λ5,6λ5,8λ5,10λ5,12λ5-hexaphosphacyclododecane 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaoxide
Phosphate, sodium hexameta
sodium phosphate, tribasic
Sodium polymeta phosphate
SHMP is used as a sequestrant and has applications within a wide variety of industries, including as a food additive in which it is used under the E number E452i.
Sodium carbonate is sometimes added to SHMP to raise the pH to 8.0–8.6, which produces a number of SHMP products used for water softening and detergents.
A significant use for sodium hexametaphosphate is as a deflocculant in the production of clay-based ceramic particles.
It is also used as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soil types for soil texture assessment.
It is used as an active ingredient in toothpastes as an anti-staining and tartar prevention ingredient
The energy drink NOS contains sodium hexametaphosphate.
As a food additive, SHMP is used as an emulsifier.
Artificial maple syrup, canned milk, cheese powders and dips, imitation cheese, whipped topping, packaged egg whites, roast beef, fish fillets, fruit jelly, frozen desserts, salad dressing, herring, breakfast cereal, ice cream, beer, and bottled drinks, among other foods, can contain SHMP.
SHMP is prepared by heating monosodium orthophosphate to generate sodium acid pyrophosphate:
2 NaH2PO4 → Na2H2P2O7 + H2O
Subsequently, the pyrophosphate is heated to give the corresponding sodium hexametaphosphate:
3 Na2H2P2O7 → (NaPO3)6 + 3 H2O followed by rapid cooling.
SHMP hydrolyzes in aqueous solution, particularly under acidic conditions, to sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate.
Hexametaphosphoric acid was named in 1849 by the German chemist Theodor Fleitmann. By 1956, chromatographic analysis of hydrolysates of Graham's salt (sodium polyphosphate) indicated the presence of cyclic anions containing more than four phosphate groups; these findings were confirmed in 1961.
In 1963, the German chemists Erich Thilo and Ulrich Schülke succeeded in preparing sodium hexametaphosphate by heating anhydrous sodium trimetaphosphate.
Sodium phosphates are recognized to have low acute oral toxicity. SHMP concentrations not exceeding 10,000mg/l or mg/kg are considered protective levels by the EFSA and USFDA.
Extreme concentrations of this salt may cause acute side effects from excessive blood serum concentrations of sodium, such as: “irregular pulse, bradycardia, and hypocalcemia."
When preparing solutions used in the ceramics and enamels industry, it may be necessary to include additives in order to obtain a fluid paste or a well-dispersed solution. So phosphates such as STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) and SHMP (sodium hexametaphosphate) are used as dispersing agents.
One of the most common applications of SHMP Tech grade is water treatment, where it acts as a sequestrant, water softening, deflocculating, dispersing and antiscale agent.
Basically, it is aimed to prevent the steel and mineral corrosion.
A particular case of SHMP use is the case of when it is added into a boiler compound to settle calcium hardness down in factory boiler waters with high calcium level.
Industrial applications of SHMP are numerous and some of them appear to be helpful in diverse domains with one and the same property.
Due to its anti-staining and tartar prevention capabilities, SHMP is successfully used as an active ingredient in toothpaste and other tooth whitening products, and it is also added to dog foods for the same reason.
SHMP is used to stabilize the emulsion and to improve the corrosion inhibition in the paint and coating industry.
During the production, it acts as a dispersing agent affecting the pigment particles and increasing the protection properties of a product.
This formulation allows the formation of a thin film which is useful in paper making industry and in metallurgy as well.
In addition, SHMP can usually be found in detergent formulations and such products like dishwashers, bath salts, and soaps.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate, also referred to as E452i, SHMP, Graham's Salt, Sodium Polymetaphosphate, or just Hex, is an additive in a variety of foods and beverages and commonly used for thickening, emulsifying, and adding texture.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is vegan, kosher, and gluten-free.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a multi-purpose sequestrant and is a versatile ingredient to have on hand for your culinary creations.
It is a white, odorless powder used to thicken, emulsify, or add texture to foods, beverages, pet-related goods, and personal care products, and its additionally used in certain methods of chelation. Sodium Hexametaphosphate can be added to an assortment of food, beverage, and personal care applications such as syrups, canned milk, powdered and imitation cheese products, whipped toppings, dips, packaged egg whites and other proteins, jellies, frozen desserts, dressings, cereals, beverages, bath products, cosmetics, pet food, and more.
Additionally, Sodium Hexametaphosphate is an ingredient that is commonly added to fruit juices that contain pulp to help prevent the pulp from settling at the bottom.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is a hexamer of composition (NaPO3)6.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a water-soluble polyphosphate glass, which consists of a distribution of polyphosphate chain lengths.
Its high degree of solubility separates it from other sodium phosphates.
Additionally, sodium hexametaphosphate is a mixture of polymeric metaphosphates that are available in glassy, granular, or powdered forms in the marketplace.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is used in a wide range of applications.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is available in two different grades: food grade and technical grade.
Sodium hexametaphosphate of technical grade is widely utilized as a water softener in water treatment plants, construction material companies, petroleum companies (as a deflocculating agent), and metallurgical applications.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is also utilized in the chemical industry as a dispersing agent, floatation agent, and high-temperature adhesive as well as in the production of titanium dioxide.
Sodium hexametaphosphate of food grade is utilized in the food & beverages industry as sequestrate and as a preservative adjunct in beverages, dairy products, and other miscellaneous food items.
What is Sodium Hexametaphosphate?
SHMP is a hexamer of sodium phosphate (NaPO3)6. It is a water-soluble polyphosphate that consists of chains of six repeating phosphate units.
What is it Made of?
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a mixture of polymeric metaphosphates, of which the hexamer is one. It is more correctly called sodium polymetaphosphate.
How is it Made?
SHMP is an inorganic polyphosphate that can be produced by chemical synthesis. Here introducing three manufacturing process according to various raw materials:
1. Sodium chloride and phosphoric acid
Sodium chloride and phosphoric acid as raw materials mixed evenly and subjected to melt polymerization. (1)
2. Caustic soda and phosphoric acid
Caustic soda liquid reacts with phosphoric acid, and then add sodium nitrate, dewatering and agglomerating process are conducted in an agglomeration gasifier. (2)
3. Monosodium orthophosphate
By heating monosodium orthophosphate to generate sodium acid pyrophosphate and then still heating. The following is the reaction equation (3):
2 NaH2PO4 → Na2H2P2O7 + H2O
3 Na2H2P2O7 → (NaPO3)6 + 3 H2O
Calgon S, Glassy sodium, Graham’s salt, Hexasodium metaphosphate, Sodium tetrapolyphosphate, Sodium polyphosphates, glassy, Sodium polymetaphosphate, Sodium metaphosphate
Sodium metaphosphate is to describe polyphosphate with four or more phosphate units. Here SHMP has six phosphate units with the chemical formula (NaPO3)6.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a white powder that is water soluble.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a food additive used as a curing agent, emulsifier and sequestrate.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in cheese, sour creams, yogurts, ice-creams, whipped topping, artificial maple syrup, packaged egg whites, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, salad dressing, breakfast cereal, fruit jelly, packaged vegetables, cured meats, roast beef, seafood, fish fillets, herring, milk-based beverages, and in dough and flour mixes.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is primarily used as an emulsifier, texturizer in many foods and as an anti-staining agent in toothpaste.
Though it’s considered safe, some are convinced it has potentially dangerous health effects.
What Is Sodium Hexametaphosphate?
Sodium Hexametaphosphate (Food Grade) is in the form of white powder, white fine powder, white granular or colorless piece.
In the food industry it is used as a sequesdtrant and quality improver. Applications for Sodium Hexametaphosphate include cheese powders and dips, breakfast cereals, beer and bottled beverages, imitation cheese, frozen dessert, packaged eggs and artificial maple syrup.
Key Drivers of Global Sodium Hexametaphosphate Market
Increase in awareness regarding eco-friendly industrial processes and rise in industrial development of water treatment plants is a major factor propelling the demand for sodium hexametaphosphate.
This, in turn, is driving the global sodium hexametaphosphate market.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can efficiently sequestrate alkali metals and help in black and red water control.
This, in turn, is driving the demand for sodium hexametaphosphate in water treatment plants and thereby, promoting growth of the global sodium hexametaphosphate market.
Growing food & beverages industry in various developing as well as developed countries is expected to boost the demand for sodium hexametaphosphate during the forecast period.
This is another key factor expected to drive the global sodium hexametaphosphate market during the forecast period.
Additionally, recent changes in lifestyle of people have given rise to a drastic shift in terms of consumption of confectionery and easily accessible functional foods.
In order to address this shift, manufacturers are offering food and beverage products with long shelf life as well as high nutritional value.
Also, the food industry requires ingredients that can act as an emulsifier, thickener, or texturizer.
This factor is estimated to drive the global market for sodium hexametaphosphate during the forecast period.
Additionally, the demand for sodium hexametaphosphate for use in the production of detergents and cleaners as well as titanium dioxide is rising across the globe
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a mixture of polymeric metaphosphates that is available in granular, glassy or powdered forms in the market.
Sodium hexametaphosphate has a diverse portfolio of applications that can be explained by its availability in the two different grades- technical and food grade.
In its technical grade, it is widely used as a water softener in water treatment plants, metallurgy and construction material industries and petroleum industries as a deflocculating agent.
Besides these applications, sodium hexametaphosphate is also used in chemical industries as a floatation agent, dispersing agent, high temperature adhesive and in the production of titanium dioxide.
As a food grade chemical, sodium hexametaphosphate is used in food and beverage industry as a sequestrant and preservative adjunct in dairy, beverage and other miscellaneous food items.
Global awareness for eco-friendly industrial processes and sustainable development is rising which has sufficiently resulted in a much needed rise in establishment of water treatment plants to prevent the global threats of water scarcity in coming years and provide safe and clean water to consumers.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can very efficiently sequestrate alkali metals and can also help in red and black water control.
This is driving a huge demand for the chemical sodium hexametaphosphate in water treatment plants and consequently leading to the growth of sodium hexametaphosphate market.
Recent changes in lifestyle patterns have resulted in a drastic shift of consumption to confectionery and easily available functional foods.
To cater this shift, manufacturers are producing food and beverages that have long shelf life and are nutritious at the same time.
Besides these properties, food industry also needs ingredients that can act as thickener, emulsifier or texturizer.
As a result, the market for sodium hexametaphosphate has seen a huge spike of growth for being applicable in food industry for the above mentioned applications.
Manufacturers of sodium hexametaphosphate are expanding their production capacity of food grade sodium hexametaphosphate to cater the increased demands of sodium hexametaphosphate in food applications by the dairy, beverage and other confectionery food industries
Polyphosphates and, in particular, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), are dispersing agents and can change the distribution of the ionic charges (positive - negative) in soluble compounds.
This stabilizes the emulsion, which becomes more fluid. This property is very useful in the paint industry.
Due to their chelating properties, phosphates are also used in corrosion inhibition through the chelation of iron ions.
sodium hexametaphosphate market can be classified into detergents & cleaners, titanium dioxide production, water treatment formulations, food additives, water softening, and others.
In terms of revenue, the food additives segment is expected to hold a major share of the global market in the near future, owing to the rising demand for sodium hexametaphosphate-based products in the food & beverages industry.
In this industry, sodium hexametaphosphate is used for nourishing, quality improvement, sequestration, preservation, leavening, thickening, and emulsification.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used as sequestering agent.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in the industry of soap, detergents, water treatment, metal finishing and plating, pulp and paper manufacture, synthesis of polymers, photographic products, textiles, scale removal and agriculture.
The salt forms of phosphate polymers is used as a sequestering agent.
As phosphate polymers themselves are hydrated in water at high temperature or high pH, and thereby revert to a more simple and stable phosphate form, which can no longer sequester metal ions.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate also known as SHMP is a white, odorless solid hexamer.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is easily soluble in hot and cold water, and is insoluble in organic solvents.
Uses: Sodium Hexametaphosphate is Food additive, sequestrant in water softening and detergents, an active ingredient in toothpastes and as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soils.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is a hexamer of composition (NaPO3)6.
Sodium hexametaphosphate of commerce is a mixture of polymeric metaphosphate.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is more correctly termed as polymetaphosphate. It is prepared by melting monosodium orthophosphate followed by rapid cooling.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is white odorless powder which is soluble in water and is hygroscopic.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) acts as a sequestrant, clearing agent, emulsifier, firming agent, flavor enhancer, humectants, nutrient supplement and processing acid.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) can be used in lubricants, paper, textile dyeing, paints, petroleum industry, metallurgy, industrial materials etc.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) can also be used as water softener, as selective floatation agent and wetting agent for high temperature adhesives.
In the food industry Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is used as an additive, quality enhancer, pH regulator, agent for the formation of chemical compounds with metals, liquidation agent etc.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate Water Softener
Sodium hexametaphosphate has the function of forming fixed soluble complexes with metal ions, especially alkali metal ions, which can effectively prevent the precipitation of hardly soluble salts of alkali metal.
At the same time, it can also plat the role of removing the melting boiler and precipitation.
So it is widely used in the softening of various industrial water.
Because sodium hexametaphosphate has a greater complexing capacity for CA++ than other phosphates, it is widely used in industrial sectors that has high requirement of water quality, such as, electrolytic industry, boiler water for power stations and textile industry.
Detergents and cleaners
Titanium dioxide production
Water treatment formulations
Food additive (nourishing, sequestration, quality improvement, leavening, preservation, texturization, thickening, emulsification, etc.)
Food and beverage
The Role of Sodium Hexametaphosphate Uses in Paint
Coatings are usually based on resin, oil or emulsion, add some additives in it and use organic solvents or water to prepare viscous liquid.
Additives in the paint can improve the appearance and performance of the coating, such as, color brightness, light transmittance, mildew resistance, uniform dispersion, adhesion, etc
Sodium hexametaphosphate as a dispersing agent is an important paint additive.
The Role of Sodium Hexametaphosphate As A Dispersant in Paint
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a kind of polyphosphate with indeterminate composition.
Its anion has a high molecular weight.
Generally, it contains 30-90 genes and forms a long chain.
Due to its property, it will become viscous after absorbing water.
Due to the addition of water glass and other alkaline substances in the paint, its PH value is 10-10.5, that is, the concentration of OH- ions in the paint is large, which can help the further decomposition of H3PO4 and also promote the conversion of shmp to orthophosphate.
Moreover, the phosphate at this time will undergo condensation of multiple functional groups, especially the molecular groups of sodium hexametaphosphate will undergo condensation at high temperatures, and the molecular groups after condensation will combine with the three-dimensional network bentonite molecular groups in the paint.
Thus, shmp chemical can effectively play the role of bonding.
As the content of sodium hexametaphosphate increases, the effect on brushability becomes more obvious.
When the amount of shmp chemical is 2%, the paint is thinner with good fluidity. However, after the paint is painted, there are obvious flow marks, and the effect is poor.
When the content of sodium hexametaphosphate in the paint rises to about 6%, the paint will become viscous.
After brushing, the paint will automatically level without leaving a trace for a period time.
The dripping property of the paint with the content of sodium hexametaphosphate is very low, and the painted paint can maintain its inherent shape under the action of gravity.
Of course, the content of shmp chemical used in paint and coatings depends on the specific paint type.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate Antiscalant
Scale inhibitor refers to a class of agents that have the ability to disperse insoluble inorganic salts in water, prevent or interfere with the precipitation and scale function of insoluble inorganic salts on the surface of metals, as well as maintain good heat transfer effects for metal equipment.
Anti-corrosion and scale inhibitors for cold-exchange equipment are based on epoxy resin and specific amino resins, and adding appropriate amounts of various rust and corrosion inhibitors. It has excellent properties of shielding, impermeability, rust resistance, good scale resistance, thermal conductivity, as well as excellent resistance to weak acid, strong alkalis, organic solvents and other properties. Its adhesion is strong and the desert layer is bright, flexible, dense and hard.
The mechanism of the corrosion and scale inhibitor is divided into complexation and solubilization, lattice distortion, electrostatic repulsion.
Complexation and solubilization action is that the copolymer dissolves in water and then ionizes, which can form a negative molecular chain.
It forms a water-soluble complex or chelate with Ca2+, thus increasing the solubility of inorganic salt and playing a role in scale inhibitor.
The effect of lattice distortion is that local functional groups in the molecule occupy a certain position on the crystal nucleus or microcrystal of the inorganic salt, hindering and destroying the normal growth of inorganic salt crystal, slowing the growth rate of crystal, thereby reducing salt scale formation.
The electrostatic repulsion effect is that the copolymer dissolves in water and adsorbs on the crystallites of the inorganic salt, which increases the repulsive force between the particles, hinders their agglomeration, and keeps them in a good dispersed state, thereby avoiding or reducing the formation of scale.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate Corrosion Inhibitor
Sodium hexametaphosphate has two functions in metal corrosion inhibitors.
First, it can slow down the corrosion of metal materials.
Second, it can maintain the physical and mechanical properties of metal.
The characteristics of polyphosphates is that phosphorus-oxygen bond can hydrolyze to produce orthophosphate ion, which is an anodic corrosion inhibitor.
When the quantity of phosphate ion is insufficient, local corrosion is easy to occur.
The greater harm is when the content of calcium ions in water is high, and the phosphate ions produced by hydrolysis are easy to form difficult calcium iodate precipitation.
Precipitation corrosion inhibitors are often refered to safe corrosion inhibitors.
Even the amount isn’t insufficient, it won’t increase metal corrosion.
The adsorption mechanism of industrial sodium hexametaphosphate corrosion inhibitor is that the inhibitor has an adsorption effect on the metal surface and it will form an adsorption film on the metal surface, thereby generating the corrosion inhibition effect.
The SHMP has the functions of both corrosion and scale inhibition.
The amount of sodium hexametaphosphate uses in water treatment is less, which won’t change the property of the corrosive medium and it doesn’t require other special equipment and surface treatment. This is why shmp chemical is common used in water treatment.
It is a colourless or white, transparent platelets, granular, or powder.
A glassy phosphate with strong absorption ability and easy to hydrolyze to orthophosphate in warm water, acidic or alkaline solution.
PH is related to P2O5 content, with lower P2O5 content corresponding to higher pH.
Freely soluble in water, insoluble in organic solvents
What are the Uses?
SHMP can be used in food and beverage, personal care products, water treatment, and other industrial uses.
Available in granular, glassy or powdered forms in the market. SHMP exists food grade and technical grade in the market.
Generally, it is a multi-functional ingredient that can work as a texturizer, PH regulator, metal ions chelating agent, binder, bulking agent and etc.
Food grade SHMP can be used as a cross-linking agent to react with starch to produce modified food starch by increasing starch molecular weight and stabilize the starch structure.
It is also commonly used with other sodium phosphates in the processing of fish, shellfish and other aquatic products as a water-retaining agent and quality or taste improver. Plus, we can also find it as an emulsifying salt in process cheese.
Let’s see its two common food applications.
SHMP is used in a variety of beverage products. It extends shelf life, enhances flavor, and also improves clarity and prevents turbidity, such as in fruit juices and carbonated beverages.
SHMP can also stabilize the protein and enhance flavor in a protein drink.
SHMP stabilizes natural pigments in canned beans, fruits and vegetables, and therefore protect its color.
Also, SHMP can emulsify fat in canned meat, resulting in maintaining uniform texture.
Food grade SHMP can also be used with other sodium phosphates to retain moisture, enhance flavor, and increase shelf life in the processing of meats, cheese, dairy products, seafood, and poultry.
Per the “European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients”, SHMP functions as anticorrosive, chelating and masking agents in cosmetic and personal care products. (4)
We can find the following personal care products with SHMP and its functions:
Bath salts: soften the water and adjust pH.
Toothpastes and Mouthwashes: remove calcium from stains on teeth.
The technical grade of SHMP is mainly used in water treatment as a sequestrant. It can reduce formation, corrosion, lead/copper leaching, and biofilm formation in pipes and other equipment. (5) And it can chelate certain metal oxides, such as Ca, and Mg.
It is also used in other industrial applications, including clay processing (as a deflocculant), drilling fluids, and cleaning products.
Is Sodium Hexametaphosphate Safe to Eat?
Yes, its safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.
SHMP is permitted to use as a flavoring agent or adjuvant in fruit jellies, cheese, frozen desserts and food dressing.
It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as a sequestrant in accordance with good manufacturing practice. (8)
SHMP (E 452i) is a subclass of polyphosphates (E452) and classified in “additives other than colours and sweeteners”.
It is approved as a food additive in the European Union (EU) in accordance with Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives and specific purity criteria have been defined in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012. (9)
Safety re-evaluation in 2019
EFSA derived a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) for phosphates expressed as phosphorus of 40 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day and concluded that this ADI is protective for the human population. (10)
It is permitted to use in almost all categories of foods with the maximum level 10,000 mg/l or mg/kg and the following foods may contain with it (11):
Dairy products and analogues
Fats and oils and fat and oil emulsions
Fruit and vegetables
Cereals and cereal products
Fish and fisheries products
Eggs and egg products
Sugars, syrups, honey and table-top sweeteners
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads and protein products
Ready-to-eat savouries and snacks
Food supplements excluding for infants and young children
Food Standards Australia New Zealand
It is an approved ingredient named “Sodium polyphosphates, glassy” in Australia and New Zealand with the code number 452.
Functional class: Food additives: emulsifier, sequestrant, texturizer, thickener.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used as a sequestrant and has applications in a variety of ways.
SHMP is used as a water softening agent, in detergents, used as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soil types
SHMP is very effective on grease and greasy soil.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate helps clean and stops the greasy soil from redepositing on fabric.
SHMP, CALGON ,GRAHAM'S SALT, METAPHOS
Caswell No. 772
Sodium polymeta phosphate
Phosphate, sodium hexameta
Hexametaphosphate, sodium salt
Calgon is an American brand of bath and beauty products, owned by PDC Brands.
The original product consisted of powdered sodium hexametaphosphate (amorphous sodium polyphosphate), which in water would complex with ambient calcium ion and certain other cations, preventing formation of unwanted salts and interference by those cations with the actions of soap or other detergents.
Its name was a portmanteau derived from the phrase "calcium gone".
Originally promoted for general use in bathing and cleaning, it gave rise to derivative products which have diverged from the original composition.
Today, Calgon water softener contains the active ingredient sodium citrate and the now discontinued powder used zeolite and polycarboxylate, all of which are less problematic in wastewater treatment than phosphates.
The Calgon water softener was first introduced to the market in 1930 by Calgon, Inc. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Calgon, Inc. was acquired by Merck in 1968 and later broken up and sold off.
Today, the Calgon brand is owned by the Reckitt Benckiser company for use in Europe as a water softener, and in the United States by PDC Brands as a bath and beauty product.
Sodium hexametaphosphate, as one of the most widely used water treatment agent, is necessary for industrial water, domestic water and waste water disposal.
It is soluble in water, the aqueous solution is alkaline and the PH value of 1% aqueous solution is 9.7.
It can be gradually hydrolyzed into phosphite in water, which makes it have a good ability of complexing metal ions, which can be complexed with calcium, magnesium, iron and some other metal ions to form a soluble complex.
It is only used to overcome the res water phenomenon previously, and has been slowly developed to be used in many other fields, such as, water treatment, food processing, mining, drilling, printing and dyeing, refractories industries.
Sodium hexametaphosphate uses in water treatment includes water for dye production, titanium dioxide production, water for printing and dyeing, water for color film copy cleaning, water for chemical industry, water softener for pharmaceutical and reagent production and water treatment agents for industrial circulating cooling water.
It can also be used as corrosion inhibitor, flotation agent, dispersing agent, high temperature binder, dyeing aid, etc
Also applied to the surface treatment, such as, antirust agent, detergent additive, cement hardening accelerator, pulp diffuser to increase permeability, as well as wash utensils and chemical fibers to remove iron ions in the pulp.
In the petroleum industry, it is used to prevent the rust of drill pipes and control the viscosity of mud during the oil drilling process.
Synonyms: Hexasodium salt, Calgon, Calgon S, Hexasodium metaphosphate, Metaphosphoric acid (H6P6O18), hexasodium salt, Metaphosphoric acid,Sodium metaphosphate (Na6(PO3)6), Sodium phosphate (Na6(PO3)6), Graham's Salt, Sodium Polymetaphosphate
Used in a wide variety of applications. Water treatment, Water softening, Tie Dye, detergents.
SHMP is used as a sequestrant and has applications in a variety of ways. SHMP is used as a water softening agent, in detergents, used as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soil types. which is very effective, since SHMP is very effective on grease and greasy soil. It helps clean and stops the greasy soil from redepositing on fabric.
SHMP prevents flocculation, or the combining of suspended matter into aggregates large enough for gravity to accelerate their settling out.
Divalent and trivalent cations such as sodium hexametaphosphate are used in water solutions to facilitate flocculation of insoluble particles in suspension, especially colloidal size particles like clay and organic matter that have negative surface charges. Addition of divalent or trivalent cations is frequently used in water treatment to remove a combination of inorganic and organic matter as well as living microscopic organisms through flocculation followed by filtration.
Dispersing agents such as sodium hexametaphosphate are more commonly used in laboratory procedures to sustain suspensions and estimate particle size distribution.
SHMP is also used to in paints and coatings for keeping pigments dispersed, and in photography where tit is useful preventing spotting of films and photographs.
EC Number: 233-782-9
Cleaning & Detergents : Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in industrial cleaning solution formulas as a dispersing agent.
Water Treatment : Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used as water softener for boiler water and industrial water.
Other Applications :
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate is commonly found in canned or imitation milk, cheese and syrups as well as in roast beef, fish fillets and beer amongst over beverages.
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soil types
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in the production of clay based ceramic particles.
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate is active ingredient in toothpastes as an anti-staining and tartar prevention solution.
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used as a food additive in canned fruits to stabilise pigments and protect food colour.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is an inorganic polyphosphate salt, typically made up of a mixture of polymeric phosphates.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate allows gelling agents to be hydrated at much lower temperatures and is used under the E number E452i.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a multifunctional ingredient used largely in the processed meats, dairy and fish sectors for improved texture and stabilisation.
Sodium carbonate is sometimes added to SHMP to raise the pH to 8.0-8.6, which produces a number of SHMP products used for water softening and detergents
• Calgon S
• Glassy Sodium
• Graham’s Salt
• Hexasodium Metaphosphate
• Metaphosphoric Acid
• Hexasodium Salt
Remains stable under normal conditions
Excellent whitening agent
White crystalline powder
Used In :
Soap and detergent industry
Pulp and paper manufacturing
Synthesis of polymers
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a salt with multiple functions in cosmetics. Sodium hexametaphosphate can act as a detergent, an emulsifier, a texturizer, and a preservative that prevents metallic compounds from negatively affecting a product.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a kind of sodium metaphosphate polymers.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is also known as "polyvinylidene sodium," "sodium multiple metaphosphate", "sodium metaphosphate vitreous body", and "Graham salt".
It is a colorless transparent glass-like solid or white powder with greater solubility but low dissolving rate in water.
Its aqueous solution exhibits acidic property. Its complex of divalent metal ion is relatively more stable than the complexes of mono-valent metal ion.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can easily be hydrolyzed to orthophosphate in warm water, acid or alkali solution.
Hexametaphosphate has a relative strong hygroscopicity with being sticky after absorbing moisture.
For certain metal ions (e.g., calcium, magnesium, etc.), it has the ability to form soluble complexes, and thus being able to being used for demineralizing water.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can also from precipitate with lead and silver ions with precipitate being re-dissolved in excess amount of sodium hexametaphosphate solution to form a complex salt.
Its barium salt can also form complexes with the sodium hexametaphosphate.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can be used as a kind of highly efficient water softener of power stations, rolling stock boiler water; as detergent additive, as corrosion-controlling or anti-corrosion agents; as cement hardening accelerator; as streptomycin purification agent, and the cleaning agent of textile industry and dyeing industry.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can also be used as a kind of sedative drug, preservative, stabilizer, and fruit juice precipitant in food industry.
In the oil industry, Sodium hexametaphosphate is used for control of drilling pipe rust and adjusting the viscosity of oil drilling mud.
Sodium hexametaphosphate also has applications in fabric dyeing, tanning, paper, color film, soil analysis, radiation chemistry and analytical chemistry and other departments.
Our GB2760-1996 provisions that hexametaphosphate is allowable food additives (water retention agent) for being used for canned food, fruit juice drinks, dairy products, soy products; it can also be used as a dye dispersant, and water treatment agent.
Adl 0~70 mg/kg (in terms of phosphorus); LD50:4g/kg (rat, oral).
Sodium hexametaphosphate is allowed for being applied to canned food, fruit juice drinks, dairy products, soy milk as quality improver; the maximum usage amount is 1.0 g/kg.
When being used as composite phosphate, calculated as the total phosphate, the canned meat products shall not exceed 1.0 g/kg; for condensation of milk, it shall not exceed 0.50 g/kg.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is colorless and transparent glass flake or white granular crystals.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is easily soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents.
SHMP can be used as a food quality improver in food industry, pH adjusting agent, metal ion chelating agents, dispersants, extenders, etc.
SHMP can be used as a kind of common analytical reagents, water softener, and also used for photofinishing and printing.
SHMP can be used as a water softener, detergent, preservative, cement hardening accelerator, fiber dyeing and cleaning agents; it can also used for medicine, food, petroleum, printing and dyeing, tanning, and paper industry.
SHMP can be used as texturizing agent; emulsifiers; stabilizer; chelating agent.
SHMP is less frequently for being used alone and is generally used in mixture with pyrophosphate and metaphosphate.
The mixture is mainly used for ham, sausage, surimi such as the tissue improver for water retention, tendering and meat softening.
SHMP can also be used for prevention of crystallization of canned crab as well as dissolving agent of pectin.
SHMP can be used as the water softening agent of boiler water and industrial water (including water for the production of dyes, water for the production of titanium dioxide, water for printing and dyeing, and slurry mixing, water for cleaning color copy of the film, as well as chemical industrial water and the water for the medicines, reagents production, etc.) as well as the water treatment agent for the industrial cooling water; it can also be used as a corrosion inhibitor, flotation agent, dispersant agent, high temperature binding agent, dyeing auxiliaries, metal surface treatment, rust inhibitors, detergent additives and also cement hardening accelerator.
Coated paper production can use it as pulp dispersants in order to improve the penetration capability.
In addition, it can also be apply to the washing utensils and chemical fiber in order to remove iron ions of the pulp.
In the oil industry, it can be used for the antirust of the drilling pipe and adjusting the slurry viscosity upon the control of oil drilling.
SHMP can be used as the quality improver with various effects of increasing the complex metal ions of food, pH, ionic strength, thereby improving the adhesive capability as well as the water holding ability of food. China provides that it can be applied to the dairy products, poultry products, ice cream, instant noodles and meat with the maximum permitted amount being 5.0 g/kg; the maximal permitted usage amount in canned food, fruit juice (flavored) drinks and vegetable protein drink is 1.0g/kg.
SHMP can be used as a food quality improver in food industry and applied to canned food, fruit juice drinks, dairy products, and soy milk.
SHMP can be used as Ph adjusting agent, metal ion chelate agent, adhesive and bulking agents.
When being applied to beans and canned fruits and vegetables, it can be stabilize the natural pigment and protect the food color and lustre; when being used in canned meat, it can be used for preventing the emulsification of the fat and maintaining its uniform texture; when being applied to meat, it can be used to increase the water holding capacity and prevent the deterioration of fat in the meat. It can also help to clarify the wine when being supplied to beer and further prevent turbidity.
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate: The soda solution was first subject to neutralization reaction with phosphate acid at 80~100 ℃ for 2h; the resulting sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution was concentrated by evaporation, cooled and crystallized to obtain sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate and heated to 110~230 ℃ to remove two crystal water; further be subject to heating to remove the structural water; further being heated to 620 ℃ for dehydration to result in the molten sodium metaphosphate and further polymerized into sodium hexametaphosphate, and discharged; apply chilling shock fro 650 ℃ to 60~80 ℃ for flaking, and crush to obtain the hexametaphosphate products. Its reaction formula is as below:
Na2CO3 + 2H3PO4 + H2O → 2NaH2PO4•2H2O + CO2 ↑
NaH2PO4•2H2O [△] → Na2H2PO4 + 2H2O
2NaH2PO4 [△] → Na2H2P2O7 + H2O
Na2H2P2O7 → 2NaPO3 + H2O
6NaPO3 [△] → (NaPO3) 6
Phosphorus pentoxide method: put the yellow phosphorus into a steam of dry air for combustion and oxidation, the cooling obtained phosphorus pentoxide is mixed together with soda in certain ratio (Na2O: P2O5 = 1~1.1).
Put the mixed powder in a graphite crucible and heated indirectly to have it dehydrated and agglomerated, the resulting sodium hexametaphosphate is subject to flaking upon chilling shock and pulverized to obtain industrial hexametaphosphate products. The reaction formula is as below:
P4 + 5O2 → 2P2O5
P2O5 + Na2CO3 → 2NaPO3 + CO2 ↑
6NaPO3 [△] → (NaPO3) 6
white granular solid
The sodium polyphosphates class consists of several amorphous, water soluble polyphosphates composed of linear chains of metaphosphate units, (NaPO3)x where x ≥ 2, terminated by Na2PO4- groups. They are usually identified by their Na2O/ P2O5 ratio or their P2O5 content.
The Na2O/P2O5 ratios vary from about 1.3 for sodium tetrapolyphosphate, where x = approximately 4; through about 1.1 for Graham’s salt, commonly called sodium hexametaphosphate, where x = 13 to 18; to about 1.0 for the higher molecular weight sodium polyphosphates, where x = 20 to 100 or more. The pH of their solution varies from about 3 to 9. For additional details of description, refer to Burdock (1997).
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a sequestrant and moisture binder that is very soluble in water but dissolves slowly. solutions have a ph of 7.0. it permits peanuts to be salted in the shell by making it possible for the salt brine to penetrate the peanuts. in canned peas and lima beans, it functions as a tenderizer when added to the water used to soak or scald the vegetables prior to canning. it improves whipping properties in whipping proteins. it functions as a seques- trant for calcium and magnesium, having the best sequestering power of all the phosphates. it prevents gel formation in sterilized milk. it is also termed sodium metaphosphate and graham’s salt.
For industrial use, such as oil field, paper-making, textile, dyeing, petrochemical industry,tanning industry, metallurgical industry and building material industry, It is mainly used as a water sortening agent in solution for printing, dyeing ,and boiler; Diffusant in papermersing medium, high temperature agglomerant,detergent and soil analytical chemistry reagent,
sodium hexametaphosphate is a chelating agent and a corrosion inhibitor.
This is an inorganic salt.
Sodium hexametaphosphate is prepared by heating monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) rapidly to a clear melt, which occurs slightly above 625°C.
Rapid chilling of this melt produces a very soluble glass, which is then crushed or milled.
Sodium metaphosphate is the salt of metaphosphoric acid having a molecular formula (NaPO3)n, where n ranges from 3 to 10 (for cyclic molecules) or may be much larger (for polymers).
Cyclic molecules have alternate phosphorus and oxygen atoms in the rings and start with trimetaphosphate (NaPO3)3 to at least decametaphosphate.
Sodium hexametaphosphate may be a polymer where n is between 10 and 20.
Vitreous sodium phosphates have a Na2O:P2O5 ratio near unity and are called Graham's salts.
The average number of phosphorus atoms in these vitreous glasses ranges from 25 to infinity.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) or water glass Na6P6O18 is basically the salt of metaphosphoric acid. SHMP is difficult to dissolve.
By mixing SHMP for 1-3 h, a solution of 8-10% can be obtained.
The pH of this solution is about 5. Because of a weak acid reaction, the SHMP reacts with cations of bivalent metals forming Na2MeP6O18 or Na4MeP6O18.
In the presence of oxygen, SHMP slowly decomposes into pyrophosphate and orthophosphate.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate [SHMP] (E425i) is the best performing sequestrant available.
This enables gelling agents to be hydrated at much lower temperatures. SHMP is also used in conjunction with sodium carbonate in certain situations..
What is SHMP used in?
Artificial maple syrup, canned milk, cheese powders and dips, imitation cheese, whipped topping, packaged egg whites, roast beef, fish fillets, fruit jelly, frozen desserts, salad dressing, herring, breakfast cereal, ice cream, beer, and bottled beverages, among other foods, can contain sodium hexametaphosphate
Processed cheeses and meats
Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes.
Wdly toxic by ingestion.
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of PO, and Na2O.
sodium hexametaphosphate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate Sodium sulfide Phosphoric acid Sodium dihydrogen phosphate Sodium phosphate monobasic GRAPHITE, FUSION CRUCIBLE, DRILLPOINT, UNPURIFIED, VOLUME 7.88CC Sodium hydroxide White phosphorus Sodium metaphosphate Phosphorus Sulfuric acid Sodium carbonate
silk scouring agent AR-617 Disodium monofluorophosphate
CAS No.: 10124-56-8
Synonyms: Glassy sodium, Graham's salt, Hexasodium metaphosphate, Metaphosphoric acid,
Sodium hexametaphosphate is used in a variety of applications like as a food additive, as a deflocculant in the manufacture of clay-based ceramic particles and as an active ingredient in toothpaste.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate is one of the most effective dispersing agent available
Alternate Names:Calgon; Phosphate glass, water soluble; Polyphosphate sodium salt; Sodium polyphosphate
Use: Sodium hexametaphosphate is a food additive and a softening agent for water and detergents.
Sodium hexametaphosphate can also be found in leathers, clays and pigments, and personal care products such as toothpaste.
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate(Sodium Polyphosphates, Glassy
• Food Grade Sodium Hexametaphosphate
• SODIUM POLYPHOSPHATES
• SODIUM POLYPHOSPHATES GLASSY
• SODIUM POLYMETAPHOSPHATE
• HEXASODIUM METAPHOSPHATE
• GRAHAM'S SALT
• Sodium hexametaphoshpate
• Graham's salt for food
• sodium hexametaphosphate for food
• Glassy sodium
• Sodium polypllosplhates
• Hexasodium cyclichexametaphosphate
• Sodium hexametaphosphate, tech gr.
• sodium henamephophate
• SixsodiuM Metaphosphate
• SODIUM POLYPHOSPHATE,SHMP
• Factory Sodium Hexametaphosphate(SHMP) CAS NO.10124-56-8 CAS NO.10124-56-8
• Sodium Hexametaphosphate ,SHMP 68%
• SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE, 99%SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE, 99%SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE, 99%SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE, 99%
• dium hexametaphosphate
• Graham's Salt, Sodium Polymetaphosphate
• Sodium phosphate (Na6(PO3)6)
• sodium hexametaphosphate, tech.
• Metaphosphoric acid hexasodium salt
• Sodium hexametaphosphate
• Sodium metaphosphate
Sodium hexametaphosphate is a water-soluble polyphosphate glass that consists of a distribution of polyphosphate chain lengths.
It is a collection of sodium polyphosphate polymers built on repeating NaPO3 units.
Sodium hexametaphosphate has a P2O5 content from 60 to 71 percent.
Alternate names for sodium hexametaphosphate include the following: Calgon; Calgon S; Glassy Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Polyphosphate, Glassy; Metaphosphoric Acid; Sodium Salt; Sodium Acid Metaphosphate; Graham’s Salt; Sodium Hex; Polyphosphoric Acid, Sodium Salt; Glass H; Hexaphos; Sodaphos; Vitrafos; and BAC-N-FOS. Sodium hexametaphosphate is typically sold as a white powder or granule (crushed) and may also be sold in the form of sheets (glass) or as a liquid solution. It is imported under heading 2835.39.5000, HTSUS.
It may also be imported as a blend or mixture under heading 3824.90.3900, HTSUS.
The American Chemical Society, Chemical Abstract Service (“CAS”) has assigned the name “Polyphosphoric Acid, Sodium Salt” to sodium hexametaphosphate.
The CAS registry number is 68915-31-1. However, sodium hexametaphosphate is commonly identified by CAS No. 10124-56-8 in the market.
For purposes of the review, the narrative description is dispositive, not the tariff heading, CAS registry number or CAS name.
The product covered by this order includes sodium hexametaphosphate in all grades, whether food grade or technical grade.
The product covered by this review includes sodium hexametaphosphate without regard to chain length i.e., whether regular or long chain.
The product covered by this review includes sodium hexametaphosphate without regard to physical form, whether glass, sheet, crushed, granule, powder, fines, or other form, and whether or not in solution.
However, the product covered by this order does not include sodium hexametaphosphate when imported in a blend with other materials in which the sodium hexametaphosphate accounts for less than 50 percent by volume of the finished product.
What Is It?
Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate and Sodium Hexametaphosphate are all sodium polyphosphates made of repeating units of NaPO3.
Sodium Metaphosphate generally refers to a long chain of NaPO3 units that is not soluble in water, which is why it is sometimes called insoluble metaphosphate.
Sodium Trimetaphosphate has three NaPO3 units, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate has six NaPO3 units.
Both the Trimetaphosphate and the Hexametaphosphate are soluble in water.
In cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate and Sodium Hexametaphosphate are used in the formulation of makeup foundations, mascara, bath products, and moisturizing and skin care products.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Sodium Metaphosphate, Trimetaphosphate and Hexametaphosphate inactivate metallic ions so as to prevent the deterioration of cosmetics and personal care products.
Sodium Metaphosphate is also used to polish the teeth, reduce oral odor, or otherwise cleanse or deodorize the teeth and mouth.
Sodium Trimetaphosphate minimizes the change in the pH of a solution when an acid or a base is added to the solution and Sodium Hexametaphosphate prevents the corrosion (rust) of metallic materials used in packaging cosmetics and personal care products.
Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Hexametaphosphate are all inorganic salts that are often referred to as glassy sodium polyphosphates.
Sodium Metaphosphate, in the form of long chains, is referred to as insoluble metaphosphate.
Corrosion Inhibition of Sodium Hexametaphosphate for Carbon Steel in KCl Solution
The influence of sodium hexametaPhosphate on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 mol•L-1 KCl solution at 25 °C was investigated using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization curves and Scan electron microscope (SEM).
The obtained results show that sodium hexametaPhosphate is an excellent inhibitor and the inhibition efficiencies exceed 87 %.
The polarization measurements reveal that sodium hexametaPhosphate is an inhibitor mainly controlled by anodic process.
THE EFFECT OF BUILDERS IN HARD WATER DETERGENT SOLUTIONS
The water-softening ability of soda ash, trisodium phosphate, sodium meta-silicate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium hexametaphosphate was investigated.
Each builder possessed great water-softening power and in each case the reaction with hardness was immediate and the residual hardness from maximum softening was less than 1 grain per gallon of water.
The effect in detergent solutions of builders at concentrations that had given maximum softening in the above tests was investigated by determining soil removal, degradation, and deposit of insoluble compounds after 10 launderings of standardly soiled flannelette.
In these relatively high concentrations the alkaline builders gave inferior detergency to that of soap alone in hard water.
The sequestering agent, sodium hexametaphosphate, gave results that were superior to soap alone in hard water and equal to that of soap alone in soft water.
In every instance the addition of builder before soap produced the same effect as builder with soap.
SHMP - Sodium Hexametaphosphate (known commercially as Calgon T) is a free-flowing, white powder typically used in the chemical manufacturing, mining and water treatment industries.
A stable powder which dissolves readily in hard or soft water.
SHMP is used in powdered detergents and cleaners, reagents in titanium dioxide production and in water treatment formulations as a water softener
Paints & Coatings Polyphosphates are used extensively for their diverse functionality in water based paints and coatings.
Their main applications are in the wetting of pigments and fillers, the breaking down of agglomerates and the stabilization of the pigment suspension.
In water based latex paints, polyphosphates serve as sequestrants, leveling agents and pigment dispersants.
Polyphosphates such as Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate (TSPP) and Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate (TKPP) aid in the wetting and even dispersion of pigments.
Potassium Tripolyphosphate (KTPP), Sodium Potassium Tripolyphosphate (SKTP) and TKPP function as deflocculants, yielding paints with stable viscosities.
Zinc oxide is sometimes added to paint formulations as a mildewcide.
If used, it is important to add a polyphosphate to the formulation to prevent gelling.
Paper coatings (fillers) are used to prepare high quality paper which reduces the bleeding of ink and increases the brightness and opacity of the paper.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP), Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate (TSPP) and Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) are commonly used as kaolin clay deflocculants for the production of these paper coatings.
Kaolin is the predominant pigment used in coatings and the chemical deflocculation or dispersion via polyphosphates is an important part of their production process.
The use of polyphosphates results in stable and controlled viscosity
Phosphates have many uses in the treatment of potable (drinking) water.
They are used to prevent "red" (from iron) and "black" (from manganese) water; to prevent and/or retard scale formation (from minerals depositing) and corrosion (from low pH and/or dissimilar metals) in the water distribution system; and to reduce soluble lead and copper in potable water delivered to the consumer's tap.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), which provides for the enhancement of the safety of public drinking water supplies through the establishment and enforcement of nationwide drinking water regulations.
Congress gave the primary responsibility for establishing regulations to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Until 1990, EPA administered a certification process for chemicals, including phosphates, to be used for potable water treatment.
In 1990, the National Sanitation Foundation International (NSF) assumed responsibility for the total certification process.
The process involves several steps.
The toxicology database and impurity profiles are thoroughly reviewed by NSF's toxicology staff. NSF then audits all manufacturing locations.
Samples are taken and analyzed to confirm impurity data submitted on certification applications.
Raw materials used in the process are verified against submitted lists and any gaps must be filled.
The raw material suppliers are also required to submit detailed information similar to the product application.
II. Selected Properties of Phosphates for Potable Water Treatment This section discusses the selected properties of phosphates that make them suitable as additives for potable water treatment.
A. Sequestration Sequestration is a chemical combination of a chelating agent and metal ions in which soluble complexes are formed.
Hardness ions are metal ions commonly found in water and include calcium and magnesium.
Sequestration is dependent upon pH; a given sequestrant works best in a particular pH range.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) performs very well at neutral pH ranges, while pyrophosphates and polyphosphates work best under alkaline conditions.
B. Threshold Activity Many polyphosphates can accomplish the desired effect at levels far below that which would seem to be required for a stoichiometric (molar equivalent) reaction.
For example, water containing 200 parts per million (ppm) hardness (as calcium carbonate, or CaCO3) would theoretically require about 500 ppm of SHMP to sequester the available calcium.
Actually, only 2-4 ppm of SHMP is typically used to inhibit scale formation.
This "threshold effect" of SHMP apparently occurs by interfering with early crystal growth.
C. Deflocculation Flocculation occurs because small dissolved particles, typically those less than 10 microns in size, tend to attract one another due to the presence of regions of positive and negative charges on each particle.
These groups of particles, which clump together due to the interaction of opposite charges, form hard deposits out of a water solution.
To prevent this process, threshold levels of polyphosphates are added to the water.
These threshold levels of polyphosphates tend to coat the small particles and reduce their attraction to each other by changing the surface charge distribution.
These coated particles tend to repel rather than attract one another – hence deflocculation.
Deflocculated particles are suspended in water and show little or no tendency to settle in standing water. This property is important for the removal of existing hardness scale deposits (CaCO3) and iron oxides.
D. Chlorine Stability Ortho- and polyphosphates are stable in the presence of chlorine at the levels found in chlorinated potable water.
There are no interactions that reduce the levels or effectiveness of either the chlorine or polyphosphate.
In addition, iron and manganese sequestered as colorless complexes before chlorination will remain colorless after chlorination.
E. Hydrolytic Stability In solution, linear polyphosphates undergo slow hydrolysis.
This process continues as the shorter chain phosphates break down further to yield still shorter chain polyphosphates, metaphosphates and orthophosphates.
Under neutral pH and normal room temperatures, this hydrolysis is relatively slow.
At 20o C and a pH of 7, about 50% of pyrophosphate (the shortest polyphosphate) will revert to orthophosphate in 12 years.
At 50o C, the half-life is reduced to two months.
Generally, lower pH and higher temperatures will increase the rate of hydrolysis.
Because long chain polyphosphates will break down into shorter, but still functional chains, the overall step-by-step process should be considered in estimating shelf life and product stability.
F. Safety In 1990, the NSF assumed responsibility for a certification program involving plant inspection, raw material certification and product labeling.
The NSF certification process applies to all of a company’s plants and products that could be used in treatment of potable water.
III. The Use of Phosphates and Phosphoric Acid in Potable Water Treatment Phosphates for potable water treatment perform several functions that include: iron and manganese control, scale inhibition and removal, corrosion control and chlorine stabilization.
A. Iron and Manganese Control In ground and well waters, iron and manganese are normally present in the bivalent form (Fe++ or Mn++), which is soluble. Upon exposure to air, the forms are oxidized to the trivalent form (Fe+++ or Mn+++), which is both insoluble and colored.
Chlorination of water containing low levels of iron results in the formation of insoluble iron oxide or iron chlorides.
Insoluble iron salts are the cause of what is commonly called "red water" and can cause a reddish-brown stain on laundry, porcelain, utensils and glassware.
Manganese compounds undergo similar reactions to form "black water” and can result in brownish-black stains on contact surfaces.
Other heavy metals can also react with chlorine to form similar insoluble materials.
The discoloration of water is considered aesthetically unappealing and levels of 0.5 mg/l of iron and 0.05 mg/l of manganese result in objectionable flavors to the water.
The use of 2-4 ppm of a polyphosphate such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) before chlorination results in the formation of colorless phosphate complexes of the heavy metal and elimination of the formation of insoluble compounds.
Since calcium and magnesium salts of orthophosphates are relatively insoluble, water hardness can also be reduced by precipitation.
The choice of which orthophosphate to use may be based on pH requirements.
B. Lead and Copper Removal Lead and copper are found in drinking water largely due to leaching from piping and plumbing fixtures.
Copper is restricted in municipal drinking waters to 1.3 mg/l, based on SDWA regulatory requirements.
When excess copper is present, water has a metallic flavor (at 3 mg/l) and can leave a blue to green discoloration to surfaces.
In adults, water containing copper in excess of 3 mg/l can cause nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
Lead is restricted in municipal drinking water by the SDWA to 15 ppb.
Lead in drinking water fails to leave a residue and can generally not be tasted.
Lead exposure can cause irreversible mental and physical development in the developing fetus, the infant and the young child.
In adults, prolonged exposure can lead to damage to the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells.
The use of lead-based solder was banned in the U.S. in 1988.
However, lead may be present in older homes, dated municipal water systems, and brass fittings and plumbing fixtures.
The leaching of lead into plumbing systems can be greatly reduced by introducing water-soluble orthophosphates into potable water distribution systems.
At low levels, the phosphates react with the lead and copper and hardness ions (calcium and/or magnesium) to form an insoluble coating on the internal surfaces of the distribution system. Once this coating is formed, observed lead and copper levels in the drinking water drop rapidly.
This effect can be maintained by continued metering of phosphates into the system.
C. Scale Inhibition and Removal The formation of scale on surfaces in potable water systems is due to the crystallization of carbonates or sulfates of magnesium or calcium from solution. Very low levels of polyphosphates (1-10 ppm) interfere with crystal growth.
This type of scale inhibition is referred to as a threshold property because it occurs at a level much lower than would be required for a stoichiometric reaction.
Threshold inhibition by polyphosphates of calcium and magnesium carbonate formation is particularly effective at a pH range of 8-10 where carbonate scale in potable water is a major problem.
Calcium sulfate scale is often a problem at lower pH ranges.
The same mechanism of scale inhibition that can occur with calcium carbonate at a high pH range can also occur with calcium sulfate at a lower pH range at similar low (1-10 ppm) levels of phosphate addition.
Experience has shown that polyphosphates not only inhibit scale formation, but they can also help remove existing hard deposited carbonate or sulfate scale.
Pipelines carrying potable water treated with polyphosphate for extended periods of time (several months) first show a gradual softening of the scale followed by disintegration and removal.
The soft scale particles are deflocculated by the polyphosphate and carried away resulting in a clean piping system.
D. Corrosion Control Water quality varies significantly throughout the U.S.
The corrosiveness of water can be attributed to a low pH (acidity), high temperature, low total dissolved solids, a high flow rate, and the presence of dissimilar metals and dissolved gases (as oxygen and carbon dioxide).
When these factors are combined, the corrosion is accelerated.
Polyphosphates, alone or in combination with orthophosphates, can effectively control corrosion on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys.
Polyphosphates are particularly effective as corrosion control agents at lower temperatures and at a pH of less than 7.5.
They have also been shown to be effective in brackish water (greater or equal to 2,000 ppm sodium chloride, or NaCl) with corrosion reductions of up to 90% being reported.
E. Chlorine Stabilization Heavy metals such as iron are capable of catalyzing the decomposition of chlorine.
Polyphosphates are capable of complexing with these heavy metals and greatly reducing their activity towards chlorine.
IV. Phosphate Products Phosphate products for potable water treatment can be broadly classified into three groups: phosphoric acid, orthophosphates, and condensed phosphates. Phosphoric acid, orthophosphates, and condensed phosphates encompass a wide variety of chemical compounds having potential for potable water treatment applications.
The application of each phosphate product depends upon the specific properties or treatment desired.
Phosphates for potable water treatment along with their National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) designated maximum use levels are listed in the table below.
Phosphate National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Maximum Use Level Phosphoric Acids: 36% Phosphoric Acid 27.0 mg/l 75% Phosphoric Acid 13.0 mg/l 80% Phosphoric Acid 12.0 mg/l 85% Phosphoric Acid 12.0 mg/l Orthophosphates: Monosodium Phosphate (MSP) 13.0 mg/l Disodium Phosphate (DSP) 15.0 mg/l Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) 17.0 mg/l Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP) 14.0 mg/l Dipotassium Phosphate (DKP) 36.0 mg/l Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) 12.0 mg/l Condensed Phosphates: Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP) 12.0 mg/l Sodium Trimetaphosphate (STMP) 11.0 mg/l Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate (TSPP) 14.0 mg/l Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STP) 13.0 mg/l Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate (TKPP) 17.0 mg/l Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate, 60% Solution 29.0 mg/l Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) 12.0 mg/l
It is now known to treat water to prevent the precipitation of calcium carbonate therefrom by adding to the water small amounts of the sodium phosphate glass known as sodium hexametaphosphate or Grahams salt.
This sodium phosphate glass is very rapidly water-soluble and in its use it is common to form a strong solution of the Graham's salt and to supply the solution to the water which is to be treated
Polyphosphates such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) are linear chains, which peptize proteins, sequester minerals and have bacteriostatic effects.
Through selection of the correct phosphate, melting and texture of cheese and sauces can be controlled.
Selection of the correct SHMP is important for the best peptization rate.
Peptization is the reverse process of coagulation. It increases the solubility and dispersion of proteins.
Increasing the chain length and concentrations of SHMP provide better peptization rate.
Long-chain SHMP decreases melt and does not provide the long texture required for good slicing properties.
Corrosion and deposition problems arising from either hard or soft supply waters become of increased importance when the water is heated.
In this article the nature of scale formation is discussed, also the corrosion of iron pipes and the use of sodium hexameta‐phosphate as a means for minimising the trouble so caused.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) generally performs very well at close-to-neutral pH ranges, while tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) work best under alkaline conditions.
Monosodium phosphate (MSP) is often used together with SHMP for more acidic pH environments.
The so-called threshold effect refers to the ability of some phosphate compounds to inhibit the formation of carbonate or sulfate scales well below the amount that would be required for a stoichimetric 1:1 combination with the metal ions.
This apparently results by the phosphate interfering with early crystal growth.
In the case of SHMP, only 2-4 ppm is all that is required to inhibit scale formation in water with relatively high calcium levels.
Phosphate Specialty > Phosphate Specialty Applications > P2O5 Applications > Water Treatment
Boiler water treatment systems are used to handle many adverse conditions which are present due to the extreme temperature and pressures of boiler systems. A couple of these conditions are scale/deposits that form on the inside walls of piping and corrosive boiler feedwater. If these adverse conditions are left untreated, this could result in:
Less efficient heat transfer
Heat exchanger tube failures
Higher pump head pressures
Corrosion leading to pipe failure
All of these effects can impact the overall reliability & efficiency of the boiler system. One way to combat this is through the use of phosphates. Phosphate treatment is recommended if the following situations are present at your boiler location:
Inability to frequently monitor piping of water system (infrequent shutdown/cleanouts)
High quality feedwater is not available
Low water treatment costs are necessary
A key to protecting the boiler system is to treat the boiler feedwater entering the system. Boiler feedwater can be protected from corrosive conditions through coordinated phosphate/pH control treatment. Phosphate buffers the boiler water, reducing the chance of large pH swings due to the development of caustic concentrations. In phosphate treatment, excess caustic combines with disodium phosphate to form trisodium phosphate. Therefore, adequate disodium phosphate must be available to combine with all of the free caustic in order to form trisodium phosphate. A slightly basic pH should be maintained in the boiler feedwater system. ASME suggests feed water to be kept at a pH of 8.3-10.5. Sodium phosphates help fulfill this requirement.
In the boiler system piping, scale can be formed by salts with low solubility. One of the worst types of scale buildup is calcium carbonate, commonly known as limestone.
Scale buildup inhibits heat transfer, which in turn raises tube metal temperature resulting in potentially increased corrosive conditions.
Sodium Phosphates are often used in the system to prevent this build-up.
When added at correct dosage levels the phosphate will react with the calcium carbonate and form Hydroxyapetite. Hydroxyapetite is softer than other deposits and will remain in suspension as long as it is kept in circulation. It can then be removed via routine blow down of the system.
Deposits, or sludge, arrives from the boiler water and enters the system as suspended solids.
They can become attached to piping when boiler systems are drained at high temperatures. Once deposits are attached to the piping, they attract and bind additional solid particles found in the water. Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a scrubbing agent that can help remove these deposits.
Phosphates can be fed into the system in solution with other water conditioning chemicals.
There are several water treatment companies which have specific programs that include phosphates for boiler water treatment.
Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate
R S Lanigan 1
These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations.
In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor.
Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used.
Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use.
Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units.
The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains.
The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form.
The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic.
Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys.
In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations.
Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating.
A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity.
These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats.
No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate.
In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients.
Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for example, low concentration in a leave-on product or dilution of a higher concentration as part of product usage.
Sodium Phosphates are often used in the system to prevent this build-up.
When added at correct dosage levels the phosphate will react with the calcium carbonate and form Hydroxyapetite.
Hydroxyapetite is softer than other deposits and will remain in suspension as long as it is kept in circulation. It can then be removed via routine blow down of the system
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